Anda di halaman 1dari 414

Pipework Design User Guide

AVEVA Solutions Ltd

Disclaimer
Information of a technical nature, and particulars of the product and its use, is given by AVEVA Solutions Ltd and its subsidiaries without warranty. AVEVA Solutions Ltd and its subsidiaries disclaim any and all warranties and conditions, expressed or implied, to the fullest extent permitted by law. Neither the author nor AVEVA Solutions Ltd, or any of its subsidiaries, shall be liable to any person or entity for any actions, claims, loss or damage arising from the use or possession of any information, particulars, or errors in this publication, or any incorrect use of the product, whatsoever.

Copyright
Copyright and all other intellectual property rights in this manual and the associated software, and every part of it (including source code, object code, any data contained in it, the manual and any other documentation supplied with it) belongs to AVEVA Solutions Ltd or its subsidiaries. All other rights are reserved to AVEVA Solutions Ltd and its subsidiaries. The information contained in this document is commercially sensitive, and shall not be copied, reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted without the prior written permission of AVEVA Solutions Ltd. Where such permission is granted, it expressly requires that this Disclaimer and Copyright notice is prominently displayed at the beginning of every copy that is made. The manual and associated documentation may not be adapted, reproduced, or copied, in any material or electronic form, without the prior written permission of AVEVA Solutions Ltd. The user may also not reverse engineer, decompile, copy, or adapt the associated software. Neither the whole, nor part of the product described in this publication may be incorporated into any third-party software, product, machine, or system without the prior written permission of AVEVA Solutions Ltd, save as permitted by law. Any such unauthorised action is strictly prohibited, and may give rise to civil liabilities and criminal prosecution. The AVEVA products described in this guide are to be installed and operated strictly in accordance with the terms and conditions of the respective license agreements, and in accordance with the relevant User Documentation. Unauthorised or unlicensed use of the product is strictly prohibited. First published September 2007 AVEVA Solutions Ltd, and its subsidiaries AVEVA Solutions Ltd, High Cross, Madingley Road, Cambridge, CB3 0HB, United Kingdom

Trademarks
AVEVA and Tribon are registered trademarks of AVEVA Solutions Ltd or its subsidiaries. Unauthorised use of the AVEVA or Tribon trademarks is strictly forbidden. AVEVA product names are trademarks or registered trademarks of AVEVA Solutions Ltd or its subsidiaries, registered in the UK, Europe and other countries (worldwide). The copyright, trade mark rights, or other intellectual property rights in any other product, its name or logo belongs to its respective owner.

Pipework Design User Guide

Pipework Design User Guide

Contents

Page

Pipework Design
Read this First . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1:1
Scope of this Guide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1:1
Intended Audience . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Assumptions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . About the Tutorial Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Further Reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1:1 1:1 1:1 1:1

How the Guide is Organised . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1:2 Further Training in Using PDMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1:3

Introducing AVEVA PDMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2:1


Introducing the Structure of PDMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2:1 Strengths of PDMS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2:1 PDMS Piping Network Design Features. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2:2

Setting Up the PDMS Database Hierarchy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3:1


How PDMS Stores Design Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3:1
PDMS Design Data Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3:2

Logging In . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3:3 PDMS Startup Display . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3:3 Creating some Administrative Elements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3:4

Creating Some Equipment Items . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4:1


How Equipment Items are Represented . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4:1

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Basic Principles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4:1 Using Predefined Templates for Standard Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4:2

Creating a Storage Tank to a Standard Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4:3 Adding a Nozzle to the Storage Tank . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4:9 Viewing the Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4:11
Defining what Appears in the View. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4:11 Manipulating the Displayed View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4:14

Creating Some More Equipment Items . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4:16


Creating a Vertical Vessel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Naming the Nozzle in the Base of the New Vessel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Creating a Standard Design Pump. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Changing the Orientation of an Equipment Item . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Tidying Up Afterwards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4:16 4:17 4:18 4:19 4:21

Routing a Sequence of Piping Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5:1


Design-to-Catalogue Cross-Referencing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5:1 How Piping Networks are Represented . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5:1
Pipes and Branches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5:2 Piping Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5:2

Starting the Pipework Application . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5:3 Setting a Default Specification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5:3 Creating a Simple Pipework Sequence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5:4
Modifying Pipe Sequences. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5:13

Creating a Second Pipework Sequence. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5:40 Quick Pipe Routing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5:46


QPR Facilities. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cases of Ill-defined Routes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Entering and Leaving QPR. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Pipe Routing Handle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Extend Route Handle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Nudging the Handle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cardinal Direction Handles. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Free Rotation Handles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Direction and Rotation Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Feedback . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Popup Menus on the QPR Handle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hotkeys ............................................................. 5:47 5:47 5:48 5:48 5:49 5:51 5:52 5:52 5:53 5:60 5:63 5:67

Deleting Pipe Routes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5:73

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Pipework Modification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6:1


Pipework Component Bore and Specification Modification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6:1
Modify Components Window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6:2 Component Selection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6:3 Modifying Component Specification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6:5 Error Messages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6:7 Highlighting. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6:8 Choosing a Component . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6:8 Multiple Component Changes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6:10 Modifying Component Bore . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6:10 Modifying Insulation and Tracing Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6:13

Pipe Splitting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6:14


Multiple Mode Splitting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Splitting Pipes with a Plane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Single Mode Splitting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Component Picking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Feature Picking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6:16 6:18 6:24 6:25 6:27

Checking and Outputting Design Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7:1


Checking for Design Data Inconsistencies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7:1
Design Tolerances . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7:2

Checking for Clashes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7:4


Obstruction Levels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7:4 Extent of Clashing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7:4 Clash Detection Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7:5

Generating a Data Output Report . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7:6 Generating Isometric Plots . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7:7

Automatic Pipe Routing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8:1


Automatic Pipe Routing using Pipe Router. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8:1
Introduction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8:1 Basic Routing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8:9 Positioning and Locking Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8:19 Creating and Using Routing Points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8:27 Using Routing Rules. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8:32 Creating and Using Routing Planes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8:36 Creating and Using Pipe Racks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8:44 Pipe Packing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8:55 Importing a P&ID File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8:57

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Automatic Pipe Routing Administration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8:59


Routing Rules. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Creating and Editing Routing Rules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Placing Pipes on Racks and Planes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Command Syntax. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Special Router Attributes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8:59 8:75 8:81 8:92 8:99

Pipework Spooling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9:1


Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9:1
Database Usage. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3D Graphics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Numbering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Naming .............................................................. Spooling Volume Calculation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Drawing Output . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9:1 9:1 9:2 9:2 9:2 9:2

Setting Up the Database Hierarchy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9:2


Database Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9:3 Logging In to Start a SPOOLER Session. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9:3 Creating Some Administrative Elements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9:4

Controlling the 3D View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9:5


Setting up a 3D View Window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9:6 Manipulating the Displayed View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9:8 Saving and Restoring a View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9:9

Preparing the Site for Spooling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9:10


Checking the Design Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Inspecting the Site . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Measuring the Pipe Lengths. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Inserting Welds. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Splitting a Tube with a Weld . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Pipework Spooling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Creating Spool Drawings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Numbering the Spool Drawing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Selecting Adjacent Field Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Checking the Spool Size . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Selecting the Numbering Update Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Changing the Shop/Field Setting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Forcing a Spool Break at a Joint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9:10 9:11 9:12 9:13 9:15 9:16 9:16 9:18 9:18 9:19 9:20 9:22 9:23

Spooling the Piping Network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9:16

Advanced SPOOLER Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9:19

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Outputting Spool Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9:24


Plotting the Spool Drawings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9:24 Isometric Drawing Contents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9:26 Drawing Annotations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9:27

Pipe Piece and Pipe Spool Production Checks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10:1


Definitions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10:1
Pipe Piece . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10:1 Pipe Spool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10:1

Pipe Production Checks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10:2


Generating Spools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10:4

Options on the Pipe Production Checks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10:5


Setting Up Production Checks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Define Auto-Resolve Preferences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Define Auto-Naming Preferences. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Running a Production Check . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10:7 10:8 10:8 10:9

Renaming Spools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10:19


Individual Renaming. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10:19 Group Renaming . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10:20

Automatic Flange Alignment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10:20

Pipe Sketches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11:1


Creating Pipe Sketches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11:1
How to Use the Pipe Sketches. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11:3 Created Sketches. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11:6

Pipe Sketch Administration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11:9


Drawing Template . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11:9 Backing Sheet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11:10 Tables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11:11 Styles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11:14 Common Object . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11:14 Log Messages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11:15 How to Define Tables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11:16 Dimensions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11:17 Tags . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11:18 Defaults . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11:19

Piping Assemblies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12:1


Creating Assemblies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12:1

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Assembly Hierarchy. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12:5 Building and Maintaining Assemblies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12:7


Creating the Hierarchy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12:8 Building an Assembly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12:8 Non-Graphical Assemblies. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12:11 Primary and Secondary Origins . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12:13 Piping Assembly Component Rules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12:14 STYPE Rules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12:14 Position Rules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12:16 Orientation Rules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12:16 Bore Selection Rules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12:17

Key Elements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12:19

Fabrication Machine Manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13:1


Fabrication Machine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13:4
Bending . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13:4 Flange Welding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13:15

Report

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13:16

Example Reports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13:17

Create Bend using Bending Machine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14:1


Reference a Bending Machine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14:1 Bending Machine Radius Calculation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14:2 SPEC Defined Bend Selection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14:3 Choose Command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14:4 Component Creation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14:5 Component Selection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14:7

Conclusion. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15:1 Equipment and Piping DESIGN Database. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .A:1 SPOOLER Reference Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .B:1
Spool Breaks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B:1 Connection Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B:1
Weld and Joint Connections. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B:2 Types of Welds and Joints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B:2

Special Cases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B:3

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Shop Flag Status . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B:3 Leave Tubes of Welds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B:3 Welds for OLETs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B:4

Pipe Piece and Pipe Spool Data. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .C:1


Pipe Piece Manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C:1
PML Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C:1 Functionality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C:1

Pipe Piece . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C:1


Pipe Piece Functionality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C:1 Pipe Piece Attributes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C:2 Pipe Piece Pseudo Attributes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C:3

Pipe Spool Manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C:4


PML Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C:4 Functionality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C:4

Pipe Spool. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C:4


Pipe Spool Functionality. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C:4 Pipe Spool Members . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C:5 Pipe Spool Methods (not implemented) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C:5 Pipe Spool Attributes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C:6 Pipe Spool Pseudo Attributes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C:6

Pipe Spool Reporting Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C:6


MTO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C:6 Assembly Activities. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C:6 Bending Table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C:9 Welding Table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C:10 Spool Extents/End Point. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C:10

Fabrication Machine Data. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .D:1


Fabrication Machine Manager. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D:1
Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D:1 BendingMachineResult . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D:4 WeldingMachineResult. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D:5 BendingTable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D:6 BendActivity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D:6 WeldingTable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D:6

Database Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D:7


FMWL - Fabrication Machine World Top Level Element . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D:7 FMGRP - Fabrication Machine Group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D:7

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FMBEND - Fabrication Machine - Bending . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D:7 FMBPLN - Fabrication Machine - Bending - Plane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D:8 FMBDIM - Fabrication Machine - Bending - Dimension . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D:8 FMBSST - Fabrication Machine - Bending - Springback/Stretch Factor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D:8 FMWELD - Fabrication Machine - Welding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D:9 FMWSK - Fabrication Machine Welding - SKEY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D:9

Automatic Flange Alignment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D:9


New Attribute for PTCA, PTAX, PTMI, PTPOS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D:9 New Pseudo Attributes for Branch Members . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D:9 Connection Command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D:10 New Datacon Warning Messages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D:10

Other Relevant Documentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .E:1


PDMS Introductory Guides . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E:1 AVEVA PDMS Reference Manuals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E:1 General Guides. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E:2

Sample Plots . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F:1

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Read this First

1
1.1

Read this First


Scope of this Guide
This guide introduces some of the facilities provided by AVEVA PDMS for designing and documenting interconnected piping networks for a wide range of process and related Plant Design industries, both on-shore and off-shore. It explains the main concepts underlying PDMS and its supporting applications, and shows how you can apply these to your own design projects. A number of the chapters of this guide take the form of hands-on tutorial exercises combined with frequent explanation of the underlying concepts. As you work progressively through the exercises, you will gain practical experience of the ways in which you can use PDMS while learning about the powerful facilities it provides.

1.1.1

Intended Audience
This guide has been written for engineers familiar with piping design practices, who may or may not have prior knowledge of PDMS.

1.1.2

Assumptions
For you to use this guide, the sample PDMS project, Project SAM, must be correctly installed on your system, and you must have read/write access to the project databases. It is assumed that: you know where to find PDMS on your computer system you know how to use the Windows operating system installed on your site you are familiar with the basic Graphical User Interface (GUI) features as described in the AVEVA document Getting Started with PDMS.

Contact your systems administrator if you need further help in either of these areas.

1.1.3

About the Tutorial Exercises


All the steps of the exercises are numbered throughout the guide.

1.1.4

Further Reading
You can find a list of relevant AVEVA documentation in the appendices of this guide.

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1.2

How the Guide is Organised


This guide is divided into chapters and appendices, as follows: Read this First Introducing AVEVA PDMS Setting Up the PDMS Database Hierarchy introduces this guide and summarises its scope. gives a general overview of the main design facilities provided within the pipework application. explains how PDMS stores its design data and shows you how to organise your data. Also describes the logging in procedure and how to create some administrative elements. A running example, which begins in this chapter and concludes in Chapter 6, illustrates the essential concepts of pipework design. demonstrates how to create some simple items of equipment. Although not strictly part of the piping design process, the steps described in this chapter introduce you to the ways in which the design applications work and result in some reference points between which to route pipe runs in later parts of the exercise. explains the key features of piping design using PDMS and shows you how to build up a piping sequence component by component. shows how to check your design for errors and inconsistencies, and how to generate reports and isometric plots directly from the design data. It concludes the first worked example. explains how pipework can be modified in terms of component specification and bore size, and by pipe splitting. demonstrates the facility of automatically routing pipes and details the administrative aspects of the facility. Includes a number of worked examples to illustrate the concepts of routing. explains how pipework spooling is carried out using the SPOOLER module. Includes a running worked example to illustrate the essential concepts of spooling. shows how to carry out pipe piece and pipe spool production checks. explains the creation and administration of pipe sketches. explains how piping assemblies can be created from fixed configurations of components for reuse in a design. to define the attributes of their Pipe Bending and Flange Welding machines. explains how to use the Bending Machine.

Creating Some Equipment Items

Routing a Sequence of Piping Components Checking and Outputting Design Data Pipework Modification Automatic Pipe Routing Pipework Spooling

Pipe Piece and Pipe Spool Production Checks Pipe Sketches Piping Assemblies Fabrication Machine Manager Create Bend using Bending Machine

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Equipment and Piping DESIGN Database SPOOLER Reference Information Pipe Piece and Pipe Spool Data Fabrication Machine Data Other Relevant Documentation Sample Plots

summarises the database hierarchy which PDMS uses to store piping design data. gives SPOOLER module reference information.

provides pipes piece and pipe spool data relevant to pipe production checks. details fabrication machine data for use in pipe production checks. identifies other sources of information which supplement, and expand upon, the brief details given in this guide. contains some examples of the types of isometric plot, including material take-off lists, which can be produced easily by using PDMS.

1.3

Further Training in Using PDMS


This guide teaches you to about the key features of using PDMS for piping designs only. If you wish to learn more about the wide-ranging facilities of PDMS, AVEVA provides a wide range of training courses, covering all levels of expertise and all design disciplines. For details of courses, and to arrange course attendance, contact your nearest AVEVA support office.

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Introducing AVEVA PDMS

Introducing AVEVA PDMS


This chapter introduces: the structure of PDMS the strengths of PDMS PDMS piping network design features.

2.1

Introducing the Structure of PDMS


PDMS comprises the following functional parts: modules applications.

A module is a subdivision of PDMS that you use to carry out specific types of operation. This guide covers the following modules: DESIGN, which you use for creating the 3D design model SPOOLER, which allows you to split the pipework design into logical sections (spools) ready for fabrication ISODRAFT, which you use for generating annotated and dimensioned isometric drawings of your design.

An application is supplementary program that has been tailored to provide easy control of operations that are specific to a particular discipline. The applications you will use for piping design work in this guide are: Equipment Pipework.

You can switch quickly and easily between different parts of PDMS.

2.2

Strengths of PDMS
In PDMS, you have a powerful suite of facilities, designed by piping engineers for piping engineers, for creating, analysing, and documenting logically interconnected piping networks. The emphasis is on maximising both design consistency and design productivity: The design modelling functions incorporate a degree of apparent intelligence that enables them to make sensible decisions about the consequential effects of many of your design choices. This allows you to implement a sequence of related decisions with a minimum of effort. You can incorporate modifications into your design at any stage without fear of invalidating any of your prior work, because data consistency-checking is an integral

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Introducing AVEVA PDMS

part of the product. PDMS automatically manages drawing production, material take-off reports, and so on, by reading all design data directly from a common set of databases, to prevent errors from being introduced by transcribing information between different disciplines. The applications let you check all aspects of your design as work progresses. This includes on-line interdisciplinary clash detection, so the chances of errors and inconsistencies reaching the final documented design are reduced to an exceptionally low level. The applications are controlled from a GUI. This means that all design, drawing and reporting operations are initiated by selecting choices from menus, and by entering data into on-screen forms. For ease of use, many common actions are also represented by pictorial icons.

2.3

PDMS Piping Network Design Features


The PDMS pipework applications offer the following key benefits: The applications are designed to use specification data when selecting piping components from the Catalogue database, so that design consistency and conformity to standards are ensured. It is important, therefore, that the Piping Catalogue databases are properly maintained: a Specification Generator facility is provided to enable this to be achieved with a minimum of effort. You can name piping elements in accordance with a predefined set of rules, so that their positions in the database hierarchy are always obvious without you having to enter specific texts during the design process. You can create pointers to define the storage areas in which specific types of design element are to be held in the database hierarchy. This, especially when combined with the rule-based naming facility, minimises the amount of data which you have to enter explicitly as you build up your design model. You can set up temporary lists of elements, so that you can carry out a design operation on all elements within the list simultaneously. This can avoid a great deal of repetitive work when you carry out commonly-repeated design modifications. The applications incorporate a number of geometric design aids, such as 3D positioning grids, design pins and 2D routing planes, to make it easy for you to position piping elements accurately within the design model. In most cases you can specify the points at which design items are to be positioned using the pointer to pick the required points in a 3D model view. At any stage of your work, you can create reports listing specified data from the current database. You can specify a standard report template, so you can derive lists of commonly-required information very quickly, or you can design a one-off report format to suit special needs. The resultant output, which can include data from any design discipline, sorted in any way you require, can be either displayed on your screen or sent to a file (for storage and/or for printing).

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Setting Up the PDMS Database Hierarchy

Setting Up the PDMS Database Hierarchy


In this chapter, you will learn: about the PDMS database hierarchy how PDMS stores design data how to login to PDMS and begin the first tutorial exercise how to create some administrative elements.

Although this guide is about the design of piping networks, in practice you will usually need to route your pipe runs between predefined design points such as equipment nozzles. You will therefore learn how these other items are defined in PDMS as well as learning how to connect sequences of piping components between them. In this chapter you will look at the ways in which equipment data and piping design data is stored by PDMS, and you will create some administrative data elements to enable you to organise your detailed design in a logical way.

3.1

How PDMS Stores Design Data


All PDMS data is stored in the form of a hierarchy. A DESIGN database has: a top level, World (usually represented by the symbolic name /*) two principal administrative sublevels, Site and Zone.

The names used to identify database levels below Zone depend on the specific engineering discipline for which the data is used. For piping design data, the lower administrative levels (and their PDMS abbreviations) are: Pipe (PIPE) Branch (BRAN). Each Pipe can represent any portion of the overall piping network, but is usually used to group items with a common specification. Each Branch within a Pipe represents a single sequence of piping components running between two, and only two, points: Branch Head Branch Tail. The data which defines the physical design of the individual piping components is held below Branch level.

In the basic configuration, equipment design data has only one administrative level below Zone: the Equipment (EQUI). The data which defines the physical design of each equipment item is represented by a set of basic 3D shapes known as Primitives (Box, Cylinder, etc.) held below Equipment level. Connection points are represented by Nozzles (NOZZ).

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Together, these hierarchic levels give the following overall format:

WORLD (/*)

SITE

SITE

ZONE

ZONE

PIPE

EQUIPMENT

BRANCH

Design data defining equipment shapes (primitives) and connection points (nozzles)

Design data defining individual piping components (elbows, bends, tees, valves, etc.)

3.1.1

PDMS Design Data Definitions


All data is represented in the database (DB) as follows: Each identifiable item of data is known as a PDMS element. Each element has a number of associated pieces of information which, together, completely define its properties. These are known as its attributes.

Every element is identified within the database structure by an automatically-allocated reference number and, optionally, by a user-specified name. Additional items of information about an element which can be stored as attribute settings include, the: element type element physical dimensions and technical specifications element physical location and orientation in the design model element connectivity. Some attribute settings must be defined by you when you create a new element, others will be defined automatically by PDMS.

When you are modifying a database (for example, when you are creating new elements or changing the settings of their attributes), you can consider yourself to be positioned at a specific point within the hierarchy. The element at this location is called the current element (usually abbreviated to CE). In many cases, commands which you give for modifying the attributes of an element will assume that the changes are to be applied to the current element unless you specify otherwise, so you must understand this concept and always be aware of your current position in the database hierarchy. The Design Explorer displays this information continuously. The vertical link between two elements on adjacent levels of the database hierarchy is defined as an owner-member relationship. The element on the upper level is the owner of those elements directly linked below it. The lower level elements are members of their owning element. Each element can have many members, but it can have only one owner. You can navigate from any element to any other, thereby changing the current element, by following the owner-member links up and down the hierarchy.

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Setting Up the PDMS Database Hierarchy

3.2

Logging In
This is the first step of the tutorial exercise Exercise begins: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. In the PDMS Login window give the name of the Project in which you want to work: enter SAM. Give your allocated Username: enter PIPE. Give your allocated Password: enter PIPE. Give the part of the project Multiple Database (MDB) you want to work in: enter PIPE Give the name of the Module you wish to use: select Design. Make sure that you leave the Read Only box unchecked, so that you can modify the database as you work. When you have entered all the necessary details, the form looks as shown:

Click OK.

3.3

PDMS Startup Display


When PDMS has loaded, your screen looks as shown:

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Setting Up the PDMS Database Hierarchy

As labelled above, the display comprises the following: Title Bar - shows the current PDMS module, and its sub-application if applicable. Main Menu Bar - the area you use to make menu selections. Main Tool Bar - has a number of icons and drop-down lists that offer shortcuts to a selection common PDMS operations and standard settings. Design Explorer - shows your current position in the PDMS database hierarchy. To move to a different point in the database, you click the appropriate item in the list. 3D Graphical View - the window in which you display the design model graphically as you build it. A pop-up menu (which you access with the right-hand mouse button) enables you to control how the model is represented. This window also has its own tool bar. Status Bar - displays information about the current status of your operations.

You can reposition or minimise these windows at any time using standard window management facilities.

3.4

Creating some Administrative Elements


You are now ready to create some administrative elements at the top of the DESIGN database hierarchy, as previously explained. Exercise continues: 6. Make sure that you are at World level in the Design Explorer, then select Create>Site. On the displayed Create Site form, enter PIPESITE in the Name text box, and press the Enter key to confirm the name. The system automatically adds a / prefix to this name so that it conforms to the internal PDMS file naming conventions: /PIPESITE.

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Setting Up the PDMS Database Hierarchy

7. 8. 9.

Click OK to create the Site element. Your first new element appears in the Design Explorer as the current element. You will now create two Zones named PIPEZONE (to hold piping data) and EQUIZONE (to hold equipment data). Both are to be owned by PIPESITE. Now choose Create>Zone. On the displayed Create Zone form, enter PIPEZONE.

10. Click OK to create the Zone element. Again, the new element appears in the Design Explorer as the current element, and you can see that it is owned by PIPESITE. 11. To create another Zone owned by PIPESITE (and not PIPEZONE), click PIPESITE in the Design Explorer to make it the current element. Now create a second Zone, EQUIZONE, in the same way as before. Your top part of the Design Explorer will now look like this:

Note: If you or other users have accessed this database before, the list may also contain other elements. In the next chapter you will create some standard equipment items, to give some reference points between which you can subsequently route your sample piping sequences.

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Creating Some Equipment Items

Creating Some Equipment Items


In this chapter you will: learn how equipment items are represented in PDMS create some simple equipment items, to predefined designs. These will form the basis for routing your piping network.

4.1
4.1.1

How Equipment Items are Represented


Basic Principles
Each equipment item is defined geometrically in PDMS as a collection of basic 3D shapes. These shapes are known as primitives. The primitives used for piping connections to equipment items are nozzles (which are standard components which you select from the PDMS catalogues). So, for example, a simple storage vessel might be built up from the following primitives: a cylinder for the main body two dishes for the ends two boxes for the support legs a nozzle for the piping connection:

Primitives:

Dish x2

Cylinder x1

Box x2

Nozzle x1

The position of the equipment item as a whole, and the relative positions of its component primitives are specified in terms of its origin. The orientation of the equipment item is specified by aligning the X, Y, Z axes of its primitives within the E, N, U (East, North, Up) coordinate system of the design model (more accurately, the E,N,U coordinate system of the item owning Zone).

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Creating Some Equipment Items

X Y Z Equipment Origin

You will look in more detail at the principles of positioning and orientating items within the PDMS design model when you start to create piping components.

4.1.2

Using Predefined Templates for Standard Equipment


You do not have to build up each item of equipment from its component primitives because PDMS has range of predefined equipment types from which you can choose. These standard equipment types, some of which will have been supplied with the original application and some of which may have been added by your company, are stored as parameterised Design Templates (TMPL). The master copies of these design templates are stored in a special part of the DESIGN database. When you select a design template for inclusion in your design: a copy of the design template is created below the parent equipment element all primitives defining the template geometry are stored below the template copy any variable dimensions and so on, needed to fully specify the equipment in the design are stored as Design Data (DDAT) elements below a Design Dataset (DDSE) owned by the template.

All the above are jointly referred to as the design element properties. To enable a template designer to reuse standard configurations of primitives within an equipment design, the Equipment element is sometimes subdivided into Sub equipment (SUBE) elements. In such situations an extended hierarchy is formed. An example of an extended hierarchy is as follows:

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Creating Some Equipment Items

Note: For the purposes of the current exercise, you do not need to fully understand the implications of this alternative method of storing design data. The concepts have been introduced to enable you to recognise some of the new elements that will be added into your Design Explorer as you progress through the steps of the exercise

4.2

Creating a Storage Tank to a Standard Design


In this section you will create a storage tank using one of the standard designs supplied with PDMS. Exercise continues: 12. To start the Equipment application, select Design>Equipment from the Design General Application menu bar. When loading is complete, the main menu bar and the tool bar (which now has a second row) show some extra options which give you access to the whole range of functions needed to create and position equipment items:

13. Make sure that EQUIZONE (the zone you created for storing equipment items) is your current element. 14. Display the Create Equipment window in one of the following ways: Select Create>Standard Equipment from the menu bar Click .

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Creating Some Equipment Items

15. Click Specification to display the Specification version of the window.

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Creating Some Equipment Items

16. In the Name text box of the Create Equipment window enter tank1. (You will see that an / has automatically been placed before tank1). The Specification Data area of the window enables you to narrow down your choice of standard equipment by a progressive question-and-answer sequence. At each stage of the search, you select from the options in the lower list (whose title changes to reflect its content) and the progress of the search is summarised in the Current Selection list. 17. From the Specification drop-down list, select AVEVA Advanced Equipment. 18. From the AVEVA Advanced list, select Vessels. This selection is copied to the Current Selection list, while the lower list now shows three Vessel Type options.

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19. Select Vertical Vessels. 20. Select Storage Vessel with Dished Top & Bottom. 21. Select VESS 001 - Dished both Ends. The lower list title now says Selection complete and the list itself is now empty. The Current Selection list shows the fully-specified equipment and a graphical representation of the selection is shown:

22. At this stage, the equipment has the default dimensions defined by the template designer. To specify your own dimensions, click Properties to display a Modify Properties window listing all parameterised dimensions assigned to the equipment definition.

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Creating Some Equipment Items

23. Enter the following parameters: Height: Diameter: Dish Height: Knuckle Radius: Support type: 3000 2800 300 100 NONE

The dimensioned plot view in the lower part of the Modify Properties window shows the significance of the dimensions.

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Creating Some Equipment Items

Note: If you cannot see the plot view, select Settings>Properties from the main menu bar and, in the resultant Properties Settings window, select Display Plotfile. Click OK and then re-display the Modify Properties window to show the plot view. Alternatively, click Plotfile on the Create Standard Equipment window or Modify Properties window to display the plot in a separate window at any time. If you wish to zoom in so that you can read the text on the plot view, position the pointer in the plot area, hold down the middle mouse button, drag out a rectangle enclosing the region of interest, and release the button. To zoom out, position the pointer over the centre of interest of the plot and click the middle mouse button. 24. Click OK on the Modify Properties window. 25. Click Apply on the Create Equipment window. The Positioning Control window now appears automatically in the main menu bar:

This is because you must specify the position of equipment before it can be added into the database. In a normal design situation, you would position the equipment relative to part of an existing structure using the 3D graphical view and prompts. At the moment your view is empty, so you cannot pick any existing reference point. You must therefore give an explicit position. 26. Click on the Positioning Control window.

27. On the Explicit Position window that displays, enter the coordinates: East: 7275

North: 2350 Up: 100

28. Click Apply. The tank is added into the 3D View, but the current view settings mean that you cannot see it in clear detail. You will rectify this a little later. The Design Explorer now shows an Equipment (EQUI) element named EQUI1, which owns a Design Template (TMPL), which in turn owns some primitives and propertydefining elements representing the equipment geometry. 29. Dismiss the Create Equipment window.

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4.3

Adding a Nozzle to the Storage Tank


The standard vessel design does not incorporate any nozzles. In this section, you will add a nozzle that you will later use to connect your pipework to the storage tank. Exercise continues: 30. Ensure you have EQUI1 selected in the Design Explorer as the current element. Select Create>Nozzles, to display a Create Nozzle window:

31. On the Create Nozzle window displayed, enter the following parameters: Name: Position: Tank-1-N1 West North Up Height: Orientate P1 is: 300 N1675 0 250 (The height of a nozzle is the length of its connecting tube). (Sets the direction of the nozzle flanged face).

32. Click Nozzle Type to display the Nozzle Specification window:

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33. Define the nozzle type by entering the following parameters in the displayed Nozzle Specification window. You will see that once the Specification is selected the other fields are automatically populated with the parameters assigned to the nozzle in the catalogue. Specification: Generic Type: Nominal Bore: #300.R.F 300llb Ansi flanged 150

The Generic Type and Nominal Bore parameters can be changed to reflect a non standard nozzle. 34. Click Apply, and then Dismiss. You will see in more detail how catalogues are used when you start to select piping components. 35. The settings on the Create Nozzle window now look as shown:

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36. Click Apply and then, if you have not already done so, Dismiss any remaining windows involved in creating the nozzle.

4.4

Viewing the Design


In order to see what your design looks like as you build it up, and to enable you to identify design items by simply pointing to them rather than by navigating to them in the Design Explorer, you will now display your current design in a 3D View window, and learn how to manipulate this display.

4.4.1

Defining what Appears in the View


In this section you will identify your equipment zone as the contents of the graphical display, and view isometrically. Exercise continues: 37. The Design Explorer will now look like this:

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38. You can see the list of elements that will appear in the View by looking at the Draw List. To view the Draw List, select from the 3D View Tool bar. You should get something like this:

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Creating Some Equipment Items

39. To remove the elements currently in the Draw List, right-click each one in turn and select Remove from the shortcut menu. To set the Draw List so that you can see each equipment item as you create it, you need to select your equipment Zone. Do this by clicking on EQUIZONE in the Design Explorer. 40. Close Draw List. 41. Now right-click EQUIZONE and select 3D View>Add from the shortcut menu. 42. Now, in the 3D View tool bar, click Limits CE, . This adjusts the scale of the view automatically such that it corresponds to a volume just large enough to hold the chosen element(s); in this case, the Zone. 43. To set an isometric view direction, position the pointer in the 3D View window and rightclick, select Isometric>Iso 3from the shortcut menu.

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44. Display horizontal and vertical border sliders by selecting View>Settings>Borders or press Function Key F9. 45. Experiment with the shortcut menu options Look, Plan, and Isometric, to see different view directions, and then revert to Isometric>Iso 3.

4.4.2

Manipulating the Displayed View


You can manipulate the displayed model view in a number of ways. The three view manipulation modes are: Rotate the view Pan the view across the display area Zoom in or out to magnify or reduce the view.

The current manipulation mode is shown in the status line at the bottom of the 3D View window, and is currently set to Rotate, as shown in the previous illustration. To change the view manipulation mode, use the 3D View tool bar icons, or the function keys, as follows: selects Zoom mode selects Pan mode or F3 selects Rotate mode. or F5

or F2

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You can also choose these view manipulation options, from the shortcut menu available within the 3D view. Exercise continues: 46. Select , (note that this is the default state).

Position the cursor in the view area and hold down the middle mouse button, then move the mouse slowly from side to side while watching the effect on the displayed model. 47. The initial direction of movement determines how the view appears to rotate; starting with a left or right movement causes the observers eye-point to move across the view. 48. Now release the mouse button, hold it down again and move the mouse away from you and towards you; this time the observers eye-point appears to rotate up and down around the model. 49. Repeat the rotation operations while holding down the Ctrl key. Note that the word Fast appears in the status line and that the rate of rotation is increased. 50. Repeat the rotation operations, but this time hold down the Shift key. Note that the word Slow appears in the status line and that the rate of rotation is decreased. For an alternative way of rotating the model, first press the F9 function key to display the horizontal and vertical sliders, and then try dragging the sliders to new positions along the view borders. You can rotate the model in this way at any time, regardless of the current manipulation mode. 51. Select .

52. Position the cursor in the view area and hold down the middle mouse button, then move the mouse slowly in all directions. Note: It is the observers eye-point which follows the mouse movement (while the viewing direction remains unchanged), so that the displayed model appears to move in the opposite direction to the mouse; in effect, you move the mouse towards that part of the view which you want to see. 53. Repeat the pan operations while holding down first the Ctrl key (to increase the panning speed) and then the Shift key (to decrease the panning speed). 54. Select .

55. Position the cursor in the view area and hold down the middle mouse button, then move the mouse slowly up and down. Moving the mouse away from you (up) zooms in, effectively magnifying the view; moving the mouse towards you (down) zooms out, effectively reducing the view. Note that these operations work by changing the viewing angle (like changing the focal length of a camera lens); they do not change the observers eye-point or the view direction. 56. Repeat the zoom operations while holding down first the Ctrl key and then the Shift key. 57. Position the cursor at the top of the tank and click (do not hold down) the middle mouse button. Notice how the view changes so that the picked point is now at the centre of the view. Whenever you click the middle button, whatever the current manipulation mode, you reset the centre of interest. Set the centre of interest to the face of the nozzle, then zoom in for a close-up view. You will find this a very useful technique when making small adjustments to the design.

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58. To restore the original view when you have finished, make sure that your current element is EQUIZONE and click Limits CE, the shortcut menu. and reselect Isometric>Iso 3 from

4.5

Creating Some More Equipment Items


You need to have several equipment items between which to route piping components, so, in this section, you will now create a different design of vertical storage vessel and a pump, using similar procedures to those you used to create the first vessel.

4.5.1

Creating a Vertical Vessel


Exercise continues: 59. Navigate to EQUIZONE and click In the Name text box enter Tank-2 From the Specification drop-down list, select AVEVA Advanced Equipment From the AVEVA Advanced list, select Vessels This selection is copied to the Current Selection list, while the lower list now shows three Vessel Type options Select Vertical Vessels Select Storage Hoppers , or select Create>Standard Equipment.

60. On the displayed Create Equipment window, click Specification and set the following:

Select VESS 002 - Dished Top and Coned Bottom. This design includes provision for one nozzle at the bottom of the conical base. 61. Click Properties, and in the displayed Modify Properties window enter the following parameters: Height: Diameter: Dish Height Knuckle Radius: Cone Height: Nozzle Height: Nozzle Type: Support type: 2500 1500 250 75 750 250 #300.R.F. 150mm NS NONE

62. Click OK on the Modify Properties window. 63. Click Apply on the Create Equipment window. 64. Dismiss the Create Equipment window.

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65. Click on the Positioning Control window, and in the displayed Explicit Position window enter the coordinates: East North Up 2600 7000 2600

66. Click Apply, and observe the relative positions and orientations of the two vessels in the graphical view. EQUIZONE is now larger than when you last set the viewing scale, so navigate to /EQUIZONE and click 67. Dismiss the Explicit Position window. to reset the limits.

4.5.2

Naming the Nozzle in the Base of the New Vessel


68. Navigate to the nozzle on /Tank-2 using the Design Explorer:

69. Select Modify>Name and name the nozzle Tank-2-N1. Click Apply, and then Dismiss. 70. Navigate back to Tank-2 and add a second nozzle using the same sequence as previously detailed and give it the following description: Name: Height: Tank-2-N2 250 (The height of a nozzle is the length of its connecting tube).

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Position:

East North Up

1000 0 2000

Orientate P1 is:

E (Sets the direction of the nozzle flanged face).

71. Click the Nozzle Type to display the Nozzle Specification window. 72. Define the nozzle type by entering the following parameters in the displayed Nozzle Specification window. Specification Nominal Bore #300.R.F 100

Note: This nozzle has a smaller bore than the other nozzles. You may need to rotate the view to see all of the nozzles simultaneously. 73. Click Apply and then, if you have not already done so, Dismiss any remaining windows involved in creating the nozzle.

4.5.3

Creating a Standard Design Pump


74. Navigate to EQUIZONE and click Name: Specification: Pumps, Pump Type Specific Type: Selection: /Pump-1 AVEVA Advanced Equip AVEVA Advanced Centrifugal Pumps Centreline Mounted Centrifugal Pumps PUMP 005 - Pump Centreline Mounted Tangential Outlet. , and give the pump the following definition:

Set the parameters as follows: Baseplate Length Baseplate Width: Distance Origin to Baseplate Distance to Suction Nozzle: Distance Bottom to Centreline Discharge Nozzle Height Suction Nozzle to Coupling Distance Discharge Nozzle 1600 510 175 240 340 180 700 135

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Suction Nozzle Type Discharge Nozzle Type

#300.R.F. 150mm NS #300.R.F. 150mm NS.

75. Create the pump and position it at: EastX NorthY UpZ 4573.21 5271.89 350

76. Navigate to EQUIZONE and select View>Zoom To>Selection

4.5.4

Changing the Orientation of an Equipment Item


The orientation of the pump is as defined by the template default settings. 77. Navigate to EQUI Pump-1. 78. Click on the main tool bar to display the Define Axes window. On this window, select Cardinal Directions:

An E,N,U axes symbol is displayed at the origin of the current element. The horizontal suction nozzle points North. 79. Close the Define Axes window. 80. To change the orientation of the pump so that it points West, click Model Editor on the main toolbar or select Edit>Model Editor from the main menu bar. 81. Using the left-hand mouse button, click the pump to display the drag handles.

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82. With the pointer over the horizontal rotation handle (see above), press and hold down the left-hand mouse button and move the cursor (which changes shape) in an anticlockwise direction until the following pump orientation is achieved:

83. The pump now points West. Click anywhere in the graphics area to remove the drag handles. 84. Other methods of changing orientation are explained below. (Move the pump back its original orientation first by clicking Undo ( leave Model Editor mode. ) on the main toolbar. Click again to

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85. To change the orientation of the pump so that it points West, either click , or select Orientate>Rotate. The Rotate window enables you to rotate the equipment through a specified angle about a defined axis. The default axis is up, through the origin, and is correct, so just set Angle to 90:

86. Click Apply, and then Dismiss the Rotate window, and select Close>Remove axes on the Define Axes window. This removes the axes symbol in the 3D View.

4.5.5

Tidying Up Afterwards
87. Navigate to each pump nozzle in turn and rename: NOZZ 1 - the horizontal nozzle: /Pump-1-SUCTION Nozz 2 - the vertical nozzle: /Pump-1-DISCHARGE.

88. Check the layout of the three equipment items in the graphical view:

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In the next chapter, you will add to the design model by creating some piping components.

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Routing a Sequence of Piping Components

Routing a Sequence of Piping Components


In this chapter you will: learn how some of the items which make up the design are represented and accessed in the PDMS databases; route some pipes between the three items of equipment which currently make up your design model; position a selection of piping components within the pipe runs.

5.1

Design-to-Catalogue Cross-Referencing
To ensure design consistency and conformity with predefined standards, the basic definitions of all items that you can use in the pipework design are held in a Catalogue database. This holds definitions of: all available configurations and materials for each type of piping component all types of nozzle for connecting pipe fittings to equipment items.

When you add an item to your design model, you store the position, orientation etc. for the item in the DESIGN database, but you specify the physical properties of the item by setting up a cross-reference (Specification Reference or SpecRef) which points to an appropriate entry in the Catalogue database. The dimensions of each item are defined in the catalogue by parameters whose values are set only at the design stage, so that a single catalogue entry can represent a whole family of design components which differ only in their dimensions. You have already used this concept when creating the equipment nozzles in the previous chapter. In each case, you: selected the required type of nozzle by setting its catalogue specification, (ANSI flanged, with raised face, suitable for 300 pound working pressure, with 150mm nominal bore, for example) specified the length of the nozzle tube (defined in the catalogue as a parameterised dimension) by setting its Height attribute.

5.2

How Piping Networks are Represented


Piping networks are represented by the following: pipes and branches piping components.

Each of these is explained in turn below.

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5.2.1

Pipes and Branches


You have already learnt that the principal administrative elements of a Zone are Pipes and their subordinate Branches. Each Pipe can represent any portion of the overall piping network, while each Branch represents a single section of a Pipe which runs between two, and only two, points (the Branch Head and the Branch Tail). The individual piping components (defined in terms of their catalogue specifications) are stored as Branch members. So, a Pipe that incorporates a Tee, for example, must own at least two Branches to achieve the necessary three connection points. The following configurations show two ways of achieving this (solid lines represent part of Branch 1; dotted lines represent part of Branch 2):

5.2.2

Piping Components
Each piping component is represented in the PDMS catalogue by three types of data: The physical shape of the component is defined by a set of geometric primitives (like the ones used to represent equipment items introduced in the previous chapter). So that the component can be manipulated and linked to adjacent piping items, all principal points needed to define its position, orientation and connectivity are identified by uniquely-numbered tags. These tags, which have both position and direction, are called p-points (or Design Points). Each p-point is identified by a number of the format P0, P1, P2 etc., while the principal inlet and outlet points for the logical flow direction through the component are identified as p-arrive and p-leave. P0 always represents the component origin position, while in normal pipe routing mode (Forwards mode) P1 is the same as p-arrive and P2 is the same as p-leave. The settings of all variables needed to distinguish a component from others with the same geometry and p-point sets are defined by parameters. The values of these are defined to suit the specific design requirements.

For example, a Tee component might be represented in the PDMS catalogue as follows:

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where the two cylinder primitives form the component geometry set and the four p-points form its point set (the fourth p-point, P3, lets you specify the orientation of the side arm when you incorporate the tee into your design). The dimensions of the tee are represented in the catalogue by parameters whose values are determined by the nominal bore required to suit the design.

5.3

Starting the Pipework Application


Exercise continues: 80. Change from the Equipment application to the Pipework application, by selecting Design>Pipework. The menu bar for the Equipment application is replaced by that for the Pipework application. The menu bars for both applications are superficially similar, but the latter gives you access to options with specific relevance to creating and manipulating piping components. The Default Specifications window, which is displayed automatically, is described in the next section.

5.4

Setting a Default Specification


When you select components from the piping catalogue as described earlier in this chapter, you do so by stating which Specification the components must match. To avoid having to specify this data again for each component, you can set a Default Specification at Pipe or Branch level. This will be used automatically at lower levels unless you override it (the default specification is said to be cascaded down the hierarchy). As an example, the specifications which form part of the sample project within which you are working include: A1A: ANSI Class 150 Carbon Steel A3B: ANSI Class 300 Carbon Steel F1C: ANSI Class 150 Stainless Steel

For the purposes of your design exercise, you will use the A3B specification to select all components. Exercise continues: 81. On the Default Specifications window, select the Piping specification A3B.

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82. The project specifications include some choices for pipework Insulation, but no trace heating specifications (as shown by the None Available entry in the Tracing option list). You do not want to use insulation or trace heating, so make sure that both of them are unselected. When you click OK, the current default specification is shown in the second row of the tool bar:

5.5

Creating a Simple Pipework Sequence


In the next part of the exercise you will create a sequence of piping components connected between the nozzles /Tank-1-N1 and /Pump-1-SUCTION. The initial sequence will include a tee to which you will later connect another pipework sequence. The configuration which you will create (with all components in a horizontal plane) is as shown:

Nozzle (Pump) Nozzle


/Pump-1-SUCTION /Tank-1-N1

(Tank)

Gasket 1 Flange 1

Gasket 4 Flange 4 flow From second Branch L Valve 1 ( with h wheel) d

flow Elbow 1

Tee 1 Flange 3 Gasket 3 Gasket 2 Flange 2 N

E S W

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You will represent both this and the next sequence by a single Pipe element in the DESIGN database, but you must subdivide this into two Branch elements to allow the flows into the pump to combine at the tee. You will define the branches as follows: Branch 1 will have its Head at nozzle /Tank1-1-N1 and its Tail at nozzle /Pump-1SUCTION. It will consist of the following components, listed in head-to-tail order: Gasket 1 Flange 1 Elbow 1 Flange 2 Gasket 2 Valve 1 (which includes flanges in its catalogue definition) Gasket 3 Flange 3 Tee 1 Flange 4 Gasket 4.

Note that the flow through the tee will enter at P1 and leave at P3 (that is, p-arrive will be P1 and p-leave will be P3). Branch 2, which you will create in a later part of the exercise, will have its Head positioned at Nozzle /Tank-2/N1 and its Tail at the third arm of the tee (P2), (remember that flow direction is always from head to tail).

Note: The tubing running between the piping items (shown by the dotted lines in the diagram), is added and adjusted automatically by PDMS to suit the positions and specifications of the components. You do not have to create it explicitly; it is referred to as implied tube. Refer back to the sequence in the diagram when necessary to understand the logic of the following steps for creating this in the design model. Exercise continues: 83. Navigate to /PIPEZONE in the Design Explorer and click the Pipe Creation icon in the Pipework toolbar:

84. The Create Pipe window displays:

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You can use this window to characterise the pipe you want to add to your design. For now, name the pipe Pipe-1, leave the Primary System set to No System, set the Bore to 150, and the Insulation to K. 85. Click Apply to create the pipe.

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86. The Create Pipe window changes to allow you to access and modify the branchs Head and Tail information.

Note: how the new branch is named automatically from its owning pipe as Pipe-1/B1. Also that the branchs Head and Tail connections are undefined. To define them you click Change and make the appropriate choices. 87. For this exercise, you will connect both the head and tail of the branch to existing nozzles. First, click Change in the Head Connection part of the window.

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The window now displays as shown:

88. Click the Pick button and use the cursor to select the Nozzle N1 on Tank-1 (named NOZZ Tank-1-N1). When you select the nozzle, the window changes to reflect your choice:

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89. To confirm your selection and connect the head of the branch to the nozzle, click Connect. The main Create Pipe window will once more be displayed, but now the Head Detail has been filled in:

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90. Now click Change in the Tail Connection part of the window:

A window displays that is virtually identical to the one you used to select the branchs head:

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91. Click Pick and use the cursor to select the horizontal nozzle on the pump. As before, the window changes to reflect your choice.

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92. Click Connect to confirm your selection and connect the tail of the branch to the pump nozzle. As before the window changes to reflect your choice.

Notice how the route of the branch is shown in the graphical view by a broken line. As you have not yet introduced any components, this runs directly from the head to the tail. You will now build up the component sequence by creating individual piping items.

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93. First, Dismiss the Modify Pipe window by clicking the cross, corner of the window.

, in the top right-hand

5.5.1

Modifying Pipe Sequences


If you want to modify a pipe component once you have created it, you can select the pipe in the graphical view or the Design Explorer, and click the Pipe Modification icon on the Pipework toolbar:

The exact appearance of the window displayed depends on what you have selected. If you have selected an entire pipe you will get a window that allows you to modify the pipe as a whole; if you have selected a branch, then you will also get the options that allow you to modify the branch. If you click the icon and you have not selected a valid pipe component, you get an error that looks like this:

Exercise continues: 94. Make the Branch you created previously the current element by clicking on Pipe-1/B1 in the Design Explorer. 95. Click the Pipe Component Creation icon on the Pipework toolbar:

The Component Creation window displays as shown:

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The Component Creation window allows you create a component or component group that is either connected or positioned along the route of a pipe. The system will automatically try to create a set of predetermined adjacent component types when certain component types are created, e.g. when creating a valve, the system will try to create the appropriate adjacent gaskets and flanges. This allows you to define the major components of the pipe route, with the system creating the secondary components automatically. 96. From the Component Types list select Flange. The window changes in response:

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97. From the Filter By drop-down list, select WN. Ensure that the With Flow icon is selected, and both the Auto. Create Adjacent and Skip Connected Comps checkboxes are both checked.

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98. Click Connect. You will see that the new Flange has been added to the branch and appears both in the Design Explorer and the graphical view; you will also notice that the Auto Create Adjacent facility has automatically created and added a Gasket between the Flange and the Nozzle. This appears in the Design Explorer but is too thin to show up in the graphical view.

99. You can modify a component once you have added it, preserving its connections to adjoining components wherever possible. First, select the Pipe Component Selection icon from the Pipework toolbar:

The Component Selection window displays:

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Note: The window will display the component selection parameters of the CE. Using this window you can change the selected components specification, and in some circumstances the components type. You can also view any errors caused by doing so. Experiment with this window and see what effect it has on your design. When you have finished, restore the original settings. Dismiss the window using the cross in the top right-hand corner and return to the Component Creation window. 100. The next step is to add an Elbow to the pipe route. Click Choose to display the Component Types list and select the Elbow option.

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101. From the Filter By drop-down list, select type EL90. Ensure that the With Flow icon is selected, and both the Auto. Create Adjacent and Skip Connected Comps checkboxes are both checked:

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102. Click Connect. 103. Now right-click Bran Pipe-1/B1 and select 3D View>Add from the shortcut menu.

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104. Close the Component Creation window. 105. Now, in the 3D View tool bar, click Limits CE, . This adjusts the scale of the view automatically such that it corresponds to a volume just large enough to hold the chosen element(s); in this case, the Zone. The elbow will be added to the flange thus:

You will notice that the elbow is both pointing the wrong way and positioned flush against the flange:
E (Pump) N W Flange 1 Nozzle
/Pump-1-SUCTION

Nozzle S
/Tank-1-N1

(Tank) Gasket 1

Elbow 1

While the auto-connect function positions and orientates the elbow so that its p-arrive points towards the preceding flange, the application has no way of knowing which way the p-leave of the elbow is to be directed, so it assumes the default direction as set in the catalogue. To change this you can use Component Modification in the Model Editor. 106. Click Model Editor icon in the main toolbar:

107. Select the Elbow in the graphical view using the cursor. Immediately you select it, the Elbow will be encircled by the Component Modification Handles, shown in magenta. These handles allow you to rotate and move the selected component or components. As you move the cursor over the handles, they change to indicate what actions you can perform on them. In addition, you can choose a number of context-dependent options from the right-click pop-up menu. 108. Hover the cursor over any part of the arc and two arrows will appear and the cursor changes to an arrowed-semicircle, indicating that you can left-click, drag the handle and rotate the Elbow:

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Experiment for a few moments seeing how the Elbow rotates in response to your mouse movements. 109. When you have finished experimenting, rotate the Elbow fully 180 degrees so it is pointing the other way. The angle you have turned the Elbow through is clearly indicated as you drag the handle:

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Alternatively, right-click any part of the arc and select the Enter Value option from the pop-up menu.

This allows you to enter the value you want to rotate the Elbow by in degrees; you can also click Preview to see how it will look. If you click Cancel, the rotation is cancelled and the Elbow returns to its original orientation:

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110. You also want to position the elbow at a specified distance from Flange 1. To demonstrate a new feature, you will line it up with the lower nozzle on /Tank-2. To do this, zoom the view out again so you can see once more both the Elbow and the lower Nozzle on Tank-2. Although you can reposition the Elbow to any viewing angle, it is easier to see exactly what is happening if you rotate the view so you are looking at it from below. When you hover the cursor over the movement handle marked X, the handle will change indicating you can drag the Elbow to the West:

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111. Right click any part of the straight XU axis to display the right-click pop-up menu with the following options:

Select the Align with Feature option. This will allow you to align the Elbow with an existing item that you identify by picking it with the cursor in the graphical view. Move the cursor so it is over the P1 direction of the Nozzle. Your display should be similar to that shown:

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Note: the system moves the Elbow as a preview to how it will look if you click the feature and accept the move. 112. Click the P1 point of the Nozzle Tank-2-N1. The system moves the Elbow and inserts the appropriate length of implied tubing:

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The Elbow is repositioned as follows:


E (Pump) N W Nozzle
/Pump-1-SUCTION

Nozzle
/Tank-1-N1

(Tank)

S Gasket 1 Flange 1 Implied tube added automatically

P-leave aligned with nozzle /Tank-2/N1

Elbow 1

You will look in more detail at the ways of positioning and orientating items in some later parts of the exercise. Your design, in Iso 3 view, should now look as shown.

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113. Click the Pipe Component Creation icon on the Pipework toolbar to display the Component Creation window. Select the Valve option from the Component Types list:

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114. Select the GATE option from the Filter By drop-down list and click Connect:

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115. From the drop-down list on the next part of the window, select the Flange WN option and click Done:

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116. Close the Component Creation window. Your design should now look as shown:

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From the Design Explorer you will see that the system has added the Valve as a full assembly and has automatically included two Gaskets and Flanges:

117. As before, you want to reposition the valve so it is better placed for pipe-routing. To do this, leave the Valve assembly selected, and right click the Valve assembly, then select Model Editing. 118. On the X axis, right-click and select the Enter Value option from the pop-up menu. In the displayed Move Selection window, type the value 1600 in the text box for the Xvalue (note that the Yand Z boxes are disabled), and click the Preview button. The system shows you what the proposed move looks like:

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119. Click OK and the system will complete the move and add a length of implied tubing between the Elbow and the Valve assembly:

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Note: that the handwheel on the Valve is pointing upwards by default; this is what is required for this design, but it could be easily changed by using the Model Editor and the Component Modification Handles in a similar manner to how they were used for rotating the Elbow. The piping network now looks like this:
E (Pump) N W Nozzle /Pump-1S Nozzle / Tank-1-N1 Gasket 1 Flange 1 (Tank)

Elbow 1

Flanged Valve Set

120. Now create a Tee. Click the Pipe Component Creation icon and select Tee from the list. On the window that appears next, select the T option from the drop-down list, and then in the filtered list below it, select the option with a Bore of 150. This represents an equal tee, where the bore of the P2 and P3 arms is set automatically to match that of the P1 arm (shown at the top of the window as 150 in this case). In the Connection Information section of the window, select the second of the three Config icons as shown:

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Selecting this option makes the Tee a branch off Tee, where the Tee outlet (p-leave) is P3 rather than P2.

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121. Click Connect. Your Tee will be added to the Valve. It should look as shown:

When created, the Tee is positioned and orientated as follows:


E (Pump) N W Nozzle /Pump-1P3 points Up S Nozzle /Tank-1-N1 Gasket 1 Flange 1 (Tank)

P-leave=P2 Tee 1 Valve 1 Flange 3 Gasket 3 Gasket 2 Flange 2

Elbow 1

122. To orientate the Tee, select the Tee in the Model Editor and rotate it in the same way you rotated the Elbow using the Component Modification Handles. Alternatively, you can select Modify>Component>General from the main menu and use the Orientate or Rotate option on the Piping Components window, rotating the Tee so its P3 direction is East:

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Orientate options

Rotate options

Whichever method you use, the Tee should now look like this:

123. The next thing you need to do is align the Tees branch off point with the Nozzle Pump1-SUCTION. The easiest way to do this is to use the Movement Handles. First, select the Tee in the Model Editor and hover the cursor over the Xaxis:

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124. Click the Align selection/component icon from the piping toolbar menu in the main toolbar: Note: The system moves the Tee and inserts a length of implied tube.

125. You can also use one of the Position options on the Piping Components window to align the Tee with the pump nozzle, select Modify>Component>General in the main menu.

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Position Options

You can use the Position options in several ways. Use any one of the following: Select Thro Tail or Thro Next (these are the same, since the tail is effectively the next item in the branch list). Select Thro ID Cursor and, when prompted, pick the nozzle in the graphical view. Select Thro Point and, when prompted, pick the p-point at the centre of the nozzle flange.

126. Now create a Reducer. Click the Pipe Component Creation icon and select Reducer from the list. On the window that appears next, select the 100 option from the Reducer Information from the drop-down list and then in the filtered list above it, select the CONC option. 127. Click Connect. The resulting pipework layout now looks like this:

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Note: A length of implied tube is now shown between the Tee outlet and the branch tail, even though the final components have not yet been inserted. This confirms that the alignment and bore sizes of the Tee outlet and branch tail are compatible. 128. Complete the branch by adding a weld-neck flange and gasket, connected to the branch tail. Click the Piping Component Creation icon and select a WN Flange from the list. Enter Pipe Component Modification mode and drag the newly added Flange and Gasket until they are against the Nozzle Pump-1-SUCTION. The result should look like this:

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Schematically, the piping now looks like this:


E ( Pump) N W Branch Tail Nozzle /Pump-1-SUCTION flow flow S Nozzle /Tank-1-N1 Branch Head (Tank)

5.6

Creating a Second Pipework Sequence


To allow you to practice and reinforce the techniques learned in creating the preceding pipework sequence, you will now create a similar branch, also part of /Pipe-1, which runs from the nozzle /Tank-2/N1 to the open connection on the Tee of your existing branch, as follows:
(Tank)

Nozzle

/Tank-2/N1

(Pump)

Branch 2 Head U N D
flow

E S N W S

Branch 1 Tail

Branch 2 Tail

existing branch

The broken line marks a change of view direction: components to the left are shown looking East (they lie in a vertical plane through the tank nozzle) components to the right are shown looking Down (they lie in the same horizontal plane as your existing Branch 1).

Exercise continues: 129. Navigate to /Pipe-1 and click the Pipe Modification icon on the Pipework toolbar to display the Modify Pipe window:

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130. Click New Branch to create a second branch, /Pipe-1/B2.

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131. Select the new Branch in the list as above, and using a similar approach to the one outlined previously, connect its Head to Nozzle /Tank-2/N1 and connect its Tail to the Tee in Branch /Pipe-1/B1. Notice how the branch route goes automatically to the free connection on the Tee; you do not have to pick any particular point on the Tee when you connect the tail. 132. Create a Gasket and Flange connected to the branch head:

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133. Click the Piping Component Creation icon on the Pipework toolbar and add a WN Flange to the branch head. 134. Using the same Component Creation window, create an Elbow of type EL90BW. 135. Use the Model Editor to orientate and the Align selection/component icon to position the Elbow so its leave connection is aligned with the branch. 136. Click Connect. Implied tube is now shown between the Elbow and the Tee, confirming that the alignment and connecting bore sizes are correct:

137. Still using the Component Creation window, create a Valve and its associated Flanges and Gaskets. Select Valve type GATE and Flange type WN.

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Note: that the Valve is flush against the Elbow. 138. Using Pipe Component Modification handle, move the Valve along the pipe route towards the Tee so it is flush against it. If you click the Valve in the Model Editor, you will see that the Movement Handles are slightly different from the ones seen before:

This window of the Handles tells you that you can move or rotate the component in a set of prescribed directions. In this case you can either move along the direction of the pipe route or rotate the Valve around the pipe routes axis. 139. Select the Align with Feature option on the right-click pop-up menu. When the cursor changes, move it anywhere on the Tee, and observe how the system shows you a preview of what it will look like if you accept the move.

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140. Left-click the cursor to accept the change, repeat this exercise to move the other valve flush to the tee. 141. Zoom in on the pipework to see your completed design model.

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This completes the introduction to the basic pipe routing operations. In the following parts of the exercise you will look at some ways of checking the design model and outputting some design data derived from the database settings.

5.7

Quick Pipe Routing


Quick Pipe Routing (QPR) enables you to define graphically the route of a Pipe by using the mouse pointer to specify changes in direction of the route either in absolute terms or in relation to model features. Elbows or Bends (as specified) are automatically inserted where the route changes direction. QPR would typically be used where the Head and Tail of a Branch have been defined but the route between them has not. QPR is entered automatically when you click an ill-defined route, which is displayed as a dotted line (instead of implied tube) between two Components. Clicking on the dotted line brings up the Routing Handle:

You can switch the Routing Handle to the other end of an ill-defined route by picking the End Route Handle. Where there is an ill-defined end, then there will be no End Route Handle.

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5.7.1

QPR Facilities
When defining a route, you can control: Orthogonal and non-orthogonal leg definition Positioning Increment snapping Explicit positioning Feature highlighting: Centre line Offsetting by OD of tube (including insulation)

Automatic completion of route Where completion is predictable UNDO/REDO changes.

Where an extremity of a route is undefined, then you can assign the end to the last defined point within the route or to designate an appropriate element to connect the extremity to.

5.7.2

Cases of Ill-defined Routes


In general terms an ill-defined route is where instead of cylinder being shown for implied tube, a dashed line is shown. A common case of this would be where the Head and Tail of a Branch have been defined but the route between them has not. Other cases are detailed below. Bad Alignment Between Two Components This is where the leave direction and arrive direction of adjacent elements do not match. This could be due to the current Design tolerance settings, i.e. offset, angle and ratio. Arrive or Leave where Head or Tail is Undefined This is where the end directly adjacent to a Component is unset or ill-defined. An unset end is where the Head or Tail has its attributes left in the default state, whereas an ill-defined end is where, when the reference is set, the position is not coincident with the reference item or when the end reference is not set, hence the end connection is unset.

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Abandoned Routes A route can be abandoned at any time. For example, you may with to abandon the route so you can continue routing it from the other end. You can access the point from where the route was abandoned to continue routing. In the case of an ill-defined end of a route, the end is positioned at the last point defined. However, the end can still to be set as ill-defined, even if you set the end connection to a permissible type.

5.7.3

Entering and Leaving QPR


QPR is accessed via the selection of the dashed line (representing an ill-defined route) when in Model Editor Mode. The selection of an ill-defined route is mutually exclusive to any other element selected, i.e. selecting anything else takes you out of QPR. When a dashed line is selected, the Routing Access Handles are shown at the ends of the ill-defined route. Where there is an ill-defined end (for example if the Pipe Head is defined but not the Pipe Tail) only one access handle is shown. You exit QPR either by exiting Model Edit Mode or by changing the current selection set, i.e. by picking another item in the display.

5.7.4

Pipe Routing Handle


The Pipe Routing handle has three parts: the Extend Route Handle - used to extend the route in the direction indicated by the handle. the Cardinal Direction Handles - used to change the direction of routing to one of the cardinal directions for the current frame of reference. the Rotation Handles - allow you to direct interactively the Extend Route Handle.

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5.7.5

Extend Route Handle


This is used to change the position of the handle along the current route direction. The following operations can be performed on the handle. Dragging The Extend Handle can be dragged by either using the left-hand or right-hand mouse buttons, in the direction of or in the opposite direction to the extend direction. By default, i.e. if no special actions are active (e.g. feature highlighting), the handle moves in multiples of the currently defined linear increment. When dragging using the right-hand mouse button, you are presented with a context sensitive popup menu on button up. The menu displays the available options which relate to the drag and, when in a special action mode, the target, if applicable. By default, i.e. when no special actions are active, you are given the option to maintain the dragged extension or cancel the operation, and the handle returns to the previous position.

Feature Highlighting Feature highlighting allows you to position the handle using other elements with the model. With Feature Highlighting on, dragging with the left-hand mouse button held down causes features such as p-points or p-lines to be highlighted when the pointer moves across them. Highlighted features can then be snapped' to. Feature highlighting can be activated either from the F hotkey or via the Selection pulldown menu on the main menu bar. The system reverts to its previous mode once a feature has been selected or the action aborted When feature highlighting is active, the handle follows the pointer using the default increments, until a feature is identified. When a feature is identified, the handle moves to the derived intersection point. Where there is more than one point that can be snapped to, built-in default behaviour is used to derive the initial position (see Distance from Origin). However, it is possible to cycle

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through the derived points (which are usually with respect to the intersection of the routing line and a plane) and choose the desired one. The P hotkey is used for this.

Subsequent feature identification within the same drag uses the last solution type to derive the point, where possible. If there is no solution point to the feature selection, the system reverts to its default behaviour, (see below). Offsetting Where a position has been derived using feature highlighting, you can offset the position by OD of the tube (including insulation) to either side of the plane.

An example of offsetting tube from steelwork is shown below:

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When the offset handle (the symbol) appears near the pointer, the offset is performed by moving the pointer over the sphere corresponding to the side of the feature you want to offset. (In the example above the pointer would be moved over the top sphere.) Note the feedback giving the position where the current selection is to be positioned relative to the steelwork Beam. See Feedback for more details of feedback. It is possible to cycle through the derived positions, i.e. either side offset and back to the original centreline position, in a similar manner to that for cycling through the intersection with a plane. Subsequent feature identification within the same drag uses the last selected offset mechanism where possible, i.e. if the last position was offset behind a plane, subsequent identifications will also be offset behind the plane.

5.7.6

Nudging the Handle


Once a drag has been started using the left- or right-hand mouse button, you can finely adjust the positioning of the handle using hotkeys. You can nudge the manipulation handle when dragging in a linear direction, using the arrow keys on the numeric keypad (or the numeric keypad 2 and 8 keys when Num Lock is off. When defining a route you may need to nudge the position of the handle by the default linear increment for major positioning, and a fine value for accurate positioning, e.g. clearance from surfaces. To facilitate this a fine nudge setting is available, where the granularity of the movement is less than that of the current linear increments. Linear increments are controlled from the Set Increments window. Similar to the nudging using the + and - hotkeys, the fine adjustment uses the 2 and 8 keys on the numeric keypad. Once a nudge has been performed, then dragging has no effect, but the mouse button must still be held down. Where a nudge is applied to a position which is not derived from a snap to feature, then the offset value will be either positive or negative in the direction of movement. With a position that has been derived by the intersection of the route line and a feature, the nudge will offset the solution plane to derive a new position. This allows you to position a leg behind or in front of a feature, and then apply a clearance.

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5.7.7

Cardinal Direction Handles


These handles allow you to select quickly one of the cardinal directions for defining the next leg of the route. The Extend Route Handle will not be enabled until you select a cardinal direction with either the left- or right-hand mouse button. The same popup menu is available from a cardinal direction handle as is available from the Extend Route handle itself.

5.7.8

Free Rotation Handles


The free rotation handles allow you to rotate interactively the Extend Route Handle about the vertical axis and from the horizontal plane.

Dragging The rotation handle can be dragged using either the left- or right-hand mouse button, and allows a full 360 rotation about the relevant axis of rotation. On dragging either of the Free Rotation Handles, feedback is given showing the direction of the Extend Handle (see below).

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If no special actions (e.g. feature highlighting) are active, the handle rotates in multiples of the currently defined angular increments. Dragging the handles with the right-hand mouse button is the same as using the left-hand button, but you are presented with a pop-up menu giving the available options which relate to the drag. Selecting a Free Rotation Handle using the right-hand mouse button presents you with a context sensitive menu which relates to the direction and rotation of the handle, see Popup Menus on the QPR Handle. Feature Highlighting When performing a free rotate, if feature highlighting (see Feature Highlighting) is active, but no feature is identified, the rotation uses the currently defined angular increment value. When a feature is identified, the handle is aligned in the appropriate manner, dependent on the feature identified. Nudging the Handle You can adjust the Handle by a derived angular offset using the currently defined angular increment using the + and - hotkeys for the rotation handle. As with moving, if a direction is derived from an alignment with a feature, using the nudge increments the rotation from the derived direction.

5.7.9

Direction and Rotation Characteristics


Note: All modifications to the length or direction of a route leg can be undone or redone using the UNDO/REDO buttons. Changes which modify the direction of the handle cannot be undone/redone. Extend Route Handle You can position the change in direction freely, relatively or by using other elements in the model to derive a position. The following are the various methods by which you can position the change in direction, other than by freehand dragging of the handle, which is the default method of positioning the handle. Explicit Offsets There two methods of performing a relative offset of the routing handle: Specifying a leg length Offsetting from the previous position of the handle

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These options are accessed from the popup menu on the handle, see Popup Menus on the QPR Handle. In each case you are presented with a window which allows you to enter an appropriate length; you can also preview the effect of the specified value before committing the change. All offset distances are along the routing vector. Leg Length This method allows you to position the change in direction by specifying the length of the route leg. A negative value positions the change in direction in the opposite direction to that of the extend arrow.

Offset This method allows you to position the change in direction by a distance that the handle is to be offset from its current position.

Distance from Origin This method allows you to position the change in direction by a distance that the handle is to be offset from the position of the previous component in the leg.

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Feature Highlighting Feature highlighting allows you to position the handle using other elements within the model. Feature highlighting options are available from the shortcut menu on the handle and from the hotkeys, see Popup Menus on the QPR Handle and Hotkeys respectively. All positions projected onto the routing vector are derived from a constructed plane. By default the derived plane will be vertical or horizontal dependent on the approach routing vector. However, it is possible to cycle through derived solutions using the (Shift) hotkey, see Hotkeys. Offset by OD of Type By default when a feature is selected, the derived position is taken to be that of the centreline of the tube. You can modify the derived position of the change in direction by the OD of the tube, including insulation. This offset will be applied normal to the solution plane that is currently active. It is possible to cycle through the three possible solution planes for the offset, i.e. in front, behind or through the relevant solution plane using the O hotkey.

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Orient to Feature It is possible to direct the route extension handle to an identified feature. This is selectable from an option on the popup menu available on the handle, see Popup Menus on the QPR Handle.

The way in which the extension handle is oriented depends on the feature identified. Identification of a point feature directs the extension handle directly to the identified point feature.

Identification of a linear feature rotates the Extension Handle about the vertical axis of the Routing Handle (maintaining the angle from the horizontal) and directing the Extension Handle at a projected point on the projected linear feature.

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Where it is not possible to derive a direction from the identified feature, or the feature produces a 180 change in direction, then the feature is not displayed. Alignment with Feature It is possible to direct the Route Extension Handle so that it is parallel with an identified linear feature, using the Align with Direction popup menu option on the handle. It is possible to toggle (using the Shift key) between the initial derived direction of the identified feature and the opposite direction.

It is not possible to select a direction which is directly opposite to the leg preceding the Routing Handle, i.e. 180 changes in direction are not possible. When identifying a Branch leg, whether the one being defined or in another Pipe, then the default direction is the flow direction of the Pipe. Explicit Direction The direction of the Extension Handle can be set to an explicit direction, using the Explicit Direction popup menu option on the handle. The Enter Direction For <direction> Axis window is displayed which allows you to specify the direction with respect to the current frame of reference.

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It is not possible to specify a direction which is opposite to that of the leg preceding the routing handle. Complete When using the right-hand mouse button to identify a feature, if the End Route Handle is identified as a linear feature, you are given the option to complete the route. The End Route Handle can be interpreted as either a point or direction (linear feature). For this reason the option of completing the route is only available when the handle is identified as a linear feature.

Where the leg being extended and the End Route Handle physically intersect, the Complete option will create a leg between the derived position of the alignment and the end of route. When the leg being extended and the End Route Handle do not intersect, the Complete option will create two legs, one being the shortest distance between the extend route and end route vector, the other being from the End Route Handle and the mapped position on the end route vector.

Where the End Route Handle is directed into the last leg, then QPR aborts, as there is no illdefined pipe remaining in the route. If the End Route Handle points out of the last leg, you will remain in QPR. Connect Where an end of the route is undefined, you can designate an appropriate element as the point the end is to be connected to. There are two possible ways in which you can define a connection for the free end of a route, these are: Using the pointer - this allows you to identify a permissible connection without modifying the route. This is accessed by an option on the pop-up menu for the handle.

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Identifying an appropriate feature - as this requires you to make a decision once an appropriate feature has been identified, this option is only available when dragging the Extend Handle using the right-hand mouse button. A permissible connection is defined as an element that can have a Branch Head or Tail connected to it, and which does not have a connection already associated with it. When in feature highlighting mode, the permissible connections are the p-points of Components which are unconnected. If a p-point is already connected to, then it is handled as any other feature and the Connect option is not available. Where the pointer is being used to identify a Connection, you only need to identify elements which have a free Connection. The appropriate point on the element to which the Connection is to be made is automatically determined. However, where an element has more than one Connection, e.g. CROSS, PCOM, etc. the system either tries to determine the appropriate p-point from the pick or highlights the p-point which can be connected to. Rotation Handles

You can freely direct the Extend Route Handle about the vertical or horizontal using the Rotation Handles. The Rotation Handles have their own popup menus for direction, see Popup Menus on the QPR Handle. By default, dragging either handle rotates the Extend Route Handle about the appropriate axis by the currently defined Angular Increments. Feature Highlighting Where feature highlighting is active, then the derived direction for the Extend Route Handle is constrained about the appropriate axis of rotation. This means that when rotating using the vertical handle, the direction derived will be towards the identified feature, but the angle from the horizontal is maintained. When using the horizontal handle, the projected direction of the Extend Route Handle on the horizontal plane is maintained and the angle from the horizontal will be derived.

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5.7.10

Feedback

There are several types of feedback, which relate to the handles. These are: Highlighting - used to inform you which handle is beneath the pointer, which will be selected when picked. Its representation is a highlighted version of the dragging handle. Dragging - this uses a stylised version of the selected handle, adapting to variations on a theme depending on the position, state, etc. All routing handle sub-handles disappear while this handle is active Informational - when performing a drag, any alphanumeric information relating to the operation (for example, Leg length 500.0 above) is presented to you.

Extend Route Handle Highlighting Passing the pointer over the handle when not performing an action causes the pointer symbol to change and, the Extend Route Handle will highlight to differentiate it from the other components of the routing handle. In addition, the current direction of the handle will be displayed.

Dragging When dragging the handle, the system displays only the stylised handle. The Cardinal Direction and Free Rotation handles disappear. Once the handle is moved from its original position, then the offset from the original position is displayed adjacent to the handle. Where the original position necessitates a change in direction, the length of the leg will also be displayed.

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Where the original position does not result in a change in direction, or start of a Branch, then the length of the leg is shown half-way along the leg being extended.

Snapping When identifying a feature, the supplied feedback informs you of the type of solution plane and the derived position. Information Feedback In addition to the feedback of the feature identified and the distances moved, feedback is given to inform you of any extra information used to derive the position. Where a reference plane has been shown, the feedback informs you of the type of plane used, i.e. horizontal, vertical or normal along with any offset applied. The plane type is displayed as a text string at the mid-point between the pointer position on the feature and the derived position on the plane.

Where the plane is offset, the system gives a representation of the offset applied:

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Offsetting Planes On identifying a feature which displays a reference plane, an offset handle is displayed to enable you to modify the offset of the plane. The handle is shown at the pointer at the initial point on the feature when it is selected. The orientation of the handle is normal to the reference plane displayed, therefore if the type of plane is changed, e.g. from horizontal to vertical, then the handle is redisplayed at the pointer and in the correct orientation. Moving the cursor over the blob at the end of the handle offsets the plane to the relevant side of the original derived position. The highlighted feature and handle remain the same, but the plane will be offset to the correct position.

Losing focus on the handle, but returning to the original identified feature or moving over the joining line between the two blobs, will reposition the derived plane back to its original position. Cardinal Direction Handles Highlighting By default when the pointer passes over one of Cardinal Direction Handles when not performing an action, the cardinal direction is highlighted and the original Extend Route Handle disappears. Where the focus is lost from the handle, then the original Extend Route Handle will reappear.

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On selecting the cardinal direction, the Routing Handle changes to suit the selected direction.

Free Rotation Handles

Highlighting When you pass the pointer over one of the handles when not performing an action, the pointer changes and the handle is highlighted to show the rotation direction of the handle. The current direction of the handle is also displayed. Dragging When dragging the handle about the horizontal or vertical axes, only the Rotation Handle is displayed, all other handles are removed.

5.7.11

Popup Menus on the QPR Handle


Extend Handle Before Drag The following options are available on the Extend Handle before a drag.

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Menu available where both ends of the ill defined route are well defined:

Option Enter Offset Enter Leg Length

Description Gives a window which lets you enter an offset from the current handles position in the current routing direction. Gives a window which lets you enter an absolute distance of the handle from the last previous change in the directions position. Displays a window which allows you to enter an absolute distance of the handle from the previous Components origin position. Allows you to identify features with which to align, along the current route direction. Directs the handle either directly to a point feature or rotates about the vertical axis, maintaining horizontal offset, when a linear feature is identified. Allows you to identify features with which the handle is to be aligned. Displays an input window which allows you to explicitly specify the direction of the handle. Allows you to select the type of Component that is created by the Routing Handle when a change in direction occurs. The Component can be set to either Elbows or Bends. Allows you to select how the Routing Handle displays distance feedback. This can be set to either Offset (offset from the previous handles position), Leg Length (distance of the handle from the last previous change in directions position), or From Origin (distance of the handle from the previous Components origin position).

Distance From Origin

Extend Through Feature Orient to Point

Align with Direction Explicit Direction Component Choice >

Distance Feedback >

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Option Show Rotation Handles Cancel

Description Allows you to show/hide the rotation handles. Returns the handle back to its original state before the drag

The following options are only available where the end being routed to is ill-defined, i.e. there is no End Route Handle displayed: Option Connect To Description Allows you to use the pointer to select an element which the route end can be connected to, e.g. unconnected Nozzles, Tees, etc.

On Completion of a Drag The following options are available on the Extend Handle on completion of a drag, i.e. when the secondary mouse button has been used to drag the handle. The following options are the defaults when no special actions are active: Option Extend Cancel Description Leaves the handle at the shown position Returns the handle back to its original state before the drag

The following options are available when in snap to feature mode and the end being routed to is ill-defined or unconnected and the identified feature is a connectable p-point of an item to which an end can be connected, e.g. a Nozzle with no connection reference set: Option Extend Connect Connect and Complete Cancel Description Leaves the handle at the shown position Leaves the handle at the shown position and connects the ill-defined end to the identified target. Establishes a connection to the identified item and completes the route and aborts the route mode when applicable, Returns the handle back to its original state before the drag

The following options are available when in snap to feature mode and the end being routed to is well-defined and the identified feature is the End Route Handle: Option Extend Complete Cancel Description Leaves the handle at the shown position Completes the route and aborts the routing mode when applicable. Returns the handle back to its original state before the drag

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Free Rotation Handle Before Drag The following options are available on the Free Rotate Handles before a drag.

Option Enter Value Orient to Point

Description Displays a window which allows you to enter an angle for the current Rotation Handle. Directs the handle either directly to a point feature or rotates about the vertical axis, maintaining horizontal offset, when a linear feature is identified. Allows you to identify features with which the handle is to be aligned. Gives a window which allows you to enter an explicit direction for the z-axis of the handle. Allows you to select the type of Component that is created by the Routing Handle when a change in direction occurs. The Component can be set to either Elbows or Bends. Allows you to select how the Routing Handle displays distance feedback. This can be set to either Offset (offset from the previous handles position), Leg Length (distance of the handle from the last previous change in directions position), or From Origin (distance of the handle from the previous Components origin position). Allows you to show/hide the rotation handles. Returns the handle back to its original state before the drag

Align with Direction Explicit Direction Component Choice

Distance Feedback

Show Rotation Handles Cancel On Completion of a Drag

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Option Rotate Cancel

Description Leaves the extend handle at the shown direction. Returns the handle back to its original state before the drag.

5.7.12

Hotkeys
The following hotkey options are available for Routing Handle manipulation options: Hotkey Esc Handle All All D F All Description Aborts the current operation in the correct manner. Cycles through derived directional alignments. Cycles through Offset/Leg Length/From Origin distance feedback options. (or

All and when in Model Toggle switch for feature highlighting Edit mode Selection>Feature Highlighting).

O P + -

Extend Route Extend Route All All Extend Route

Cycles through the offsets when aligning with feature highlighting. Cycles through the solutions for the derived position when aligning using feature highlighting. Increment linear offset or angular rotation by default increment setting. Decrement linear offset or angular rotation by default increment setting. Increment linear offset from current position by fine linear increment value. Decrement linear offset from current position by fine linear increment value.

Extend Route

Exercise continues: 142. Select Design>Equipment from the main menu. Add a third tank to the design using the same method as that used previously to create the first storage tank. The differences are that the Explicit Position window should look like this:

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And on the Create Nozzle window your input data should be: Name: Position: Tank-3-N1 West North Up Orientate P1 is: Height: W-X 300 1675 0 2750

Specification details too Your design should now look as shown:

143. You will now route a pipe between Nozzles Pump-1-DISCHARGE and Tank-3-N1. Select Design>Pipework from the main menu. 144. Using a similar process to that described previously, create a new pipe, called Pipe-2, between Nozzles Pump-1-DISCHARGE and Tank-3-N1, setting Pump-1-DISCHARGE as the Head and Tank-3-N1 as the tail:

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Note: The dotted line that represents the pipe route between the two nozzles. 145. Select in the Design Explorer the Branch you have just created and add a Flange and associated Gasket. 146. Enter the Model Editor and click anywhere on the dotted line that represents the pipe route for Pipe-2. When you select the line, you will see the Routing Access Handles displayed at either end of the route:

If you select the End Route Handle, then the handles will switch about.

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Note: If you have an ill defined end there will be no End Route Handle. 147. Right-click the West axis Quick Routing Handle at the Tail of the route and choose the Extend Through Feature option from the pop-up menu:

This allows you to select a Feature that defines the plane to which the pipe extends:

148. Click point P2 of the Flange. The system will extend the pipe to the defined plane and insert an Elbow with implied tubing attached:

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149. Viewing from a different angle, you will see that the pipe has extended exactly the right amount to bring it level with the nozzle on the pump:

150. Right-click the South axis of the Quick Routing Handle and choose the Extend Through Feature option from the pop-up menu. Click point P2 of the Flange. The system will extend the pipe to the defined point and insert an Elbow with implied tubing attached

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151. Right-click the Down axis of the Quick Routing Handle and choose the Extend Through Feature option from the pop-up menu. Click point P2 of the Flange. The system will extend the pipe to the defined point and insert an Elbow with implied tubing attached:

152. You can complete the route by adding a Flange to the Elbow nearest Tank-3 and ensuring the Skip Connected Comps checkbox on the Component Creation window is unchecked. When you have added the Flange, drag it to the Nozzle in the Model Editor. Your final design should look as shown:

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5.8

Deleting Pipe Routes


It is possible to select graphically contiguous components of the same pipe or branch by the first and last component of the range and then delete them in one operation. Exercise continues: 153. Click the Delete Range of Piping Components icon on the Pipework toolbar:

154. Select the first component in the range you want to delete:

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155. Select the last component on the range you want to delete. The system will highlight the components between the first and last ones and ask you to confirm you want them deleted:

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156. Click Yes and the system will delete the components you selected:

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Pipework Modification

Pipework Modification
This chapter shows how pipework components can be modified and the way in which pipes can be split.

6.1

Pipework Component Bore and Specification Modification


This utility provides facilities for you to modify the bore or specifications of one or all of the components in a pipe or branch. In addition to these modifications, the utility also allows the setting of insulation and tracing specs. The utility does not modify the branch or pipe specifications. The same Modify Components window is used for modifying both component specification and bore. To display the Modify Components window, in Design - Pipework Application navigate to the required pipe or one of its branches and select Modify>Pipe>Component bore/ Specification or Modify>Branch>Component bore/Specification from the main menu bar.

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6.1.1

Modify Components Window

The Modify Component window is a multi function window able to change both specifications and bores. When it first shown, the window contents are based on the contents of the current branch or pipe depending on which was selected from the menu. Component List tab - with this selected the following are available: Current Element button - allows you to move to another pipe or branch and select its contents instead. Select from graphics button - accepts a group of components selected graphically and highlights them in the Component List.

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Insulation Spec check box - checking shows the insulation settings in a separate column on the window. Tracing Spec check box - checking shows the tracing settings in a separate column on the window. The scrollable list panel has the following columns: Design Element Component Description ABORE LBORE PBORE Spec Component New Spec Component New Component Description - The components in the selected branch or pipe - A description of the component - The bore at the p-point where the flow enters the component - The bore at the p-point where the flow leaves the component - The bore at any of the p-points regardless of the flow direction - Current specification of the component - New specification of the component - A description of the new component

Apply changes to like components check box - checking applies one component change to all like instances in the Component List.

6.1.2

Component Selection
A series of components can be selected graphically using the fencing selection method. Clicking Select from graphics accepts the selection and highlights the components in the Component List.

Components can be added or removed by holding down the Control key and graphically selecting or deselecting individual elements.

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Modification Options The options available are accessed by right clicking over a selected field to display a pop-up menu. In each case the modify option applies only to the selected list highlighted on the window.

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The options are: Modify Specification Modify Bore Modify Insulation Spec Modify Tracing Spec Choose component Select All - Modifies the specification of the components selected in the list - Modifies the bore of the components selected in the list - Modifies the insulation specification of the components selected in the list - Modifies the tracing specification of the components selected in the list - Allows you to choose an equivalent component where the modification process fails to offer a component complying with the new specification or bore - Selects all of the components in the list

Clear New Specifications Section Selected - Deselects all the new specifications that have been selected for only the components that are selected in the component list. - Deselects all the new specifications that have been selected for all components.

All

6.1.3

Modifying Component Specification


To modify the specification of a set of components, the Modify Specification option is selected from the pop-up menu. The Select Piping Spec window displays, prompting the user with a drop-down list of available specifications.

Note: Normally any items which are not in the same spec as the current branch are ignored by this process. This allows for items such as pipe supports and special components to remain untouched. Change out of spec components? check box - checking forces the selection process to look at all components regardless of their original specification. A new specification (e.g. A300) is selected from the drop-down list and clicking OK actions the search process to find equivalent components in the selected specification. The Component List is refreshed to show the new components.

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At this point the window only contains a suggestion of what the new components will be and it does not make any changes to the design.

Any items which could not be found in the new specification are listed as having No selection available and will not be changed if the other changes are applied. A selection summary panel is displayed at the bottom of the window to show the results of the specification selection process.

In the component list the components that are selected will be highlighted appropriately. The components with a selection available and with no selection available will be highlighted using the colour scheme which is defined in the highlighting tab, described in Choosing a Component.

The Select Piping Spec window has an option on it for resetting the pipe and branch specs. The user can select from the Pipe/Branch Reset drop-down menu one of the following options.

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Components Only Pipes and Branches Branches

When the component specs are changed nothing is changed at branch or pipe level. The pipe and all of its branches will have their pipe spec changed to the selected specification. Changes all of the branch specs if the window was shown in Modify Pipe mode or just the selected branch if it was shown in Modify Branch mode. The pipe spec will remain unchanged.

6.1.4

Error Messages
With the Error Messages tab selected, the Modify Components window lists the component selected for modification which produce an error in the selection process. When the selection process takes place, each selected item is scanned to find an equivalent in the new specification. Where an item cannot be found, an error is indicated with a description in the error list. An example is shown:

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6.1.5

Highlighting
With the highlighting tab selected, highlighting colour's used in the component list can be defined. Once a highlighting colour scheme has been defined this is restored upon re-entry into the application.

Note: The highlighting colour's defined in the image above are the defaults that are loaded if no highlighting scheme can be retrieved upon entering the pipework application. The coloured buttons on the window, when pressed will show the colour selection window. From this window the desired highlighting colour can be set, and once set the button will change to that colour and the highlighting will be changed in the component list.

Specific highlighting can also be turned on and off using the radial buttons next to each highlighting colour button. The Reset button will restore the highlighting colour's to that of the start of the session.

6.1.6

Choosing a Component
For items where no selection is available, you may opt to choose the component by rightclicking over the component field and selecting the corresponding option available from the pop-up menu.

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This displays the CHOOSE OPTION window as shown:

The Specs tab is selected first to set the new specification. The Components tab is then selected so that an equivalent item can be chosen from a scrollable list of suitable components.

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Clicking OK adds the selected equivalent component to the Component List on the Modify Components window. Once the selection is complete, click Apply changes the components for ones complying with the new specification. These component changes are shown in the graphical view. The before and after graphical views are as shown:

If the changes are unacceptable, the Undo button reverts back to the original design.

6.1.7

Multiple Component Changes


You may wish to apply one component change to all like instances in the list where no alternate selection is available. To do this the 'Apply changes to like components' check box should be checked. With this option applied component changes will automatically be applied to all elements in the list that have the same type as the one being changed via the above process.

6.1.8

Modifying Component Bore


To modify the bore of a set of components, navigate to the required pipe or branch and invoke the Modify Components window from the main menu bar as previously described. The window once again shows a Component List based on the selected pipe or branch.

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The components required for bore change are selected graphically, which highlights them in the Component List as before. The Modify Bore option is selected from the right-click popup menu to display the Select Bore window, with a drop-down list of available bore sizes.

The required bore is selected from the list and clicking OK populates the Component List with the new bore size.

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If the results are satisfactory, click Apply, accepts the changes. Selecting the Error Messages tab will display a list showing any anomalies and these can the be corrected by inserting or deleting reducers. If the above process results in some items having no selection available, you can opt to choose the component using the same method as in modifying the Component Specification. Selecting the Choose component option window the right-click pop-up menu displays the CHOOSE OPTION window as shown. Specs tab selected:

Components tab selected:

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6.1.9

Modifying Insulation and Tracing Specifications


The insulation and tracing settings are not shown on the window by default because they are not the most commonly used functions. To activate these and show the current values, the Insulation Spec and Tracing Spec check boxes need to be selected.

Here there is no insulation on the visible components so '-' is inserted in the list. When you wish to change an insulation or tracing specification, the appropriate option is chosen from the right-click pop-up menu. A list of available specs is shown in the displayed window and the required one is selected. Clicking OK automatically changes the spec and refreshes the Component List. In this case, there is no requirement to click the Apply button on the Modify Components window.

After clicking OK, the new Insulation spec list is as shown.

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6.2

Pipe Splitting
This utility allows pipes to be split at a defined point. Pipes may be split into segments within the same branch, new branches or new pipes. At split points, the system allows break components such as flanges sets, couplings etc to be inserted. Multiple pipes may be split on single plane. To display the Split Pipe window, in Design - Pipework Application select Utilities>Pipe Splitting. The split utility window displays as shown.

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6.2.1

Multiple Mode Splitting


Elements to Split

In multiple mode, the system allows the user to collect a group of pipes in the graphics window using a variety of methods. These methods are only available when the user wants to split a group of pipes using a plane.

Add CE Allows you to navigate to any element in the hierarchy and add it or any pipes underneath the current element to the splitting list. Add Selected Allows you to select a number of pipes in the graphical window by dragging a crossing window across the required pipes with the mouse cursor. The selected pipes are then added to the splitting list by click Add Selected. ID Selection This method is similar to the above method, however, you can dynamically update the list by picking any pipe component. To add pipes to the list, click ID Selection and then the mouse cursor used to identify pipes to add to the list. When you have finished selecting pipes to add, the escape button is clicked to end selection.

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Clear all Clicking this button empties the entire Elements to Split list. Modifying the Splitting List Individual pipes can be removed from the splitting list by clicking the right mouse button over an element to be removed from the list. This displays a Remove from list button.

Click Remove from list to remove the pipe from the splitting list. Split Pipe Options The next part of the window allows you to select what happens to the pipes when they are split.

There are three options: 1. Split pipes on a plane - split the pipe by inserting an assembly component at the plane intersection point 2. Split pipes into segments - split the pipe into a number of segments using user defined dimensions. The splitting is defined between two points that are selected by you, (selection of these points can be achieved by using either the feature picking or component picking option).

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3. Split pipe by moving Component - split the pipe at the split point and insert an assembly component at that point. The remaining components in the branch will then be added to a new branch Component Creation Options When splitting a pipe there are a number of options for specifying where new components are created.

Existing - components are inserted at the split position in the currently selected branch. New Pipe - Components are inserted into a new pipe in the hierarchy. New Bran - Components are inserted in a new branch under the current pipe hierarchy

6.2.2

Splitting Pipes with a Plane


Plane definition

Having decided how to deal with the split, the next phase is to create a split plane by clicking Create Plane. The first prompt is to identify the leg of any of the pipes to be split in the direction of the split. This determines the direction of all of the other pipes cutting the plane. The next prompt is to build the plane itself using the graphical interaction control to define the plane. All the standard pick operations are available, including Graphics to pick a surface, or intersections to define the intersection points of two objects or lines. The following example uses the intersection of two steelwork members.

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By default the plane is shown as a wireline representation centred around the defined plane origin. To enable you to visualise the plane better, it can be increased in size and filled using the Plane Size and Fill options. In the example below, the plane is increased in size and filled.

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After the plane has been defined it may be adjusted so that it is in front or behind the derived position by a given distance. The options are shown:

In the example, the plane is moved in front of the original position by a distance of 500mm.

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Filter Assemblies By The items used to split the pipe are selected from the assembly list. In the example, only one is available so when the split is performed, a flange set will be added at the split point.

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Assembly Build Origin The final option available for plane splitting is the assembly build point; you need to determine whether to build to the primary or secondary origin of the assembly.

The primary and secondary origin points allow some control over where the assembly is positioned relative to the splitting point. One of the most common types of assembly is likely to be a set of break flanges where the relevant points for positioning the assembly are on either flange face. In this case the primary origin point would be defined as the leave point (upstream flange face) and the secondary origin would be defined as being the arrive point (downstream flange face). A representation of the splitting procedure is as shown:

Further information on Assembly creation and usage is provided in Piping Assemblies. Applying Splits When a suitable plane has been created, you are free to start the pipe splitting process. There are two ways pipes can be split. These are as follows.

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Using the List of Defined Elements

When there is a defined list of pipes, clicking the Split button splits the pipes. At this point you are prompted to confirm if the split points are acceptable and the changes can be accepted or rejected. If rejected, the process is restarted.

The resulting split is shown:

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ID Splitting You can also split pipes using a defined plane by directly picking pipes using the mouse cursor. To do this click the ID Split button and then use the mouse cursor to select pipes that will be split relative to the existing plane. The Undo button enables you to undo any changes that have been made to the model.

6.2.3

Single Mode Splitting


In addition splitting on a plane, a single branch may be split into segments of a given length. This option is selected in the Split Pipe Options panel and allows splitting to be done by either Component picking or Feature picking. As a result of this, the branch list is greyed out and Plane definition panel is replaced by the Split Pipe Length panel as shown:

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Split Pipe Length This option allows pipes to be split into segments of a particular length between selected components or selected features that are adjacent to the pipe. Again the split is made by inserting split components into the branch. In this case, the downstream components at each split may be inserted into the existing branch, a new branch or a new pipe depending on the Move down-stream components to setting. If a new branch or pipe is requested, the new items are given a default name based on the pipe name. Minimum Final Tube Length - restricts the length of the final tube to the final length value. If the final tube length is below this value, the previous spools are adjusted to make the final length within its tolerance.

6.2.4

Component Picking

To make a split, enter the required split length and then click Split. You are then prompted to select a start and end component between which the pipe will be split. In the above pipe, the start and end flanges are selected. The result is shown:

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Accepting the splitting arrangement results in flanges being inserted at the split points as shown:

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The split length is defined as tube length (Segment Length) or spool length (Cut-pipe Length) so in this case, it is either the length from face to face of the flanges or the tube length between flanges. Tube length around bends and elbows is calculated as the centreline length.

6.2.5

Feature Picking
Feature picking is very similar to component picking except the start and end points of the splitting operation can be determined by reference to other parts of the model such as structural steelwork. The user starts the splitting process in the same manner as for component picking.

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In this example splitting is to be done between the connecting flange from the mounted equipment to the neutral axis of steelwork A. The process is started by clicking Split at the bottom of the Split Pipe window, you are then prompted to pick the branch that the splitting will be applied to. A feature or component can be picked for either the start or end point of the splitting. In this case the connecting flange on the equipment is picked.

This displays the starting point for the split and also gives an indication of current flow direction (it is possible to split from either end of a pipe). The end position to split to can now be picked. This will be a feature on steelwork A so this steelwork is identified by hovering the mouse cursor over it and pressing (and holding) the mouse button.

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It will be noticed that the display of the steelwork has changed to show the individual Plines that make up the profile shape of the member being selected. The neutral axis has been chosen for this piece and the selection is displayed in the upper left corner of the window above. Releasing the mouse button finalises the selection. The splitting function will now prompt you to select the piece of tubing that the end point will intersect with. (In this case it is the horizontal section of tube that passes steelwork A)

The function will now insert an assembly at the intersection between the selected feature on the steelwork and the selected tube and will continue to split between the start and end point as per the component splitting method.

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Checking and Outputting Design Data

Checking and Outputting Design Data


In this chapter you will learn about: methods of checking for errors and inconsistencies in the pipework layout checking for clashes (spatial interferences) between design elements how to output a design data report derived from the piping model how to generate an isometric plot.

Note: These facilities are available from all DESIGN applications, so you can readily check and output data from any combination of DESIGN disciplines.

7.1

Checking for Design Data Inconsistencies


The Data Consistency Checking Utility reports the following types of occurrence (and other similar errors) in the design:

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7.1.1

Design Tolerances
The misalignment between adjacent components can be measured using any of three parameters: the offset distance between their p-arrive and p-leave axes the displacement angle between their p-arrive and p-leave axes the ratio of the offset to the projected distance between the p-arrive and p-leave ppoints (equivalent to the tangent of the angle parameter).

p-arrive connecting tube ANGLE p-leave y RATIO = x/y = tan(ANGLE)

x = OFFSET

You can specify maximum permissible values for any of these parameters, as well as minimum acceptable lengths of tube between components. (You can specify different minimum lengths for different bores if you wish.) If any part of the design falls outside the current limits, an error message will be displayed. Exercise continues: 153. To check your design for data consistency errors, select Utilities>Data Consistency. The Data Consistency Check window displays as shown.

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154. View the default values for piping design tolerance settings by clicking Parameters: Piping to display the Piping Consistency Check Options window. You will use the default values for all piping design tolerance settings, so have a look at them then Cancel the window. 155. You can send the error report either to your screen or to a file. You will view it on screen, so select Output: Screen. 156. The Check list lets you specify how much of the design model you want to check in a single operation. You will check each branch separately, so select Branch from the list. 157. Navigate to the branch /Pipe-1/B1 and click Apply to initiate the data checking process. The resulting diagnosis is shown in the scrollable text area at the bottom of the window. There may be messages about unknown SKEYs, but ignore these. 158. Repeat the check as described for branch /Pipe-1/B2. The result overwrites the preceding report. It is good practice to run a data consistency check whenever you have created or modified any significant amount of the design, typically before you choose Design>Save Work.

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It is particularly important for your design to be free from data consistency errors before you generate isometric plots for fabrication and/or erection purposes, otherwise you could get some very confusing results.

7.2

Checking for Clashes


The types of clash identified depend on two factors: The obstruction levels of the clashing elements The current touch and clearance tolerances

7.2.1

Obstruction Levels
All design primitives and all catalogue primitives have an obstruction attribute (OBST) which defines the physical type of obstruction which the primitive represents: A hard obstruction (OBST=2) represents a rigid and impenetrable object, such as a steel beam. A soft obstruction (OBST=1) represents a volume which is not solid but which needs to be kept clear for access. Any primitive with OBST=0 represents a freely accessible volume and is ignored for clash checking purposes.

7.2.2

Extent of Clashing
As well as distinguishing between hard and soft clashing items, the checking utility recognises three categories of clash between them, depending on how far the two primitives intrude on each others allocated space. These categories are: A physical clash: the primitive volumes overlap by more than a specified amount. This usually means that a definite interference exists. A touch: the primitives either overlap by less than the amount needed to cause a clash or are separated at their closest point by less than a specified distance. This may simply mean that one item is resting upon another as intended, or it may indicate a problem. A clearance: the primitives are separated at their closest point by more than the amount necessary to constitute a touch but less than a specified clearance distance. This represents a near miss, which you may want to investigate. Touch limits: 5mm overlap to 2mm gap Clearance limit: 8mm If the items overlap by more than 5mm, a clash is reported If the items overlap by less than 5mm, a touch is reported If the items do not overlap but are separated by less than 2mm, a touch is reported If the items are separated by more than 2mm but less than 8mm, a clearance is reported If the items are separated by more than 8mm, no interference is found

These three classes are illustrated below for the clash specifications:

so that the following criteria apply:

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overlap > 5mm a physical clash

overlap < 5mm

gap < 2mm touches

2mm < gap < 8mm a clearance

7.2.3

Clash Detection Process


Each element which is to be checked for clashes has its own geometry checked against that of all other elements which are specified by a current obstruction list. Items which are not in the obstruction list are ignored during the clash checking operations. By default, the obstruction list includes all elements in the database, so that each element to be clash checked is tested against every other element. To control the amount of checking carried out in a large database, you can restrict the obstruction list to a few specific elements and/or you can specify a 3D volume (the clash limits) within which the clash checking is to be confined. To highlight the locations where clashes are found, the clashing and obstruction items are shown in contrasting colours in the graphical view (two shades of red, by default). Exercise continues: 159. Use the default values for all clash checking settings. To see what these are, select Settings>Clasher>Defaults to display the Clash Defaults window. Think about the meaning of each setting shown (refer to the preceding introduction); then Cancel the window. 160. Check all of your piping components (that is, the whole of /PIPEZONE) for clashes against the three equipment items (in /EQUIZONE). The default obstruction list (all elements in the current DESIGN database) includes both piping and equipment items (/ PIPESITE). To edit this, select Settings>Clasher> Obstruction>List. This displays the Add/Remove Obstruction Items window. Remove all current entries and then Add the equipment zone. Select All in the Obstruction List and click Remove Select EQUIZONE in the hierarchy and click Add To close the window select Control>Close

161. Navigate to the piping zone which you want to check and select Utilities>Clashes. The Clash Display window appears. The left-hand side of this window controls the clash checking process; the right-hand side consists of a 3D view in which you can look in detail at any clashes diagnosed. Select Control>Check CE from the window menu bar to run the clash checking process and, when completed, study the Clash List which shows any clashes found. In your case this should simply say None. Note: If Auto Clash (in the main toolbar) is in the On state, each new element that you create is checked immediately for clashes as the design is built up. This can slow down progress when you are adding many new elements, but is very useful when you want to add a few new items to an existing design which has already been checked for clashes.

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7.3

Generating a Data Output Report


The reporting utility lets you read selected information from the database and present the output in a tabulated format. Each report can be customised by specifying some or all of the following: Where the output is to appear (on the screen or in a file ready for printing). Any introductory header which is to appear at the beginning of the report. The page length (if the report is to be paginated). The page layout, including number and positions of columns, column headings, etc. Any headers and footers which are to appear at the top and bottom of each page. The selection criteria which define which data settings are to be included in the report. Once such a report has been designed, its specification can be saved for future use in the window of a report template file. The ways in which you define how a given report is to be generated and presented are beyond the scope of this exercise, but you will look at the results of the process by using a pre-prepared template which outputs a material take-off list showing the length of tube needed to build your design. (You will probably use your company standard templates for most reports anyway, in which case this is the method you would normally use in practice.)

Exercise continues: 162. Select Utilities>Reports>Run to initiate the reporting process. This displays File Browser listing all files in the current reporting directory (specified by your System Administrator as part of the project set-up procedure). 163. Navigate to the \REPORTS\TEMPLATES directory by clicking on it in the Subdirectories window. All files with a .tmp suffix are report templates. 164. Select pipe_mto.tmp, which has been designed to produce a material take-off report listing all components, including tubing, in the piping design. 165. Click OK on the File Browser. The Report Details window that displays requires you to specify: where the report is to appear what part of the database hierarchy is to be read when extracting the required types of data. Leave the Filename text box empty (this sends the report automatically to the screen). In the Hierarchy text box, enter /PIPESITE (this lists the tubing requirement for the whole of the piping design model). Click OK to run the report. A tabulated report output is displayed in a Command Output window which is opened automatically.

166. Complete the Report Details window as follows:

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This report shows the number of each type of component used in the design and the total length of tube needed to interconnect them. (Do not worry if part of the heading seems inappropriate for your project; this wording is written into the template simply as an example of the type of heading which you might want to use.)

7.4

Generating Isometric Plots


The isometric plotting module of PDMS provides very powerful facilities for generating any specified isometric view of all or part of the pipework design, with associated parts lists and annotation, with a very high degree of user control over the output format. You will use just a small part of this power to produce a plot of your design using the default settings only. Note: Before you proceed further, you must have carried out the data consistency checks specified previously and achieved an error-free report. Exercise continues: 167. To change to the isometric plotting Design>Modules>Isodraft>Macro Files. module (called ISODRAFT) , select

Click YES to confirm that the database is to be updated to save any design changes; ISODRAFT then loads and the screen changes to show the ISODRAFT menu bar, an Explorer window and an empty 2D View window.

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This menu bar gives you access to a wide range of facilities for generating customised isometric plots to suit all likely purposes. For the purposes of this exercise, you will simply generate a standard isometric for the whole pipe (i.e. both branches) using default settings for all options. 168. Navigate to /Pipe-1 in the Explorer and then select Isometrics>Standard. The Standard Isometric window displays which lets you specify which parts of the piping design are to be detailed in the plot and which of the standard drawing formats is to be used. Select Standard iso option: BASIC.MET.

169. Click Apply to initiate the isometric plotting process.

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The status bar displays the message Please wait, detailing in progress while the isometric view is composed, the dimensioning annotations are calculated, and the material take-off report is compiled. On a large model this could take a few minutes, but with your very simple model it should take only seconds. When processing is complete, the following new windows are displayed: Isodraft Messages shows a log of the detailing process, including reports of any potential problems encountered:

Display List shows all isometric plots which have been created so far and which are available for display. In your case there is only one, so it is selected for display automatically, thus:

Display Isometric consists of a 2D graphical view showing the plot currently selected in the Display List. The current display should look like this:

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The same data is also sent automatically to a file in your current operating system directory, ready to be sent to a plotter if a hardcopy version is required. Such files are named by default with a sequential number of the format plot00x, where x is incremented from 1 in this case plot001 170. Using the same standard layout, generate separate isometric plots for each of the branches /Pipe-1/B1 and /Pipe-1/B2. Compare the information on each of these with the overall plot of /Pipe-1. Note: Printed plots of all three isometrics are in Sample Plots.

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Automatic Pipe Routing

8
8.1
8.1.1

Automatic Pipe Routing


Automatic Pipe Routing using Pipe Router
Introduction
Pipe Router is a rule-based tool which enables you to route pipe networks automatically and to position piping components. Before you can start to use the Pipe Router, you must create the Pipes you need, and connect or position their Heads and Tails. Pipe Router begins routing from the head of a pipe and ends the route at the pipes tail. The flow direction is always forwards (from Head to Tail). When you route a pipe, Pipe Router will automatically: Create clash-free orthogonal routes which use the minimum length of pipe and as few elbows and bends as possible. You can include non-orthogonal sections of pipe manually. Add elbows, reducers, flanges, gaskets and welds, providing they are available in the catalogue. Position piping components such as valves.

Work-points When you add a pipe to Pipe Router, it is given a head and tail work-point. These are the points where a route begins and ends. Pipe Router positions work-points at a distance from the branch head or tail which allows for any connection components that are required. For example, if the head of a branch is a flanged nozzle, then Pipe Router will automatically add a gasket and a flange. Pipe Router will then begin routing the pipe from the end of the flange, as shown in Figure 8:1.: Example of a work-point.

e a b u T e f d i i n c e p s e f i d Oe C O l b a t Wr p k o n o i t o Wn r i o p k

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Figure 8:1.

Example of a work-point

How Pipe Router Finds a Route The Pipe Router creates a route using an algorithm which minimises material cost while avoiding clashes with other objects. The algorithm has three modes of operation, described as Level 1, Level 2 and Level 3 modes. Pipe Router first searches for a route using Level 1 mode. If no clash-free Level 1 route is found, a search is made using Level 2 mode, and if no Level 2 route is found Level 3 mode is used. The details of the three levels are explained in the following sections. Level One Mode In level one mode, Pipe Router searches for an orthogonal route between the head and tail work-points of a pipe, using the minimum number of bends or elbows. Figure 8:2.: Level One routes shows examples of the routes available in level one mode.

Box 1 The default route is ABC, as this requires only two bends. If this route is blocked, Pipe Router will try route ADE which uses three bends.
D A

PT

E C PH

Box 2 If Pipe Router cannot find a route using the routes shown on box one, it will attempt the routes shown on box two, where route ABC uses three bends, and ADE uses four bends.

E D

T P

C A PH

E D

PT

C A PH

Box 3 Finally, if it is still unsuccessful in finding a route, Pipe Router will attempt the routes shown on box three, where both routes use four bends.

E C

PT

A PH

Figure 8:2.

Level One routes

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Figure 8:3.: Example of a Level One route shows a level one route in which the head workpoint is facing up.

Figure 8:3.

Example of a Level One route

Level Two Mode If all first level routes are blocked, Pipe Router will attempt to find second level routes. In second level mode, Pipe Router will withdraw the route into the box by a distance which enables the pipe to bypass the obstruction. Pipe Router then attempts the same routing patterns as those used in level one mode. An example of a level two route is shown.

Figure 8:4.

Example of a Level Two route

Level Three Mode If Pipe Router cannot find a clash-free route using first and second level routes, it will attempt to find a third level route. In third level mode, Pipe Router extends the box outwards until it bypasses the obstruction and then attempts to route the pipe using level one routing principles. An example of a level three route is shown in Figure 8:5.: Example of a Level Three route.

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Blocked vector is moved outwards to bypass the obstruction

Figure 8:5.

Example of a Level Three route

Adding Components to a Route Once Pipe Router has worked out a route, it constructs the Branch by adding whatever Elbows (or Bends) are needed. Note: To be efficient, Pipe Router imposes a low upper limit on the number of Elbows it will add to a Branch: it does not attempt to be a maze solver. You can specify components in a Branch before routing, for example by importing a P&ID file as described in Importing a P&ID File. You can also modify a routed Branch by adding other components, for example, Valves or Instruments, by selecting Modify>Branch and creating the components in the normal way. Only the principal piping components need to be added. Pipe Router will add Flanges, Gaskets, lap joint stub ends and Welds as necessary, using the COCO (Connection Compatibility) tables to create the correct types. Components can be locked into a given position, in which case they will not be moved, even if the Branch is re-routed. See Locked Components for more information about using locked components. If there are particular constraints that must be placed on a Branch, for example, passing through a given point or plane, then you must use one of the techniques described in Constraining a Route. Insertion of Reducers at Bore Changes Before Pipe Router positions any components on a Branch, it checks the Branch to see if it contains any components whose bore is different from the preceding component. If one is found, then by default the Pipe Router will select the first suitable Reducer that it finds in the catalogue, regardless of whether it is concentric or eccentric.

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You can set rules to specify whether concentric or eccentric Reducers are used. See Creating and Using Routing Points for information about routing rules. Note: Pipe Router treats bores as being equal if they are the same within 5mm. How Pipe Router Routes to Free Tails If a Branch has a free Tail, that is, if the Tail is not connected to another Branch or you have not specifically defined the Tail position, Pipe Router will automatically position the Tail once it has positioned all of the components in the Branch and applied all constraints. If this fails, for example, because there is a clash or a component positioning rule cannot be satisfied, then it will introduce an Elbow after the constraint, before the first component. Pipe Router will then position the elbow in a direction that results in a clash-free route, and which satisfies component positioning and orientation rules. If the Branch does not have any constraints, the position of the Tail depends on the position and orientation of the Branch Head. Often, this may be a Tee. Tee positioning is explained in the next section. Tail direction: Note that the TDIR attribute for a free tail is never set if the last constraint is a plane or a rack. In all other cases, TDIR is taken from the direction of the last component. How the Pipe Router Positions Tees Pipe Router checks each Branch for connections to other Branches, that is it looks for Tees or other components which have a CREF or CRFA attribute set. If the Branch which connects to the Tee has a free Tail, then the Tee is treated the same as any other component. In all other cases, the Tee will influence the route taken by the original Branch. In general, Pipe Router will select the closest route to any constraints in the connecting Branch. If there are none, then it will select the route closest to the other end of the connecting Branch. Tees which can be balanced will then be positioned. See Balanced Tees. Where a Branch contains more than one Tee, the first Tee in the Branch will influence the route taken. Pipe Router will position any subsequent Tees as close as possible to the next constraint, or the other end of the connecting branch.

You can control the position of a Tee by locking it in position, or by constraining the route, using a routing point. Routing points are described in Creating and Using Routing Points. Balanced Tees Pipe Router will try to position a Tee to achieve balanced flow. The Tee must be symmetric about a plane through P-arrive. The Pipe Router will change the arrive p-point to achieve this if the bores on the p-points are equal. It will then check the leave-bore and connect-bore. If the bores are equal then Pipe Router will assume that the Tee is T-shaped.

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Branch B1

P1

P2

Branch B2

P3 = PA Branch B1

The Tail directions of /B1 and /B2 must either be equal and not in the axial direction between the Tail positions of the branches or opposite and in the axial direction between the Tail positions of the branches:

There must be no locked components on branch /B2, nor any after the Tee on branch / B1. If there are multiway components in the Branches after the Tee, the Branches connected to them: Must have equivalent lists of component specifications, Must be unconstrained Must have free tails

The Tail positions of /B1 and /B2 must be equal in two of the three orthogonal coordinates:

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The specifications of the positionable components after the Tee on /B1 must be the same as the specifications of the components on branch /B2.

The Tee will be positioned so that: The Tee is clash-free There is enough room for all components between the Tee and the end of the Branch This position does not result in a route to the Tee with an elbow close to the Tee.

If any of these conditions are not satisfied, Pipe Router will try moving the Tee back along the arrive direction (or forward along the leave direction).

Covered Nozzles When the Pipe Router is routing a Branch there may be several others waiting to be routed. The best route for the current Branch may take the Pipe straight in front of other Nozzles. This is most likely to happen when routing from a line of Vessels. It can be avoided by:

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Changing the order for routing Pipes, see Changing the Order in which Pipes are Routed. Ensuring that the Nozzles or Equipment owning them have obstruction volumes extending beyond their Nozzles. This prevents other Pipes crossing in front of the Nozzle. The Branch connected to the Nozzle will ignore this clash and successfully route onto the Nozzle.

Note: The obstruction volumes should be defined in the Catalogue: defining them in DESIGN may result in less satisfactory routes. Constraining a Route Except in very simple cases, you will probably find that you need to give Pipe Router more information about the route required to achieve a satisfactory route. You can constrain a route using the following: Locked components Routing Points Routing Rules Routing Planes Pipe Racks

These constraints are described briefly in the following sections, and described in detail in later sections. Locked Components A locked component is a component whose position has been fixed before routing takes place. Pipe Router will route the Branch through the component. Locked components can be used to manually modify the route taken. In cluttered areas, Pipe Router may not be able to find a clash-free route, in which case it will put in the simplest clashing route and inform you about the clash. You will then need to modify the route to obtain a clash-free route, by moving components away from clashes, locking them and re-routing. Both principal Piping components and Router-created components (for example, Elbows), can be moved and locked. Routing Rules One of the principal features of Pipe Router is its built-in rule engine. You can use routing rules to control the selection, position and orientation of piping components, and to control how pipes use routing planes and pipe racks. For further information about using Rules, see Using Routing Rules. For information about creating your own rules, see Automatic Pipe Routing Administration. Routing Points Routing Points are points through which a pipe must pass. You can specify the position of a routing point, and the direction in which a pipe arrives at and leaves a routing point. For further information, see Creating and Using Routing Points. Routing Planes Routing planes are orthogonal planes which attract pipes to them and then guide the pipes in the direction of the plane. Routing planes are useful, for example, where you want to

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group pipes together, perhaps along a wall or ceiling. For further information, see Creating and Using Routing Planes. Pipe Racks In Pipe Router, a pipe rack is composed of a group of routing planes which enables you to model the route used on a physical pipe rack. There are two ways in which you can create a pipe rack. You can create pipe racks on existing steelwork structures or model them simply as a group of planes. You may find the second method useful when you are working on a conceptual design and do not want to spend time creating steelwork structures. Once you have created a pipe rack, you can use routing rule to specify how different sorts of pipe run on the rack. For further information, see Creating and Using Pipe Racks. Before You Start Using Pipe Router Before you start using Pipe Router with one of your own projects, you will need to perform the following tasks: Set up the Catalogues and Specifications you want to use. Ensure that you have specified which components you want Pipe Router to choose by default. You must specify the default bends and elbows. You must have default Leaveside Tubes (LSTU). Define any obstruction volume required to avoid covered Nozzles, see Covered Nozzles. Caution: Do not use design parameters for components that Pipe Router automatically creates, for example, bends and elbows. Set up routing rules. For further information, see Automatic Pipe Routing Administration. Define all the equipment and other obstructions used in your design, If you are going to allow for flanges when packing Pipes on routing planes and Pipe Racks, you must ensure that there is a default Flange set in the catalogue, as the width of the default Flange will be used in calculating the spacing. Create the Branches, without any components added, which you are going to route. Alternatively, you can load a P&ID file from within Pipe Router. For information about importing P&ID files into Pipe Router, see Importing a P&ID File.

Branches and Component Attributes Before you can use Pipe Router, you must ensure that the following are set. Define the starting position of each Branch you are going to route, either by connecting it or by setting the Head position, orientation and bore. You will usually want to define where the Branch is going to, either by connecting the Tail, or by setting the Tail position, direction and bore. You can route to a free tail, but the Tail bore must be set. If the Branch contains components, these must be selected.

8.1.2

Basic Routing
In this section, you will learn how to: define the head and tail of pipes route the pipes using Pipe Router.

The tutorials use the sample project SAM supplied with AVEVA PDMS.

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Starting to Use PDMS Router Exercise begins: 1. For the purpose of running the tutorials in this section of the guide, login to AVEVA PDMS as follows: 2. 3. Project: Username: Password: MDB: Module: enter SAM enter PIPE enter PIPE enter PIPE select Design

Enter DESIGN, and select the Pipework application. When you are prompted to select a piping specification, select A1A. Go to the Site /ROUTERSITE, and add the Zones to the Drawlist. You are going to route Pipes between the Equipment at the South-West corner of the Site, that is the Pumps PMP-1 and PMP-2, and vessels VESS-1 and VESS-2. To access Pipe Router select Utilities>Pipe Router, to display the Pipe Router window:

4.

Pipe Router Defaults Pipe Router is supplied with defaults which you can change if you wish. This section explains the defaults, which are accessed from the PDMS Router Defaults window. You can work through the tutorials using the supplied defaults. 5. From the Pipe Router window, select Settings>Defaults. The Pipe Router Defaults window is displayed, as shown. You can save and load default settings using the options under File on the menu.

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6. 7. 8.

Enter the path of the directory where you want to store the message file in the Directory field. Enter the name of the message file in the Filename field. Click Overwrite/Append and select Overwrite if you want new error messages to overwrite those currently in the file or, Append if you want Pipe Router to add each new message to the end of the file. To specify the action taken by Pipe Router in the event of an error occurring, select one of the following from the Action on error options: Stop - Stops all further routing. Pause - Displays an alert box which you must acknowledge before Pipe Router can continue routing. Continue - Continues routing, even if an error occurs

9.

10. To specify the method used to change the direction of pipes, select an option from the

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Change direction using: Bend Elbow

Rule If you set the Rule option, Pipe Router will look for a rule which defines which type of component to use. You must create the rule as described in Using Routing Rules. 11. You can set a default rule set for all Branches by entering the name of the Rules set in the Default rule set world text box. The rule set or rule world will be automatically assigned as a low priority rule set. If there is a set of company-wide rules you could enter the name here. For more information, see Using Routing Rules. 12. Pipe Router can automatically associate routing planes and pipe racks with a branch to route the pipe on. To do this it searches for routing planes and pipe racks between the branch head and tail. You can ask Pipe Router to extend the search outside this volume by entering the distances in the In Z Direction (vertical) and In X/Y Directions (horizontal) fields. Pipe Router will only automatically use a routing plane or pipe rack to route a pipe if the distance that it will travel along the plane or rack is greater than a minimum travel distance. Enter the minimum distance, in the Minimum Travel Distance field. 13. In the Pipe Rack Spacing area of the window, you can specify the minimum Pipe gap between pipes on racks (and other planes). You can also specify in the Pipe gap rounding field the extent to which the gap size will be rounded, which can help minimise construction errors. Defining the Head and Tail of a Pipe In this section, you will define the heads and tails of two pipes which you will later route. Start by defining the head and tail of the pipe between the pump PMP-1 and the vessel VESS-1. Exercise begins 1. 2. 3. Navigate to the Zone ROUTERSITE/PIPES. Select Create>Pipe from the Pipework Application main menu bar. The Create Pipe window is displayed. Enter the name P1 in the Name textbox and leave the Primary System set to No System. The Create Pipe window should now look as shown:

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4. 5.

Click OK on the Create Pipe window. The Create Branch window will be shown. Set the Head/Tail Setting to Connect. This will enable you to connect both head and tail of the branch to existing nozzles. The Create Branch window should now look as shown:

6. 7.

Click OK to create the branch. The Connect Branch window is displayed. Set the Connect Branch window to show that you want to connect the Head to a Nozzle, thus:

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8. 9.

Click Apply. When you are prompted to select a nozzle, select the vertical nozzle on top of the pump PMP-1. Set the Connect Branch window to show that you want to connect the Tail to a Nozzle, then click Apply. When prompted, select the vertical nozzle on the top of the vessel VESS-1.

10. Create a pipe between the pump PMP-2 and the vessel VESS-2. Name the pipe /P2. Again, connect the head of the pipe to the vertical nozzle on the pump and the tail to the vertical nozzle on the vessel. Dismiss the Connect Branch window. Routing Pipes In this section, you will add the pipes which you have created in Defining the Head and Tail of a Pipe to the Pipe Router window, and then route the pipes. You can add pipes individually or in groups. In this exercise, you will add the pipes individually. Note: By default, the Pipe Router routes pipes in the order in which you add them to the Pipe Router window. The routing order can have an effect on the route taken by pipes. This is explained further in Changing the Order in which Pipes are Routed. Exercise continues: 11. From the Explorer select the pipe /P1. 12. From the Pipe Router window, select the Add: CE option to add the pipe to the Pipe Router window. Note that the Network option under Add loads the selected branch and any other branches on which the branch is dependent, or which are dependent on it. 13. Repeat the two previous steps for the pipe /P2. The Pipe Router window should now look as shown:

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14. From the Pipe Router window, select the pipes or branches you want to route, in this instance, /P1 and /P2, then select the Route: Selected option. Pipe Router routes the selected pipes, adding elbows, gaskets and flanges, as required. Note: A small window with a Cancel is displayed: if you are routing several Branches, and realise that you have made a mistake, pressing Cancel will stop the process after the next Branch has been routed. It will not stop the process in the middle of routing a Branch. The routes created by Pipe Router are shown in Figure 8:6.: Automatically Routed Pipes P1 and P2.

P2

P1

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Figure 8:6.

Automatically Routed Pipes P1 and P2

Checking the Status of a Branch Select Display>Status Summary from the menu on the Pipe Router window. The Status Summary window is displayed, showing that two Branches have been routed successfully.

Note: Undo and Redo at the bottom of the Pipe Router window can be used to undo or redo a series of routing operations, changing settings as required, back to the last save work. Changing the Order in which Pipes are Routed Pipe Router routes pipes in the order in which you add them to the Pipe Router window. You may need to change the routing order of particular pipes if: You want to ensure that Pipe Router routes your most expensive pipes first. You are working with pipes that are in close proximity to one another or where pipes cross paths.

The routing order is changed using the options under Modify>Routing Order from the PDMS Router window. Exercise continues: 15. Select Modify>Routing Order >Manual>Pipes from the Pipe Router window. On the Pipe Router - Reorder Pipes window, select P1 in the Reorder text pane, set the option to After, and select P2 in the right-hand window. Click Apply. Reselect Pipes and click Selected. The route obtained is shown in Figure 8:7.: Result of changing the routing order (P2 routed before P1). In this instance, Pipe Router first routed the pipe P2. The route

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taken by P2 has blocked the most practical route for the pipe P1, which has had to take a more complex route.

P2

P1

Figure 8:7.

Result of changing the routing order (P2 routed before P1)

The other options under Modify>Routing Order are as follows: Auto - automatically reorders branches according to routing dependencies, that is, if a pipe is dependent on another pipe, then that pipe will be routed first. Select this option, for example, after you reorder by bore.

Note: This option only affects piping networks: It will have no effect on unconnected Pipes. Manual>Pipes - enables you to manually specify the order in which the Pipe Router routes each pipe, using the Reorder Pipes window. Manual>Branches - enables you to manually specify the order in which the Pipe Router routes each branch, using the Reorder Branches window. By Attribute - enables you to reorder pipes according to particular attributes, using the Reorder by Attribute window.

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The Reorder by Attribute window, has the following option: Head Bore Tail Bore Temperature Other - Select this if you want to specify an alternative attribute to those available on the window.

To reorder pipes according to their specification, select the Group by specification check box. This reorders the pipes so that they are displayed in alphabetical order of their specification names, for example, all pipes which use the specification A150, followed by all pipes which use the specification B150, and so on. You can use this option in conjunction with the options. You may, for example, reorder pipes so that all PDMS Router displays all pipes which use the specification A150 in descending order of their head bore, followed by all B150 specification pipes. Routing Messages As Pipe Router routes a pipe, it examines each branch and generates a message about any routing errors that it finds. These messages can help you understand and correct errors. You can view these messages both during and after pipe routing, providing you have set up a file in which to store the messages, as described previously. To view routing messages, select Display>Routing Messages. The Routing Messages window is displayed, as shown. The window will be empty if Pipe Router routes all pipes without any errors.

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The Branch Detail Pipe Router enables you to view details of the components and constraints in a branch, using the Branch Detail window. From this window, you can select options which enable you to constrain the route taken by a branch. For example, you can lock components in position, create routing points and add routing planes and pipe racks to the constraint list. All of these facilities are explained in later sections. To display the Branch Detail window, select one of the routed Branches from the Pipe Router window and click Branch Detail. The Branch Detail window, which contains details of the selected branch, is displayed as shown:

The information on this window is discussed in Positioning and Locking Components.

8.1.3

Positioning and Locking Components


In this section you will learn how to: add components to Branches after they have been routed control where the components are positioned.

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The effect that positioning and locking components will have when a Branch is re-routed is also considered. Note that you can set up rules to control the selection, positioning and orientation of components, and these are described in Using Routing Rules. Deletable, Positionable and Locked Components Pipe Router sees all piping components as deletable, positionable or locked. If you display the Branch Detail window for a Branch that has been routed by the Pipe Router, you will see that all the components are listed as deletable. The components that Pipe Router creates in a Branch are described as Deletable. If you re-route the Branch, Pipe Router will delete all the components that it has created and re-create them. After a Branch has been routed, you can add components manually in the normal way: make sure that you are in the correct place in the Members list and select Create>Component. These components are described as Positionable. If you reroute the Branch, these components will not be deleted, but they may be moved to fit on the new route. Positionable components can be locked into a given position, in which case they will not be moved, even if the Branch is re-routed.

The order of Positionable components in the Branch Members list will be maintained, and so will their order relative to any constraints in the Branch. For example, if you add a Valve before a Locked Tee, the Valve will not be moved past the Tee. You may wish to make changes to a Branch, and then re-route it. You can keep some or all of the components that Pipe Router has added by making them positionable, rather than deletable. You can also lock them. To change the status of a component, select it in the list on the Branch Detail window, and then select one of the options under the Modify menu on the window. The choices are: Constraint, Toggle Head Lock, Toggle Tail Lock, Lock Position, Make Positionable, Make Deletable, Toggle Head/Tail Relative, Head W-P, and Tail W-P. Positioning Relative to the Head or Tail Each component in a branch is positioned relative to the head or tail of the branch. If a component is head relative, then Pipe Router will place that component as close as possible to the head of the branch, allowing for other components and any constraints. If a component is tail relative, then that component is positioned as close as possible to the tail of the branch.

Pipe Router routes a pipe from head to tail and so all components are initially created head relative. You can change the head/tail relative property of any positionable component. Select it in the list on the Branch Detail window, and then select Modify>Toggle Head/Tail Relative. Head and Tail Work-points Each Branch has a Head Work-point and a Tail Work-point. You can insert components between the Head (or Tail) and its work-point, which can be used, for example, to position a Valve directly onto a Nozzle.

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Positioning a Component Close to the Head or Tail In this exercise, you will learn how to position piping components relative to the head or tail of a branch. Exercise begins: 1. Create a valve on the pipe /P2. Your view should look like Figure 8:8.: Head-relative Valve position. Notice that the valve is positioned close to the head of the pipe.

Figure 8:8.

Head-relative Valve position

2. 3. 4.

On the Pipe Router window, select Branch Detail to display the Branch Detail window. Select VALV 1 from the list of Components/Constraints, then select Modify>Toggle Head/Tail Relative. From the Pipe Router window, select the Route: Selected option. Pipe Router re-routes the Pipe and positions the Valve close to the Tail of the Pipe, as shown in Figure 8:9.: Tail-relative Valve position.

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Figure 8:9.

Tail-relative Valve position

Moving the Head or Tail Work-point You can position the Head W-P after a particular component in a Branch, or, you can position the Tail W-P before a particular component. In this exercise, you will add a Valve to the Pipe /P1 and then position the Tail Work-point of the Branch before the Valve. This will enable you to position the Valve directly onto the Nozzle of vessel /VESS-1, then re-route the Pipe without affecting the position of the Valve. Exercise begins: 1. Create a Valve on the pipe /P1. Your view should now look like Figure 8:10.: The Valve positioned at the Head of P1:

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Figure 8:10. The Valve positioned at the Head of P1

2. 3.

From the Pipe Router window, select Branch Detail to display the Branch Detail window. From the Branch Detail window, select Modify>Tail W-P. The Modify Tail W-P window is displayed.

4. 5.

From the Modify Tail W-P window, select VALVE 1, then click OK. From the Pipe Router window, select the Route: Selected option. Pipe Router re-routes the Pipe from the Head Work-point to the Tail Work-point, which is now positioned before VALV 1, as shown below.

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Valve is positioned before the Tail Work-point

To check the position of the valve, display the Branch Detail window for the branch, then scroll to the bottom of the Components/Constraints list. The details should now look as shown:

Note: The Tail Work-point is now positioned after VALVE 1 Locking and Unlocking a Component Pipe Router enables you to lock piping components in position. You may need to do this, for example, to ensure that a branch component remains in its current position, even if you reroute the branch. To lock a component in position: 1. From the Branch Detail window, select the component that you want to lock in position. 2. Select Modify>Lock Position. To unlock a locked component, select Modify>Make Positionable for main piping components, or Modify>Make Deletable for Pipe Router generated components.

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Manually Routing Non-orthogonal Sections Pipe Router is an orthogonal router, and so if you want non-orthogonal sections of pipe in a branch you will have to route these sections by hand. You can then lock all the components in this section (including the start and end bend or elbow) and route the remainder of the pipes using Pipe Router. Aligned, locked, non-orthogonal components If two locked components with non-orthogonal arrive and/or leave direction are aligned, with no intervening components, so that a straight piece of tube can run between them without clashing, Pipe Router will use this route. This will also happen if the first component is aligned with the head or the last component is aligned with the tail. If the straight, non-orthogonal routes clash, only orthogonal routes will be considered to avoid the clash. This is the default orthogonal route between the pump and the vessel.

Using aligned and locked elbows to give a non-orthogonal route.

In all other cases Pipe Router will try to insert a bend or elbow to turn into an orthogonal direction as close as possible to the component.

Non-aligned non-orthogonal components If non-orthogonal components are not aligned, only orthogonal routes between them will be considered. Non-aligned components will still give an orthogonal route.

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Non-orthogonal sections with unlocked components If there are other, positionable, components between non-orthogonal locked components, orthogonal routing will be used. Router may add connection components on to the locked components, but note that no bore change (which would require the addition of a reducer) will be permitted. A positionable Tee has been inserted in the Branch, which has caused Pipe Router to revert to an orthogonal route, using additional Elbows

Detail of the area close to the Tee.

The route achieved with the Tee Locked.

Example 1 You can lock several non-orthogonal components in a row. For example, you can lock two 45 degree elbows to give a non-orthogonal section of pipe and place a locked valve on this section of pipe. Pipe Router will then not route any part of the Branch between the elbows, providing that straight pipe does not clash; and it will add any necessary connection components to the valve. However, the valve must be locked: if it is positionable Pipe Router will route orthogonally between the elbows.

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Example 2 It may be better to continue in a non-orthogonal direction from a nozzle until a route has passed an obstruction, because this might give a shorter route with fewer elbows. You would lock the elbow at A to give this route:

Using Rules for Minimum Tube Length You may find that components such as Olets and Stub-in Tees will be positioned immediately next to another component, if your COCO tables allow. You can use the Upstream and Downstream Rules provided with Pipe Router to specify minimum lengths of Tube. See Using Routing Rules for more information about using rules.

8.1.4

Creating and Using Routing Points


In this section you will learn how to use Routing Points to constrain a route. Routing points are points through which a branch will pass. You can define the coordinates of a point and the direction in which a branch arrives at and leaves a point. You can add as many routing points as you want. You must create routing points at the correct position in the sequence of constraints. Creating a Routing Point You will now add a routing point to the pipe /P2, which you routed previously. The routing point will ensure that Pipe Router routes the pipe so that it is parallel with pipe /P2. In this exercise, you will create a routing point, relative to an existing element. Exercise Begins: To create the routing point: 1. 2. 3. Add the pipes /P1 and /P2 to the Pipe Router window, if you have not already done so. Select the branch /P2/B1, then select Branch Detail . The Branch Detail window is displayed. Select Create>Routing Point. The Create Routing Point window is displayed. You can simply enter the coordinates on the Create Routing Point window or use the options on the menu, which are similar to the normal PDMS positioning options.

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4.

For this exercise, you will specify the position of the routing point relative to an existing component. You can only position routing points after positionable or locked components. Select Cursor>Element, then pick elbow 3 of the pipe /P1/B1, as shown in the illustration.

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Select elbow 3 using Cursor > Element

5.

Pipe Router creates a routing point at the position of the elbow. You will now move the routing point so that it is 1000mm west of the elbow. From the Create Routing Point window, select Move>Distance. The Move Point window is displayed. Enter W (West) in the Direction field. Enter 1000 mm in the Distance field. Click Apply to confirm the move, then Dismiss the window. You can lock the point at the specified positions using the Lock check boxes on the Create Routing Point window, if required.

6.

To ensure that pipe /P2 travels parallel with pipe /P1, you will define the direction in which pipe /P2 arrives at and leaves the routing point. In common with DESIGN, the arrive direction should point to the head, and the leave to the tail. From the Create Routing Point window, select the Arrive/Leave option. Enter N (North) in the Arrive direction field and S (South) in the Leave direction field.

7.

Ensure that the After option is set to Head W-P. The window settings should now look as shown.

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When you click OK, Pipe Router creates the routing point at the position shown.

Position of routing point

U N E

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When you route the Pipe again, Pipe Router routes the pipe via the routing point, as shown.

Position of routing point

By specifying a different arrive and leave direction, you will cause a bend or elbow to be inserted at the position of the routing point. If you do not want a change of direction, select the Through Direction and specify the direction that you would like the pipe to take at that point. If you leave the direction unset, Pipe Router will select the best direction to minimise the number of bends or elbows used. Using DATUMs as Routing Points There is an option on the Create Routing Point window which allows you to use an existing DATUM point as a routing point. Two branches should not use the same Datum point as a constraint since they would then clash. If you want to use a Datum where two branches meet, just one of the branches should have the point as a constraint. For example, Branch / P1/B1 ends at a Battery Limit and Branch P2/B1 connects to its Tail. Branch /P1/B1 should have the Datum as the last constraint and a Free Tail. The Head of Branch /P2/B1 will be positioned at the Tail of /P1/B1. Moving a Routing Point You can modify the position of a routing point, at any time. To do this: 1. From the Pipe Router window, select the branch you want to modify, if you have not already done so. 2. Click Branch Detail. The Branch Detail window is displayed. 3. Select the routing point you want to modify from the Components/Constraints list. 4. Select Modify>Constraint. The Modify Routing Point window is displayed. 5. Select one of the following options, depending on the type of modification you want to make: Move>Distance to move a routing point a distance in a specified direction either from the current location, or relative to another element which you can identify using the cursor or another method.

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Move>Towards to move the point a specified distance towards another element, which you can identify using the cursor, by specifying a named element or, which may be the head, tail or, the next element in the branch.

Note: Make sure that the routing point is still in a sensible position in the list of constraints, otherwise a very convoluted route may be obtained. If you have used a DATUM as a routing point, you can use the standard AVEVA PDMS positioning options to modify its position.

8.1.5

Using Routing Rules


Routing Rules are special AVEVA PDMS rules which are used to control: How components are selected, positioned and orientated as Branches are routed. How Pipes are packed on Pipe Racks and Routing Planes.

In this section you will learn how to use the sample routing rules supplied with the Pipe Router. You can also define your own routing rules as described in Automatic Pipe Routing Administration. Note: For more general information about defining rules for setting attributes, see the DESIGN Reference Manual. You can apply routing rules to individual branches or all branches within a particular site, zone, or pipe. You can also apply rules to individual components and remove rules from individual components, as required. Expressions A routing rule consists of AVEVA PDMS expressions. PDMS expressions are described in detail in the Software Customisation Guide. The examples in this chapter should give you a starting point for writing the expressions needed for routing rules. AVEVA PDMS expressions consist of the following: PDMS element types. For example, VALV, BRAN, TEE. This also includes OWNER and MEMBER. PDMS attributes and pseudo-attributes. For example, HDIR, ABOR. Logical operators. The operators available are EQ equal to NE not equal to GE greater than or equal to GT greater than LE less than or equal to LT less than

For a list of AVEVA PDMS attributes, see the Software Customisation Guide.

Keywords. There are a wide variety of keywords, illustrated in the rest of this chapter. For example, ALL, WITH, UP, IS.

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Applying a Rule Set to a Branch Once you have created a rule set, you can apply it to a branch. The rules will then take effect on the components in the branch. To do this: 1. From the Members List window, select the branch with which you want to associate a rule set. 2. From the Pipe Router window, select Settings>Apply Rules>To Branch. The Apply Rules window is displayed.

3. Select the rule world which contains the rule sets you want to apply to the branch from the RULE WORLD option list. 4. Note that the Apply to list contains all the Branches selected on the Pipe Router window. 5. Select the rule set that you wish to apply in the Rule sets available in current world list. 6. You can add the rule set as high priority or low priority. Pipe Router first checks to see if there are any rules that will apply to a component from the high priority rule sets. If there are none then Pipe Router checks if there are any rules that will apply in the low priority rule sets. Click Add HIGH to add the rule set to the High Priority Sets list or the Add LOW to add the rule set to the Low Priority Sets list. 7. Click Apply. 8. Route the branch to apply the rules. Note: The Settings>Apply Rules options on the Pipe Router window allow you to apply the rule sets to a site, zone or pipe. In these cases all branches which are below them in the hierarchy will also have the rule sets applied, unless they have rule sets specifically applied.

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Important: If you apply rules to an element which contains many Branches, for example, a Zone, then each time you route a Branch, Pipe Router will check every Branch to see if the rules apply. This may take some time. By default, Pipe Router applies all the rules in the specified sets to a branch, providing they are appropriate. You can, however, remove a rule from a particular component in a branch, or add one from another rule set. Removing a Rule Set To remove a rule set: 1. From the Members List window, select the branch from which you want to remove a rule set. 2. Select Settings>Apply Rules>To Branch. The Apply Rules window is displayed. 3. Select the rule set you want to remove, then click Remove HIGH or Remove LOW as appropriate. 4. Click Apply. If a Rule Set has applied to a Pipe, Site or Zone, it will be removed from all Branches in that Pipe, Site or Zone. Including a Rule from another Rule Set or World If you would like to apply a rule to a component from another rule world or rule set: 1. From the Pipe Router window, select the branches you want to apply the rule to. 2. Click Branch Detail. 3. Click Component Rules on the Branch Detail window. The Component Rules window is displayed which you can use to add additional rules from the available rule sets, or from another rule world.

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4. From the Current Component option list, select the component that the rule will be applied to. The letter that precedes the rule description in the Rules applying to current component list shows where the rule was originally applied. The letters used are: B Branch PPipe Z Zone S Site

5. From the Rules available list, select the rule you want to apply to the selected component, then click Include. The rule is added to the list of rules which apply to the component. 6. Click Dismiss. Disabling a Rule from a Component To prevent Pipe Router from applying a rule to a particular component in a branch: 1. From the Pipe Router window, select the branch with which you want to work. 2. Click Branch Detail to display the Branch Detail window. 3. From the Branch Detail window, select the component from which you want to exclude the rule. 4. Click Component Rules. The Component Rules window is displayed. 5. From the list of rules that apply to the current component, select the rule you want to disable from the component, then click Disable. Pipe Router places an asterisk (*) to the left of the rule description to indicate that the rule is now excluded from being used. If you want to re-enable a disabled rule, select the rule, then select Enable.

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The rule will now appear in the Rules applying to current component list, preceded by a plus sign (+) indicating that it has been included. Querying Rules You can query which rules are applied to a Branch, which you may find useful if you are using many rules, and the result is not what you expect. Display the command line by selecting Display>Command Line from the main Pipework Application menu, and then type: Q ROBRRU This command is only valid if the current element is a Pipe, a Branch or a Branch Member.

8.1.6

Creating and Using Routing Planes


In this section you will learn how to: create a routing plane use a routing plane to route branches

Introduction to Routing Planes Routing planes are rectangular planes which are used to guide pipes along their length. You will find routing planes useful, for example, in routing groups of pipes along a wall or ceiling, or simply to group pipes close together. Figure 8:11.: Example of using routing planes shows an example of how you could use two routing planes, one above the other, to group all north/south pipes together and all east/west pipes together.

Figure 8:11.

Example of using routing planes

You can use one or more single routing planes. Note that a Pipe Rack is defined as a group of routing planes for Pipe Router. Pipe Racks are described in the next section. How Pipe Router Uses a Plane Pipe Router will ensure that pipes take the best route available from the previous constraint to the routing plane. If the most direct route to the plane is blocked, Pipe Router will select an alternative route which ensures that the pipe enters the plane at the earliest opportunity,

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which is usually just after the obstruction. The pipe will exit from the plane at the point which enables it to take the most direct route to the next constraint. If the most direct route to the next constraint is blocked, the pipe will exit from the plane just before the obstruction. Pipes are routed along the length of a routing plane. You can set whether the centre, top or bottom of pipes will be aligned on the routing plane. If a pipe is insulated, the plane will automatically take the insulation into account by positioning the pipe at a height which allows for the insulation. Note that you can also make allowance for shoe heights using a SHOE rule. See Automatic Pipe Routing Administration. Using More Than One Plane to Route a Branch You can use more than one routing plane to route a branch. However: You should have routing points or locked components between the planes. If you do not do this, Pipe Router may encounter difficulties in deciding when to leave one plane and enter another. You should not use two adjacent planes with the same travel direction and no perpendicular offset between them. For turns in the same plane, planes should touch, within 100cm, corner to corner, but not overlap.

You can use groups of routing planes to create Pipe Racks. How you do this is described in Creating and Using Pipe Racks. Creating Some Pipes for the Exercise Exercise begins: Before you create and use a routing plane, you need to create the pipes which you will later route via the plane. 1. Create the pipes shown in the following illustration:
VESS-3 PMP-3

ROUTE-3
PMP-4

VESS-4 VESS-5

ROUTE-4
PMP-5

ROUTE-5

2.

Add the pipes to the Pipe Router window in the order ROUTE-3, followed by ROUTE-4 and finally, ROUTE-5. You may like to route the pipes before you create and add the routing plane. This will enable you to see the effect that the routing plane has on the route taken by the pipes. To do this:

3.

Select the pipes, then select the Route:Selected option. The route taken should look as shown:

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Creating a Routing Plane Exercise continues: To create a routing plane: 4. 5. Navigate to the zone ROUTERSITE/STRU. From the Pipe Router window, select Create>Routing Plane. The Create Routing Plane window is displayed.

6. 7.

Enter the name Plane-1 in the Name field. This is the name that is displayed in the Members List and the Branch Detail window. Enter a description of the routing plane, in the Description field. This text is not used elsewhere in AVEVA PDMS, but you may find it useful for keeping a record of the planes purpose for future reference.

6. Set the Pipe Positioning option list to Centre of pipe. This will position the centre of the pipe along the routing plane. The other options available and their actions are: Top of pipe Positions the top of the pipe on horizontal routing planes, or in front of vertical routing planes adjusting for any insulation

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Bottom of pipe Positions the side of the pipe below horizontal routing planes, or behind vertical routing planes, adjusting for any insulation

Note: Top is the Z direction of the Plane which is shown with an arrow. The Pipe to Pipe Gap and Packing Method options control how Pipes are packed on the plane. See Pipe Packing. 8. Click OK. The Routing Plane Dimensions window is displayed.

9.

Set the Anchor option list to Centre. The anchor is the position from which the routing plane takes its dimensions. There are two options available, centre and corner. Set the coordinates to: East 45000mm North 300mm Up 1100mm

10. Enter 15500mm in the Length field, then set the Dir option to the left of the field to E (east). This will cause pipes to be routed along the east/west direction of the plane. 11. Enter 1200mm in the Width field, then set the Dir option to the left of the field to N (north). 12. The Routing Planes Dimensions window should now look as shown.

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7. Click Apply to create the plane. Note: You can create a vertical routing plane by setting one of the Dir fields to be U or D (up or down). The up/front direction of the plane will be indicated by a construction arrow in the graphical view which is drawn perpendicular to the plane. To reverse the direction, reverse either of the length or width directions, for instance from E to W. Using a Routing Plane to Route Branches Exercise continues: To route a branch via a routing plane, you must add the routing plane to the constraint list for the branch. To do this: 13. From the Pipe Router window, select the branch /ROUTE-3/B1, then click Branch Detail. The Branch Detail window is displayed which contains details of the branch / ROUTE-3/B1. 14. Select Add>Routing Plane>Selection. The Add Routing Plane window is displayed. The scrollable list displays the available planes.

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15. From the Plane list, select the plane that you created in the previous exercise. 16. Ensure that the Insert After list is set to Head W-P. The Last on Plane toggle allows you to specify that positionable components will be placed on the plane. 17. Click OK. The routing plane is added to the constraint list for the branch. 18. Repeat the procedure for the branches /P4/B1 and /P5/B1. 19. Route the branches, using the Pipe Router window. Pipe Router routes the branches via the routing plane. The route taken by the branches should now look as shown.

Adding Routing Planes Automatically Pipe Router provides facilities to automatically add pre-defined routing planes to a branch. This could be useful if for instance you wish to run all north/south running pipes at one elevation, and all east/west pipes at another.

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Pipe Router can add either one vertical plane, or two horizontal planes, providing the horizontal planes are oriented perpendicular to one another. The routing planes will be added at the head of the branch. The planes must be able to be reached directly from the head for them to be included. If there are more planes than are required, the closest ones to the head will be chosen. If there are constraints in the branch, such as routing points, or locked components, an additional two horizontal or one vertical plane will be searched for at the tail of the branch. These must be reachable directly from the tail and will be added to the Components/ Constraints list as the last constraints before the tail. Planes will be searched for in a box defined by the head and tail of the branch. The box will be extended by the values specified in the Pipe Router Defaults window. Only pipes that travel along routing planes a distance greater than the Minimum Travel Distance will be considered. To add routing planes automatically: 1. From the Pipe Router window, select the branch that you wish to add routing planes to, then click Branch Detail. 2. Select Add>Routing Plane>Automatically. Names appear in the Command Input & Output window but not on the Status bar. 3. The Components/Constraints list on the Branch Detail window will be updated with the selected routing planes. Components on Planes The Last on Plane toggle on the Add Routing Plane window (and the Last on Rack toggle on the Add Pipe Rack window) allows you to specify that positionable and locked components will be placed on the plane. When it is switched on, the neighbouring list will show all the positionable and locked components in the Branch: select the one required: all the positionable and locked components after the Plane, up to and including the component given as Last on Plane, will be positioned on the plane. You can have several positionable components on a plane or rack. You can also have more than one locked component on a rack providing they are aligned. Reducers are not permitted as positionable or locked components on a plane.

Locked Straight-through Components You can place locked components on planes, but note the following conditions: Locked components will define the slot on the plane for the Branch. If there is more than one locked component for a branch on a plane or rack, all of these components must lie in the same slot. You must have sufficiently wide gaps on the plane to fit in any component required. This could be achieved, for example, by using a large enough basic gap, or using WF / FF spacing with large enough flange widths. The arrive and leave directions must be along the travel direction.

Locked Bends and Elbows Since locked bends or elbows define the start or end of the slot: Locked bends and elbows will define the start or end of the slot on the travel plane as well as the slot itself. Hence there can be at most one entry bend/elbow and one exit bend/elbow.

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For a locked bend or elbow used to enter the travel plane from the entry plane, the arrive-direction must be from the entry-plane and the leave-direction along the travel plane For a locked bend or elbow used to leave the travel plane, the arrive direction must be along the travel plane and the leave-direction must be to the exit plane.

If there are no rules about choosing entry/exit planes, PDMS Router will use the entry and exit bend/elbow to help it to choose suitable entry/exit planes. Exercise begins: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Create a Pipe, P99. Create a Branch, B1, with its Head connected to NOZZ1 of PMP-3 and its Tail connected to NOZZ1 of VESS-4. Create a Tee in Branch B1. Create a Branch, B2, with its Head connected to the Tee and its Tail connected to NOZZ1 of VESS-3. Add the Plane PLANE-1 to the constraints list for Branch B1, specifying the Tee as Last on Plane. Route both the Branches, and you will see the result shown below.

The constraints list on the Branch Detail window, is as shown:

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8.1.7

Creating and Using Pipe Racks


In Pipe Router, the term pipe rack is used to describe a group of routing planes which enable you to automatically model the routing patterns used on a physical pipe rack. In this section, you will learn how to: Create pipe racks Route pipes via a pipe rack

Introduction to Pipe Racks A pipe rack is made up of routing planes (RPLAs) created within a routing plane group (RPLG). The planes represent travel planes and entry/exit planes. You can create pipe racks with several levels, that is several travel planes. For each level of a pipe rack, you must create a travel plane to control the direction in which pipes travel along the rack and at least one entry/exit plane to ensure that pipes enter onto and exit from the rack perpendicularly, either from above or below. Each pipe rack must have at least one travel plane and at least one entry/exit plane. The direction of travel is the X direction (length) for travel planes and the Y direction (width) for entry and exit planes.

Pipe Router assumes that the RPLAs in an RPLG have their centres on a vertical line. The entry and exit planes must be: At least as long (in the X direction) as the travel Plane(s) Wider (in the Y direction) than the travel planes At least twice the bend length.

When you create entry/exit planes, you must specify the distance by which they overhang the travel planes. The overhang ensures that the vertical legs of pipes which enter and exit the rack are clear of the pipe rack structure. A pipe rack may have an upper entry/exit plane, a lower entry/exit or both, depending on the way in which you want pipes to enter and exit a pipe rack. In a pipe rack that has several levels, an entry/exit plane can be used by more than one level. An example is shown in Figure 8:12.: Examples of Routing Plane Groups.

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Figure 8:12. Examples of Routing Plane Groups

You can manually associate a pipe rack with individual branches or you can tell PDMS Router to automatically search for and make use of any pipe racks which exist within the search volume of a branch or branches. The default search volume is the volume between the head and tail of a pipe, as shown in Figure 8:13.: Search Volume for Automatic Pipe Racks, and it can be extended as specified on the Pipe Router Defaults window.

Pipe Head

Extended search volume

Default search volume Pipe Tail


Figure 8:13. Search Volume for Automatic Pipe Racks

Pipe Router will select the closest pipe rack to the head in the search volume, whose direction will take the pipe closer to the tail, and providing that when using it, the pipe will travel on the rack for longer than the Minimum Travel Distance as defined on the Pipe Router Defaults window.

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Rack or Plane as Last Constraint If you are responsible for one area of a design and a different designer is responsible for an adjacent area, a branch may run out of the first area on a pipe rack. You want to put the rack in the constraint list and run the branch to your limits. You can do this using the free tail option from the branch details. A branch has a free tail when the tail is either not connected or is directly connected to another branch; and the tail is not locked. A free tail can be specified immediately after a pipe-rack or plane. When a branch has a plane or rack as its last constraint and a free tail, Pipe Router will route the branch onto the plane or rack. It will travel in the direction implied by the tail direction until it reaches the edge of the plane or rack. This will then become the tail position. Example User-A is responsible for one area of a design and User-B is responsible for an adjacent area. A branch /P100/B1 runs out of the User-A's area on a pipe-rack. User-A puts the rack in the constraint list with the end of the travel plane at the limits, and specifies the tail direction and that the tail is free. Pipe Router will pack the pipe onto the rack and run it to the end of the rack. User-B connects the head of a Pipe /P200/B1 to the tail of /P100/B1 and begins routing from this point. User-B must ensure that the position of the head of branch /P200/B1 is initially unset. Pipe Router will use the Branch Lock so that the head /P200/B1moves if the connected tail moves. If the pipe starts by travelling along an extension of the rack in UserA's area then User-B has a rack with its starting edge at the limit to represent this. How Pipes are Routed on a Pipe Rack By default, Pipe Router avoids pockets by first finding the travel plane. If the Head is above the plane, the Pipe will enter from above the plane. If the Head is below the plane, the Pipe will enter from below the plane. Exit from the plane is similarly controlled by the position of the Tail relative to the plane. There are three routing rules which enable you to set which planes are used as entry, exit or travel planes on pipe racks. The rules are: Pipe rack travel plane selection Use this rule to specify which level of a multi-level pipe rack you want to use to route a particular type of branch. Pipe Rack entry plane selection Use this rule to specify the way in which pipes enter onto a rack, based on the contents of the pipe. In order to use this rule, you must set up an attribute which defines the pipes contents, for example vapour or liquid. Pipe Rack exit plane selection Use this rule to specify the way in which pipes exit from a rack, based on the contents of the pipe. In order to use this rule, you must set up an attribute which defines the pipes contents. If no rule exists, the entry plane will be used.

Pipe Packing Defaults By default, Pipe Router will run pipes along Routing planes with the wall-to-wall Pipe Gap, with any rounding factor for the positioning, as given on the Pipe Router Defaults window. For more information about how Pipes are packed on Planes and Racks, see Pipe Packing.

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Methods for Creating Pipe Racks You can create a pipe rack using either of the following methods: Convert an existing steelwork structure into a pipe rack, using elements of the steelwork as reference points for the position and dimensions of the planes. Create the routing planes which model the behaviour of a pipe rack and then add the steelwork later, once you are satisfied with the route. In Pipe Router, this is referred to as a conceptual pipe rack. See Creating a Conceptual Pipe Rack.

Converting a Steelwork Structure to a Pipe Rack In this section, you will learn how to create a pipe rack, using elements of a steelwork structure as reference points to position the planes. You will create the pipe rack, using the steelwork FRMW ROUTERSITE/PR1. Creating Some Pipes for the Exercise Exercise begins: Before you create a pipe rack, you need to create some pipes to route via the pipe rack. 1. Create the pipes shown in the illustration below. If you can not remember how to do this, see Basic Routing. Connect the heads of the pipes at the pump nozzles and the tails to the vessel nozzles.

You may like to route the pipes before you create and add the pipe rack. This will allow you to see the effect of the routing plane on the route taken by the pipes. To do this: 2. 3. Add the pipes to the Pipe Router window, as described in Defining the Head and Tail of a Pipe. Select the pipes, then select the Route: Selected option. The route taken by the pipes should look similar to this:

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Creating the Pipe Rack To create the pipe rack: 4. Navigate to the STRU element ROUTERSITE/PRACK1. Note that you can only create routing plane groups inside a STRU element, and so the current element must be a STRU, FRMW or SBFR. From the Pipe Router window, select Create>Pipe Rack Planes. The Create Pipe Rack window is displayed.

5.

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6.

Enter a name for the pipe rack, in the Name field. For the purpose of this exercise, enter the name PR-1. Note that the name of the STRU element which owns the pipe rack elements is shown under the Name. Click Convert. Pick an element in the steelwork in response to the prompt. The Positioning Control window is displayed to help you control which element is picked if necessary. The other thing that happens when you click Convert is that the Pipe Rack Definition window is displayed:

7.

8.

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This window allows you to define values which apply to all the planes in the Rack. When you are creating a pipe rack in this way, the following parameters have been derived from the existing structure and you cannot change them at this point: Elevation of Anchor Plane Elevation between planes Number of Travel Planes Number of Entry/Exit Planes

Note: The Anchor Plane is the lowest travel plane in the rack. You can change the Overhang of Entry/Exit planes: see Figure 8:12.: Examples of Routing Plane Groups. The default value is set on the Pipe Router Defaults window. You can set any Options you want to apply to all planes in the Rack. For more information on Pipe to Pipe Gap and Packing Method, see Pipe Packing. Click OK on the Pipe Rack Definition window. Note: Routing planes are added with transparency. You can control the degree of transparency on the Drawlist. The Create Pipe Rack window now appears as shown:

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9.

Pipe Router has automatically filled in the Rack Direction, and the Dimensions of the rack. The details of the Planes will be shown in the list of Planes at the bottom of the window. The Plane attributes area of the window, the values shown are those for the plane selected in the Planes list. You can edit the Plane Attributes for individual planes by changing the values in the window and then clicking Include to create a new plane or Replace to replace the plane selected in the list.

Adding a Pipe Rack to a Branch In this section, you will route the pipes you created previously via the pipe rack PR-1. There are two ways in which you can associate branches with a pipe rack. You can: Manually add a pipe rack to the list of constraints for a branch. You can do this either from the Pipe Router window or from the Branch Detail window. Tell Pipe Router to automatically make use of any pipe racks that exist within a certain area between the head and tail of a branch.

Automatically Adding Pipe Racks to a Branch To tell Pipe Router to automatically make use of pipe racks, select the branches /ROUTE6/B1, /ROUTE7/B1 and /ROUTE8/B1 from the Pipe Router window and then select Modify>Branch>Add Pipe Rack>Automatically.

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The status line tells you which rack is being added to the constraints lists for the selected branches. Manually Adding Pipe Racks to a Branch To manually add a pipe rack to the list of constraints for a branch: 1. From the Pipe Router window, select the branch /P9/B1, then select the Modify>Branch>Add Pipe Rack>Selection. The Add Pipe Rack window is displayed which contains a list of the pipe racks that are available for selection.

2. Select the rack that you created in the previous exercise. This window is very similar to the Add Routing Plane window. 3. Click OK to add the rack to the constraint list for the selected branch. 4. Route all of the branches, using the Pipe Router window. The route taken by the pipes should look like this:

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The default route creates pockets in three of the Pipes. By default, Pipe Router routes all pipes that you associate with a pipe rack along the first travel plane that it finds in the routing plane group (RPLG). Note: You can use routing rules to achieve a better route: see Automatic Pipe Routing Administration. Creating a Conceptual Pipe Rack In this section, you will learn how to create a conceptual pipe rack, that is, a pipe rack without any associated steelwork. The steelwork can be added later. Creating Some Pipes for the Exercise Exercise begins: Before you create a conceptual pipe rack, you need to create some pipes to route via the rack. Create the pipes shown in the illustration below. If you cannot remember how to do this, see Basic Routing. Connect the heads of the pipes to the pump nozzles and the tails to the vessel nozzles.

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PMP-10 PMP-11

VESS-7 VESS-8

You may like to route the pipes before you add the pipe rack. This will allow you to see the effect of the routing plane on the route taken by the pipes. Creating the Pipe Rack You can only create routing plane groups inside a STRU element. To create a conceptual pipe rack: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Navigate to the zone ROUTERSITE/STRU. From the Pipe Router window, select Create>Structure for Planes. The Name Structure for RPLG window is displayed. Enter the name PRS-2 for the structure in the Name field, then click OK. From the Pipe Router window, select Create>Pipe Rack Planes. The Create Pipe Rack window is displayed. Enter the name PR-2 for the pipe rack in the Name field. Set the Rack Direction option to North/South. Define the Dimensions of the plane Select Corner 1 from the drop-down list, then enter 63500mm East, 16000mm North and 6000mm Up. Select Corner 2 from the drop-down list, then enter 60000mm East and 6000mm South. Note that the Length of Rack and Width of Travel Planes are calculated automatically. 8. The Create Multiple planes will now be active: Click it to display the Pipe Rack Definition window. In this case all the options on this window will be active.

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Keep the default of 0mm in the Elevation of Anchor Plane box: this value is defined relative to the Pipe Rack. Enter -1000mm in the Elevation between planes box: this will create the Entry/Exit plane 1000mm below the Anchor (travel) plane. The other options can be left at their default values. Click OK on the Pipe Rack Definition window. Pipe Router creates an outline of all the planes for the rack and displays an arrow on the travel planes to indicate the travel direction of the rack. This enables you to check whether the plane is how you want it to be.

9.

Add the pipe rack to the Branches, and route the pipes The route taken by the pipes will look as shown:

8.1.8

Pipe Packing
In this section you will learn how to specify the gaps between Pipes on Routing Planes, which includes Routing Planes defining Pipe Racks. This section only deals with setting values for pipe packing using the Pipe Router windows. You can also control pipe packing by means of Rules, which are described in Automatic Pipe Routing Administration. Pipe Packing Defaults By default, Pipe Router will run pipes along Routing planes with the wall-to-wall Pipe gap given on the Pipe Router Defaults window. Gaps only apply to pipes on planes or racks. You should use obstruction volumes to model clearance of pipes from columns, etc. Gaps will always be the sideways displacement: any vertical difference between the centrelines of pipes will not affect packing. Very small pipes will not be packed under the edge of very large diameter pipes.

The Pipe Gap is calculated as follows:

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With a 50mm wall-to-wall gap, the centre of a branch of OD 200mm will be placed 225mm from the centre of an adjacent branch of OD 150mm.

225

200 50

150

The Pipe Router Defaults window also has a Pipe gap rounding option. This option ensures that the centres of pipe are positioned at rounded coordinates relative to the edge of the routing plane. Coordinates are always rounded up. If no rounding is required, leave this value as 0. Pipe Router obtains values from the OD (for the current Pipe) or the geometry (for adjacent Pipes), and assume that these are consistent. For example, consider two Pipes, OD 145mm and 60mm, on a plane for which the gap is 100mm. If the rounding factor is set to 10, the centre of the first Pipe will be placed at 80 (rather than 72.5). The centre-to-centre distance will be: 72.5 + 100 + 30 = 202.5 which will be rounded up to 210. Hence the centre of the second Pipe will be placed at 290:

80

210

145 60

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Flanges on Routing Planes If you need to run sections of Pipes which include Flanges along routing planes, you can specify that the gap value will be applied as a wall-to-flange (WF) gap, if the flanges can be staggered, or as a flange-to-flange (FF) gap, if the flanges are side-by-side on the plane. The default is wall-to-wall (WW) spacing. The spacing is controlled by the PLWW attribute of the RPLA. PLWW can be set to WW, WF or FF. The Flange spacing options can be set in the following ways: For single routing planes set the options on the Create Routing Plane window, displayed when you select Create>Routing Plane on the Pipe Router window menu. You can also change the settings for an existing routing plane on the RPLA Specification window, displayed when you select Modify>Routing Plane>Specification on the Pipe Router window. For pipe racks set the options on the Pipe Rack Definition window, displayed when you click OK on the Create Pipe Rack window. You can also change the settings for an existing Pipe Rack on the Modify Pipe Rack window, displayed when you select Modify>Pipe Rack on the Pipe Router window.

The flange width is the width of the default flange (i.e. the flange which is obtained with a SELECT command) for the branches at their current bore, even if there are other flanges on the pipe rack. Notes: The flange width is taken as 0 if: No rule is applied. If you try to specify WF or FF spacing between branches either of which does not have a default flange.

If necessary you can change the spacing using the additional pipe-specific gap on the Pipe Router Defaults window. When wall-to-flange spacing is used, the greater of the flange widths for the current pipe and the adjacent pipe will be added to the wall-to-wall spacing. When flange-to-flange spacing is used, the flange width of both pipes will be added to the wall-to-wall gap.

The size of flanges is found using the Flange Width (FLWI) rule, which is applied to the default flange for each branch at its current bore. See Automatic Pipe Routing Administration for more information about routing rules.

8.1.9

Importing a P&ID File


If your P&ID system is configured so that it is capable of outputting data for use in AVEVA PDMS , you can load your P&ID file into Pipe Router. See Importing Data from P&ID Files for information about configuring P&ID output so that it is suitable for input to Pipe Router. Exercise begins: 1. Navigate to the site or zone where you want to load the pipes from your P&ID. From the Pipe Router window, select Create>Add New Pipes from P&ID. The Import P&ID window is displayed.

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2.

Enter the directory and file name of the P&ID file that you want to load in the Import File text box. Alternatively, select Browse to display the File Browser which contains a list of the available files, then select the file that you require. If you would like to keep a copy of the log file produced during import, enter a file name in the Log File text box. Alternatively, select Browse to display the File Browser which contains a list of the available files, then select the file that you require. Set the Options you require: Modify Elements, do not ask. If you select this option, Pipe Router will modify Pipes and Branches which are in both the existing model and the P&ID file. If you do not select this option you will be prompted to decide whether to modify the element or not. Minor elements (Valves, Tees etc.) will be made unnamed if they already exist, whether this is on or off. Do NOT delete generated macro. During import, a macro is created to generate all the components. Normally this file is deleted after import, but if you select this option it will be kept. Show log file after import Displays the log file. The log file can be displayed later using the Display>Log file option on the menu at the top of the window. Unname tees after import. If an element has a name in DESIGN, Design Manager will try to find the name in PEGS. Tees do not exist in PEGS, and so each Tee found will generate an error if this option is not selected.

3.

4.

5.

Select Run Import. The Modified Pipes & Branches list will show any existing Pipes and Branches that have been modified when the P&ID was read in. As far as possible, Pipe Router will try and keep any attributes that have already been set in the model, and any constraints

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that have been added to Branches. However, if the P&ID file requires components to be re-ordered, elements will be deleted and re-created in PDMS, resulting in attribute settings and constraint associations to be lost. Messages generated are also output to the Command Input & Output window, if it is displayed. The log contains messages relating to the progress of the import operation, and any errors or warnings. In particular, you must position the Branch Head, if the HREF is not set. The import file is processed in two passes: Pass 1 will look for any components that appear more than once. For example, in PEGS, a three-way valve will appear on three branches. The import process will remove the Valve from the branches that have the component set as a TREF, leaving it as a member of the main branch only. Pass 2 will generate the macro to create the elements. If there is no Piping specification set in the P&ID file, Pipe Router will use the default Piping specification set in the Default Specification window, selected from the Pipework Application main menu bar.

8.2
8.2.1

Automatic Pipe Routing Administration


Routing Rules
Routing Rules are special AVEVA PDMS rules which are used to control, for example, how PDMS Router selects, positions and orientates components as Branches are routed, and also how Pipes are packed on Pipe Racks and Routing Planes. Note: For more general information about defining rules for setting attributes, see the DESIGN Reference Manual. You can apply routing rules to individual branches or all branches within a particular site, zone, or pipe. You can also apply rules to individual components and remove rules from individual components, as required. Routing Rule Purposes There are different types of routing rules, which are used for different controls on the route. Rules are identified by their Purpose (PURP) attribute, and unlike other elements in AVEVA PDMS, you cannot create different, user-defined purposes for routing rules. The routing rules available are listed below, identified by their PURP attribute, and with a short description. The purpose is set to a four-letter code, but it is sometimes shown as a more descriptive text on the Pipe Router windows. How each rule is applied is described in detail in How Routing Rules are Applied.

Pre-processing
PRPR Selection BEND Bend or elbow selection: controls whether a bend or elbow is used for changing the direction of a pipe All rules with this Purpose will be executed before a Branch is routed.

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REDU Positioning DNSM UPSM ELEV LOCA Orientation MAJO MINO Clash exclusion CLEX

Reducer type: specified when concentric or eccentric reducers are used

Downstream pipe requirement: the length of pipe required downstream to the next component Upstream pipe requirement: the length of pipe required upstream from the previous component Component elevation: absolute or relative elevation of a component Component location: 3D position of a component

Orientate on major axis: positioning on vertical or horizontal pipe segment. Orientate on minor axis: such as the orientation of a handwheel

These rules are used to allow specified types of element to clash.

Pipe racks (and routing planes) TRAV ENTR EXIT SHOE WEIG ADGP FLWI Post-processing POPR All rules with this Purpose will be executed after a Branch has been routed. Pipe Rack travel plane selection: controls which pipe rack travel plane is used to route a particular type of branch Pipe Rack entry plane selection: controls which pipe rack entry plane is used to route a particular type of branch Pipe Rack exit plane selection: controls which pipe rack exit plane is used to route a particular type of branch Shoe height requirement Identify heavy pipe Extra gap required on plane or rack Flange width on plane or rack

How Routing Rules are Constructed Routing rules consist of PDMS expressions which define: Selection: the elements to which the rule applies. All rules must have a selection expression.

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A Logical test which evaluates to TRUE or FALSE. For example, (ATTRIB ADIR EQ D) specifies that the arrive direction is down.

Rules which use logical expressions are called logical rules. A Rule which does not have a logical expression is called a real rule, because its action (see below) is a real expression. The Action which AVEVA PDMS will carry out. The actions for logical rules will be carried out if the Logical test evaluates to False. For example, (AXES PP 3 IS N) orientates a valve so that the P3 axis is in the north direction.

Actions The Logical expression in a rule tests whether or not the component satisfies the rule. If not, that is, if the logical expression evaluates to False, and the rule has an action, the action will be applied. Pipe Router will then re-test the component. If the logical expression still evaluates to False, the Action will be reversed. Logical rules may or may not have actions. Real rules must always have actions. Minor axis Elevation. If no action is specified, and the rule fails, a message is output. Location. If no action is specified, and the rule fails, a message is output. Upstream pipe requirement Downstream pipe requirement Pre-processing Post-processing

Of the logical rules, the following use actions:

If you do not define an action for these rules, then the default action is taken, which depends on the rule. Using PML Functions in Routing Rules The Logical and Action expressions in Routing rules can call PML functions. This allows you to define much more complex logical tests and actions than can be done using simple expressions. A function is called by setting the rule action to a text string which is the name of the .pmlobj file. This file will contain the object definition, followed by a method definition. The function must be defined using fixed names for the following elements: CEREF RESULT RULEMETHOD OBSREF The DBREF of the element the rule applies to. The returned boolean result. (Logical parts of rules only.) The method which is applied. The DBREF of the Element clashing with the Branch. (Clash exclusion rule only).

Examples of calling PML functions are given in the following sections: Pre-processing rules Minor Axis orientation See Pre-processing See Orientation

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Clash exclusion Post-processing rules

See Clash Exclusion See Post-processing

How Routing Rules are Applied The following sections describe in detail which expressions are required by each type of rule, and how the rules are applied. Most of the examples are taken from Rules supplied with the product. To see more examples, select Settings>Routing Rules from the Pipe Router window menu, which will display the Routing Rules window. Select a Rule Set, then select a Rule from the list. To see the expressions in the rule, select Modify, and the Rule Attributes window will be displayed. Pre-processing

Pre-processing (PRPR)

Logical, will have Action

All rules with this Purpose will be executed before a Branch is routed. The Action will normally be a PML function, which must have been defined before the rule is applied. This type of rule will typically be used where it s simpler to have a single rule to create, position and orientate several components rather than have individual rules. For example: To build pipes of fixed geometry using a single rule to position and orientate all the components. To build templates for parts of branches, for example, a control loop at the start of a branch.

The Selection part of the rule will identify a key component: for example, you could identify Valves which will require control loops by setting a UDA to a certain value, and then setting the selection expression to select all the Valves with the given attribute value. The PML function will then create, position and orientate the components and finally set the head working point attribute to the last component covered by the rule. Pipe Router will then take over and route the Branch. A suitable PML function is shown following. Note that at the end of the positioning and orientating commands, the RLOC attribute is set to 0 (Locked).

define object PREPROCESS member .CEREF is DBREF endobject define method .RULEMETHOD() if ( !THIS.CEREF.owner.phdir.east gt 0 ) then prev tee ori and p3 is n dist 200 rloc 0 $!THIS.CEREF ori pa is w pos polar e dist 350 from prev tee rloc 0 next tee ori pa is w and p3 is n pos polar e dist 250 from pl of $!THIS.CEREF

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rloc 0 valv 1 of cref ori pa is w and p3 is up at w 500 wrt $!THIS.CEREF rloc 0 elseif ( !THIS.CEREF.owner.phdir.east lt 0 ) then prev tee ori and p3 is s dist 200 rloc 0 $!THIS.CEREF ori pa is e pos polar w dist 350 from prev tee rloc 0 next tee ori pa is e and p3 is s pos polar w dist 250 from pl of $!THIS.CEREF rloc 0 valv 1 of cref ori pa is e and p3 is up at w 600 wrt $!THIS.CEREF rloc 0 elseif ( !THIS.CEREF.owner.phdir.north lt 0 ) then prev tee ori and p3 is e dist 200 rloc 0 $!THIS.CEREF ori pa is n pos polar s dist 350 from prev tee rloc 0 next tee ori pa is n and p3 is e pos polar s dist 250 from pl of $!THIS.CEREF rloc 0 valv 1 of cref ori pa is n and p3 is up at w 500 wrt $!THIS.CEREF rloc 0 elseif ( !THIS.CEREF.owner.phdir.north gt 0 ) then prev tee ori and p3 is w dist 200 rloc 0 $!THIS.CEREF ori pa is s pos polar n dist 350 from prev tee rloc 0 next tee ori pa is s and p3 is w pos polar n dist 250 from pl of $!THIS.CEREF rloc 0 valv 1 of cref ori pa is s and p3 is up at w 500 wrt $!THIS.CEREF rloc 0 endif

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endmethod
The input to Pipe Router would be Pipes with a main Branch with the following sequence of components defined: Tee Valve with Stype CH Tee

There would also be a second Branch, owning a Valve, with the Branch Head and Tail connected to the two Tees in the main Branch, which will form the control loop. The rule to call the function could be defined as shown:

The rule is applied to the elements required in the normal way. An example of the control loop created is shown in the following picture.

Note: PDMS Router will lock the Tees and the Valves in position, so that they cannot be moved by any rules which are subsequently applied.

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Selection

Bend or elbow selection (BEND)

Logical, no Action

This rule will choose the type of component used to change direction. For example, the selection expression could be:

ALL BRAN MEM WITH ATTRIB ABORE LE 65


and the logical:

( ATTRIB TYPE EQ BEND )


This will ensure that all Branches with bores less than or equal to 65 will use Bends rather than Elbows.

The default method of changing direction, set on the Pipe Router Defaults window, is using Elbows.

The default method of changing direction, set on the Pipe Router Defaults window, is using a Rule. The rule specifies that small bore pipes change direction using Bends Note: This rule will only be applied if you set the Change direction using option on the PDMS Router Defaults window to Rule. Reducer Selection (REDU) Logical, no Action

This rule will specify whether concentric or eccentric reducers are selected. For example, if the default reducers in a specification are eccentric, and you want concentric reducers in

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vertical sections of pipe but eccentric reducers in horizontal sections, the Selection expression in the rule could be:

ALL REDU WITH ( ATTRIB ADIR EQ U AND ATTRIB ADIR EQ D )


The logical expression to specify eccentric reducers in all the selected cases would be:

( ATTRIB STYP EQ CON )

The default reducer in the Specification is eccentric. Positioning

The rule specifies that reducers on vertical legs are concentric

There are two pseudo-attributes which are particularly useful in positioning expressions: STAP STLE is the length of straight tube before the component. is the length of straight tube after the component.

The lengths are measured from the component up to one of the following: A change of direction A change of bore The start or end of the branch One of the following components: VALV, VFWA, VTWA, FILT, PCOM, TEE and CROSS. (Any connection components such as flanges or gaskets are ignored.) Logical, can have Action

Downstream pipe requirement (DNSM)

This rule controls the length of straight pipe which is downstream from the previous component. If the rule logical fails, the action, if it exists, will be applied. The action should be an expression that moves the component a distance from the previous to ensure a straight length of pipe. For example: Selection

ALL TEE WITH ( ATTRIB APOS EQ ATTRIB LPOS )


Logical

( ATTRIB STLE GT ATTRIB ABORE * 10 )

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You can omit the action by setting the Action field on the window to unset, but the result may be unpredictable, particularly if other rules are being applied, and it is not recommended. If no action exists, and component positioning is head relative, the component will be moved 2/3 the distance along the leg, and then re-tested. If component positioning is tail relative, the preceding component will be moved if necessary when it is positioned.

A Tee is positioned by default.

The rule is applied and the Tee is moved 2/3 of the distance along the leg between the Elbow and the Routing Plane Upstream pipe requirement (UPSM) Logical, can have Action

This rule controls the length of straight pipe which is upstream from the next component. Selection

ALL TEE WITH ( ATTRIB APOS EQ ATTRIB LPOS )


Logical

ATTRIB STAP GT ATTRIB ABORE * 10


An example of an action is:

POLAR AXES PREVPP DIST 4 IN FROM PREVPP


where the POLAR AXES keywords are used to specify a position in terms of a distance in a given direction from a point, and PREVPP is the previous p-point.

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You can omit the action by setting the Action field on the window to unset, but the result may be unpredictable, particularly if other rules are being applied, and it is not recommended. If no action exists, and component positioning is tail relative, the component will be moved 1/3 of the upstream distance, and then re-tested. If component positioning is head relative, the following component will be moved if necessary when it is positioned. Elevation (ELEV) Logical, can have Action

This rule controls the elevation of a component. The following example uses the CLOSEST keyword in the logical expression to specify that components must be positioned at a height greater or equal to 0.61m vertically above an EQUI whose purpose is FLOO. Selection

ALL BRANCH MEMBERS


Logical

ATTRIB UP WRT CLOSEST EQUI WITH ( PURP EQ FLOO ) DOWN GE .61M


A position on the closest vertical segment of pipe equal to the required elevation will be found. If no position on the existing pipe can be found, the action will be applied with the position adjusted to minimise the use of bends or elbows. If the logical test is False, any action set will be applied. Location (LOCA) Logical, can have Action

This rule is used to position a component at a given location. The following example is a test for a component in a sub-branch being positioned at p-point 4 of the connecting component in the owning branch:

ATTRIB APOS EQ ATTRIB PPOS 4 OF HREF OF OWNER


If the logical test fails, the action will be applied and the test repeated. If it fails again, a message is output. The corresponding action expression would be:

ATTRIB PPOS 4 OF HREF OF OWNER


This will position the component at p-point 4 of the connecting component in the owning branch. Orientation

Major axis

Logical, no Action

This rule controls the major orientation of the component, which is the arrive/leave axis. For example:

ATTRIB ADIR EQ D

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If this fails, the component will be moved to each leg in turn until one is found that passes. No action is allowed. Minor axis Logical, can have Action

This rule controls the minor orientation of a component, which is the axis perpendicular to the arrive/leave axis. Frequently this axis is the direction of a valve handwheel. For example:

ATTRIB P3 DIR EQ D
If the rule logical fails, the action will be applied. If the logical then fails, the component will be moved to another leg, and re-tested. If the component clashes, it will be moved along the leg and then re-tested. If there is no action, the component will be rotated in increments of 90 degrees to find a nonclashing orientation which passes the rule. If after four attempts it still fails, the component will be moved along the leg and retried. If no suitable positions are found on the leg, the component will be moved to the next leg and the procedure repeated. Examples using PML Functions The following example shows how you could call PML functions from the Logical and Action expressions in a Minor Axis rule for positioning a Valve at and angle of 45 degrees. First, the Logical expression will be set to ( 'minological' ), which will call the following PML function:

define object MINOLOGICAL member .CEREF is DBREF member .RESULT is BOOLEAN endobject define method .RULEMETHOD() !THIS.RESULT = false if ( !THIS.CEREF.ADIR.east ne 0 ) then !THIS.RESULT = ( !THIS.CEREF.PDIR[3].up eq 0.707107 and !THIS.CEREF.PDIR[3].north lt 0 ) elseif ( !THIS.CEREF.ADIR.north ne 0 ) then !THIS.RESULT = ( !THIS.CEREF.PDIR[3].up eq 0.707107 and !THIS.CEREF.PDIR[3].east gt 0 ) . . . . . . endif endmethod
If the Logical test evaluates to False, that is, if P3 does not have the specified orientation, the Action will be carried out. The Action expression is set to ( 'minoaction' ), which orientates the P3 direction of the component:

define object MINOACTION member .CEREF is DBREF endobject define method .RULEMETHOD() if ( !THIS.CEREF.ADIR.east ne 0 ) then ORI and p3 is s 45 d elseif ( !THIS.CEREF.ADIR.north ne 0 ) then ORI and p3 is e 45 d

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endif endmethod
Clash Exclusion

Clash Exclusion (CLEX)

Logical

A Clash Exclusion rule allows certain clashes to be approved in advance. A use for this is specifying that only non hazardous pipes are allowed in certain areas. Clash exclusion rules can use expressions or functions. Example using Expressions For example, the following rule can be used where two groups of elements are always allowed to clash. In this case, Branches carrying radioactive material have their PURP attribute set to RADI. All Zones which are safe for humans to enter have their PURP set to HUMA. The rule allows all Branches whose PURP is not set to RADI to pass through all human zones: Selection

ALL BRAN MEM WITH ( PURP OF BRAN NEQ RADI )


Logical

( PURP OF ZONE EQ HUMA )


The selection part of the rule is used to identify the Branch or Branch member which is clashing and the logical applies to the obstruction clashing with the Branches. Example using a PML Function If a more complicated solution is needed, use a PML function. A simple example is

define object CLASH member .CEREF is DBREF member .OBSREF is DBREF member .RESULT is BOOLEAN endobject define method .RULEMETHOD() !THIS.RESULT = false if ( !THIS.CEREF.owner.name eq '/ROUTE2-1' and !THIS.OBSREF.owner.name eq '/OBSTR42' ) then !THIS.RESULT = true endif endmethod
Pipe Racks and Routing Planes Automatic routing along Pipe Racks is described in Creating and Using Pipe Racks. In summary, PDMS Router sees a Pipe Rack as a group of routing planes. Each plane will have its FUNCTION attribute set, for example to UTIL for planes which are going to route utilities pipes. You should also ensure that Branches which will be routed along Pipe Racks have their PURPOSE attribute set appropriately, so that you can identify which Branches should be routed along a given plane.

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Note: In these rules, the selection expression selects Branches. The logical test is applied to the Planes on the Pipe Rack. Travel Plane Selection Logical, no Action

This rule will control which travel plane of a pipe rack is used to carry a particular branch. An example of the selection expression, which would apply the rule to all Branches to with Purpose set to COOLING, is:

ALL BRAN WITH ( PURP EQ COOLING)


An example of the logical test, which will route the selected Branches along the Plane with its Function set to UTIL would be:

FUNCTION EQ UTIL
Note: It is important to use the FUNCTION attribute in rule writing for the rule logical since the PURPOSE attribute is used internally. Entry Plane Selection Logical, no Action

This rule will determine which entry plane is used to control a branch as it enters a pipe rack. Normally there will be one above and one below, to allow for branches with both liquid and vapour contents to use the rack. An example of the selection might be:

ALL BRAN WITH ( PURP EQ COOLING AND :CONT EQ GAS)


Note that both the PURPOSE and :CONTENT attributes would need to be set on the branch for the rule selection to take effect. An example of the test could be:

FUNCTION EQ UTIL.
This would cause pipes containing gas for cooling to use the upper entry/exit plane to get to/ from the UTIL travel plane. Note: It is important to use the FUNCTION attribute in rule writing for the rule logical since the PURPOSE attribute is used internally. Exit Plane Selection Logical, no Action

This rule will determine which exit plane is used to control a branch as it exits a pipe rack. Normally there will be one above and one below, to allow for branches with both liquid and vapour contents to use the rack. An example of the selection might be:

ALL BRAN WITH ( PURP EQ COOLING AND :CONT EQ GAS)


Note that both the PURPOSE and :CONTENT attributes would need to be set on the branch for the rule selection to take effect. An example of the test could be:

FUNCTION EQ UTIL
This would cause pipes containing gas for cooling to use the upper entry/exit plane to get to/ from the UTIL travel plane. Shoe Height Real

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Branches routed via planes or pipe-racks can be offset by a user-specified distance from the plane to allow for shoe-heights. The shoe-height is specified using rules with PURPose SHOE. For example: Selection:

( ALL BRAN ALL BRAN MEM ) WITH ( ISPEC OF BRAN NE NULREF )


Action:

(PH OD * 0.25 )
Note: The Action specifies the distance from the Pipe OD. Subtract the insulation thickness if the shoe height if measured from the bottom of the Pipe. Heavy Pipe Logical, no Action

You can specify that heavy pipes are placed at the edges of routing planes and light ones at the centre. When you choose this packing method, the PLPM attribute of the plane will be set to WEIG, and PDMS Router will look for a weight rule to determine whether pipes are light or heavy. The logical expression will evaluate to False if the pipe is to be placed at the edge of the rack. For example: Selection:

ALL BRAN MEM


Logical:

( ATTRIB ABOR LT 300 MM)


All Pipes with Bore greater than 300mm will be placed at the edge of the rack. See Packing Methods for more details of Pipe packing methods. Extra Gap Real

This rule allows you to specify an additional gap between some pipes, for example, very hot pipes. Additional gaps are determined by rules applied to the default bend or elbow of a branch. For example, for branches with temperature greater than 500 degrees, the following rule will give an additional gap of 0.2 times the arrive bore of the component: Selection:

ALL BRAN MEM WITH ( TEMP OF OWNER GE 500 )


Action:

( ATTRIB ABOR * 0.2)


For more details of additional gaps, see Additional Gaps. Flange Width (FLWI) Real

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Flange width rules are used to set the gap between Pipes on Routing Planes and Pipe Racks when the Pipe run on the plane includes Flanges. The rule is applied to the default Flange for the Pipe. The gap can be calculated in several ways. Example 1 Selection:

ALL FLAN
Action:

( 0.25 * ATTRIB ABORE )


Example 2 Uses flange parameters: Selection:

ALL FLAN
Action:

ACTION ( CPARA[2] + CPARA[3] )


Example 3 The next example uses a property of the Flange, which would be specified in a dataset as follows:

Owner /FLANGE.DATA.SET Description Flange width Property DKEY FLWI Ptype BORE Pproperty ( ATTRIB ABOR * 1.5 ) Dproperty 0 Purpose unset Number 0 Dtitle unset Punits mm Ruse 0
The rule could then be: Selection:

ALL FLAN WITH ( PSPE EQ /A150)


Action:

ACTION ( PROP FLWI )


For more detailed information about how Flange widths are calculated, see Flanges on Routing Planes.

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Post-processing

Post-processing (POPR)

Logical, will have Action

All rules with this Purpose will be executed after a Branch has been successfully routed. They can be used to add extra details to a Branch such as Drains and Vents or slope the line. The Action will normally be a PML function, which must have been defined before the rule is applied. The following example creates an expansion loop:

define object POSTPROCESS member .CEREF is DBREF endobject define method .RULEMETHOD() exit $!THIS.CEREF new elbo select ori and pl is up dist 1000 rloc 2 new elbo select ori and pl is $!THIS.CEREF.LDIR dist 300 rloc 2 new elbo select ori and pl is d dist 300 rloc 2 new elbo select ori and pl is $!THIS.CEREF.LDIR dist 300 rloc 2 router endmethod
The following illustrations show a Branch, with and without the Post-processing Rule applied.

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Figure 8:14. The Branch without Post-processing

Figure 8:15. The Branch after Post-processing, with expansion loops inserted.

8.2.2

Creating and Editing Routing Rules


PDMS stores rules within a hierarchy. There are two administrative elements within the hierarchy: Rule World, whose type is RLWL Rule Set, whose type is RLST

PDMS stores routing rules, whose type is GRUL, within a rule set. When you create a new rule, you define the type of rule you want by selecting the correct purpose. You then create the rule by defining the expressions within it. Then you can apply the rule to individual branches or all the branches in a particular site, zone or pipe. By default, all rules in the rule sets applied to a branch will be considered to be applied to each component in the branch. However, you can also disable any of the rules, or apply rules from other rule sets, to any individual component. A sample set of rules is provided with Pipe Router in the SampleProject. The Rule World is named /PIPES-RULES, and it owns several rule sets. The rules in the rule sets are

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examples which you can use to build your own set, and do not necessarily represent good engineering practise.

Exercise begins:
To create a rule world: 1. 2. 3. From the Pipe Router window, select Settings > Routing Rules. The Routing Rules window is displayed. Select Create > Rule World. The Create Rule World window is displayed. Enter a name for the world in the Name field, then click OK.

The rule world is created and is displayed in the Members List. You can now create a rule set within the rule world. To create a rule set: 1. 2. 3. 4. Ensure that you are currently at the level of the Rule World in which you want to create the rule set. From the Routing Rules window, select Create > Rule Set. The Create Rule Set window is displayed. Enter a name for the set in the Name field. Enter the function of the rule set, in the Function field. The function is simply a descriptive term which enables you and other users to identify the purpose of the rules contained within the rule set. Click OK. The set is displayed in the Members List. You can now create routing rules and store them within the rule set.

5.

Creating a Routing Rule

Exercise begins:
In the following procedure, you will create a rule to ensure that the default orientation of all gate valves is North. 1. From the Pipe Router window, select Settings > Routing Rules. The Routing Rules window is displayed.

2. 3.

Select where the rule is to be stored by first selecting the rule world from the Current Rule World option list, and then the rule set from the Current Rule Set option list. Select Create > Rule > New to create a new rule.

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You will notice that there is a Copy option available from the Create Rule menu. This option enables you to select an existing rule and use its details as the starting point for a new rule. To create a copy rule, you simply select the rule you want to copy, then select Create > Rule > Copy. You can then modify the details to suit your purpose. You do not want to do this in this exercise. Instead, you will continue to create a new rule. The Create Rule window is displayed. 4. 5. Enter a name for the rule in the Name field. This is the name of the rule element (GRUL) that will be displayed in the Members List. Click OK. The Rule Attributes window is displayed, as shown.

Note: When you create a copy of a rule, the Rule Attributes window is displayed, filled in with the details of the copied rule. You can then simply edit the details of the rule. 6. 7. 8. Enter a description of the rule in the field at the top of the window. The description will be displayed in the Routing Rules window. Set the Purpose option list to Orientate on minor axes. Enter the expression ALL VALV WITH (ATTRIB STYP EQ GATE), in the Selection field. This expression tells PDMS Router that the rule is applicable to all valves that have their attribute STYP set to GATE, that is, all gates valves. Enter the expression ( ATTRIB PDIR 3 EQ N ), in the Logical field. This expression checks whether or not the direction of P3 on each gate valve is set to north. If it is, then the gate valve meets the criteria of the rule and no action is taken. If the direction of P3 is not north, then PDMS Router performs the action expression described in the next step. Enter the expression (AXES PP 3 IS N AND AXES PL IS AXES PL OF PREV), in the Action field. This expression tells PDMS Router to change the direction of P3 to north, and make the leave direction the same as for the previous component. 10. The Rule Attributes window should now look as shown.

9.

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11. Click Apply. Pipe Router creates the routing rule. You can now apply the rule to a Branch in the usual way. 12. You can test the rule before you use it. Set the Test Rule drop-down list to the extent of the test. This will perform the selection operation defined for the rule, then perform the logical test for each component selected, and report which components passed and which failed. Modifying a Routing Rule This section describes how to edit a routing rule, using as an example the sample rules supplied in the rule set TRAVEL-RULES. The rules are modified to give a better route for the pipe rack example in Creating and Using Pipe Racks. Using Rules to Specify How Pipes Use a Pipe Rack You can specify the type of pipes you want to route on each level of a pipe rack, using routing rules. For example, you can tell Pipe Router to place all process pipes on the bottom level of a rack and all utility pipes on the top level of a rack. If you have more than one entry/ exit plane, you can specify the way in which pipes enter onto and exit from a particular level. You may, for example, have all liquid utility pipes climbing onto a travel plane and all gas utility pipes dropping onto the same travel plane. In this exercise, you will edit the example pipe rack rules that are supplied with Pipe Router and apply them to avoid the pockets created by the default route. Exercise begins: 1. From the Pipe Router window, select Settings > Routing Rules. The Routing Rules window is displayed. The Rules available are supplied in the sample project. Make sure that the Current Rule World is set to PIPE-RULES and the Current Rule Set is TRAVEL-RULES.

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There are three Rules supplied: a Travel Plane Rule, an Entry Plane rule and an Exit Plane rule. 2. To see the expressions in the rules, select a rule in the list and then select Modify > Rule on the Routing Rules window. You will see the Rule Attribute window. The display for the Travel Rule as shown.

On this window, note that: The Selection text box contains the expression

ALL BRAN WITH ( ATTRIB PURP OF OWNER EQ PROC )


This means that the Rule can be applied to all Branches owned by Pipes whose PURP attribute is set to PROC. The Logical text box contains the expression:

( ATTRIB FUNC EQ 'PROCESS' )


This means that the Travel Planes must have their FUNC attribute set to PROCESS. To see the expressions in other rules, select the rule in the list on the Routing Rules window and click Current Rule on the Rule Attributes window. The Entry and Exit Plane rules as supplied both have their Logical expressions set to:

( ATTRIB FUNC EQ 'ENTRY' )


The next step is to change the Logical expression for the Exit Rule.

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3.

Select the Exit rule in the list on the Routing Rules window and click Current Rule on the Rule Attributes window. Change the Logical expression to be:

( ATTRIB FUNC EQ 'EXIT' )


4. Before you can test the rules, you must set the Pipe PURP attribute to PROC. Make Pipe 2001 the Current Element Select Modify > Attributes Global from the Pipework Application main menu bar. When the Global Attribute Change window is displayed: Select Purpose from the list of attributes Set the All attribute data option Enter PROC into the with text box.

5.

Click Apply on the Global Attribute Change window.

Now back to the Rule Attributes window to test, for example, the exit plane rule. Select the exit Plane rule in the list and make sure that Pipe 2001 is the Current Element. Set the Test Rule option to Pipe. The Rule Testing window will be displayed, which should tell you that 1 Branch has been selected for the rule but 0 Plane. No Planes have been selected because there are no Planes with Function set to EXIT. Modify the Functions of the Planes in the Pipe Rack as follows. Make the Pipe Rack the current element and select Modify > Pipe Rack from the Pipe Router window menu. On the Modify Pipe Rack window, change the Function of the planes as follows: Level 1 Upper Entry/Exit Plane: Level 1 Travel Plane: Level 1 Lower Entry/Exit Plane: EXIT PROC ENTRY

6.

7.

Associate the Rule with the Branches required. Select the Branch 2001/B1 on the Routing Rules window. Select Settings > Branch Rules from the menu on the PDMS Router window. On the Branch Rules window, set Apply rule sets to All Selected Branches. Select HIGH, and the rule will be added to the window.

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Now re-route the Pipe. A more satisfactory route will be obtained. Deleting a Rule World, Rule Set or Routing Rule To delete a rule world, rule set, or routing rule: 1. Navigate to the rule world and rule set you want to delete from the Current Rule World and Current Rule Set drop-down lists. 2. If you are deleting a rule, select the rule you wish to delete from the routing rules list. 3. Select Delete > Rule World, Delete > Rule Set or Delete > Rule, as required. You can also use the Delete options on the Pipework Application main menu bar.

8.2.3

Placing Pipes on Racks and Planes


This section describes how to set up rules which control: How spacing between Pipes on pipe racks and routing planes is calculated from Flanges on the Pipes. How the weight of a Pipe can affect Pipe Rack Packing. Shoe Height.

Flanges on Routing Planes By default, Pipe Router will run pipes along Routing planes with the wall-to-wall Pipe Gap given on the Pipe Router Defaults window. See Automatic Pipe Routing using Pipe Router for details. If you need to run sections of Pipes which include Flanges along routing planes, you can specify that the gap value will be applied as a wall-to-flange (WF) gap, if the flanges can be staggered, or as a flange-to-flange (FF) gap, if the flanges are side-by-side on the plane. The default is wall-to-wall (WW) spacing. The spacing is controlled by the PLWW attribute of the RPLA. PLWW can be set to WW, WF or FF. If WW or WF spacing is specified, the Pipe Router will look for rules of type FLWI and apply them. The size of flange is found using the Flange Width (FLWI) rule, which is applied to the default flange (i.e. the flange which is obtained with an AVEVA PDMS SELECT) for each branch at its current bore, even if there are other flanges on the pipe rack. When wall-to-flange spacing is used, the greater of the flange widths for the current pipe and the adjacent pipe will be added to the wall-to-wall spacing. When flange-to-flange spacing is used, the flange width of both pipes will be added to the wall-to-wall gap.

Note: The flange width taken as 0 if: No flange width rule is applied. Either branch does not have a default flange.

If necessary you can also specify an additional pipe-specific gap, for example, for very hot pipes. Example of Wall-to-Flange Spacing If a rule is used, so that the flange width is set to 1.5 x bore, then wall-to-flange spacing is calculated as follows.

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The constant gap is set to 50mm. Then the centre of an insulated branch of OD 200mm, bore 100mm would be placed 435mm from the centre of an adjacent branch of OD 150mm, bore 140mm.

Example of Flange-to-Flange Spacing If the rule sets the flange width to 1.5 x bore, then flange-to-flange spacing is calculated as follows: OD Pipe A Flange width Pipe A Gap Flange width Pipe B OD Pipe B Total 100 150 50 210 75 585

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Packing Methods There are two packing methods available. Pipe Router will either place a pipe on a plane as near as possible to the edge of the plane, or pack heavy pipes at the edges of racks and light ones at the centre. The packing method is an attribute of the Routing Plane. It can be set for the Travel Plane of pipe-racks and for individual planes. If you select the By Weight method, the PLPM (Plane Packing Method) attribute of the plane will be set to WEIG, and Pipe Router will look for a weight rule, (PURP set to WEIG), to determine whether pipes are light or heavy. You can use weight rules to determine whether pipes are packed at the top or bottom of vertical planes Horizontal Routing Planes In the weight-related packing method on horizontal planes, for heavy pipes Pipe Router will search inwards from both edges looking for a free slot with a large enough gap between it and any adjacent pipe. The heavy pipe will be placed closest to whichever edge a slot is found. For light pipes Router will first look in the middle of the plane or rack to see if this slot is free. Router will then search in both directions outwards looking for a free slot and use the closer to the centre. Pipes for which no rule exists will be treated as light pipes and placed in the centre of the rack or plane. Vertical Routing Planes The weight-related packing method can also be applied to vertical routing planes with a horizontal travel direction. If the weight-related packing method is used then, for light pipes, Pipe Router will search downwards from the top edge of the routing plane edges looking for a free slot with a large enough gap between it and any adjacent pipe. For heavy pipes Pipe Router will search upwards from the bottom edge of the plane. Pipes for which no rule exists will be treated as light pipes.

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You cannot use weight-related packing for a vertical plane with a vertical travel direction.

Example of Weight-related Packing If the third and sixth pipes to be packed on a rack are heavy and the others are light, the placement of pipes will be:

Additional Gaps Sometimes certain pipes need to be placed further than others from their neighbours. Process pipes might need to be separated more than utility pipes. Extra-hot pipes, or pipes which will need tracing where the tracing has not been represented by the insulation, should have wider gaps beside them. The size of any additional space required can be found using an additional gap rule (Purpose ADGP) applied to the default bend or elbow of each branch at its current bore. Example Assume WF spacing is used, with a rule that the flange-width is 1.5 x bore and that the user has a constant 50mm gap. Then the centre of an insulated branch of OD 200mm, bore 100mm, extra gap 20mm would be placed 465mm from the centre of an adjacent branch of OD 150mm, bore 140mm extra gap 10mm.

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Shoe Heights Branches routed via planes or pipe-racks can be offset by a user-specified distance from the plane to allow for shoe-heights. The user specifies the shoe-height using rules. The Rules should have PURPose SHOE. Rules with purpose SHOE do not have a logical part. Their action is a real expression giving the shoe height. Note: The Shoe Height is calculated from the bottom of the pipe not the insulation The real value (h) returned from a shoe height rule is used to specify the height, above a rack or plane, of the bottom of the insulation. However, you may wish to specify a shoe height (H) with respect to the bottom of the pipe itself. This is shown in the following diagram:

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Insulation

Pipe

( Insulation parameter[1] ) Shoe H h

Rack or Plane

Using the shoe height rule, you can specify the shoe height as the expression:

h = H - ( Insulation parameter[1])
Example Rule with shoe height H of 200mm: Selection:

( ALL BRANCH ALL BRANCH MEMBERS ) WITH ( IPAR[1] ) )


Action:

NOT UNSET ( ATTRIB

( 200mm - 0.5 * ATTRIB IPAR[1] )


Importing Data from P&ID Files If your P&ID system is configured so that it is capable of outputting data for use in AVEVA PDMS, you can load your P&ID file into Pipe Router. This section describes which attributes must be set before the P&ID data can be imported, and also the P&ID file format. Note: The P&ID file is imported by selecting Create > Add New Pipes From P&ID. The P&ID Import window is displayed. Attribute Settings You must ensure that the following branch and component attributes are set.

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Branch Attributes: Pspec Ispec Piping Specification to use Insulation Specification to use

If the head connects to another branch, set: Href Name of the element to which the head connects.

If the head is unconnected (Href is unset), set: Hbor Hcon Lhead Hpos Hdir The bore of the head. Connection type of the head. TRUE - indicates that Hpos is a valid position. The position of the head. Direction of the head.

If the tail connects to another branch, set: Tref The name of the element to which the tail connects.

If a tail is unconnected, set the following attributes: Tcon Tbor Connection type of the tail. The bore of the tail.

If the tail is unconnected (Tref is unset), then you do not need to set its position. If the tails position is fixed, set: Ltail Tpos Tdir TRUE - indicates that Lpos is a valid position. Position of tail The direction of the tail.

Alternatively, you can leave both Ltail, Tdir, and Tpos unset. In this case, PDMS Router will calculate the position based upon the components in the branch, and any component and tube rules that apply. Component Attributes You must set the Spref attribute. The Neutral Description Language This Section describes a neutral description language which you can use to extract an intermediate ASCII file from your P&ID system. You can then use the file to recreate the P&ID in AVEVA PDMS for use with Pipe Router. Before you attempt to create a neutral flat file, be aware of the following points: All characters must be in upper case, except for names of elements, which can be standard AVEVA PDMS format (/Pipe-1-B2). All comments take up one line and have two hyphens and a space as the first three characters.

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You can insert blank lines, if required. You can use the space bar and tab to create space between fields and commands.

When you create a pipe or branch, the first command you must enter is START, which enters set-up mode. Any elements that you create while you are in set-up mode belong to the significant element specified in the last START command. The general format of the file is as follows:

START PIPE /pipe_name... START BRANCH /branch_name... ...elements... END START BRANCH /branch_name... ...elements... END END
Where element can be one of the following types:

CAP INST REDU TEE VALV VENT OLET


For example: -- Here is a simple example of a neutral flat file.

START PIPE /Pipe2 PSPEC /DDD BORE 200 ISPEC /A1D START BRANCH /branch-1 HREF /PUMP1/N1 TREF /VESS1/NOZZ2 BORE 150 TEE /TEE3 80 VALV /VALVE2 GLOBE END END
Before you perform an import, you must create the equipment that you require. This enables the pipes to set the HREF and TREF on the nozzles of the equipment. It is assumed that the nozzle names are the same in both the P&ID and AVEVA PDMS. Each file must contain one or more pipes. Each pipe must have one or more branches. It is up to the P&ID system to decide what is a branch and what is a pipe. The following figure shows a simple P&ID.

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Pump 1

A B Vessel 1

Vessel 3

Vessel 2

The diagram could be represented as: or Pipe1/B1 (A), Pipe 1/B2 (B), Pipe1/B3 (C) and Pipe1/B4 (D). PipeA, PipeB, PipeC and PipeD

Command Syntax for P&ID Neutral Flat Files Anything in lower case is one of the following: value integer logical nl PIPE
>-START PIPE /pipe_name -+------------------. | | -PSPEC pipe_spec -+-------------. | | - BORE value +--cont continued >--+- ISPEC -- insulation_spec . | | |- TSPEC -- tracing_spec ----| | | |- PSPEC -- pipe_spec -------| | | |- INSU -- value ------------| | | |- PRES -- value ------------| | | |- attribute -- value -------| .--------. | | / | ----------------------------+- nl -*- branch -+- END ->

Positive or negative real number Positive integer TRUE or FALSE New line

where

branch attribute INSU value

is the syntax to define a branch, see below is any Pipe attribute is the thickness of the insulation.

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BRANCH
>-- START BRANCH /branch_name HREF /name ---> continued continued ---+-----------------------------. | | |- BORE integer --------------| | | |- PSPEC pipe_spec -----------| | | |- ISPEC insulation_spec -----| | | |- TSPEC tracing_spec --------| | | |- INSU insulation thickness -| | | |- PRES -- value -------------| | | |- attribute -- value --------| | | |- TREF /name ---------------- | | | .-------<-------. |/ | *---- element ----' | ---------------- nl -- END ->

where element is any of the following:

CAP REDU TEE VALV VENT INST OLET


Note

/pipe_name/cap_name /pipe_name/reducer_name /pipe_name/tee_name /pipe_name/valve_name /pipe_name/vent_name /pipe_name/inst_name /pipe_name/olet_name

stype stype stype stype stype stype stype value value

The STYPE set for each element can be omitted if a default STYP is set in the specification. For example, a Tee could be specified by either: TEE /tee-1 T-Type 200

or TEE /tee-1 200

if the default STYP is set to T-Type. It is recommended that specifications are set up with default STYPs so if the STYP is missing in the flat file a valid component will still be selected and Router can route it. In each case, element can optionally be followed by options from one or both of the following:
>----+--- PBOre integer ---------. | | |--- ANgle -----------------| | |

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|--| |--| |--| |--| |--| |--| |--| -->----+--| |--| |--| |--| |--| ---

RAdius ----------------| | ABOre -----------------| | ISPEC insulation_spec -| | TSPEC tracing_spec ----| | LBOre -----------------| | PREssure --------------| | TEMperature -----------| | RATing ----------------+--- uval --> STYpe -----------------. | TYpe ------------------| | ACOnn -----------------| | LCOnn -----------------| | PCOnn integer ---------+--- word --. | word ------------------+-- value --| | | -- word ---+--->

value is the new bore of the pipe for a Reducer (or enlarger), and the P3 bore for a Tee. Any change in bore along a branch can be specified by the BORE keyword. For example:

START PIPE /P-1 BORE 200 START BRANCH /B-1 BORE 100 REDU /R-1 BORE 50 END END
The bores at P1, P2 and P3 can be set individually. For example:

TEE /T-1 PBORE1 100 PBORE2 50 PBORE3 50


If a component is at a different bore to the rest of the pipe, for example, a reducing valve, its PBORE0 can be set. Pipe Router will insert a reducer automatically when routing the pipe. An example of this syntax is:

BRANCH /B-1 HREF /NOZZ-1 BORE 100 VALV /V-1 GATE PBORE0 50 END
If the PBORE0 is set on a REDU along with the BORE, it will be ignored. The tracing and insulation specifications can be set with the syntax:

element

TSPEC /tspec-1

ISPEC /ispec-1

Elements that appear in more than one branch will only be created once. For example: Valve /V-1 is included in branch /B-1 and /B-2. Branch /B-1 has its TREF set to /V-1 so the valve will not appear in /B-1. It is assumed /V-1 is an inline component for /B-2.

Example of a Neutral Flat File Below is an example of a typical neutral flat file. Different style layouts are shown for each pipe.

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-- File to test import from P&ID to Design - Pipes from Sheet X START PIPE /PIPE1 PSPEC /A3B BORE 300 ISPEC /XXX INSU 100 START BRANCH /first_branch HREF VESSEL1/NOZZ1/ TREF PUMP1/NOZZ1 VALV /VALVE1 GATE REDU /REDU1 200 TEE /TEE 200 TEE /Tee-2 PBORE3 200 VALV /VALVE2 GLOBE CAP /CAP1 OPEN END START BRANCH /second_branch HREF VESSEL1/NOZZ2 TSPEC /t-spec VALV /GATE_VALVE GATE REDU /REDU2 CONC 200 ISPEC /I-spec TSPEC /T-spec END END START PIPE /PIPE2 PSPE /A1D BORE 200 ISPEC /DDD INSU 50 START BRANCH /branch-1 HREF /NOZZ3 TREF PUMP1/NOZZ3 BORE 150 TEE /Tee3 TEE-TYPE PBORE3 50 END START BRANCH /branch-2 HREF VESSEL1/NOZZ4 TREF PUMP1/NOZZ4 VALV /Valve-safety1 GLOBE REDU /R-1-1 BORE 100 END END

8.2.4

Command Syntax
This section describes the syntax used in Pipe Router. Its purpose is to allow customers to build Router into their own systems, especially batch input, and to adapt the standard Applicationware. For most users, this should not be necessary as all important functionality is available via Applicationware. These commands can only be used in ROUTER mode. To switch from standard DESIGN to Router, give the command:

ROUTER
The following errors will result if Router is not available. (61,701) (71,702) (61,791) (61,792) (61,792) Cannot open router DSO due to:- <TEXT> Incorrect Router Library version. It is <INT> but should be <INT> No licenses available for Piperouter Piperouter security error <INT> Piperouter security error

To return to DESIGN, give the command:

EXIT
Note on element identifiers You should try to use AVEVA PDMS names as element identifiers. If a reference is output and then re-input, it can result in an invalid reference. Avoid referring to Elbows using ELBO n of /B1: Pipe Router re-creates Elbows every time a Branch is re-routed, and the numbering can easily get changed.

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Conventions Used in the Syntax Graphs The commands described in this chapter are presented in the form of syntax graphs. Commands are shown in a combination of uppercase and lowercase letters, where the capital letters indicate the minimum abbreviation. (Note: This convention does not mean that the second part of the command must be typed in lowercase letters; commands may be entered in any combination of uppercase and lowercase letters.) For example, the command ICONSTraint can be input in any of the following forms:

ICONST ICONSTR ICONSTRA ICONSTRAI ICONSTRAIN ICONSTRAINT


Commands shown in all uppercase letters cannot be abbreviated. Command arguments are shown in lowercase letters. These are just descriptions of what you need to enter. For example:

CLEAR n
means that to remove the constraint number 3 , you enter:

CLEAR 3
Syntax graphs are read from top left to bottom right. The start point is shown by >, and you can follow any path through the graph until the exit point, shown by >, is reached. Points marked with a plus sign (+) are option junctions which allow you to input any one of the commands to the right of the junction. For example:
>----+--- ABC -----. | | |--- PQR -----| | | -------------+--->

means you can type in ABC or PQR or just press Enter to get the default option. Text in angle brackets <. . . > is the name of another syntax graph. This convention is used for syntax which occurs in many places. The graphs referred to are described at the end of this section. For example:
>----+--- ABC -----. | | |--- PQR -----| | | |--- <dia> ---| | | -------------+--->

means you can type in ABC or PQR or any command allowed by the syntax given in diagram <dia> or just press Enter to get the default option. Points marked with an asterisk (*) are loop back junctions. Command options following these may be repeated as required. For example: .-----<-------. / | >---*--- option1 ---| | | |--- option2 ---|

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| | --- option3 ---+---> means that you can enter any combination of option1 and/or option2 and/or option3, where the options can be commands, other syntax diagrams, or command arguments. The simplified format: .----<------. / | >---*--- name ----+---> means that you may type in a list of AVEVA PDMS names, separated by at least one space.

Standard Syntax Graphs Some graphs contain references to other, standard syntax graphs which are widely used throughout AVEVA DESIGN. References to standard syntax graphs are shown in angle brackets:

<example>
For more information, refer to the AVEVA DESIGN Reference Manual. Ordering and Routing Branches Ordering is required when routing a number of branches so that the main branches are routed first before sub-branches such as drains and vents. This requires two commands: ORDER---<SELATT>-+--<SELATT>---. | | -------------+--> and then

VAR <VARNAME>
Can give the following error

ROUTE ORDer

(61,723) Could not order <REF> for routing


The ORDER command returns a collection of branch references sorted so that the main branches are first. A network of branches for a given branch can also be found with the command:

VAR <VARNAME>

ROUTE

NETwork name

And then to route the branches:


ROUTE --- <SELATT>-+--<SELATT>---. | | -------------+-->

If no branches or pipes are in the selection you get the following error:

(2,563) Wrong element type Branch constraints


A route can be constrained to pass through points, along planes or to use pipe racks with the following syntax. The current element must be a Branch.

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Points
NEW POINT -+- AT <DOPE>-+-DIRection <DOPE>-+-LEAVedir <DOPE>-+-AFTER name -. | | | | | - name -----+------------------+-----------------+-------------+-->

This creates a point in space with optional arrive and leave directions after either the head of the bran or one of its members. Planes and Racks
NEW PLANE name AFTER name --+-- LAST name ---. | | ----------------+-->

A plane should be defined by referencing a RPLA . When using a RPLA, the direction of travel is fixed as the X direction for single planes and travel planes and Y direction for entry and exit planes. For a rack the first name should be an RPLG which owns at least one RPLA with PURP PREX (that is, an entry/exit plane) and at least one RPLA with PURP not set to PREX (the travel plane). To remove a constraint use: CLEAR -+---- n ----. | | ---ALL ----+--> To move one constraint after another in the branch list. REORDer -- n ---+--AFTER---. | | --BEFORE--+--<INT> -> To move a constraint to after a different component in the branch list.

EDIT -- n ---+--AFTER--- name ->


To query constraints:

Q ICONSTraint NUMBer
will return the number of point and plane constraints for a branch.

Q ICONSTraint TYPE <INT>


will return the type for a given constraint.
Q ICONSTraint POINt <INT>-+--POSition ---------------------------. | | |--DIRection --------------------------| | | |--LEAVdirection ----------------------| | | |--COMPonent --------------------------| | | |--RELAtion ---------------------------| | | |--ACTUal-+--POSition------. | | | | | | |--DIRection-----| | | | | | | --LEAVdirection-+-WRT name -| | | | | --------------------------------------+->

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This allows the component parts of a point constraint to be queried. As the position and directions can be stored as expressions, the ACTUAL command returns the calculated values. Note: RELATION and FIXED need not be queried as they are always respectively AFTER and FIXED. If a DATUm is used as a point constraint, its position can be found by exiting from Router and querying its attributes in the normal manner.
Q ICONSTraint PLANe n ---+-- STARt --------------------------------. | | |-- FINIsh -------------------------------| | | |-- DIRection ----------------------------| | | |-- COMPonent ----------------------------| | | |-- LAStconent ---------------------------| | | |-- RELAtion -----------------------------| | | |-- RPLAne -------------------------------| | | |-- ACTUal -+--STARt ---. | | | | | | |--FINIsh --+-- WRT name -. | | | | | | --DIRection -------------+---| | | |-- ACTUal -------------------------------| | | |-- FIXed --------------------------------| | | -----------------------------------------+-->

Since a plane is defined using a RPLA, its dimensions are found by exiting from Router and querying its attributes in the normal manner.

Configuration
This allows the behaviour of Router to be modified. It has the following syntax: CONFiguration -+-| |-| |-| |-| |-| |-| -ERROR <WORD> ------| | DIRection <WORD> --| | PRSP <REAL> -------| | PRRO <REAL> -------| | ORDER <WORD> ------| | MODE <WORD> -------| | ITERation-- n -----+-->

ERROR can be set to MESS, in which case extra diagnostic messages are output during routing. DIRECTION can be set to BEND, ELBO or RULE and allows the change of direction elements to be specified. PRSP is the basic gap for pipe-rack spacing. PRRO is the gap rounding value for pipe-rack spacing.

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ORDER, MODE and ITERATION are not currently used in core PDMS Router, but can be used for the appware. To query configuration setting, use: Q CONFiguration -+-- ERROR -------. | | |-- DIRection ---| | | |-- PRSP --------| | | |-- PRRO --------| | | |-- ORDER -------| | | |-- MODE --------| | | |-- ITERation ---| | | ----------------+-->

General Rule Setting


The following syntax is for setting the SELECTION, LOGICAL and ACTION attributes of GRULES. The current element must be a GRULE.

GENEral RULEs SELEction <SELATT> GENEral RULEs LOGIcal <EXPZL> GENEral RULEs ACTIon <EXPRG> GENEral RULEs ACTIon
To query the attributes set:

UNSET

Q GENEral RULEs SELEction Q GENEral RULEs LOGIcal Q GENEral RULEs ACTIon


Rules can be used for routing in two ways. They can be SET, which means that a selection of GRULEs are set and then used in subsequent routing during the design session. Alternatively, rules can be STORED, which means that the same GRULES will be used in future routing, thus maintaining design intent. To specify which: GENEral RULEs USE --+--SET-----. | | --STOREd--+--> To SET rules: GENEral RULEs SET -+-HIGH-. | | |-LOW--| | | ------+-APPEnd------. | | |-OVERWrite---| | | -------------+-<SELATT>-+-<SELATT>-. | | | ----------+----------+->

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The defaults are LOW priority and OVERWRITE. Rules can then be UNSET with the following syntax. GENEral RULEs UNSET --<SELATT>--+--<SELATT>---. | | -------------+--> To query the set rules, the following syntax will return an array of GRULE references and their priority.

VAR <VARNAME> GRULEs SET


To STORE rules, the current element must be either a Bran, Pipe, Zone or Site. The stored rules will then apply to branches owned by that element. However, when determining which rules to use, the program navigates up until it finds some rules to apply. Thus, if rules have been saved for Zone and Site say, then only the Zone rules will be used. GENEral RULEs SAVE -+-HIGH-. | | |-LOW--| | | |------+-<SELATT>-+-OVERWrite --. | | | | |--APPEnd ----| | | | | -------------| | | -- SET ------------------------+--> The defaults are LOW priority and OVERWRITE. To query the rules saved:

Q GENEral RULEs SAVED


To remove the saved rules for a particular element:

GENEral RULEs UNSAVE Rule Testing


As writing rules is not always straightforward, the following functionality is provided to provide feedback. To test a branch member to see what rules apply to it and whether it passes them: VAR <VARNAME> GRULEs TEST --+--<WORD>---. | | -----------+--> The word is the type of rule to be tested, MAJO, MINO etc, and if not specified, all rules are tested. To test plane rules the current element needs to be the branch to be tested.

VAR <VARNAME> GRULEs PLANE name


where the GID is the RPLG to be tested. The returned results are the travel, entry and exit planes. A branch member can also be tested by applying the action part of a rule to it with:

GENEral RULEs APPLY WORD


The word is the type of rule to be tested, MAJO, MINO etc. Note if the element passes the rule already, then no action is carried out.

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Router Banner
Pipe Router has its own banner which can be queried (in Router mode) with the command:

Q BANNer

8.2.5

Special Router Attributes


There are a number of special attributes used by Pipe Router. These are described below. RLOC Attribute of branch members. Determines whether element is to be deleted or repositioned by Router. RLOC = -1 RLOC = 0 RLOC = 1 RLOC = 2 HREL Attribute of branch members. Logical. Determines if component should be placed as near to Head as possible (TRUE) or as close to Tail as possible (FALSE). If a component is tailrelative it will force all components between it and the next locked component or constraint towards the Tail. The default is TRUE. BRLO Attribute of branch set and used by Pipe Router. Users should not normally set BRLO. If you are routing a branch which has already been positioned, it is better to unset BRLO and then set LHEAD and LTAIL as appropriate. Indicates whether the head and /or tail of branch is fixed or free. If the head / tail is connected to a nozzle or a piping component the value of BRLO is ignored. If the HREF is unset then the head must be positioned (LHEAD true) and the head of the branch is fixed. Thus the head lock is only relevant when the head is connected to the tail of another branch. If the head is fixed the tail of the connected branch will be positioned where the head of this branch is, but if the head is not fixed the head of this branch will be positioned at the tail of the connected branch. If TREF is unset the tail can be positioned and the tail of the branch fixed; or the tail can be free -when Router will calculate a position for it. When the tail is connected to the head of another branch it will be positioned where the head of that branch is unless the tail is fixed. ( N.B. Router does not consider the possibility of branches connected head-to-head or tailto-tail) BRLO = 0 BRLO = 4 BRLO = 5 unset; Router will use LHEAD / LTAIL to calculate BRLO if necessary free head and free tail fixed head and free tail Unset Non-deletable and positionable. Locked Deletable

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BRLO = 6 BRLO = 7

free head and fixed tail fixed head and fixed tail

If BRLO is not set before calling Router, then HREF, LHEAD, TREF and LTAIL attributes are used to set to a suitable value. BRSTATUS The setting of the BRSTATUS (Branch Status) attribute shows the routed status of the Branch. These values can be used in Autocolour rules so that Branches can be displayed in different colours according to whether they have been routed successfully or not. The values are as follows: 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 PLPP Attribute of RPLA. Shows where on a plane to place branches. PLPP = ABOV PLPP = BELO PLPP = CENT The default is CENT. PURP - (RPLA) For pipe racks, indicates which are entry/exit planes. PURP = PREX - Entry/exit plane If not set to PREX, then it is assumed to be a travel plane. PURP - (GRUL) The PURP attribute of a GRULE indicates the type of rule. place above the plane place below the plane place at the centre of the plane Not Routed Routed successfully All routes clash - Using default Clash using route Route breaks rule Routed ignoring invalid constraint list Cannot find required component - Datacon will fail System error - Unable to route branch Serious data error - Unable to route branch Error whilst routing branch Route violates minimum tube length

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9
9.1

Pipework Spooling
Introduction
SPOOLER is the pipework spooling module for AVEVA PDMS. It allows you to split the pipework design into logical sections (spools) ready for fabrication. The spool data can then be output as isometric drawings using ISODRAFT. SPOOLER works with Spool Drawings (SPLDRGs), which are created by selecting an interconnected network of piping components to be added to the drawing. Once you have selected the elements, the application checks that your selections form a valid piping network. Spool Drawings contain a number of complete Spool and Field elements, divided by Spool Breaks, where a SPOOL is defined as a run of piping components and tube that will be connected during fabrication and a FIELD is an individual or group of piping components that will be connected on-site during the erection phase. Spools cannot be split across Spool Drawings. Spool Breaks are normally defined by the software, when the application detects a change in the status of the Shop Flag (where the Shop Flag indicates whether the component will be included in a fabricated assembly (SHOP) or fitted during the erection phase (FIELD)). You can also force spool breaks manually, at joints where the Shop Flags are the same on all sides, and add Welds, to split pipes, in the design. By setting the SFLimit (Spool/Field Limit) attribute for a SPLDRG to either BRAN, PIPE, ZONE or SITE, a spool break will be enforced at any change at the corresponding element level. For additional information on some important aspects of the SPOOLER module see SPOOLER Reference Information.

9.1.1

Database Usage
SPOOLER uses two databases: Fabrication database- This contains all your spooling data. DESIGN database - This contains all the design data for the project.

SPOOLER has full read/write access to the Fabrication database but has only limited access to the DESIGN database, only being allowed to change attributes relevant to the fabrication of the pipework (e.g. specifying Field Welds).

9.1.2

3D Graphics
The pipework design or spooling models can be viewed at any angle or scale, including standard orthogonal and isometric views, in the 3D View windows. The windows can be set

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to navigation only mode, allowing you to move around the displayed model and select elements, or Design mode, to carry out actions on the model. Design mode makes use of the Event Driven Graphics (EDG) mode, which allows cursor picks to be used interactively as part of an operation, rather than just for navigation and element selection.

9.1.3

Numbering
Once you have defined the contents of your drawings, you can automatically number: parts, welds, spools, fields, bends and non-welded joints. The numbering always starts from one of the end spools; the start point can be changed using the Reorder facility. Part numbers can be created either across a complete spool drawing or to individual spools.

9.1.4

Naming
Database elements can be given unique names using the Autonaming facility. This recognises sets of rules which can be set up by a system administrator, from the Main Menu options. You can use this facility to both name new elements, as you create them, and to name existing elements, retrospectively.

9.1.5

Spooling Volume Calculation


SPOOLER can calculate the shipping volume of a spool for you, enabling you to easily check its size. This could be used to check that a spool is not going to be too large for fabrication or transportation.

9.1.6

Drawing Output
Once you have defined your spool drawings, you can produce them as isometric plots, using ISODRAFT.

9.2

Setting Up the Database Hierarchy


In this section, you will learn: about the databases used by SPOOLER about the database hierarchies how to login and start the tutorial exercise how to create some administrative elements

Before you start to create any spool data, it is important that you know how such data is stored and accessed in the PDMS Databases, so that you will understand the terminology which you will encounter in the tutorial. SPOOLER uses two databases: Fabrication database, which stores all the spooling data DESIGN database, which holds all the design data for the project.

SPOOLER has full access to the Fabrication database allowing you to set-up the hierarchy and add or delete elements at will. Whereas, SPOOLER has only limited access to the DESIGN database, to make changes that are relevant to the fabrication of the piping.

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9.2.1

Database Structure
The Fabrication database structure descends from the World level (usually represented by the symbolic name /*). The administrative levels below this (and their PDMS abbreviations) are Department (ISODEP) and Registry (ISOREG). The database level below Registry (and its PDMS abbreviation) is the Spool Drawing (SPLDRG). This is the main operational unit of the database. Each Spool Drawing can represent a continuous network of piping components and tube within the overall piping design The Spools and Fields that make up the Spool Drawing are held directly below it in the database hierarchy. The DESIGN database also descends from the World level, below which are the administrative sub-levels Site and Zone. In the case of piping design data, the lower administrative levels (and their PDMS abbreviations) are Pipe (PIPE) and Branch (BRAN). Together, these hierarchic levels give the following overall format:

Design Database
WORLD (/*)

Isodraft Database
WORLD (/*)

SITE

DEPARTMENT (ISODEP)

ZONE

REGISTRY (ISOREG)

PIPE

SPOOL DRAWING (SPLDRG)

BRANCH

Spool data defining individual spools and fields

Design data defining individual piping components

Figure 9:1.

Database Hierarchies

9.2.2

Logging In to Start a SPOOLER Session


In this section you will begin a hands-on tutorial exercise which gives a step-by-step practical introduction to the ways in which you might use the SPOOLER module. The tutorial is based on the sample project, SAM, supplied with PDMS. You can go directly to SPOOLER when you first start PDMS or you can switch to it from another PDMS module. The method used to start PDMS depends on your operating system. The first step of the tutorial exercise starts with the logging in procedure. Exercise Begins: 1. 2. In the PDMS Login window give the name of the Project in which you want to work: enter SAM. Give your allocated Username: enter PIPE.

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3. 4. 5.

Give your allocated Password: enter PIPE. Give the part of the project Multiple Database (MDB) you want to work in: enter PIPE. Give the name of the Module you wish to use: select SPOOLER. Make sure that you leave the Read Only box unchecked, so that you can modify the database as you work.

6.

Click OK to start SPOOLER.

When SPOOLER has loaded, your screen looks as shown.

Figure 9:2.

Application Screen

9.2.3

Creating Some Administrative Elements


You will now create some administrative elements at the top of the Fabrication database hierarchy, as previously explained. Exercise continues: 7. Select Department from the drop-down list on the left of the SPOOLER tool bar and click Create element. . The Create window is displayed, allowing you to name the database

Note: This function can also be carried out by selecting Create>Department from the main menu bar. 8. On the Create window:

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In the Name text box enter department1 and press the Return/Enter key, to confirm the name. Click OK to create the element.

Note: That the new element appears in the Fabrication Explorer as the current element. 9. You will now create two Registries, under department1, by selecting Registry from the drop-down list and clicking on Create . Name this registry condensate_pumps on the Create window. Navigate back to department1, by clicking on it in the Fabrication Explorer, which should now look as shown:

10. Create another Registry and name it condensor_network.

Figure 9:3.

Database Hierarchy

9.3

Controlling the 3D View


In this section you will learn how to: set up a 3D View window manipulate the 3D View

3D View windows can be used to display all or part of the design model. These windows are contained within the application window, and allow you to select an element by simply clicking on it, which navigates to it in the database making it the current element (CE), or use the cursor picks as part of an Event Driven Graphics (EDG) routine. More than one 3D View window can be displayed at any time, allowing you to have different views of the model. The views can be controlled individually using the menu and options on the windows or more than one view can be changed simultaneously from the View Control window.

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Figure 9:4.

3D View Window

9.3.1

Setting up a 3D View Window


When you first start SPOOLER or when you create a new 3D View, the display window is empty. You must set it up to show the elements and view you wish to see. This involves setting up 3 functions of the view: View Function View contents View limits Type of view Menu Option Drawlist Limits Look or Iso

The following sections describe how to set up these functions. View Contents The elements that are displayed in a 3D View window must first be added to the Drawlist. This can be done as follows: Select from the 3D view tool bar, to display the Drawlist window and then add the required elements. Select the required option from the 3D View shortcut menu. Select the required element in the Explorer and then click Add CE tool bar. on the main

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Note: Only one Drawlist can be defined, for all 3D View windows. The elements are normally added to the Drawlist and displayed in the colour defined by the Autocolour rules. These can be set up by your system administrator. Alternatively, you can add elements using specific colours. This can be done by either clicking Colour on the Drawlist window or by selecting Drawlist>Add CE with colour. This displays a standard colour selection window allowing you to select the required colour. Additionally, you can apply a transparency factor to elements you are adding from the Drawlist window. This allows you to make structures semi-transparent, so that you can see items inside or behind them. This can be done by selecting the required degree of transparency from the drop-down list beside Colour on the Drawlist window. View Limits How much of the Drawlist contents are actually shown in that window can be controlled by setting the view limits. This can be set from the Limits options on the 3D View shortcut menu. You can select anything from a single element up to the complete Drawlist or explicitly define a 3D box, by entering the co-ordinates of two opposite corners. Alternatively the limits can be set to the current element by clicking CE Limits View window. Type of View The type of view for that window, orthogonal or isometric, can be selected from the Look or ISO options on the 3D View shortcut menu. These allow you to select from a wide range of orthogonal and isometric views or define a particular view. You will now set-up a view of the complete design model. Exercise continues: 11. As the Fabrication database is empty at this time you need to switch to the DESIGN database to add elements to the Drawlist. Select Display>Design Explorer from the main menu bar. This switches you to the World (*) level in the DESIGN database. Select SITE SPOOLER-SITE in the Design Explorer. Click Limits CE the complete site. on the left of the view window, to set the view limits to enclose on the left of the 3D

12. You will now add the base of the site to the Drawlist and display it. Click ZONE SPOOLER-CIVIL to make it the CE and then select 3D View>Add, from the shortcut menu. The base appears in the view window in the default colour and orthogonal view. Right-click in the 3D view, select Iso>Three from the 3D View menu to set the required viewing direction.

13. Now add the structures to the Drawlist using a different colour, to help differentiate between the types of element, and set a degree of transparency so that you can see other elements under and behind the structures. Navigate to ZONE SPOOLER-STRUC, and select it to make it the CE. Select from the main menu bar, to display the Drawlist window.

Select STRUCTURE 1 of ZONE/SPOOLER-STRUC in the Drawlist window.

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Click Colour to display a Colour selection window and click to select a suitable colour (e.g. Dark Grey; top row, fourth from right). Click Dismiss.

Note: By default, SPOOLER uses Cyan and Green to represent Spools and fields, respectively. So these colours should be avoided when adding elements. Move the slide to the right to set the transparency level to 50%. Click Add CE to drawlist, to add the structures to the display with the selected settings.

Close Drawlist window. The Structure has now changed colour to dark grey. 14. You can now add the equipment (ZONE SPOOLER-EQUIP) and pipes (ZONE SPOOLER-PIPE) to the display in different colours. The complete site is now displayed in isometric view. The 3D View should now look something like Figure 9:5.: Isometric View of SPOOLER Sample Project, which has the main equipment annotated.

Heat Exchanger

Surface Condensor

Condensate Pumps Surge Tank

Centre Line Mounted Pumps

Figure 9:5.

Isometric View of SPOOLER Sample Project

9.3.2

Manipulating the Displayed View


When a 3D View has been set-up it can be easily manipulated, using the mouse (either by itself or in combination with the function keys), to show exactly the view you require at any time. This includes tools for: zooming, panning and rotating the model. The condensate pumps piping network is located at the left side of the model, as you now see it. You are going to manipulate the view so that this network fills the window, giving a much better view of it. For information on using the Zoom, Pan and Rotate modes see Manipulating the Displayed View. Exercise continues: 15. Zoom in so the model fills the display window. 16. Centre the outlet network in the view using the Pan mode.

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17. Using the Rotate mode, rotate the model, to show it from a better angle: 18. Having obtained the required view, at this point it is not possible to see the complete piping network clearly, because the pipe rack is in the way. To remove the pipe rack from the view: Right-click ZONE SPOOLER-STRUC in the Design Explorer and select 3D View>Remove from the shortcut menu. The 3D View should now look something like Figure 9:6.: Condensate Pumps Piping Network.
Condensate Pumps Inlet Pipe

Heat Exchanger Outlet Pipe

Heat Exchanger

Condensate Pumps

Outlet Pipes Header Condensate Pumps Outlet Pipes


Figure 9:6. Condensate Pumps Piping Network

9.3.3

Saving and Restoring a View


PDMS allows you to save up to four views of the model, which can then be restored by simply clicking on the appropriate view control to the left of the display. You will now save two views of the model and then restore the view to its current setting. Exercise continues: 19. To save the current 3D view as View 1: Right click Restore view 1 to the left of the display.

Move the mouse over the Save 1 pop-up, so that it is highlighted and then release the mouse button. The current view is now saved as View 1.

20. You will now change the view so that you can see the Condensate pumps piping network from the other direction. This makes it easier to see the inlet to the pumps and the outlet from the heat exchanger. Select Iso>Four from the 3D View menu. This shows the model from the opposite direction to Iso 2. Manipulate the view so that you can clearly see the required parts of the piping network. The view should now look something like Figure 9:7.: Iso 4 View.

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Heat Exchanger Outlet Pipe

Condensate Pumps Inlet Pipe

Figure 9:7.

Iso 4 View

Save this view of the model as View 2.

21. Restore the view to the previously saved settings: click (with the left mouse button) Restore view 1.

9.4

Preparing the Site for Spooling


In this section you will learn about inspecting a site how to measure pipe lengths how to insert welds

Before you begin spooling a site you should always check that the design data in the design model is consistent. It is also worth making any changes to the design model (e.g. inserting shop or field welds) that will obviously be needed, to save work later.

9.4.1

Checking the Design Data


The consistency of the data should have been checked before the model was sent for spooling. But, you can also check it in SPOOLER. Exercise continues: 22. To check the data: Navigate to the ZONE SPOOLER-PIPE zone in the Design Explorer. Select Utilities>Data Consistency, from the main menu bar. This displays the Data Consistency Check window. Select Zone from the Check: scrollable list box and click Apply. The main window will show the progress of the check, including any errors or warnings.

SPOOLER will not run properly if there are errors in the consistency check. Warnings will not affect the operation of SPOOLER.

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9.4.2

Inspecting the Site


If you spool the site and then make changes to the model (e.g. inserting field welds) you then have to update the numbering, some of which may then not be in order. So, it makes sense to try and make any changes to the model before spooling it, thus reducing the work involved. The easiest way of doing this is to do a visual check of the site looking for any possible problems (e.g. very long pipes or complex networks) and for any parts you know will be wanted separately, for test purposes. You can then insert any required welds and spool breaks before spooling the network. As the spools are completely assembled before they are shipped to the erection site, they must be small enough to be transported. The maximum acceptable size for this exercise is 12 x 2.5 x 2.5 metres. The length of the supplied pipe is 6 metres, so any lengths greater than this in one spool will have to be joined with a Shop weld. You will now do a check of the condensate pumps piping network and insert any welds that are obviously necessary. Exercise continues: 23. To carry out a visual check of the site: Restore the view so that you can see the complete site, from the Iso 2 direction.

Outlet Pipes Header Heat Exchanger Outlet Pipe

Long Pipe

Figure 9:8.

Visual Check of Spooling Site

A quick visual inspection of the network, see Figure 9:8.: Visual Check of Spooling Site, shows that: The heat exchanger outlet pipe (Pipe 2007) appears to be to larger than our maximum shipping size. Also, the length of the bottom section of the heat exchanger outlet pipe appears to be too long to be constructed from a single length of pipe (6 metres).

Note: The measurements of these pipes can be checked using the Measure facility, explained in the next section.

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It is also known that the high pressure Outlet Pipes Header, see Figure 9:6.: Condensate Pumps Piping Network, will require testing as a separate unit before any other pipes are added to it.

9.4.3

Measuring the Pipe Lengths


The visual check of the condensate pumps piping network showed the probability that the heat exchanger outlet pipe (Pipe 2007) was: Too large to be shipped as a single spool. The bottom length of pipe between elbows 3 & 4 was too long to be created from a single length of tube.

To check these assumptions and work out where to insert welds you need to measure the pipe. Exercise continues: 24. Restore saved View 2, so that you have a clear view of the heat exchanger outlet pipe. 25. Click Measure , to activate the measure facility.

This displays the Measure and Positioning Control windows and an EDG prompt is displayed instructing you to pick the start point for the measurement. You will start by checking the length of the bottom length of pipe. Manipulate the view so that the lower pipe is clearly visible. Set the Type field, in the Positioning Control window, to p-point and the Option field to Snap. The cursor changes to a small square. Pick point P1 of Elbow 4, see Figure 9:9.: Picking the Start Measurement Point. A message showing the selected start point is displayed in the 3D View and the EDG prompt changes, instructing you to pick the end point for the measurement.

Figure 9:9.

Picking the Start Measurement Point

Pick P2 of Elbow 3. The software calculates the distance and displays it in the 3D View and in the Measure window. This shows the length of the tube to be 7415.9 mm. Confirming that it is too long to be fabricated from a single length of tube.

26. To measure the complete outlet pipe (Pipe 2007):

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Zoom out so that you can see the whole of the pipe. Using the same settings as for the previous measurement, pick point P2 of Elbow 1. Change the Type setting in the Positioning Control window to Graphics, allowing you to select any graphical element The cursor in the 3D View changes to a standard arrow. Pick the very end of the outlet pipe, as shown in Figure 9:10.: Selecting the End of the Outlet Pipe. The distance between the two points is shown in the view and on the Measure window, along with the lengths in the X, Y and Z directions.

Figure 9:10. Selecting the End of the Outlet Pipe

27. Comparing the two measurements you have made shows that splitting the bottom tube, at the end nearest the heat exchanger, will divide the pipe into two manageable spools.

9.4.4

Inserting Welds
SPOOLER allows you to insert Shop and Field welds to split up the piping network. Field welds can be used to cut a pipe into shorter lengths or break up a network where there are no convenient joints, these welds will be made at the erection site. Shop welds can be used to separate parts or assemblies that need to be fabricated and tested before being attached to other parts of the spool. Welds can be inserted to break a piping network at a p-point of a particular component or at some defined point along a length of a pipe. Note: Any welds you create are added to the DESIGN database. Inserting a Weld at a Design Point Where possible, welds should be inserted at a p-point (Design Point) of a welded component, because the component is attached to the pipe by a weld anyway, so it is not

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creating any extra work just moving the location for the work from the Fabrication Shop to the Erection Site. For more information on p-points (Design Points) see Piping Components. Separating the Header Pipe You will now insert welds to separate the outlet pipes header from the outlet pipes of the condensate pumps. Exercise continues: 28. The header pipe (part of Pipe 2006/B1 & B2) consists of 3 TEE components with two end CAPs. The header, together with its outlet pipe, will be tested in the fabrication shop before shipping. It will then be connected to its inlet pipes from the condensate pumps at the erection site. Therefore you need to insert Field welds between the inlet pipes and the header. To insert a Field weld between the header and one of its inlet pipes: Zoom in so that the header pipe fills most of the viewing window, see Figure 9:11.: Positioning a Field Weld on P3 of 2006/B2. Select Create>Weld, from the main menu bar. This displays the Create Weld window. Select Field from the Type drop-down list and check that the At drop-down menu is set to Design Point (p-point). Then click Apply. The 3D View switches to the create weld mode and displays the EDG instruction Pick a Design Point for WELD. The cursor changes to a small square with a point in the middle. Position the cursor over one of the inlet TEE components (TEE 1 of 2006/B1 or TEE 1 of 2006/B2) then press and hold the left mouse button. The outline of the component is highlighted and the p-points are shown as dots, see Figure 9:11.: Positioning a Field Weld on P3 of 2006/B2. Move the cursor over a p-point. When you are exactly on top of it, a highlighted message is appended to the instruction at the top of the window telling you the name of the Design Point you are over. Move the cursor over Design Point P3, see Figure 9:11.: Positioning a Field Weld on P3 of 2006/B2, and release the button. The CHOOSE window is displayed allowing you to select the type of weld you wish to insert.

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Figure 9:11.

Positioning a Field Weld on P3 of 2006/B2

Select a suitable type of weld and click OK. The weld is created at P3 and the 3D View window returns to navigation mode.

Note: The Create Weld window remains displayed allowing you to easily create further welds. 29. Now insert a Field weld on the P3 of the other inlet TEE.

9.4.5

Splitting a Tube with a Weld


If a pipe is too long to be fabricated from a single length of pipe, one or more Shop welds are normally defined in its length to show the fabricators where to join the lengths. Also, if a pipe has to pass through an opening at the erection site it may need to be split with a weld. The bottom tube of the heat exchanger output pipe (leave tube of ELBO 3) is longer than a standard length of pipe (6 metres) and the complete outlet pipe is too large for a single spool. Splitting the bottom tube, at the end nearest the heat exchanger, with a field weld will divide the pipe into two manageable spools, that can then be joined at the erection site. Exercise continues: 30. To split the heat exchanger outlet pipe (Pipe 2007): Select Field and In-tube on the Create Weld window. This activates the Position in Tube frame, allowing you to set the position in the tube you want to insert the weld. Select Behind Item in the drop-down list and enter the value 6000 into the distance text box and then click Apply. The 3D View switches to EDG mode and prompts you to pick the tube in which to insert the weld. Pick anywhere on that length of tube. You are then prompted to pick the element from which to measure the distance. pick a suitable weld. Pick Elbow 3 in Pipe 2007. This inserts the weld 6000mm back from the elbow.

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Dismiss Create Weld window.

9.5

Spooling the Piping Network


In this section you will: look at the principles of using SPOOLER learn how to split the pipes at the Condensate Pumps piping network into Spool Drawings, using the default Shop Flag settings.

9.5.1

Pipework Spooling
SPOOLER works with spooling networks, which are created by selecting pipework elements to be added to a spool drawing (SPLDRG) . The selected elements must form an interconnected piping network but are not limited to a single branch or pipe in the design model. Spooling networks consist of interconnected spools and fields. Where a SPOOL is defined as a run of piping components and tube that will be connected during fabrication and a FIELD is an individual or group of piping components that will be connected during the erection phase. Spools and fields are defined by picking an element in the 3D View window. If the element has been defined as a fabrication element (i.e. the SHOP Flag is true) it generates a SPOOL. Whereas, if the selected element has been defined as being fitted on site (i.e. the SHOP Flag is false) it generates a FIELD. When an element is picked, the software searches all connected piping components and tube and then adds all adjacent components that have the same SHOP Flag status to that spool or field. The ends of the spools, called SPOOL BREAKS, occur when the SHOP Flag status changes. You can also force SPOOL BREAKS by defining Field Welds or Joints at the required point in the SPOOL. Field welds can be used to split a piping section at a particular component or at some defined point along a length of tube. The forced spool break is used to create a break at joint that does not have a field element in it (for example: a flanged joint with no gasket). By setting the SFLimit (Spool/Field Limit) attribute for a SPLDRG to either BRAN, PIPE, ZONE or SITE (the default is WORLD), a spool break will be enforced at any change at the corresponding element level. SPOOLING NETWORKS can be defined by picking each SPOOL and FIELD in sequence, to add to the SPOOL DRAWING or by picking two ends of a continuous piping network. SPOOLER checks that it is an interconnected network before it adds all the spools and fields to the SPOOL DRAWING.

9.5.2

Creating Spool Drawings


You will now create some Spool Drawings and spool the pipes between the condensate pumps and the heat exchanger (Pipes 2004, 2005 and 2006), into one of them. Exercise continues: 26. Go to the Fabrication database, by selecting Display>Fabrication Explorer from the main menu bar and navigate to the Condensate_Pumps registry. Now create three Spool Drawings, as follows:

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Select Create>Spool Drawing from the main menu bar (or select Spool Drawing from the drop-down list in the main toolbar and click Create) and name the Spool Drawing Inlet_Pipe. This becomes the Current Element (CE) in the Fabrication Explorer and is displayed as the active Spool Drawing in the text box on the SPOOLER tool bar. Now create two more Heat_Exch_Outlet. Spool Drawings, named Outlet_Network and

27. You will now start to spool the piping network between the Condensate pumps and the Heat Exchanger: Navigate to the Outlet_Network Spool Drawing, making this the CE. Zoom in on the condensate pumps outlet network, as shown in Figure 9:12.: Adding the First Spool. Click Add to Spool Drawing Pick Mode in the SPOOLER tool bar. Note how the mode of the 3D View window changes, as indicated by the text in the prompt bar, see Figure 9:12.: Adding the First Spool. The next element you pick in the 3D View will be added to the Spool Drawing. You may need to select the flange in the Design Explorer, and zoom in to the flange. Pick one of the flanges between the valve and the condensate pump, as shown in Figure 9:12.: Adding the First Spool. The flange and its leave tube change to the default spool colour (aqua) and are added to the Explorer hierarchy as SPOOL 1.

Figure 9:12. Adding the First Spool

Pick the gate valve and then the elbow following the selected flange in the pipe. They are added to the Spool Drawing as FIELD 1 and SPOOL 2, respectively.

These steps illustrate how items can be added sequentially to a Spool Drawing. Click further along this piping branch before it reaches the header pipe. The control valve and the complete length of the pipe, as far as the Field weld you inserted in Separating the Header Pipe, are added to the Spool Drawing. Pick the input pipe to the heat exchanger. The piping is now spooled between the first condensate pump and the heat exchanger, including the complete header pipe.

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These steps show how the elements in between the existing spools and the picked element are added automatically - as long as they form a continuous network. Add the rest of the network from the header pipe to the second condensate pump, to the Spool Drawing.

9.5.3

Numbering the Spool Drawing


SPOOLER allows you to generate numbers automatically for spools, welds, joints, bends and parts. The numbering is normally used to provide full accountability and repeatability through design changes. The Parts Numbers can be applied to complete Spool Drawings, the default setting, or the parts can be numbered for each spool individually. Although the spools and fields you have created are shown in the Fabrication Explorer there is as yet no numbering applied to the components. You will now generate the numbering for the Spool Drawing. Exercise Continues: 28. To define what elements of the spools you wish to be numbered, select Settings>Numbering from the main menu bar. This displays the Numbering Settings window. This window contains three sections allowing you to: Select what numbering data to maintain. Select the part numbering option and define a spool prefix. Select the default update numbering method. You will leave the settings as they are at present, so close the window by clicking on Cancel. in the SPOOLER tool bar (or

29. To generate the numbering, click Update/Number select Number>Update from the main menu bar).

The software carries out a check of the Spool Drawing numbering (note this will take a few seconds) and then displays the Update/Number Spool Drawing window, with the results of the check shown in the Status section. Note: The choices in the Update Choice Handling section do not affect you at this stage. To generate the numbers, click Apply. The numbering is generated and the data in the Status section is updated to show the actions that have been carried out. Extra elements, including the Weld and Joint groups, are added to the Explorer hierarchy. Click Dismiss to remove the window.

Note: You should ALWAYS update the numbering after you have defined or modified a Spool Drawing.

9.5.4

Selecting Adjacent Field Components


Gaskets on the ends of pipes (e.g. between a flange and the nozzle of an equipment) cannot be picked in the 3D View and therefore cannot be manually added to a Spool Drawing. To overcome this problem, you can automatically include adjacent field components, as separate FIELDs, when you add a spool to a Spool Drawing. You will now use this option to add the gaskets at the ends of the pipes to the Spool Drawing.

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Exercise continues: 30. You will now correct the missing gaskets from the end of the pipe. This involves first removing that spool from the drawing and then adding it with the adjacent gasket. In the Fabrication Explorer navigate back to the Outlet_Network Spool Drawing. Click Remove from Spool Drawing , on the SPOOLER tool bar. The text in the Prompt bar changes to indicate the current operating mode. Pick anywhere on the pipe going up to the heat exchanger, to removes it from the Spool Drawing. Select the Include Adjacent Field Components on the SPOOLER tool bar. Any spools you now add or remove from the Spool Drawing will automatically add/ remove any adjacent field elements, such as the gasket on the end of the pipe. Click Add to Spool Drawing and pick anywhere on the pipe going up to the heat exchanger, again. The spool is added and a FIELD is automatically created for the gasket. Update the Spool Drawing numbering. Navigate to the GASKet in the DESIGN database and check that it has been added to the Spool Drawing.

31. Correct the omission of the gaskets on the other ends of this piping network (Pipes 2004/B1 and 2005/B1), adjacent to the Condensate Pumps. 32. Now spool the inlet pipe to the Condensate Pumps and the outlet from the Heat Exchanger into the appropriate Spool Drawings.

9.6

Advanced SPOOLER Features


In this section you look at the advanced features of SPOOLER that allow you to check and make further changes to the spooling model.

9.6.1

Checking the Spool Size


While it may be logical to have a long pipe as one spool, if that pipe is too large to be transported the spool may need to be split. The size of a spool can be checked in SPOOLER by querying the spool shipping volume. Exercise continues: 37. To check the size of SPOOL 1 of the Inlet_Pipe Spool Drawing: Navigate to that spool in the Design Explorer. Select Query>Spool Shipping Volume from the main menu bar. This displays the Spool Shipping Volume window showing the name of the selected spool and its dimensions, see Figure 9:13.: Shipping Volume of a Spool.

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Figure 9:13. Shipping Volume of a Spool

This shows that the spool is too large to be transported according to the specifications (12 x 2.5 x 2.5 metres) and will need to be split into sections for shipping. Split the pipe by inserting a Field weld on Elbow 1, but do not update the Spool Drawing at this stage.

Note: You may find it helpful to select the elbow in the Design Explorer and zoom in, before you return to the Fabrication Explorer.

9.6.2

Selecting the Numbering Update Options


The numbers shown in the Design Explorer are for indication purposes only. They only match the real spool numbers when the Spool Drawing is first numbered. When you update the numbering after you have changed something (e.g. inserted a field weld to split a spool) the members list numbers get out of synchronisation with the real numbers. For example; if you have set up the following spool drawing: Explorer SPOOL 1 FIELD 1 SPOOL 2 FIELD 2 SPOOL 3 SPL3 SPL2 Numbering SPL1

and you then split Spool 2. When you update the numbering, it may look like this (depending on the Update Choice handling option you have chosen): Explorer SPOOL 1 FIELD 1 SPOOL 2 SPL2 Numbering SPL1

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Explorer FIELD 2 SPOOL 3 FIELD 3 SPOOL 4

Numbering

SPL4

SPL3

The three options available when updating the numbering are: Use first available data - The first spool in which the data has changed will automatically pick up the first available number. When there are no more existing numbers new data is generated for any remaining spools. (See the example above.) Always generate new data - Existing numbers are ignored and new data is generated for all affected spools. In the above example, SPOOL 2 would be SPL4 and SPOOL 3 would be SPL5. Manual data selection - A window is displayed allowing you to decide which existing number to use for which of the affected spools or whether to generate new data. You could decide that either SPOOL 2, SPOOL 3 or neither of them uses the existing number (SPL2) in the above example.

These options can be set as a default, on the Numbering Settings window, or for each time you use them, on the Update/Number Spool Drawing window You will now update the numbering on the Outlet_Pipe Spool Drawing. Exercise continues: 38. You must now return to and Update the Spool Drawing. The WELD element is not in the Spool Drawing at this point, so to return to the Spool Drawing, select Display>Fabrication Explorer from the menu bar. Make sure you are at SPLDRG_Inlet_Pipe. When you update the numbering, the Update Choice Handling options, on the Update/Number Spool Drawing window, now become important. Select Manual data selection in the Update Choice Handling section and click Apply. The software starts to update the numbering, then when a choice has to be made the Select Data for Spool Elements window is displayed allowing you to select the data to apply to which spool.

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Figure 9:14. Selecting Data for Updating Spool Numbering

To apply the displayed attribute data, select SPOOL 1 in the Spool numbers window and select the data in the right hand window, then click Use Selected Data. You will see that a new FIELD and second SPOOL have been created. The FIELD is the WELD element.

Note: In this case, once you have applied the data to SPOOL 1, the software will automatically generate new data for SPOOL 2. Click OK on the Update Complete alert window.

9.6.3

Changing the Shop/Field Setting


When an element is picked, the software searches all connected piping components and tube and adds all the components that have the same SHOP Flag status to that spool or field. The ends of the spool are called SPOOL BREAKS and they occur where the Shop Flag status changes. If the Shop Flag is true the selected components are added as a Spool. Whereas, if the Shop Flag status is false the components are added as a Field. The Shop Flag status for a piping component is normally set by its attributes in the DESIGN catalogue, but this may have been changed by the designer or from within SPOOLER. This could be used to break up a spool or to remove a spool break, where you want the whole assembly to be fabricated as one piece in the shop. Note: Any changes you make to the Shop Flag settings are added to the design model in the DESIGN database. The valves immediately after the Condensate Pumps are all welded and are going to be assembled with the tubing in the fabrication shop, not on site. Exercise continues: 39. To change the Shop Flag status of the welded valves: Switch to Navigate mode and select one of the gate valves next to a Condensate Pump, this becomes the CE.

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Select Modify>Shop/Field from the main menu bar, this displays the Shop/Field window, which allows you to check and change the Shop Flag setting for any element in the piping network. The Piping component frame at the top of the window shows the identity of the currently selected element and allows you to scroll through the elements in the BRANch using the Right and Left Arrow. The Right Arrow takes you to the Next element in the list (downwards) and the Left Arrow takes you to the previous element (upwards). Change the status of the Shop Flag by selecting Fabrication Material from the drop-down list box and then click Apply. Use Left Arrow to move up the list and change the Shop Flag of the control valve.

Note: The Shop Flag can only be changed on one piping component at a time. Repeat this procedure for the valves next to the other Condensate Pump. Update the Spool Drawing and note the colour of the valves change to the spool colour and the associated fields disappear from the Explorer hierarchy.

9.6.4

Forcing a Spool Break at a Joint


You can also split spools by defining SPOOL BREAKS at Joints in the network, even though the Shop Flags on either side of the joint are the same. e.g. a flanged joint with no gasket as shown in Figure 9:15.: Example of Using a Forced Spool Break.

All included in single Spool CSFBREAK False Shop True CSFBREAK True Spool X Spool Break
Figure 9:15. Example of Using a Forced Spool Break

CSFBREAK False Shop True CSFBREAK True Spool Y

The Spool Break is forced by changing the CSFBREAK attributes for the selected piping components to True. When SPOOLER finds two adjacent True CSFBREAK or TSFBREAK attributes it inserts a Spool Break between them. This function could be used to split pipes at any component, but this would create problems during the Erection phase because no method of connecting the two parts would be shown on the drawings. Note: Any Spool Breaks you define changes the flags of those components in the DESIGN database.

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Forced Spool Breaks can also be removed by selecting Delete>Spool Break from the main menu bar. You are then prompted to select the two piping components that you wish to reset the C/TSFBREAK attributes on. Forcing a Spool Break at a Specified Element Level To force a spool break at any change of Branch, Pipe, Zone or Site, set the SFLimit (Spool/ Field Limit) attribute for the SPLDRG to BRAN, PIPE, ZONE or SITE, respectively. The default setting is WORLD.

9.7

Outputting Spool Data


In this section you will learn how to plot annotated spool drawings. Drawings have to be produced for the fabrication of the spools. This is done using the PDMS ISODRAFT module which provides very powerful facilities for plotting any specified isometric view of all or any of the Spool Drawings. The views are annotated to show the updated numbering and connection information and have an associated parts list. The list is split into two sections: Fabrication materials Erection materials.

9.7.1

Plotting the Spool Drawings


To plot the Spool Drawings you need to: switch to the ISODRAFT module; select the required Spool Drawings and then generate the plots. Exercise continues: 40. To switch to the PDMS ISODRAFT module: Select Spooler>Modules>Isodraft>Macro files from the main menu bar and click OK to any confirmation dialogues. When loading finishes, the Application window and the ISODRAFT Explorer for the ISODRAFT application are displayed on the screen.

Note: There are no tool bars on the ISODRAFT Application Window. The menu bar gives you access to a wide range of facilities for generating customised isometric plots. For the purposes of this exercise, you will simply generate isometric plots of the spool drawings using the supplied options files. 41. To generate isometric plots of the Spool Drawings: Switch to the Fabrication Explorer and navigate to the Outlet_Network Spool Drawing. Select Isometrics>Standard from the ISODRAFT main menu bar. The Standard Isometric window is displayed allowing you to specify which plotting options to use. Select Company from the Options drop-down list and then select ADVANCED.MET (advanced metric) from the Standard iso options list, see Figure 9:16.: Standard Isometric Options window. Click Apply to start the isometric plotting process.

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Figure 9:16. Standard Isometric Options window

ISODRAFT: composes and annotates the PLOT files and compiles the material take-off lists. The time taken is related to the number and complexity of the PLOT files being created. When processing is complete, the following new ISODRAFT windows are displayed: Display List - Lists all the isometric plots created in this session, that are available for display, with the currently displayed plot highlighted, see Figure 9:17.: Display List window.

Figure 9:17. Display List window

Display Isometric - This window is shown within the Application window. It shows the PLOT file currently selected on the Display List window, see Figure 9:18.: Display Isometric window.

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Figure 9:18. Display Isometric window

Isodraft Messages - this shows a log of the PLOT file process, including details of any problems encountered, see Figure 9:19.: Isodraft Messages window.

Figure 9:19. Isodraft Messages window

Exercise Ends

9.7.2

Isometric Drawing Contents


The content of each isometric drawing is calculated using complex algorithms to best display all of the required data in the available space. The algorithms are controlled by the Standard iso options selected before plotting the drawing. The drawings are NOT TO SCALE (see the two sides of the U-bend in Figure 9:20.: Zoomed View of an Isometric Plot) but are displayed so as best to show the information.

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Pipes with no components attached to them, at the end of the Spool Drawing, may even be abbreviated with just the annotation showing the true length. The annotation data shown is also controlled by the selections made in the SPOOLER Numbering >Settings window. Any options deselected on this window are not included on the plotted drawings.

Figure 9:20. Zoomed View of an Isometric Plot

9.7.3

Drawing Annotations
Figure 9:20.: Zoomed View of an Isometric Plot shows a zoomed view of an isometric plot, illustrating the annotation data. A Key to the markings is shown in the table below. Annotation Dimension Key Value shown in break in dimensioning line, or directed to line by arrow. Number in a double box with Arrow points at the the spool prefix. component in the spool. first Remarks

Spool Number Part Number

Number in a rectangular box, Flanged components also show along pipe or arrow pointing the Gasket (Gxx) and Bolt set (Bxx) numbers. to component.

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Annotation Weld Number Joint Number

Key Number in a circle

Remarks Key for different types of weld is shown on the plot.

Number in a diamond, F = Flanged joint prefixed by letter showing S = Screwed joint type of joint. C = Compression joint

For a full description of all the symbols used in the plots refer to the ISODRAFT Reference Manual.

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Pipe Piece and Pipe Spool Production Checks

10

Pipe Piece and Pipe Spool Production Checks


AVEVA PDMS allows you to check pipe pieces and pipe spools for production readiness against welding machines, bending machines, pipe cut lengths on drawings and reports, and defined stock-lengths of tubing. Production checks run against available stock length and fabrication machines. Fabrication machines are currently limited to bending and auto welding.

For more information about the production checks and the machines that carry them out see Pipe Piece and Pipe Spool Data and Fabrication Machine Data.

10.1
10.1.1

Definitions
Pipe Piece
A pipe-piece is the lowest level of fabricated item in the pipe. It relates to a continuous piece of pipe tube that can be fabricated from stock material. The pipe piece holds references to the components at the start and end of the piece. The system derives pipe-pieces: users cannot create or delete them.

10.1.2

Pipe Spool
A pipe spool is a prefabricated part of a pipe or branch, often welded together in a workshop before being sent to be fitted on-site. Pipe spools typically comprise a bent pipe with welded flanges at each end, but they can also be more complicated fabrications with branches, reducers, valves, and other components. Note: Gaskets are not included in the spool.

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The system derives spools: users cannot create or delete them.

10.2

Pipe Production Checks


To check pipe spools for production readiness, you need to be in the DESIGN module and running the Pipework application. To display the Production Pipe Checks window, select Utilities > Production Checks from the main menu bar: How the window displays initially depends on whether or not you have selected a pipe or pipe element before you invoke the window. If no pipe or pipe element is selected the window is displayed as:

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If a pipe or pipe element is selected but with no spools the window is displayed as:

If a pipe or pipe element is selected with spools the window is displayed as:

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10.2.1

Generating Spools
To generate the spools for a pipe, select the pipe in the Design Explorer and click Generate Spools on the Pipe Production Checks window: Alternatively select a part of the pipe in the 3D View and click Generate Spools on the Pipe Production Checks window:

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Pipe Piece and Pipe Spool Production Checks

Note: In each case the window tracks the currently selected pipe or pipe element.

10.3

Options on the Pipe Production Checks


The Pipe Production Checks window allows the user to control different aspects of the production check on the pipe and its spools: Pipe Spools - Lists the spools for the currently selected pipe and shows their Production Status. Pipe Tasks Validate Pipe - Runs the production checks against the entire pipe. The checks run for each spool in the pipe that requires validating. View Production Information - Displays the production information currently associated with each pipe spool and pipe-piece. Remove Machine Info - Removes machine fabrication information for all pipe spools. Remove Fabrication Information - Removes all pipe spools and pipe pieces from the current pipe. When clicked you are prompted to confirm you want to continue. If Yes is selected, all pipe spools and pipe pieces are removed from the pipe. You are then returned to the initial window. View Log - Displays the Log Viewer window containing information on spool generation and validation. Information is written to the log when the spools are generated and when the pipe or spool is validated against one or more bending machines. The text in the log can be saved to file and printed.

Spool Tasks Validate Spool - Runs the production checks against the selected spool.

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View Production Information - Displays the production information currently associated with the spool and the pipe-pieces it contains. Remove Machine Info - Removes machine fabrication information for the selected spool.

Navigation View Spool in Graphics - Sets up the 3D View so the selected spool fits in it.

Setup Production Checks Select Default Fabrication Machines - Allows the user to define the fabrication machines to use when running production checks against the pipe spools. Define Auto-Resolve Preferences - Sets options for automatically adding any excess needed as a result of a check against a bending machine. Define Auto-Naming Preferences - Enables auto-naming of new spools when they are generated. Define Stock Length - The stock length field is read only. If the pipe spools have been validated, the stock length will attempt to set itself to the length defined by the bending machine used, otherwise it will display a default value.

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10.3.1

Setting Up Production Checks


Production checks are run against fabrication machines and tube stock lengths defined using the options on the Setup Production Checks section of the Pipe Production Checks window. Select Default Fabrication Machines If a pipe-piece does not have a bending or welding-machine associated with it when the production checks run, the system checks the pipe-piece against all machines selected in the default machine list. This allows the system to identify and assign fabrication machines. To define the default bending and welding-machines to use in production checks, click Select Default Fabrication Machines. The lower pane now displays a selectable list of the available fabrication machines.

Select the machine you want to use and click Apply. To cancel the operation, click Back. To avoid choosing incompatible machines, you can pick out fabrication machines that can handle the pipe tubing in the selected spool. The system checks the bore, material, and length of the tubes to see which machines can handle the spool. To do this below Identify Suitable Machines click For Spool x, (where x is the number of the selected spool) and the lower pane changes to display a list of the machines that can handle the pipe tube in the selected spool:

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Select the machines you want to use from the list and then either append them to the current default machine list by clicking Append to Default Machine List or replace the entire list by clicking Replace Default Machine List. Clicking Back will take you back to the previous screen.

10.3.2

Define Auto-Resolve Preferences


To define auto-resolve preferences click Define Auto-Resolve Preferences. The lower pane changes to display the available preferences:

If you check Include End Excess, the system adds excess pipe to the end of the pipe-piece if needed. If you check Include Feed Excess, the system adds feed excess to the pipe-piece if needed.

10.3.3

Define Auto-Naming Preferences


Auto-naming enables the automatic naming of new spools when they are generated. When selected, each newly created spool will be automatically named using the auto-naming rules. If auto-naming is turned off then spools will be given default names (Spool1, Spool2). To define auto-naming preferences click Define Auto-Naming Preferences. The lower pane changes to display the Use Auto Naming Rules checkbox.

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Pipe Piece and Pipe Spool Production Checks

To turn auto-naming OFF, check Use Auto-Naming Rules and click Apply. Click Back to return to the Setup Production Checks section of the window. Naming rules can be setup by clicking on Define Naming Rules. Feedback is given next to the Define Auto-Naming Preferences link to indicate whether auto-naming is currently ON or OFF. If Auto-Naming fails or if there are no naming rules for spools set a message is displayed.

10.3.4

Running a Production Check


To run a production check against every spool in the pipe you want to validate, click Validate Pipe; to run the checks against a single spool click Validate Spool. These options run the production checks and show the results in the lower pane of the window. Production checks run using the fabrication machines associated with the individual pipepieces of the spool. If no machines are associated with a pipe-piece, then the system checks it against all machines defined in the default machine list:

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Pipe Piece and Pipe Spool Production Checks

When the checks have run the pipe spools list at the top of the window displays the results of the check for each spool. This can be one of the following three states: Successful - Production checks were successful. Failed - Some part of the production check failed. Valid for production - Spool had already been validated so was not rechecked.

The lower part of the window shows the results for each pipe-piece of the selected spool. A list of pipe-pieces shows the production check results per piece, and each piece also has one of the three states above associated with it. Selecting a pipe-piece from the list displays the detailed results of the check below the pipepiece list. The information displayed in this part of the window depends on the results of the check. Some examples of different results follow. Successful Check with no Modifications You will see this result where the check succeeded against both bending and weldingmachines, if these machines were required, and the pipe-piece did not have to be modified. The Results panel shows which, if any, bending machine was used and which flanges, if any, can be pre-welded. In the example below, you can see no bending was required, and the leave flange can be machine-welded by Wm1.

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Pipe Piece and Pipe Spool Production Checks

Successful Check with Modifications In the different example below, you can see the check succeeded against both bending and welding machines, and some excesses were needed to make the pipe-piece pass the checks.

As well as the bending and welding machine information there is a list of excesses the pipe required. In the example above, you can see Bm1 is suitable for bending the tube, no flanges can be pre-welded, and both the arrive and the leave of the tube required excesses. For each excess there is a link-label for the type of excess. If you click this link the excess shows a tag in the graphics view so you can see where it applies to the pipe-piece:

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Pipe Piece and Pipe Spool Production Checks

Failed Check with Modifications Required If the pipe-piece requires excesses to pass the checks but you have set up the auto resolve preferences not to include excess automatically, then the check will fail. In this case the results display the excess required. You can accept these excesses to make the pipe-piece pass the checks.

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Pipe Piece and Pipe Spool Production Checks

You can also set the pipe to be manually bent and so ignore bending checks.

Non Resolvable Failure The pipe-piece may fail the production checks for a more serious reason. For example, it may not be possible to find a bending machine that can handle the pipe tubing the pipepiece uses. In this case the results panel shows the system cannot resolve the failure by adding excess. To overcome this, you can set the pipe-piece to be manually bent:

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Pipe Piece and Pipe Spool Production Checks

Expanding Machine Results Panel You may be able to expand the bending machine and welding machine results in the results panel, to display more information. If there is more information to view then the Expand icon appears by the Bending Machine Result title. Clicking the title or the icon expands the bending machine results.

Modifying Production Information You can also modify the production information applied to the pipe-piece. Click Modify Production Information to display the required panel.

Use this panel to change the bending or welding machines and modify the end excesses or apply minimum feed to a leg. Changing or Assigning a Machine To change or assign a bending or welding machine click the appropriate link. If no machine is associated with the pipe-piece then Change bending machine will read Assign Bending machine.

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Pipe Piece and Pipe Spool Production Checks

If the tube is straight then there are no bending machine options. If there are no pre-welded flanges then there are no welding machine options.

Select the required machine then click Apply. To cancel any changes and go back to the previous panel, click Back. After selecting a new machine click Accept Changes at the bottom of the panel to accept the changes. Adjust Feed Excess If a length of pipe is too short to be handled by the selected bending machine it will automatically be extended by the minimum amount, the excess, needed to allow it to be processed by the bending machine. If the excess occurs at the start or end of a pipe, it is known as the End Excess. If it occurs between two bends it is known as a Feed Excess. The excess will need to be removed in a separate process after bending; in the case of a feed excess this will involve having to weld the pipe together again. To minimise the number of processes involved in creating a pipe, the user is warned if any feed excesses are required.

To adjust the excesses, the user must click Modify Production Information and expand either the End Excess or Feed Excess section.

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Pipe Piece and Pipe Spool Production Checks

For each leg the user can enter a minimum feed value for the leg in the Minimum Feed textbox. When suitable values have been entered, click Accept Changes. The window will now display in green the minimum value required by the machine. If the user has defined a value less than the machines' minimum the user value will be ignored when re-calculating the required excess.

Once the user is satisfied with the minimum excess values entered, click Revalidate Pipe Piece to re-calculate the actual excesses.

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Pipe Piece and Pipe Spool Production Checks

Revalidating the Pipe Piece After changing the production information you can revalidate the pipe-piece by clicking Revalidate Pipe Piece. This runs a production check on the pipe-piece with the new values. Finishing Viewing Results To finish viewing the results of the production checks click Finish Viewing Results to return to the top level of the window.

Viewing Production Information You can view the production information assigned to pipe-pieces of a spool without having to go through a production check. To do this click View Production Information for either the pipe or a spool. This displays a view of the production information assigned to each pipe-piece in the same way as does clicking on Modify Production Information from the production check results panel.

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Pipe Piece and Pipe Spool Production Checks

Removing Machine Information To remove all machine information associated with a pipe spool or all the spools on a pipe click Remove Machine Info for either the pipe or the selected spool:

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Pipe Piece and Pipe Spool Production Checks

10.4
10.4.1

Renaming Spools
Individual Renaming
Individual spools can be renamed by right-clicking on the spool to be renamed and selecting Rename Spool from the popup menu. A window will be displayed which allows you to enter a new name or reset the name, i.e. unset the name back to default.

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Pipe Piece and Pipe Spool Production Checks

10.4.2

Group Renaming
All spools for a specified pipe can be renamed by right-clicking on any spool and selecting Rename All. If auto-naming is turned on then spools names will be set using auto-naming rules, otherwise spool names will be set to default.

10.5

Automatic Flange Alignment


For pipe-pieces and pipe spools that have been set up to be machine-welded, the system ensures it correctly orientates the piping model so flange-holes and spools align when assembled. The system checks flange-alignment as part of the pipe-checking and Datacon functionality. See Pipe Piece and Pipe Spool Data for more details.

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Pipe Sketches

11
11.1

Pipe Sketches
Creating Pipe Sketches
Pipe Sketches can be produced automatically in Automatic Drawing Production (ADP) using production-checked pipe-spool data from the Design application. The sketches include dimensioned and scale drawings of a pipe spool along with tables of relevant manufacturing data. For more on the details of how the sheets look and how you can customise them for your own purposes see Pipe Sketch Administration. To produce pipe sketches: In DRAFT - General select DRAFT>Auto Drawing Production. Then in PDMS Draft - Automatic Drawing Production, use the Explorer to navigate to the required pipe and select Create>Pipe Sketches. The Pipe Sketches window is displayed and docked to the right-hand side of the window by default. The window can be undocked and moved as required.

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Pipe Sketches

The Pipe Sketches window can be resized such that list and text fields expand with it.

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Pipe Sketches

11.1.1

How to Use the Pipe Sketches

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Pipe Sketches

Search Criteria In the Pipe Sketches window, the search criteria are entered for the spool using any or all of the following: Design Element to search under This is the name of the design element. You can populate the field using the CE or by typing in the name. Filter the spools using Allow the user to filter the spools. All or part of the spool name Enter the spool name, either wholly or partially in the text box. Production Status Offers three options in a drop-down list: Any - Matches all spools, both validated and not validated Valid - Matches only spools valid for production Not Valid - Matches only spools not valid for production.

Sketch Status Offers three options in a drop-down list: Any - Matches all spools, both with and without pipe sketches Created - Matches only pipe spools with pipe sketches Not Created - Matches only pipe spools without pipe sketches

Search Click to action the search. The results obtained using the search criteria will be displayed in the Search Results pane. Search Results Lists all the pipe spool elements. The list has four columns: 1. Name 2. Valid 3. Sketch The name of the pipe spool True or False, depending on whether the spool has been validated. If a sketch has been created, this field displays the name of the resulting drawing, if a sketch has not been created, this field displays FALSE. This field gives the date the drawing was created. If no drawing exists the field displays -

4. Drawn

The Search Results pane has a popup menu which can be accessed by right-clicking.

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Pipe Sketches

The options are: Select All - Selects all pipe spools in the list Clear Selection - Unselects all pipe spools in the list Print Sketch - Print window to print all selected spool sketches Delete Sketch - Deletes each selected spool sketch

Any number of spools can be selected from the list for sketch creation. Now it is necessary to select the template to be used for the sketch, a storage area for the created sketch and a log file name. This is done by using the Sketch Creation Options part at the bottom of the window. Sketch Creation Options

This part of the window has the following: Sketch Template - This must be an existing DRWG element that can be used as a template for the pipe sketch drawings. CE This top CE (denoted DRWG) allows for quick capture of the current drawing. Create Sketches in Registry The named element must be an existing REGIstry element into which the system puts all new pipe sketch drawings. CE This bottom CE (denoted REGI) allows for quick capture of the current registry. Log File The system records progress of the creation process as text that can be written to file. This field shows the file name the system will write to. The system overwrites this file if it already exists. Browse - Invokes a standard browse window to let you select a log file. When the options have been entered, the sketches can be created and displayed by: Create Sketches - Actions the sketch creation, refreshing the Search Results pane to show the spool sketch has been created and the date on which it was drawn. Display - Displays the selected spool sketch and adds it to a working list of sheets for display, although it is only possible to display one sheet at a time. The up and down arrow icons can be used to navigate up and down the list.

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Pipe Sketches

11.1.2

Created Sketches
When the system has created the pipe sketches it adds them to the DRAFT Explorer:

Selecting a created sketch from the list on the Pipe Sketches window and clicking Display , displays the pipe sketch in the Main Display area. The 3D View shows the model representation of the spool:

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Pipe Sketches

And a typical example pipe sketch drawing of a pipe spool looks like this:

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Pipe Sketches

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Pipe Sketches

11.2
11.2.1

Pipe Sketch Administration


Drawing Template

Every Pipe Sketch drawing is based on a Template Drawing used as the basic definition of the Pipe Sketch. The Template Drawing contains views and layers like any other Draft Template drawing; for other Drawing information the Template Drawing references a Backing Sheet.

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Pipe Sketches

11.2.2

Backing Sheet

The Pipe Sketch references the Backing Sheet, which is generally user-defined. It is a standard backing sheet containing the drawing title block, with drawing data displayed via intelligent text e.g. #DATE<FR DRWG> and #:UDA_Name etc. In addition to the standard title block, the backing sheet is used to identify and locate TABLES that are to be used on the Pipe Sketch.

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Pipe Sketches

These tables are identified by: MaterialTakeOff Bending Table Bending Activities Welding Assembly End Points function MTO function BENDING function BENDINGA function WELDING function ASSEMBLY function ENDPOINT SpPurpose TABLE SpPurpose TABLE SpPurpose TABLE SpPurpose TABLE SpPurpose TABLE SpPurpose TABLE or or or or or or SpPurpose CELLS SpPurpose CELLS SpPurpose CELLS SpPurpose CELLS SpPurpose CELLS SpPurpose CELLS

11.2.3

Tables
In database terms the Table is a NOTE of the Backing Sheet (BACK). There are two notes required, one for the Table headings and one for the Table cells. Both notes are positioned at the same point. For example: BACK named /DRA/MAS/BACKS/PipeSketch/A4 SETST NOTE named */ExampleTable function ENDPOINT SpPurpose TABLE NOTE named */ExampleCells function ENDPOINT SpPurpose CELLS

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Pipe Sketches

The above is an example of a table defined on a backing sheet. Although this table is visible in the view, it will in practice have its visibility flag (LVIS) set to false. The reason being that this table is copied onto the Pipe Sketch Drawing then the cells of the table are populated with data from the actual Pipe Spool. The figure below shows the table in situ on the final pipe Sketch Drawing.

MTO Tables

The above figures show the MTO/Material Take-off tables first on the backing sheet and then on the finished drawing. On this type of table the cells data need to be attributes of the Pipe Spool elements. E.g. DTXR and MTXR attributes as used in the Description and Material columns. Bending Tables

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Pipe Sketches

Bending Activities Tables

Automatic Welding Tables

Assembly Activities Tables

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Pipe Sketches

End Points Tables

11.2.4

Styles
All Drawing Styles and Representations are inherited from the template drawing. These include the View Representations, text colours and font size for Labels and Dimensions.

Example:

VIEW Rrsf /DRA/PRJ/RERP/GEN/BASIC LAYER TSIZE 3mm


etc

11.2.5

Common Object
The system uses one object that does all the work to produce Pipe Sketch Drawings. This is so you do not have to use the form and graphics mode to produce a batch of drawings. The common object is a global instance of a pipeSketches object called !!pipeSketch. The Key Members:

Member !!pipeSketch.createIn !!pipeSketch.selectedTem plate !!pipeSketch.pipeSpool

Type DBREF DBREF DBREF

Comment Must be an existing Registry - REGI element Must be an existing Drawing - DRWG element. Must the an existing Pipe Spool - PSPOOL element.

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Pipe Sketches

Optional members

Member !!pipeSketch.logFile !!pipeSketch..drawingPre fix !!pipeSketch..sheetPrefix

Type FILE STRING STRING

Comment The Form or User must write and read this file. Default is DR. Default is S.

Other Members set and used in the background by the system:

Member !!pipeSketch..type !!pipeSketch..pipePieces !!pipeSketch..drawing !!pipeSketch..sheet !!pipeSketch..backingShe et !!pipeSketch..mtoHeadin gs !!pipeSketch..logData

Type STRING ARRAY DBREF DBREF DBREF ARRAY ARRAY

Comment Will always be drawing or drtmpl. System records the Pipe Pieces of the Pipe Spool. System records the new drawing. System records the new sheet. System records the backing sheet being used. Array of strings read from backing sheet MTO table. Array of comment strings that user or form can read)

An Example

!!pipeSketch.createIn !!pipeSketch.selectedTemplate !!pipeSketch.pipeSpool --Then to create the sketch !!pipeSketch.apply()

= object DBREF (/MyRegistry) = object DBREF (/MyTemplateDrawing) = object DBREF (/MyPipeSpool)

11.2.6

Log Messages
To write any message to the Log Data from any PML function use :

!!pipeSketchesLog(Text of your choice)


To clear the messages from the Log Data use:

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Pipe Sketches

!!pipeSketch.emptyLogData()
To write to the log file use:

!!pipeSketch.logFile !!pipeSketch.openLogFile() !!pipeSketch.writeLogFile() !!pipeSketch.closeLogFile()

= object FILE(%PDMSUSER%/ pipeSketches.txt)

- This write the contents of .log Data to the .logFile

11.2.7

How to Define Tables


Under a Backing Sheet

BACK /ExampleBack SETST


Create NOTEs
NEW NOTE */---Table SETST FUNC --- (-- can be MTO, BENDING, BENDINGA, WELDING, ENDPOINT or ASSEMBLY) SpPurpose TABLE

Set the XYpos and usual attributes for text size colour etc. Create and name TEXP and STRA elements under NOTE. In the example below there are 4 TEXP elements and 7 STRA elements (Shown in Black)
NEW NOTE */---Cells SETST FUNC --- (-- can be MTO, BENDING, BENDINGA, WELDING, ENDPOINT or ASSEMBLY) SpPurpose TABLE

Set the XYpos and usual attributes for text size colour etc. Create and name TEXP and STRA elements under NOTE. In the example below there are 3 TEXP elements and 1 STRA element (Shown in Red)

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11.2.8

Dimensions
Dimensioning is controlled from the Template Drawing: A VIEW will only be dimensioned if it has a LAYER with a PURPose of DIMA. If this layer exists then the dimensions go into that layer. The style of the dimension will be cascaded from the owning layer.

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Pipe Sketches

11.2.9

Tags
Tagging is controlled from the Template Drawing: A VIEW will only be tagged if it has a LAYER with a PURPose of LABA. If this layer exists then the tags will go into that layer. The style of the tag will be cascaded from the owning layer, or taken from a symbol template in the case of component tags. A typical symbol may look like this:

To control how the components of the Pipe Spool are tagged. Firstly: A LAYER with PURPose of LABA Must own a TASK element with a SpPurpose of TAGDEF, Which owns 4 Task Parameter elements (TKPARA) With FUNCtion equal to TEMPLATE, OFFSET, TPEN and FPEN And suitable TPVALUEs. Example:
LAYER TASK TKPARA FUNC TEMPLATE TKPARA /MySymbol TKPARA FUNC OFFSET TKPARA 10 10 TKPARA FUNC TPEN TKPARA 1 TKPARA FUNC FPEN TKPARA 11

When tagging views the system will create a Symbolic Label (SLAB) for each component, using the attributes of the above task parameters. Secondly:

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Pipe Sketches

A LAYER with PURPose of LABA Must own a TASK element with a SpPurpose of 'ARRLAB' Which owns 6 Task Parameter elements (TKPARA) And specific FUNCtions and suitable TPVALUEs Example:
LAYER TASK TKPARA FUNC Top Side TKPARA On TKPARA FUNC Bottom Side TKPARA Off TKPARA FUNC Left Side TKPARA On TKPARA FUNC Right Side TKPARA On TKPARA FUNC Margin TKPARA 5 TKPARA FUNC Minimum Gap TKPARA 1

When tagging views the system will now arrange the Label around the view, using the attributes of the above task parameters.

11.2.10 Defaults
Users will generally have their own Sketch Templates for Pipe Sketches. The very first time you display this window there will be a default AVEVA Template in the Template field and a default log file name in the log file field. When the window is applied the current setting of the Registry, Template and Log File are written to a defaults file named %pdmsuser%/PipeSketches.pmldat These values are used as the default next time the window is displayed.

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Pipe Sketches

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Piping Assemblies

12

Piping Assemblies
Building pipes in PDMS is often a case of building single components into a complex structure of branches and components. In engineering there are often fixed configurations of components which can be reused many times in a design and these form the basis of assemblies.

An assembly in PDMS is a series of components and branches in a predefined configuration which may be copied into the Design many times. Alternatively, an assembly definition may be created to access existing macros or forms. A typical piping assembly is shown above.

12.1

Creating Assemblies
Assemblies are accessed from the Component Creation window in the Piping application in the same way as any other component type. For an explanation of how the Component Creation window is displayed see Modifying Pipe Sequences. Part of the Component Creation window is shown:

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Piping Assemblies

When the Assemblies entry is selected from Component Types, a list of assembly types and subtypes is shown on the Component Creation window. For copy-base assemblies, the original assembly is shown in a graphical view. The Component Creation window now looks as shown:

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Piping Assemblies

Filter By option - allows various categories of assembly to be selected and then each sub selection selects an individual assembly type. When an appropriate selection has been made, you will be able to insert an instance of the assembly in a straight tube or connected to a component by clicking Place or Connect respectively. If the assembly contains directional or multi bore components, you will be asked to supply the relevant details via the CHOOSE window during the building process. The graphical view is updated after each component to show you where the current component is. For example the above window shows a tee with a flange. This can be applied on any line with any direction and bore so you are prompted at each point.

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Piping Assemblies

The Input window is shown to ask you in which direction to orientate P3 of the tee. The default direction shown in the window is that of the original assembly. Changing the direction to West and clicking OK completes the sequence and the assembly is built.

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Piping Assemblies

In this case a new branch has been created but the branch tail is left for completion later. It is also possible for the assembly to be completed with the tail at the leave of the gasket. This happens automatically if the offline branch of the assembly has a connection type of OPEN, CLOS, VENT or DRAN. A similar result would be achieved using Connect on the Component creation window, but in this case, the tee would be connected to the previous component to the insertion point. Origins By default, assembly origins are at the arrive point of the first component in the first branch of the assembly. Certain assemblies need to be positioned using a different position, so it is possible to define an assembly origin at some other point in the assembly. For example a simple assembly consisting of a flange, gasket and flange may need to be positioned by the flange face of the first flange. The assembly origin point is configurable using the assembly application, so if an origin has been defined, it will automatically be used to position the assembly. If an assembly is connected to a component then the position is derived by connecting the first component to the existing one. User interaction For example when a reducer is part of an assembly, the arrive end is determined by the size of pipe at the insertion point. The leave of the reducer cannot be determined automatically by the copy process as it may be a number of different values. The same applies for a reducing tee where the branch size may be determined by the header size. Another problem arises when the first component in the assembly is a directional component like an elbow, tee, eccentric reducer etc. These all have to be orientated to ensure that they are inserted in the correct position and orientation. When the system cannot decide the orientation or size of a component automatically, you are prompted to enter a value or to choose a component from the specification.

12.2

Assembly Hierarchy
In order to separate Assemblies and other design template type items from the main design data, a separate hierarchy is available. At DESIGN World level a separate World type called an Application Data World can be created. The concept of an Application Data World is to provide a storage area for design type items which are not part of the design model but form some kind of reference model or starting point for real design items. The benefit of a

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Piping Assemblies

separate hierarchy is that the Application Data World is separated from the normal design, and real design, items will not be clash checked against a set of assemblies. Note: This sounds like the Template structure but Templates (TMPLs) are generally considered as single entities. In contrast application data provides a reference model which is built using conventional design tools. Templates may also be part of the application data structure. The Application Data World hierarchy (APPLDW) is as follows

The Application Data World owns Application Data Area (APPDAR) which in turn own Application Data (APPLDA) elements. From the point of view of assemblies, each individual assembly will be an Application Data element owning a ZONE, PIPE, DDSE (Design Data Set) and one or more branches. Note: an assembly may be as little as a single component but it must be part of a standard pipe/branch structure. Every piping assembly must have an owning Zone and Pipe for administration purposes. Each assembly also has a Design Data Set as part of its structure. This is used to store rules associated with the assembly and its individual components. The Design Point Set (DPSE) is not used by this utility. Piping assemblies are evaluated at branch level where the head of the first branch is the starting point for the assembly. The components of the first branch are considered to be inline so the first branch itself is not replicated. All other branches are copied as new branches in the pipe. Instances of assemblies in the piping design are a series of components which are replica copies of the original assembly components but utilising the same piping specifications and bore of the host pipe. For example a FLAN GASK FLAN combination as an assembly could be used on any size or any specification provided that the appropriate components exist and the STYPEs remain constant. In this situation a single assembly could be utilised for all cases.

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This principle is not applicable for all types of assembly as a simple copy may not be enough to satisfy the design requirements and you may need to enter some values.

12.3

Building and Maintaining Assemblies


The assembly building and maintenance application is accessed by selecting Utilities > Pipe Assemblies from the main menu bar in the Piping application. The displayed Pipe Assembly Manager window enables the building and editing of assemblies

The Pipe Assembly Manager window is split into separate panes with different functions: The top pane allows the assembly hierarchy (World Area and Assembly) to be created. The Explorer view shows the assembly hierarchy (except for the DDSE and its members)

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The Assembly Rules pane is context sensitive to create and edit rules for both the assembly and its members. The bottom pane is a 3D view to show the assembly contents.

12.3.1

Creating the Hierarchy


The top part of the Assembly Manager window allows you to create and move around the Assembly hierarchy.

Display Name/Description - option to show assemblies by name or description for convenience. In applying Assemblies in the design, only the description is displayed. CE - aligns the window with the currently selected assembly. Application World, Application Area and Assemblies drop-down lists are user defined and show a list of what has been created. Create World, Create Area and Create Assembly links - each displays the appropriate create window to create the Assembly hierarchy.

The Purpose option of Piping Assembly is selected, which sets a purpose attribute of PASY. This type of window is also used to create assembly areas and assemblies.

12.3.2

Building an Assembly
Building an assembly is in two stages. In the first stage you create the basic assembly hierarchy using the Create Assembly window.

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This creates the basic hierarchy with an appropriate zone, pipe and data elements. In the next stage the assembly design is created. Although it is possible to build assemblies using standard piping commands, the easiest way to create an assembly is to identify some existing design and copy it into the pre-built assembly using Copy Design on the Pipe Assembly Manager window. A typical example is shown below

First all of the components to be copied into the assembly are selected. This can be done graphically by holding the right hand mouse button down and enclosing all of the items in a selection box or alternatively selecting individual items in conjunction with the control key.

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Once the appropriate design elements have been selected, they can be copied into the assembly using Copy Design. This copies all of the selected elements into one or more branches depending on the configuration. If more than one branch is involved, the copy process prompts the user to identify the main branch, before the copy takes place. For example in the vent shown above, the main branch is the one containing the Tee because this must be in place before the second branch is built. After the Copy Design process has completed, the forms Explorer View and 3D View show the assembly contents.

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Piping Assemblies

Note: Branch1 has a Tee (sockolet) as its only member and the head and tail of the branch is connected to each end of the Tee. When the assembly is inserted into a pipe, the head and tail are ignored and the first component to be built will be the Tee. The assembly is now complete although it is possible to add additional rules for selection orientation and positioning.

12.3.3

Non-Graphical Assemblies
In order to cater for users who have existing functions or windows to create assemblies it is possible to build an assembly which either runs a function or shows a window. The execution is done from Connect or Place on the Component Creation window. These do not instigate any other operation other than starting the function or showing the window, so all user interaction is done via the user called routines. To enable an assembly to call a function or show a window, a basic assembly needs to be created and you need to add the appropriate input to the assembly rules panel as shown below:

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Piping Assemblies

To enable the assembly to run a function, the Function line in the Assembly Rules box is selected and New is clicked.

In the displayed Pipe Assembly Rules window, the Function Name is entered without the "!!" or the extension .pmlfnc. When OK is clicked, the function name is added to the Assembly Rules and stored in the Assembly Design Data Set so that it can be run each time the assembly is used. The same method is used to store window names.

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Piping Assemblies

12.3.4

Primary and Secondary Origins


One of the most common types of assembly is likely to be a set of break flanges where the relevant points for positioning the assembly are on either flange face. To enable an assembly to be positioned by some other feature, it is possible to set Primary and Secondary origins. When the option to insert an assembly in a section of tube is selected, the arrive point of the first component is used to position the assembly. If a primary origin is present, this is used instead. If you choose to connect an assembly, the first component is positioned at the leave of the selected item. Note: Secondary origins are used in pipe splitting to derive correct spool lengths without the thickness of the gasket. See Assembly Build Origin. To set a primary or secondary origin, the appropriate line in the Assembly Rules pane is selected and New is clicked to display the Pipe Assembly Rules window.

PICK can be used to pick a point in the graphics view or alternatively the Element name or reference number and the required PPOINT number can be entered on the window.

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Piping Assemblies

All values may be edited or deleted by selecting the rule value and using Edit or Delete accordingly.

12.3.5

Piping Assembly Component Rules


As well as rules on the assembly itself, each component may also have rules. Note: there are no rules for pipe and branch levels Component rules are necessary to add greater flexibility to assemblies in general use. The concept of copying an assembly instance has limitations where specifications have different STYPEs (see STYPE Rules), because the selection will fail. For example in the AVEVA sample project, the STYPE for a gasket in one specification is RF where in another it is G. One solution to this problem would be to have two assemblies to cater for both cases but this is dealt with by having rules in the assembly template. Assembly rules cover multiple STYPEs, Positions, Orientation, and restricting the STYPE to a particular SPEC/STYPE combination. Each component in the assembly may have instances of all rule types associated with it. When the component is copied into a design instance the rules are evaluated in place of the default actions. If no rules are present then a new item is created using the same relative position and orientation as that of the original. The distinct actions for each component are: 1) 2) 3) 4) Selection Positioning Orientation Bore Selection SEL WITH STYP RF DIST 200 FROM PREV ORI Y IS N WRT PREV Use PL of PREV ELBO

The addition of rules enables the default actions to be supplemented or overridden as described below:

12.3.6

STYPE Rules
STYPE rules are a mechanism to allow an assembly to work with different specifications by supplying a list of alternative STYPES. STYPE rules are in two parts, a specification and an STYPE. For example, for spec /A3B the STYPE for a Gasket is G so if the assembly component has a different STYPE then the rules will be evaluated to find the STYPE for the

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Piping Assemblies

current SPEC. If no rule is present then the assembly instance will fail. To make the assembly work in this instance a new rule could be added so that a gasket in spec /A3B always looks for STYPE G. This is done as follows:

First navigate to a gasket which needs the rule. Next select the Stype line in the Component Rules panel and click New. The Pipe Assembly Rules window displays configured for STYPE rules.

To set the rule, enter the following two parts: The Specification where the STYPE rule applies The actual STYPE

By checking the Apply to Similar Items box, the rule is applied to all similar items in the assembly.

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Piping Assemblies

An alternative STYPE rule mechanism is to force the assembly to use a particular specification and stype regardless of the pipe specification where the assembly is being built. For example certain instrument items may only exist in an Instrument specification so the system needs to be forced to look in a specific place rather than try to find an equivalent. To make this work, the Force this SPEC./STYPE checkbox is checked. After clicking OK, a new rule is built and shown in the Component Rules list. To edit or delete this, select it and then click the appropriate option.

12.3.7

Position Rules
Position and Orientation rules are essentially a replacement of the default action in the form of a command line. In practice a position rule may be a through command such as THRO PT or Dist 1000. These lines will be executed as complete positioning commands in place of the default position derived from the relative position in the assembly.

12.3.8

Orientation Rules
Orientation rules can be in two forms, first as a single command in place of the default orientation, or as a trigger to prompt the user for orientation. The command could be for example "ORI and P3 is D" for a tee in a Drain to always force it to point down. Otherwise, you could enter the keyword 'PROMPT' to force the system to ask for the appropriate orientation when the assembly is being built.

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Piping Assemblies

In the example shown, the selected Valve will always trigger a prompt to ask for the hand wheel orientation.

12.3.9

Bore Selection Rules


In the assembly shown above, there are five points where the bore changes. When this assembly is being built in the design, you will be prompted 5 times to select the appropriate component bore. Whilst at least one size will need to be entered, other sizes can be derived. For example the reducers either side of the control valve will be the same size but with

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Piping Assemblies

reversed flow. To reduce the amount of selection which you need to do, bore selection rules can be put in place to use other components as a reference.

In the example, the leave point of a component is being set to have the same bore size as the arrive point of the previous reducer. This means that when the component is selected, the system will look at the previous reducer to obtain the leave bore rather than prompting or instigating a choose operation. The rule is shown in the Component Rules list:

Note: For a tee the bore selection is applied to P3.

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Piping Assemblies

12.4

Key Elements
Assemblies such as Control sets are often built around a single elbow in the design as a locating item but with our previous example this is in the middle of the assembly and cannot be used as a positioning item. The concept of a Key element is provided to allow an existing element in the design to directly replace an element in an assembly such that the assembly is built around the existing design element as if it was part of the assembly. In effect a design component is used as a positioning and orientation component for the rest of the assembly.

Because there can only be one Key element, this is set by a right mouse click the assembly Design Explorer window. To set the Key element, navigate to the required element and select the right-click option to set this as the Key element.

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Piping Assemblies

The 3D window displays which element has been selected.

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Fabrication Machine Manager

13

Fabrication Machine Manager


The Fabrication Machine Manager allows users to define the attributes of their Pipe Bending and Flange Welding machines, with their physical limits, such as local collision restrictions when the machine is in situ, maximum/minimum bore limits and material stretch/ spring back factors. Select Utilities > Fabrication Machine Manager from the main menu bar to display the Fabrication Machine Manager window. The displayed window will differ depending on which Fabrication Machine radio button is selected by the user. If Bending is selected the following screen is displayed:

If Flange Welding is selected the following screen is displayed:

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Fabrication Machine Manager

The Fabrication Machine Manager window allows the welding machine attributes to be modified directly. Name RefNo Type Lock Owner Description MinOD MaxOD MinLP MaxLP Name of the element Reference of the element Type of the element, ignoring UDET, truncated to 4 to 6 characters True if element is locked Owner Description Minimum Outer Diameter Maximum Outer Diameter Minimum length of pipe Maximum length of pipe

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Fabrication Machine Manager

The bottom panel shows the list of Flange Skey's to define the flanges that can be machine welded on this particular Welding Machine. The Display Name/Description checkbox displays either the Name or the Description of the fabrication element. The user can change this by selecting from the drop-down menu. When the box is left unchecked the Description is displayed.

When the box is checked the Name is displayed.

The user can create a new Fabrication World by clicking Create World to display the Create Fabrication World window.

The user must enter a Name and Description and click Apply. Clicking the Copy checkbox allows the user to copy an existing Fabrication World by entering the name to be copied in the textbox. To create a group of machines click Create Group to display the Create Fabrication Group window.

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Fabrication Machine Manager

The user must enter a Name and Description and click Apply. Clicking the Copy checkbox allows the user to copy an existing Fabrication Group by entering the name to be copied in the textbox.

13.1

Fabrication Machine
The user can toggle between the Fabrication Machine radio buttons, selecting either Bending or Flange Welding.

13.1.1

Bending
When Bending is selected the Fabrication Machine Manager window will display the current Bending Machine. The user can change the current bending machine by selecting from the drop-down menu within the bending machines name textbox. Clicking Create will display the Create Bending Machine window allowing the user to create a new Bending Machine.

The user must enter a Name and Description and click Apply. Clicking the Copy checkbox allows the user to copy an existing Bending Machine by entering the name to be copied in the textbox. Other options available to the user on the Fabrication Machine Manager window are: STF Proportional STF Constant Enter a proportional stretch factor for the bending machine. Enter a constant stretch factor for the bending machine.

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Fabrication Machine Manager

Max Pipe Length Compensate

Enter a maximum pipe length. Clicking the Compensate checkbox allows the bending machine to compensate the bending activities for Springback. Leave the checkbox unchecked for no compensation. Clicking the AutoWeld Flanges checkbox allows the bending machine to accept autowelded flanges. Leave the checkbox unchecked and the bending machine will not accept autowelded flanges.

AutoWeld Flanges

When the user selects the Bending radio button the Fabrication Machine Manager window displays three tabs Bending Dimension Data, Collision Planes and Springback and Stretch Factors. Selecting each tab allows for the user to add, modify or delete data associated with each tab. Right clicking within the grids for Bending Dimensions, Collision Planes and Springback / Stretch Factors displays a pop-up menu of Add, Modify and Delete.

Add

Depending on which tab the user has selected either the Create Dimension Data, Create Collision Plane or the Create Springback and Stretch Factors window will be displayed. Depending on which tab the user has selected either the Modify Dimension Data, Modify Collision Plane or the Modify Springback and Stretch Factors window will be displayed. Deletes the selected row

Modify

Delete

Bending Dimension Data Clicking the Bending Dimension Data tab displays a list of all the bending dimension data for the selected element.

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Fabrication Machine Manager

The full list of Bending Dimension attribute descriptions is: Name RefNo Type Lock Owner OD WThickness Grip MLEFlange MLIFlange FCMeasure BRadius AwdFln Name of the element Reference of the element Type of the element, ignoring UDET, truncated to 4 to 6 characters True if element is locked Owner Outer Diameter Wall thickness Minimum distance between bends Minimum length excluding flange Minimum length including flange Flange correction measure Bend radius Bending machine accepts autowelded flanges

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Fabrication Machine Manager

Create Dimension Data Selecting Add from the pop-up menu displays the Create Dimension Data window allowing the user to create data for a new Bending Machine.

Modify Dimension Data Selecting Modify from the pop-up menu displays the Modify Dimension Data window allowing the user to change the data for the selected Bending Machine.

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Fabrication Machine Manager

Collision Planes The user can create one or more collision planes for each Bending Machine. The Collision Plane attributes are two maximum and two minimum positions. These planes are a basic representation of the Bending Machine and its location in the workshop and are used by the system as Clash planes when bending the pipe. The Bending machine feeds, rotates and bends a pipe while the System makes sure it does not clash with any of the collision planes during this process. Clicking the Collision Planes tab displays a list of all the Collision Plane data for the selected Bending Machine and a graphical representation of each selected Plane in a graphical view.

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Fabrication Machine Manager

The list is a multi-select panel allowing several planes to be shown in context.

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Fabrication Machine Manager

Selecting all the planes in the list will display a graphical representation of all the selected planes in the graphical view.

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Fabrication Machine Manager

The axes, shown only once, indicates the bending machine feed origin, about which all other dimensions are taken. The full list of Collision Plane attribute descriptions is: Name RefNo Type Lock Owner MinPinPosition Name of the element Reference of the element Type of the element, ignoring UDET, truncated to 4 to 6 characters True if element is locked Owner Minimum Plane Position X Y Z MaxPinPosition Maximum Plane Position X Y Z

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Fabrication Machine Manager

Create Collision Plane The user can add additional Collision Planes by selecting Add from the pop-up menu to display the Create Collision Plane window.

The user must enter the required information in the textboxes and click Apply. Modify Collision Plane Selecting Modify from the pop-up menu displays the Modify Collision Plane window allowing the user to modify existing Collision Planes.

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Fabrication Machine Manager

Springback and Stretch Factors Clicking the Springback and Stretch Factors tab displays a list of all the Springback and stretch Factors data for the selected element.

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Fabrication Machine Manager

The full list of Springback and Stretch Factors attribute descriptions is: Name RefNo Type Lock Owner OD WThickness Matref ANGSPA ANGSPB STFProportional STFConstant Name of the element Reference of the element Type of the element, ignoring UDET, truncated to 4 to 6 characters True if element is locked Owner Outer Diameter Wall thickness Material reference Springback angle at 20 degrees Springback angle at 120 degrees Proportional stretch factor Constant stretch factor

Create Springback and Stretch Factor The user can add additional Springback and Stretch Factors by selecting Add from the popup menu to display the Create Springback and Stretch Factor window.

The user must enter the required information in the textboxes and click Apply.

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Fabrication Machine Manager

Modify Springback and Stretch Factor Selecting Modify from the pop-up menu displays the Modify Springback and Stretch Factor window allowing the user to modify existing Springback and Stretch Factors..

13.1.2

Flange Welding
When Flange Welding is selected the Fabrication Machine Manager window will display the current Welding Machine. The user can change this by selecting from the drop-down menu. Clicking Create displays the Create Flange Welding Machine window allowing the user to create a new Welding Machine.

The user must enter a Name and Description and click Apply. Clicking the Copy checkbox allows the user to copy an existing Flange Welding Machine by entering the name to be copied in the textbox.

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Fabrication Machine Manager

The Outer Diameter minimum and maximum sizes and the Length of Pipe minimum and maximum lengths are displayed.

13.2

Report
To Save a report of a Bending or Flange Welding machine click Report to display the Save Report file browser.

The user must navigate to a directory where the report is to be saved and enter a Filename in the textbox.

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Fabrication Machine Manager

13.2.1

Example Reports
Bending Machine:

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Fabrication Machine Manager

Flange Welding Machine:

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Create Bend using Bending Machine

14

Create Bend using Bending Machine


Before the user can make use of a Bending Machine (refer to Bending) the user must make sure that the zone and specification is set correctly.

14.1

Reference a Bending Machine


In order to enable automatic bend radius selection on bend components the user must specify what bending machines are being used and where to search to get the bend radius. At zone level the user must set an attribute BendMacReference to points to a pre-defined fabrication machine world.

Select the zone element and then select Modify > Attributes.

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Create Bend using Bending Machine

Set the BendMacReference attribute to a Fabrication Machine World element in the Explorer.

For a detailed description of how to create a Fabrication Machine refer to Fabrication Machine.

14.2

Bending Machine Radius Calculation


A bending Machine (FMBEND) is defined by a set of collision planes for bend collision checks and a set of FMBDIM elements to define each bore size the attributes are defined as follows: Attributes Name /OD114.3 Type FMBDIM Lock false Owner /BENDING_MACHINE2 OD 114.3mm

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Create Bend using Bending Machine

WThickness 0mm Grip 225mm MLEFlange 940mm MLIFlange 1090mm FCMeasure 0mm BRadius 3 AwdFln true For bend radius definition the outside diameter of the tube is multiplied by the BRADIUS attribute so in this case. The OD (114.3) is multiplied by the BRADIUS(3) to give an actual bend radius of 342.9. For a detailed description of creating collision planes refer to Create Collision Plane.

14.3

SPEC Defined Bend Selection


Normally if a radius selector exists in the spec then the component radius will be set using the appropriate value automatically. A specification is shown below containing a radius (RADI) selector:

To enable bends to have their radius set automatically then the COMPTYPE must be set to VAR on each SCOM element.

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Create Bend using Bending Machine

The COMPTYPE attribute can be changed in PARAGON using the standard modify attributes form. Note: A spec based radius will always take priority over a machine defined one so where there is a choice of radius, the spec value will always take precedence.

14.4

Choose Command
Where a spec has a radius heading as described in the previous section, the bend radius is automatically set to this value. Where no radius is set the radius will be zero. The example below is an example of where the radius is set in the spec.

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Create Bend using Bending Machine

All other cases of choose will look the same as before and the radius will be unchanged by reselection.

Where a radius can be defined against an available machine the radius will be set automatically but this value will not be shown on the choose form.

14.5

Component Creation
In the case of bend radii being set in the specification the component creation form will recognise this and change the radius option to Specification and set the radius according to the specification value. Selecting each bend in the list will reset the radius value appropriately.

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Create Bend using Bending Machine

When a new component is connected or inserted the radius is set automatically.

Where the radius is set as a result of a bending machine calculation, the form shows this with the radius option set to Machine and the radius set accordingly.

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Create Bend using Bending Machine

Where a component radius cannot be determined from the spec or a machine, the standard define option is available where the user can select from options of 1D to 5D as shown below.

14.6

Component Selection
The component selection form recognises variable radius bends in the same way as the component creation form but in this case prompts to reset the radius on component reselection. In the example below, the mitred bend has a radius of 571.5 and the alternative can have a radius defined by a machine.

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Create Bend using Bending Machine

Selecting the alternative results in a prompt asking the user if he wants to use the machine defined radius as shown below.

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Create Bend using Bending Machine

Accepting the change will reset the radius, not accepting the change will reselect the component but leave the bend radius unchanged and cancel will leave the component unchanged.

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Create Bend using Bending Machine

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Conclusion

15

Conclusion
This concludes both the tutorial exercises and this introduction to some of the ways in which AVEVA PDMS applications can help you in your piping design work. You should now have an insight into the potential power of AVEVA PDMS and sufficient confidence to explore some of the more advanced options on your own. For further technical details, refer to the sources of information listed in Other Relevant Documentation. If you have not already done so, you are strongly advised to attend one or more of the specialised AVEVA PDMS training courses, which will show you how to get the maximum benefits from the product in your own working environment (see Further Training in Using PDMS).

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Equipment and Piping DESIGN Database

Equipment and Piping DESIGN Database


This appendix shows the part of the DESIGN database hierarchy which holds elements relevant to equipment and piping design. (Elements shown in italics, BOX for example, are Equipment items).

ZONE

PIPE (PIPE)

EQUIPMENT * (EQUI)

ROUTING PLANE GROUP (RPLG) ROUTING PLANE (RPLA)

BRANCH (BRAN)

optional

SUBEQUIPMENT (SUBE)

piping components ATTACHMENT POINT (ATTA) BEND (BEND) BLIND FLANGE (FBLI) CAP (CAP) CLOSURE (CLOS) COUPLING (COUP) CROSS (CROS) DUCTING (DUCT) ELBOW (ELBO) FILTER (FILT) FIXED LENGTH TUBE (FTUB) FLANGE (FLAN) FOUR-WAY VALVE (VFWA) GASKET (GASK) GENERAL PIPE COMPONENT (PCOM) INSTRUMENT (INST) LAP-JOINT STUB END (LJSE) OLET (OLET) REDUCER (REDU) STANDARD HOOK-UP (SHU) TEE (TEE) THREE-WAY VALVE (VTWA) TRAP (TRAP) UNION (UNIO) VALVE (VALV) VENT (VENT) WELD (WELD) NOZZLE (NOZZ) design primitives LOAD POINT (LOAP)

BOX CIRCULAR TORUS CONE CYLINDER DISH POLYHEDRON PYRAMID RECTANGULAR TORUS SLOPE-BOTTOMED CYLINDER SNOUT (All primitive shapes have a negative equivalent that may be owned by a positive element.

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SPOOLER Reference Information

SPOOLER Reference Information


This appendix provides additional information on some important aspects of the SPOOLER module. This information is intended for experienced users and system administrators, to enable them to modify existing databases and catalogues making them compatible with SPOOLER.

B.1

Spool Breaks
A Spool Break is the changeover point between SHOP and FIELD components. It occurs at the junction of two piping components (or implied TUBE) that fulfils one of the following cases: 1. The Shop Flag status of the two components is different. i.e. True-to-False or False-toTrue. The Shop Flag status of elements in the DESIGN database can be changed in SPOOLER using the Modify>Shop/Field function. 2. If a component is the end of the piping network (e.g. connected to an EQUIpment item) it is automatically the end of the Spool/Field and the Spool Drawing. 3. BOTH piping components have their spool break attributes set to true (CSFBREAK for a piping component and TSFBREAK for the leave tube). This condition can be forced using the Create>Spool Break function in SPOOLER. Note: TSFBREAK is an attribute of the piping component not the leave tube. Although its effect is on the leave tube.

B.2

Connection Types
The p-points of every piping component have associated connection types, derived from their catalogue definitions. These are used in conjunction with the Connection Compatibility (COCO) tables, in the database, to check if two components may be legally connected to each other. Note: The connection type for the arrive and leave points of a TUBI component are always derived from p-point P1 of the tube catalogue element. This functionality has been extended for SPOOLER so that it also specifies what type of connection it is. The type of connection is identified by the Ckey attribute, which is added to

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SPOOLER Reference Information

the COCO element definition. The Ckey attribute can be set to any of the standard ISODRAFT end connection types: Ckey BW SW SC CP FL PL Connection Type Butt weld Socket weld Screwed connection Compression Flanged Plain

If the Ckey attribute is left unset, the connection is assumed to be Plain.

B.2.1

Weld and Joint Connections


Connections between piping components (and tube) come in two forms: welds and nonwelded joints (e.g. flanged, screwed or compression connections). The welds and joints are grouped in the fabrication database in the WLDGRP (Weld Group) and JNTGRP (Joint Group) elements, respectively. These groups are created, by default, when numbering is first inserted into the Spool Drawing. A connection is considered to belong to a Spool Drawing if: Both piping components involved in the connection belong to that Spool Drawing. The downstream piping component in the connection is on one end of the piping network in that Spool Drawing. In the case of a flanged joint with a gasket, the flange owning the gasket is on that Spool Drawing.

B.2.2

Types of Welds and Joints


SPOOLER uses three types of weld definitions and one type of joint definition. These are: Definition IWELD RWELD AWELD IJOINT Description Implied weld Real weld Attached weld Implied joint

The types of welds and joints are described in the following sections. Implied Welds IWELD components provide a link in the Fabrication database to the position of a weld that must be inserted to join two piping components or tubes. For example: fit a flange onto the end of a tube. You do not have to explicitly define these welds as they are implied by the nature of the components involved. A connection can have an IWELD element associated with it if:

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SPOOLER Reference Information

It has a Ckey (Connection key) of types BW or SW.

Note: If you have explicitly defined a weld (RWELD element) to connect the two components, the software will not insert a implied weld at that point. Real Welds RWELD components link to explicitly defined Shop or Field welds in the DESIGN database. They are normally inserted in AVEVA DESIGN but can also be added in SPOOLER, to break up a spool. Attached Welds AWELD components provide a method for numbering the welds required for welded attachments. Typically these are used to secure the piping network to the support ATTAchments. The number of welds on each attachment can be defined in SPOOLER, using the Modify>Attached Welds function. Implied Joints IJOINT components define the connection between two non-welded piping components or tubes (e.g. bolted flanges, compression joints or screwed connections). You do not have to explicitly define the details of these joints as they are implied by the nature of the components involved. A connection can have an IJOINT element associated with it if: It has a Ckey (Connection key) of types CP, FL or SC. Neither of the components are Gaskets.

B.3
B.3.1

Special Cases
The following sub-sections contain descriptions of some special cases within SPOOLER.

Shop Flag Status


This section describes some of the special cases for the Shop Flag. These can effect the placement of Spool Breaks and the handling of some elements. ATTAchments While ATTAs do have a Shop Flag, its status is ignored when spooling a piping network. For example: a shop false ATTA will not break a spool. Note: The leave tube of a spec break ATTA (SPECBR attribute is True) still has an active Shop Flag.

B.3.2

Leave Tubes of Welds


If you break a spool by inserting a field weld into the leave tube after the last component in a pipe, the section between the weld and the end of the tube is reassigned as the leave tube of the weld. Inserting a field weld is a modification to the DESIGN database and immediately after its creation the weld and its leave tube are not in the Spool Drawing. You can add the weld and its leave tube by updating the numbering of the Spool Drawing, in the normal way.

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B.3.3

Welds for OLETs


An OLET element has 3 p-points: P1 (p-arrive) and P2 (p-leave) in the main tube and P3 in the off-line leg. P1 and P2 are coincident and are normally treated as a single point. A problem could occur if points P1 and P2 have Ckeys of BWD or SWD. By default this should give two welds, one for each point, but the software recognises the OLET as a special case and only allocates one weld.

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Pipe Piece and Pipe Spool Data

Pipe Piece and Pipe Spool Data


This Appendix contains the detailed system-specific information about pipe pieces and pipe spools. It includes the underlying objects and functionality and the database attributes and pseudo-attributes.

C.1
C.1.1

Pipe Piece Manager


PML Methods
The pipe piece manager has no exposed functions.

C.1.2

Functionality

Function Delete pipe pieces

Description

C.2
C.2.1

Pipe Piece
Pipe Piece Functionality

Function Invalidate all verified Query bend activities

Description Set appropriate validation attributes Returns bending activities

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Pipe Piece and Pipe Spool Data

C.2.2

Pipe Piece Attributes

Attribute

Type

Default

Get

Set User Spool Mngr Pipe Mngr Fab. Mngr Bend M/C Weld M/C Stock Len.

Remarks

Machine Bent Bending Machine Reference Bending flow Auto Start Auto End with

BOOLEAN DBREF

False

9 9

9 9

9 9 9 9 9

May not be required

BOOLEAN ENUM ENUM DBREF

True

9 9 9 9 9 9

Welded Welded

Welding Machine Reference User Excess Start

REAL

The system should always remember user excesses. Start/End excesses are used only where the relevant start/end flanges are manually welded. The cut length calculation should always user the greater value of the user or bend machine excess. Bend M/C Start Excess User Excess End REAL REAL REAL REAL ARRAY REAL 0 0 0 0

9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9

Bend M/C End Excess Feed Excess Stock Value Length

9 9 9
Holds the stock length that was checked against Invisible to user Invisible to user Invisible to user

Pipe verified

piece

BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN

False True False

9 9 9 9 9

Pipe piece modified Pipe piece contains bends

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Pipe Piece and Pipe Spool Data

C.2.3

Pipe Piece Pseudo Attributes

Attribute Arrive position Leave position Arrive direction Leave direction

Comment HPOS on branch or LPOS of first component TPOS on branch or APOS of last component HDIR on branch or LDIR of first component TDIR on branch or ADIR of last component

Attribute Name APOS LPOS ADIR LDIR ACON LCON PPAREF PPLREF

Arrive connection LCON of start component type Leave connection ACON of end component type Arrive component The first component of the Pipe Piece Leave component The Last Component of the Pipe Piece

Arrive flange req Returns whether the start flange should be welding considered for pre-welding, i.e. shop = true and loose = false Leave flange req Returns whether the end flange should be welding considered for pre-welding, i.e. shop = true and loose = false Nominal bore Outside diameter Material Specification Wall thickness HBOR on branch or LBOR of start component HOD on branch or LOD of start component PPNBOR PPOUTD

Returns the MATR attribute of the spec of the first MATREF component HSTU on branch or LSTU of first component SPRE

The wall thickness of the implied tube of the pipe WALLTH piece. Uses the OUTD and ACBO attributes from the property database. Calculated using relevant information MTCL Array of radius of bends for pipe piece PPCUTL PPFINL PPBRAD

Cut length Finished length Bend radii Bend ratio

Array of Ratio of radius to OD of bends for pipe PPBRAT piece Ratio of radius to OD

Angle between The required angle between flanges at pipe piece PPANFL flanges ends before the pipe piece is bent. Get pipe piece Returns all the components within the pipe piece components PPAREF

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Pipe Piece and Pipe Spool Data

Attribute Fabrication machine verified Stock verified

Comment True/False - verifies if modified flag is true

Attribute Name PPFMCV PPSTOV

length True/False - verifies if modified flag is true

C.3
C.3.1

Pipe Spool Manager


PML Methods

Name
.generatePipeSpools(DBREF) .getPipePieces(DBREF) .getBranchElements(DBREF)

Result

Description

ARRAY ARRAY Returns all the pipe elements contained in the spool. This includes tubes. Returns the pipe pieces and other components need in

.getMTOElements(DBREF)

ARRAY ARRAY ARRAY ARRAY

.getBendingTables(DBREF) .getWeldingTables(DBREF) .getActivityTables(DBREF)

C.3.2

Functionality

Function Autonaming

Description

C.4
C.4.1

Pipe Spool
Pipe Spool Functionality

Function MTO Fabrication activities Bending information

Description

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Pipe Piece and Pipe Spool Data

Function Welding information End points

Description

2D array of start and end points of the segments of a pipe spool

C.4.2

Pipe Spool Members

Name .pipeSpool

Type DBREF

Description Pipe Spool element

C.4.3

Pipe Spool Methods (not implemented)

Name
.getMtoTables(DB_Ele ment)

Type ARRAY of

Description Pass an array of attributes. Results in a table / 2 dimensional array: Rows = all elements in the pipe spool. Columns = Attribute values requested.

.getAssemblyTables()

ARRAY

Results in a table / 2 dimensional array: Table of information to put on the pipe sketch Assembly Activities Table

.getEndpointTable()

ARRAY

Results in a table / 2 dimensional array: Connection number and X, Y and Z positions for the open ends of the pipe spool

.getEndPointTags()

ARRAY

Results in a table / 2 dimensional array: PPoint/Element and text to allow this text to be tagged on the pipe sketch. The tags correspond to .EndPointTable() for cross-reference the

.getPlaneTags()

ARRAY

Results in a table / 2 dimensional array: PPoint/ Element and text to allow this text to be tagged on the pipe sketch. The tags correspond to the Planes referenced on the .getAssembly() table for crossreference

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Pipe Piece and Pipe Spool Data

C.4.4

Pipe Spool Attributes

Attribute

Type

Default

Get

Set User Spool Mngr Pipe Mngr Fab. Mngr Bend M/C Weld M/C Stock Len.

Remarks

Name PSARFA

name Array DB_Element Array DB_Element

UNSET UNSET

9 9 9

9 9 9
Array of arrive elements the

PSLRFA

UNSET

Array of the leave elements

C.4.5

Pipe Spool Pseudo Attributes

Attribute PPRFA BELRFA BELTYP MELRFA PSVLD

Comment List of pipe pieces within the spool, will NOT generate pipe pieces List of piping elements within the spool List of piping elements types within the spool List of MTO components needed to construct the pipe spool If all the pipe pieces are valid this is true.

C.5
C.5.1

Pipe Spool Reporting Data


MTO
This is a query that returns the components and pipe pieces for a pipe spool. The default order of the list is in hierarchical sequence order.

C.5.2

Assembly Activities
Array of activities for each of the components in the pipe spool Flanges Activity object definition for orienting a flange component.

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Pipe Piece and Pipe Spool Data

Attribute Component Offset Angle

Type DBREF REAL

Description Component activity relates to Offset angle (Rotation) of flange from reference plane

Reference Plane DBREF Component Plane Direction DIRECTION

Component used to define reference plane Direction of the plane acting through the reference component

Branch Pieces Activity object definition for defining branch connection, tee, olet, etc. to another branch.

Attribute Component Offset Angle Rotation Angle

Type DBREF REAL REAL

Description Component activity relates to Offset angle of connection from reference plane (Turn) Only relevant for straight branch pieces ending in a flanged connection The reference plane for the flange rotation is defined by the branch piece and the main pipe.

Inclination Angle

REAL

The inclination is the angle between the branch piece and the main pipe measured in the direction towards the reference component Type of connection of branch piece to main pipe Component used to define reference plane Direction of the plane acting through the reference component

Branch Connection

ENUM

Reference Plane DBREF Component Plane Direction DIRECTION

Elbow Activity object definition for defining elbow component.

Attribute Component Offset Angle

Type DBREF REAL

Description Component activity relates to Offset angle with respect to reference plane (Turn)

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Pipe Piece and Pipe Spool Data

Attribute

Type

Description Component used to define reference plane Direction of the plane acting through the reference component

Reference Plane DBREF Component Plane Direction DIRECTION

Mitre (Single Cut) Activity object definition for defining elbow component.

Attribute Component Offset Angle Cut Angle

Type DBREF REAL REAL

Description Component activity relates to Offset angle with respect to reference plane (Turn) Angle pipe is cut (Inclination) Component used to define reference plane Direction of the plane acting through the reference component

Reference Plane DBREF Component Plane Direction DIRECTION

Cut Activity object definition for defining cut at start/end of a pipe piece.

Attribute Component End Final Length Reference Component Split

Type DBREF ENUM REAL DBREF

Description Pipe piece activity relates to End cut is related to (Inclination) Final cut length from reference component Reference component final cut is measured from

Activity object definition for defining split in a pipe piece.

Attribute Component

Type DBREF

Description Pipe piece activity relates to

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Pipe Piece and Pipe Spool Data

Attribute Feed Excess Reference Component Thread

Type REAL DBREF

Description Excess removed from feed tube following reference component Reference component preceding feed excess is removed from

Activity object definition for defining threading at start/end of a pipe piece.

Attribute Component End Thread Length Thread Insert

Type DBREF ENUM REAL ?

Description Pipe piece activity relates to End threading is related to (Inclination) Length of threading required Threading information

Activity object definition for defining inserts at the end of a pipe piece.

Attribute Component Insert Length

Type DBREF REAL

Description Pipe piece activity relates to Length of insertion into following pipe piece

C.5.3

Bending Table

Attribute Pipe Piece Bending Machine Clutch arrive tube Check Sum Activities

Type DBREF DBREF BOOLEAN ? Bend Array

Description Pipe piece bending table relates to Bending machine reference True if the bending machine clutches the arrive tube NOT IMPLEMENTED Activity Array with bending activities for the pipe piece

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Pipe Piece and Pipe Spool Data

Bending Activity

Attribute Feed Rotate Bend

Type REAL REAL REAL

Description Feed activity value Rotation activity value Bend activity value

C.5.4

Welding Table
Managed by attributes and pseudo attributes of pipe piece.

Attribute Pipe Piece Welding Machine Arrive Flange Arrive Welded

Type DBREF DBREF DBREF

Description Pipe piece welding table relates to Welding machine reference Flange at arrive of pipe piece True if welding machine set, arrive flange can be welded and arrive flange is pre-welded Flange at leave of pipe piece True if welding machine set, leave flange can be welded and leave flange is pre-welded Angle between the arrive flange and leave flange where both pre-welded

Flange Boolean DBREF

Leave Flange Leave Welded Angle

Flange Boolean Real

C.5.5

Spool Extents/End Point


Information derived from Pipe Spool to determine the positions at the start and end of the first branch/section of branch of a spool: Start equates to APOS of PSSRFA[1] End equates to LPOS of PSERFA[1]

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Pipework Design User Guide


Fabrication Machine Data

Fabrication Machine Data


The system can check pipe pieces for production readiness against bending machines, welding machines and the defined stock length of tubing. Production test requests are made to a Fabrication Machine Manager controlling the fabrication machines. Information about the welding/bending machine operation and their corresponding activity tables can be obtained from the Manager.

D.1
D.1.1

Fabrication Machine Manager


Methods

Name

Result

Purpose Sets the maximum material length. Gets the maximum material length. Sets the current bending machine. Future fabrication tests will use this bending machine. Gets the machine. current bending

SetMaximumMaterialLength(RE NO RESULT AL length) GetMaximumMaterialLength( ) REAL SetBendingMachine(DBREF bendingMachine)


NO RESULT

GetBendingMachine( ) SetWeldingMachine(DBREF weldingMachine)

DBREF NO RESULT

Sets the current welding machine. Future fabrication tests will use this welding machine. Gets the machine. current welding

GetWeldingMachine( )

DBREF

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Pipework Design User Guide


Fabrication Machine Data

Name

Result BOOLEAN

Purpose Checks if the given pipe piece can be fabricated by the current combination of bending / welding machines. Information about fabrication for the bending/welding machine can be obtained by requesting the corresponding bending/welding result objects. Tells the fabrication machine manager if excesses between bends can be added to the pipe piece in order to satisfy bending machine fabrication requirements. Gets the current add excess between bends setting. Tells the fabrication machine manager if excesses at the ends of the pipe piece can be added in order to satisfy bending machine fabrication requirements. Gets the current add end excess setting. Tells the fabrication machine manager if flanges at the end of the pipe piece can be changed to manually welded in order to be able to fabricate the pipe piece. Gets the current change flange to manual setting. Tells the fabrication machine manager if the current stock length must be checked during fabrication. Gets the current check stock length setting. The first feed in the bending machine will be negative (the pipe is inserted into the bending machine)

ValidatePipePiece(DBREF pipePiece)

SetAddExcessBetweenBends(BO NO RESULT OLEAN add)

GetAddExcessBetweenBends( ) BOOLEAN SetAddEndExcess(BOOLEAN add)


NO RESULT

GetAddEndExcess( )

BOOLEAN

SetChangeFlangeToManual(BOO NO RESULT LEAN change)

GetChangeFlangeToManual( )

BOOLEAN

SetCheckStockLength(BOOLEAN NO RESULT check)

GetCheckStockLength( ) SetFirstFeedNegative (BOOLEAN firstNegative)

BOOLEAN NO RESULT

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Fabrication Machine Data

Name

Result BOOLEAN

Purpose Gets the FirstFeedNegative setting of the fabrication machine manager.

GetFirstFeedNegative ( )

GetBendingMachineResult( )

BENDINGMA Gets a CHINERESU BendingMachineResult LT object with information about the bending machine for the last fabrication test. WELDINGMA Gets a CHINERESU WeldingMachineResult LT object with information about the welding machine for the last fabrication test. Informs the fabrication machine manager about which end should be inserted in the bending machine clutch. Priority can take the following values: FLANGED NONFLANGED NOPREFERENCE

GetWeldingMachineResult( )

SetClutchEndPriority(STRING NO RESULT priority)

GetClutchEndPriority( )

STRING FLANGED, NONFLANG ED, NOPREFER ENCE

Gets the current clutch end priority.

SetMaterialStretchConfig(ST NO RESULT RING config)

Sets the stretching parameters of the bending machine for the following fabrication tests. Config can take the values : SYSTEMDEFAULT MACHINE MATERIAL NOSTRETCH

GetMaterialStretchConfig( ) STRING
SYSTEMDE FAULT, MACHINE, MATERIAL, NOSTRETC H

Gets the current material stretch configuration.

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Fabrication Machine Data

Name

Result

Purpose Quick check to establish if the current bending machine accepts the given pipe piece. Quick check to establish if the current welding machine accepts the given pipe piece.

BendingMachineAcceptsPipePi BOOLEAN ece(DBREF pipePiece) WeldingMachineAcceptsPipePi BOOLEAN ece(DBREF pipePiece)

D.1.2

BendingMachineResult

Name

Result DBREF DBREF BOOLEAN

Purpose Bending machine used Pipe piece being checked Whether passed checks pipe piece has bending machine

BendingMachine( ) PipePiece( ) Pass( )

ValidMaterial( ) ValidOD( ) ValidWallThickness( )

BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN

The Bending Machine can deal with the pipe piece material. The Bending Machine can deal with the pipe piece OD. The Bending Machine can deal with the pipe piece wall thickness. First leg doesnt excess the initial feed of the bending machine The Bending Machine can deal with the bend radius of the pipe piece. All the bends in the pipe piece have the same radius. The pipe piece does not collide with the Bending Machine collision planes. Modifications to pipe piece definition is required to pass the bending machine checks Start excess required. End excess required. Array of required. feed excesses

ValidInitialFeedLength( )

BOOLEAN

ValidBendRadius( )

BOOLEAN

AllBendsSameRadius( ) WithinCollisionPlanes( )

BOOLEAN BOOLEAN

FailureIsResolvable( )

BOOLEAN

PipePieceStartExcess( ) PipePieceEndExcess( ) PipePieceFeedExcess( )

REAL REAL REAL ARRAY

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Fabrication Machine Data

Name

Result BOOLEAN

Purpose Start flange required to be manually welded. End flange required to be manually welded. Length of fabrication. material before

PipePieceStart FlangeManuallyWelded( )

PipePieceEndFlangeManuallyW BOOLEAN elded( ) PipePieceCutLength( ) PipePieceFinishedLength( ) EndsExcessPassed( ) FeedExcessPassed( ) FlangeModifiedPassed( ) BendingDirectionForward( )


REAL REAL BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN

As above, but with excesses removed. Check against preference for change in state. Check against preference for change in state. Check against preference for change in state. Bend in direction of flow.

D.1.3

WeldingMachineResult

Name

Result DBREF DBREF BOOLEAN

Purpose Welding machine used Pipe piece being checked Whether passed checks pipe piece has welding machine

Welding machine( ) PipePiece( ) Pass( )

ValidMaterial( ) ValidOD( ) ValidMinimumLength( )

BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN

The Welding Machine can deal with the pipe piece material. The Welding Machine can deal with the pipe piece OD. The length of the pipe piece is greater than the minimum length of the welding machine. The length of the pipe piece is smaller than the maximum length of the welding machine. The flange at the start of the pipe piece is accepted by the welding machine.

ValidMaximumLength( )

BOOLEAN

ValidStartFlangeGroup( )

BOOLEAN

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Fabrication Machine Data

ValidEndFlangeGroup( )

BOOLEAN

The flange at the end of the pipe piece is accepted by the welding machine. Maximum number of welded flanges the can be handled by welding machine

MaxWeldedFlanges( )

REAL

D.1.4

BendingTable

Name

Result DBREF DBREF BOOLEAN ? BENDACTIVI TY ARRAY

Purpose Pipe piece relates to bending table

PipePiece( ) BendingMachine( ) ClutchArriveTube( ) CheckSum( ) Activities( )

Bending machine reference True if the bending machine clutches the arrive tube NOT IMPLEMENTED Array with bending activities for the pipe piece

D.1.5

BendActivity

Name

Result REAL REAL REAL

Purpose Feed activity value Rotation activity value Bend activity value

Feed( ) Rotate( ) Bend( )

D.1.6

WeldingTable

Name

Result DBREF DBREF DBREF BOOLEAN

Purpose Pipe piece relates to welding table

PipePiece( ) WeldingMachine( ) ArriveFlange( ) ArriveFlangeWelded( )

Welding machine reference Flange at arrive of pipe piece True if welding machine set, arrive flange can be welded and arrive flange is pre-welded

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Fabrication Machine Data

Name

Result DBREF BOOLEAN

Purpose Flange at leave of pipe piece True if welding machine set, leave flange can be welded and leave flange is pre-welded Angle between the arrive flange and leave flange where both pre-welded

LeaveFlange( ) LeaveFlangeWelded( )

Angle( )

REAL

D.2
D.2.1

Database Support
The database ddl supports the following new objects to support fabrication machines.

FMWL - Fabrication Machine World Top Level Element

Attribute NAME DESC

Description Name Description

Type name text

Default unset unset

D.2.2

FMGRP - Fabrication Machine Group

Attribute NAME PURP DESC FUNC

Description Name Purpose Description Function

Type name text text text

Default unset unset unset unset

D.2.3

FMBEND - Fabrication Machine - Bending

Attribute NAME STFP STFC MAXLP

Description Name Constant Stretch Factor Proportional Stretch Factor Maximum Length of Pipe

Type name real real real

Default unset 1.0 0.0 6000.0

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Fabrication Machine Data

D.2.4

FMBPLN - Fabrication Machine - Bending - Plane

Attribute NAME MINPLN MAXPLN

Description Name Plane Minimum Point Plane Maximum Point

Type name real[3] real[3]

Default unset {0.0, 0.0, 0.0} {0.0, 0.0, 0.0}

D.2.5

FMBDIM - Fabrication Machine - Bending - Dimension

Attribute NAME OD WTHICK GRIP MLEF MLIF FCMEAS BRAD

Description Name Outside Diameter Wall Thickness Grip Measure

Type name real real real

Default unset 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 3.0

Minimum Length Excluding real Flanges Minimum Flanges Length Including real real real

Flange Correction Measure Bend Radius

D.2.6

FMBSST - Fabrication Machine - Bending - Springback/Stretch Factor

Attribute NAME OD WTHICK MATREF ANGSPA ANGSPB STFP STFC

Description Name Outside Diameter Wall Thickness Material reference Angle At 20 Degrees Angle At 120 Degrees Constant Stretch Factor Proportional Stretch Factor

Type name real real real real real real real

Default unset 0.0 0.0 0.0 20.0 120.0 1.0 0.0

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Fabrication Machine Data

D.2.7

FMWELD - Fabrication Machine - Welding

Attribute NAME MINOD MAXOD MINLP MAXLP

Description Name Minimum Outside Diameter Maximum Outside Diameter Minimum Length of Pipe Maximum Length of Pipe

Type name real real real real

Default unset 0.0 0.0 0.0 6000.0

D.2.8

FMWSK - Fabrication Machine Welding - SKEY

Attribute NAME DESC SKEY

Description Name Description Flange group skey

Type name text text

Default unset unset unset

D.3

Automatic Flange Alignment


This development allows piping components to be connected so that by default their Z directions are aligned. This is particularly useful for ducting and other BOXI piping. The functionality comprises the following: An attribute on the different ppoint elements in the catalogue. A set of pseudo attributes to allow it to be queried in the design. An enhanced connect command to take account if set. Datacon check.

D.3.1

New Attribute for PTCA, PTAX, PTMI, PTPOS

Attribute PZAXI

Description Z direction

Type Directio n

Default unset

D.3.2

New Pseudo Attributes for Branch Members


All these pseudo attributes are valid for Branch members.

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Fabrication Machine Data

Attribute PZDIR AZDIR LZDIR PQAANG AQAANG LQAANG

Comment Alignment direction for specified ppoint. Alignment direction for arrive ppoint Alignment direction for leave ppoint.. Angle between alignment direction for specified ppoint and adjacent component. Angle between alignment direction for arrive ppoint and previous component. Angle between alignment direction for leave ppoint and next component.

D.3.3

Connection Command
The command syntax is unchanged. However, it now uses valid alignment directions in place of a default orientation. It checks that a PZAXI is set for the relevant ppoint of the current element and for the ppoint it is connecting to. If the element being connected to is a gasket or a weld and does not have a set PZAXI then the ppoint of the next element is used instead. If there is either one or two unset alignment directions then the connection command functions exactly as before. Also if an orientation is specified as well such as CONNECT AND P3 IS UP then this overrides the alignment direction.

D.3.4

New Datacon Warning Messages


The following warnings are now generated. They are not output if the branch is badly routed.

D850 BAD ARRIVE ALIGNMENT GEOMETRY, ANGLE IS 15 D850 BAD LEAVE ALIGNMENT GEOMETRY, ANGLE IS 45

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Pipework Design User Guide


Other Relevant Documentation

Other Relevant Documentation


This guide is intended only as an introduction to those parts of AVEVA PDMS most relevant to Pipework design. As such, it describes only the main concepts needed to get you started. Should you need more detailed information about any topic, the following documents are available.

E.1

PDMS Introductory Guides


The following guides introduce the principal AVEVA PDMS facilities to new users (this Pipework guide forms part of the set): Introduction to Common Functionality Introduces PDMS and related products HVAC Design User Guide Accommodation User Guide Structural Design Using PDMS User Guide Pipework Support Design User Guide Introduction to Templates ISODRAFT User Guide Drawing Production User Guide Introduces the range of facilities available in the DRAFT module. Reporting Introduces the database reporting utility available from within most AVEVA PDMS applications, including the use of expressions to select relevant data. Graphical Model Manipulation Guide Introduces the DESIGN Model Editor, which enables you to position and orientate selected items using the mouse pointer.

E.2

AVEVA PDMS Reference Manuals


The full Structural Design Using PDMS User Guide documentation set includes a number of reference manuals which give detailed explanations of all the technical concepts involved. These manuals also describe the underlying command syntax which can be used to control AVEVA PDMS directly (thus bypassing the forms and menus interface). Those particularly relevant to Pipework design include: DESIGN Reference Manual Covers concepts and commands for all design disciplines.

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Pipework Design User Guide


Other Relevant Documentation

ISODRAFT Reference Manual Explains how to create customised piping isometric plots. DRAFT Reference Manual Explains the commands for the PDMS 2D drafting facilities. Catalogues and Specifications Reference Manual Explains how to set up an PDMS Catalogue and create tabulated specifications.

E.3

General Guides
The following guides are intended for use only by experienced PDMS users who want to write their own applications: Software Customisation Guide Explains how to write your own application macros using PML (AVEVAs Programmable Macro Language) and how to design your own forms and menus interface. Software Customisation Reference Manual Supplements the Customisation Guide. Includes a list of PML 2 Objects, Members and Methods. For forms and Menus objects, the command syntax relating to the objects is included.

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Pipework Design User Guide


Sample Plots

Sample Plots
This appendix comprises some examples of typical (though relatively simple) plots showing the sorts of piping design outputs that can be created using with the AVEVA PDMS pipework application.

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Sample Plots

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Index

Numerics
3D Graphics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9:1 3D View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4:11, 9:5

defining . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10:8 AWELD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B:3

B
Backing sheet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11:10 Behind item . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9:15 Bend numbers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9:18 Bores nearly equal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8:5 selection rules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12:17 Branch definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3:1, 9:3 Branch components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8:19 Branch constraints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8:19 Branch details . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8:19 Branch head . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5:2 connecting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8:13 definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3:1 Branch rules Querying . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8:36 Branch tail . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5:2 connecting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8:13 definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3:1

A
Add . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9:17 Add CE with colour . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9:7 Add to spool drawing pick mode . . . . . . 9:17 Adjacent field components . . . . . . . . . . 9:18 Administrative elements creation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3:4, 9:4 Aligning components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5:37 Always generate new data . . . . . . . . . . 9:21 Application definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2:1 Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4:3 Pipework . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5:3 Applying rules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8:33 Assemblies creation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12:1 Assembly build origin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6:22 Assembly hierarchy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12:5 Attached welds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B:3 Attribute definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3:2 Attributes, routing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8:99 Autocolour . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9:7 Automatic flange alignment . . . . . 10:20, D:9 Automatic pipe routing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8:1 administration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8:59 Auto-naming preferences defining . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10:8 Auto-resolve preferences

C
Cardinal direction handles . . . . . . 5:52, 5:62 Catalogue database . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5:1 CE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3:2, 9:5 CE limits icon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9:7 Choose window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9:14 Ckey attribute . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B:1 Clash definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7:4

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Clash checking checking process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7:5 clash limits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7:5 extent of clash . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7:4 obstruction levels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7:4 obstruction list . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7:5 principles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7:4 Clash limits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7:5 Clashing extent . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7:4 Clearance definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7:4 Colour selection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9:7 Colours . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9:7 Command syntax . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8:92 Component aligning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5:37 choosing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6:8 creating . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5:14 modifying bore . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6:10 modifying specification . . . . . . . . . . . 6:5 picking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6:25 selection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6:3 setting attributes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8:87 Component positioning . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8:27 Conceptual pipe rack . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8:53 Connection types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B:1 Continuous network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9:3 Covered Nozzles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8:7 Create 3D View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9:6 Create weld window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9:14 Current element . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9:5 definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3:2

Design point . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9:13, 9:14 Design templates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4:2 Direction of travel on routing planes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8:44 Direction of view . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9:7 Display isometric . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9:25 Display list . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9:25 Drawing annotations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9:27 Drawing contents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9:26 Drawing Template . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11:9 Drawlist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9:6

E
EDG . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9:14 Element definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3:2 Equipment creating standard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4:3 definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3:1 representation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4:1 standard designs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4:3 Erection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9:1 Error messages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6:7 Event driven graphics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9:5 Expressions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8:32, 8:60 Extend route handle . . . . . . . . . . . 5:49, 5:60

F
Fabrication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9:1, 9:16 Fabrication machine data . . . . . . . . . . . . D:1 Fabrication machine manager . . . . . . . . D:1 Feature highlighting . . . . . . . . . . . 5:49, 5:59 Feature picking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6:27 Field . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9:16 Field weld . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9:13 Fields . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9:1, 9:3 Flange spacing on racks and planes . . . . . . . . . . . . 8:81 Flanges on routing planes . . . . . . . . . . 8:57, 8:81 Forced spool breaks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9:16 at Branch/Pipe changes . . . . . . . . . 9:24 at Joints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9:23 Free tail with Pipe racks or planes . . . . . . . . 8:46 Free Tails . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8:5

D
Data consistency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9:10 Data consistency checking principles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7:1 Database . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9:1, 9:2 Database hierarchy . . . . . . . . . . 3:2, 9:2, 9:3 DATUMs as routing points . . . . . . . . . . 8:31 DB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9:1, 9:2 Default specification setting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5:3 Deletable components . . . . . . . . 8:20, 8:24 Delete spool breaks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9:24 Department creating . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9:4 definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9:3 Design data checking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7:1 Design Data element . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4:2 Design Dataset element . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4:2 Design Explorer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3:4

G
Geometry set . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5:3 Graphical view . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3:4 Graphical views . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9:5

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H
Hard obstruction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7:4 Head See Branch head . . . . . . . . . . 3:1, 5:2 Head work-point . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8:22 Head-relative positioning . . . . . . . . . . . 8:20

M
Manipulating a 3D View . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9:8 Manual data selection . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9:21 Measure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9:12 Measuring a pipe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9:12 Member definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3:2 Members list . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9:6 Menu bar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3:4 Messages, routing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8:18 Minimum tube . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8:27 Misalignment checking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7:1 tolerances . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7:2 Modify Components Window . . . . . . . . . 6:2 Module definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2:1 Multiple 3D Views . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9:5 Multiple mode splitting . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6:16

I
IJOINT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B:3 Implied joints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B:3 Implied welds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B:2 Importing P&IDs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8:57 In tube weld . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9:15 Include adjacent field components . . . . 9:19 Inserting a weld . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9:13 Inspecting the site . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9:11 Insulation specifications modifying . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6:13 ISO option . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9:7 Isodraft . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9:1, 9:24 Isodraft application window . . . . . . . . . . 9:24 Isodraft messages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9:26 Isometric drawing contents . . . . . . . . . . 9:26 Isometric drawings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9:1 Isometric Plots . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9:2, F:1 Isometric plots generating . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7:7 Isometric plotting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7:7 Isometric view . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4:13, 9:7 IWELD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B:2

N
Naming . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9:2 Network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8:14, 9:3 Non-graphical assemblies . . . . . . . . . 12:11 Non-orthogonal routing . . . . . . . . . . . . 8:25 Nozzle (NOZZ) definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3:1 creating . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4:9 definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4:1 Nozzles, covered . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8:7 Numbering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9:2, 9:18 Numbering settings form . . . . . . . . . . . 9:18 Numbering settings window . . . . . . . . . 9:21 Numbering update . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9:20 Numbering update options . . . . . . . . . . 9:20

J
JNTGRP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B:2 Joint connections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B:2 Joint group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B:2 Joint numbers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9:18 Joint types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B:2 Joints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9:23

O
Obstruction levels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7:4 Obstruction list . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7:5 Order, routing changing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8:16 Orientation rules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12:16 Orthogonal view . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9:7 Outputting spool data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9:24 Owner definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3:2

K
Key elements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12:19

L
Limits setting for view . . . . . . . 4:13, 4:16, 5:20 Locked components . . . . . . . 8:8, 8:20, 8:24 Locking components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8:8, 8:24 Logging in . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3:3 Look option . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9:7

P
P&ID . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8:57 P&ID files

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neutral description language . . . . . 8:87 Packing on racks and planes . . . . . . . 8:55, 8:81 Packing methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8:83 height . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8:83 weight . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8:83 Packing pipes on Racks . . . . . . . . . . . . 8:46 Panning view . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4:14 Parameters catalogue components . . . . . . . . . . . 5:2 P-arrive . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5:2 Part numbers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9:18 Physical clash definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7:4 Picking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9:16 Pipe definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3:1, 9:3 Pipe gap rounding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8:56 Pipe Packing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8:46 Pipe packing additional gap . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8:84 Pipe packing methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8:83 Pipe piece definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10:1 Pipe Production Checks form options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10:5 Pipe Racks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8:44 adding to Branch constraints . . . . . 8:51 conceptual . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8:53 packing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8:55, 8:81 rules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8:78 steelwork for . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8:47 Pipe racks direction of travel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8:44 Pipe routes deleting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5:73 Pipe routing handle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5:48 Pipe sketches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11:1 administration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11:9 creating . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11:1 Pipe splitting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6:14 Pipe spool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10:1 Pipe Spool Manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .C:4 Pipes splitting with a plane . . . . . . . . . . 6:18 Pipework . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9:1 modification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6:1 Pipework spooling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9:16 Piping Assemblies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12:1 Piping Assembly Component Rules . . 12:14 Piping component aligning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5:37 creating . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5:14 Piping Network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9:1, 9:16 P-leave . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5:2

Plot view manipulating . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4:7 Plotting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9:24 isometrics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7:7 Plotting facilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7:7 Plotting options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9:24 Plotting spool drawings . . . . . . . . . . . . 9:24 PML functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8:61 in Rules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8:69 Point set . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5:3 Popup Menus on the QPR Handle . . . . 5:63 Position options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5:38 Position rules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12:16 Positionable components . . . . . . . 8:20, 8:24 Positioning components . . . . . . . . 8:21, 8:27 Positioning Control window . . . . . . . . . 9:12 P-point . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9:13 definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5:2 p-arrive . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5:2 p-leave . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5:2 point set . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5:3 Preparing a site . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9:10 Primary origin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6:22, 12:13 Primitive creating . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4:9 definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3:1, 4:1 geometry set . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5:3 Production Check running . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10:9 Production Checks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10:1 setting up . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10:7 Properties parameterised dimensions etc. . . . . 4:2 Pulled bend numbers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9:18 PURP attribute . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8:59 Purposes Routing rules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8:59

Q
Querying Branch rules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8:36 Quick Pipe Routing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5:46

R
Real welds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B:3 Reducers rules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8:5, 8:65 Registry creating . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9:5 definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9:3 Remove CE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9:9 Remove from Spool Drawing . . . . . . . . 9:19

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Reports templates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7:6 Restore View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9:9 Rotating view . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4:14 Rotation handles . . . . . . . . . 5:52, 5:59, 5:63 Routing messages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8:18 Routing order . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8:16 Routing pipes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8:14 Routing Planes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8:36, 8:40 adding to branches . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8:40 finding automatically . . . . . . . . . . . . 8:41 multiple . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8:37 packing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8:55, 8:81 Routing planes creating . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8:38 Routing Points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8:27 Routing points position . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8:31 Using Datums . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8:31 Routing rules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8:32, 8:59 constructing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8:60 purposes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8:59 Rule Set . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8:75 Rule World . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8:75 Rules applying . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8:33 Bends or Elbows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8:65 Clash exclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8:70 deleting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8:81 Downstream pipe requirement (DNSM) 8:66 Elevation (ELEV) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8:68 Entry Plane (ENTR) . . . . . . . . . . . . 8:71 Exit Plane (EXIT) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8:71 Extra Gap (ADGP) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8:72 Flange Width . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8:73 Heavy Pipe (WEIG)) . . . . . . . . . . . . 8:72 including from another set or world 8:34 Location (LOCA) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8:68 logical . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8:61 Orientation on major axis (MAJO) . 8:68 Orientation on minor axis (MINO) . . 8:69 Pipe Racks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8:78 PML functions in . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8:61 Ptr-processing (PRPR) . . . . . . . . . . 8:62 real . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8:61 reducers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8:5, 8:65 removing from component . . . . . . . 8:35 Selection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8:65 Shoe height (SHOE) . . . . . . . 8:72, 8:85 Travel Plane (TRAV) . . . . . . . . . . . 8:71 Upstream pipe requirement (UPSM) 8:67 rules real expressions in . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8:85

Rules for Pipe Racks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8:71 RWELD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B:3

S
Save View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9:9 Searching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9:16 Secondary origin . . . . . . . . . . . . 6:22, 12:13 Select data for spool elements window 9:21 Setting up a 3D View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9:6 SFLimit attribute Spool breaks . . . . . . . . . 9:1, 9:16, 9:24 Shoe height . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8:85 Shoe height rule . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8:72 Shoe heights . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8:85 Shop . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9:1 Shop Flag . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9:1, 9:16, 9:22 Shop Flag status . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B:1, B:3 Shop/Field setting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9:22 Single Mode Splitting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6:24 Site creating . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3:4, 3:5 definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3:1, 9:3 Sketch creation options . . . . . . . . . . . . 11:5 Soft obstruction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7:4 Specification default . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5:3 selecting equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4:5 Specification reference (SpecRef) definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5:1 SPLDRG . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9:1, 9:16 Spool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9:16 Spool breaks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9:22, B:1 Spool data outputting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9:24 Spool Drawing definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9:3 Spool drawing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9:16 Spool Drawings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9:1 Spool numbers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9:18, 9:20 Spool shipping volume . . . . . . . . . . 9:2, 9:19 Spool size . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9:19 Spool/field limit attribute . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9:1 Spool/field limit attributeSee SFLimit attribute 9:16, 9:24 Spooler . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9:1 Spooling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9:16 Spooling networks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9:16 Spools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9:1, 9:3 renaming . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10:19 Standard isometrics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9:24 STAP pseudo-attribute . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8:66 Starting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9:3 SPOOLER session . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9:3

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Pipework Design User Guide

Startup display . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3:3 Status bar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3:4 Status summary form . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8:16 STLE pseudo-attribute . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8:66 STYPE Rules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12:14 Subequipment element . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4:2 Switching modules . . . . . . . . . . . . 9:3, 9:24

Weld numbers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9:18 Weld types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B:2 Welds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9:1 inserting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9:13 WLDGRP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B:2 Work-points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8:1, 8:22 World definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3:1, 9:3

T
Tables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11:11 Tail See Branch tail . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3:1, 5:2 Tail work-point . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8:22 Tail-relative positioning . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8:20 Tees, positioning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8:5 Title bar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3:4 Tool bar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3:4 Touch definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7:4 Tracing specifications modifying . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6:13 Transparency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8:50, 9:7 Type of view . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9:6, 9:7 Types of joints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B:2 Types of welds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B:2

Z
Zone creating . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3:5 definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3:1, 9:3 Zooming view . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4:14

U
Undo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8:16 Unlocking components . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8:24 Update . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9:20 Update choice handling . . . . . . . 9:20, 9:21 Update/Number button . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9:18 Update/Number spool drawing window 9:18, 9:21 Use first available data . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9:21

V
View 3D/graphical . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3:4, 4:11 centre of interest . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4:15 panning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4:14 rotating . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4:14 zooming . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4:14 View contents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9:6 View control window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9:5 View direction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4:13 View limits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9:6, 9:7 Viewing direction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9:7

W
Weld connections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B:2

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