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KERN METHOD (buku Chemical Engineering Design Vol. 6, 4th Ed - Coulson & Richardson's.

pdf) STEP 1 : DATA SPESIFIK Shell Side Tube Side (Kerosin) (Crude Oil) 20000 70000 Mass flowrate m, kg/h Tekanan P, bar 5 6.5 Pressure Drop yg diijinkan Ps, Bar 0.8 Fouling yg diijinkan , (W/m C)^-1 0.0003 0.8 inlet mean outlet inlet mean outlet hrs benar Temperature T, C 200 145 90 40 59.08711 78.17422 Kapasitas Panas Cp, Kj/Kg C 2.72 2.49 2.26 2.01 2.05 2.09 isi manual Beban Kerja Q, kW : Q = m.Cp.T 1521.667 Q = Q Cari Cp mean lalu cari T outlet Cp mean didapat dari Ttrial dicari melalui hitungan STEP 2 : DATA FISIK tersendiri diluar perhitungan yang ada di program ini Shell Side Tube Side Kerosin Crude oil inlet mean outlet inlet mean outlet Temperatur T, C 200 145 90 40 59 78 non linear panas spesifik Cp, kj/kgC 2.72 2.47 2.26 2.01 2.05 2.09 viskositas , mNsm 0.22 0.43 0.8 4.3 3.2 2.3 densitas rho, Kg/m 690 730 770 840 820 800 konduktifitas panas k, W/mC or Kg/m-s 0.13 0.1325 0.135 0.135 0.134 0.133 P.S : Step 1-2 mempengaruhi kalkulasi dari program STEP 3 : KOEFISIEN OVERALL U = 300 W/mC

Figure 12,1(P-639 - hal 656) dan atau tabel 12,1(P-637 - hal 637)

STEP 4 : TIPE DAN DIMENSI EXCHANGER menggunakan 1 shell pas dan 4 tube pass Trial Shell = 1 Tube = 4 T1 200 C H inlet T2 90 C H outlet t1 40 C C inlet t2 78 C C outlet Tlm = 80.71767 C

R = (T1-T2) / (t2-t1) = 2.894737 (eq 12,6) S = (t2-t1) / (T1-t1) = 0.2375 (eq 12,7) dicari Ft(faktor koreksi) dari fig 12,19(P-657 - hal674)utk 1 shell pass dan multi tube pass, untuk yg lain fig 12,20-12,22 (P-658-659 Ft = 0.88 sehingga <-- tergantung nilai R dan S atau hal 675-676) Tm= (Ft * Tlm) = 71.03155 C STEP 5 : LUAS TRANSFER PANAS Q= 1521.6667 kW = 1521667 W Tm = 71.031546 C

U= 300 W/mC Ao = Q/(U*Tm) = 71.40802 m

STEP 6 : LAYOUT DAN UKURAN TUBE Tipe Head = Split Ring Floating Head Alasan = untuk efisiensi dan kemudahan dalam pembersihan. kedua fluida korosif dan memiliki tekanan operasi yang tidak tinggi sehingga baja karbon dapat digunakan untuk shell dan tube crude lebih kotor dari kerosin, maka crude di tube dan kerosin di shell Tube pattern 0 kode 0 = triangular; 1= square pattern dan Do serta Di dapat dilihat pada : Do 19.05 mm 0.01905 m Figure 12,9 (P-646 - hal 663) Di 14.83 mm 0.01483 m Tabel 12,3 (P-645 - hal 662) L 5m pitch 23.81 mm pitch 0.02381 pitch/Do 1.249869 STEP 7 : JUMLAH TUBES Luas satu tube(mengabaikan ketebalan tube)=A1= x Do x L = jumlah tube = Ao/A1 = pembulatan keatas jumlah tube agar nilai yang didapat bulat = nt = tube/pass = jumlah tube(telah dibulatkan)/jumlah pass(Step 4) =

0.299237 m 238633.9 360 90

pengecekan velositas tube untuk dilihat apakah sudah masuk akal atau belum tube cross sectional area = /4*Di = 0.000173 m cross sectional area per pass = (tube/pass) * tube cross sectional area = 0.015546 m (mass flowrate/hr) m tube = 70000 kg/h tube fluida = 820 kg/m volumetric flow = (mass flowrate/hr) m tube/3600/ tube fluida = 0.023713 m/s tube side velocity = ut = volumetric flow/area per pass = 1.525341 m/s nilai tube side velocity(ut) diatas harus berada pada range 1-2 m/s agar memenuhi logika perhitungan

STEP 8 : BUNDLE DAN DIAMETER SHELL jumlah tube pass 4 Tube Pattern 0 kode 0 = triangular; 1= square nt = Do = 19.05 mm 360 K1 = 0.175 tabel 12,4 (P-649) tergantung jumlah tube pass dan pattern tube n1 = 2.285 tabel 12,4 (P-649) tergantung jumlah tube pass dan pattern tube Bundle Dia, Db = Do*((nt/K1)^(1/n1)) = 536.9098 mm 0.53691 m Jenis Head Exchanger = Split Ring Floating Head Shell Bundle Clearance = 59 mm Figure 12,10 (P-646 - hal 663) tergantung jenis head exchanger Shell inside Diameter = Ds = 595.9098 mm dan diameter bundle Db STEP 9 : KOEFISIEN TRANSFER PANAS SISI TUBE tube = 820 Kg/m fluida tube = 0.0032 Nsm ut tube = 1.5253412 m/s Cp = 2050 j/kgC Di = 0.01483 m k fluida = 0.134 W/mC or Kg/m-s L= 5 Di = 0.01483 Panjang tube/diameter dalam = L/Di = 337.1544 nomor Reynold = Re = *ut*Di/ = 5796.582 Prandtl Number = Pr = Cp*/k fluida = 48.95522 jh = 0.0036 Figure 12,23 (P-665 - hal 682) tergantung Reynold Number dan L/Di Nuselt Number = Nu = jh * Re * Pr^0,33 = 75.35433 Heat transfer coeff, hi = Nu * kf/Di = 680.882 W/mC STEP 10 : KOEFISIEN TRANSFER PANAS SISI SHELL Baffle Spacing, lb = Ds/trial = 5 lb = 119.182 pt = 23.81 mm tube area cross flow pd shell, As = (pt-Do)Ds*lb/pt = 14198.37 diameter equivalent(De) *square pitch = 1,27*(pt-0,785Do)/Do = 18.80251 mm krn digunakan kode 0 kode 0 = triangular; 1= square, m= 20000 kg/hr = 5.555556 kg/s volumetric flow rate shell side = V = m/ = 0.00761 = 0.43 mNsm 0.00043 Nsm nilai reynold = Re = us*de*/ = 12302.22

mm mm =

Do = 19.05 mm Ds = 595.9098 mm 0.014198 m

*Triangular pitch = 1,10*(pt-0,917Do)/Do = 13.51958 mm De = 13.51958 mm 0.01352 m = 730 Kg/m velositas shell side, us = V/As = 0.536002 m/s m/s Cp = 2.47 kj/kgC 2470 j/kgC k fluida = 0.1325 W/mC or Kg/m-s

nilai Prandtl = Pr = Cp*/k fluida = nilai jh = nusselt number =Nu= jh*Re*Pr^(1/3) = koefisien heat transfer = hs = Nu*k fluida/De =

8.015849 Segmental Baffles Cut = 25 % 0.0048 figure 12,29 P-673 - hal 690, diketahui nilai reynold dan baffle cut 118.1793 1158.228 W/mC ---> = ho

STEP 11 : KOEFISIEN OVERALL


Outside Fluid Film Coef, ho = 1158.228 W/m.C Diameter dalam tube, Di = 0.01483 m Inside Fluid Film Coef, hi = 680.882 W/m.C Diameter luar tube, Do = 0.01905 m Outside dirt coef(pada SHELL), hod = 5000 W/m.C Tabel 12,2(P-640 - hal 657)tergantung jenis fluida yang mengalir Inside dirt coef(pad TUBE), hid = 2857 W/m.C Tabel 12,2(P-640 - hal 657)tergantung jenis fluida yang mengalir Konduktivitas material tube, kw = 55 W/m.C Tabel 12,6(P-662 - hal 679) / other Ref 1/Uo = (1/ho)+(1/hod) + ((Do*ln(Do/Di))/2*kw) + (Do/Di*hid) + (Do/Di*hi) = 0.003443 Overall Heat Coeff (Uo) 290.4459 W/m.C 3.18471 %, jika >30% ulangi step 3

STEP 12 : PRESSURE DROP Tube Side Calculation jumlah pass, Np = 4 panjang Tube, L = 5m diameter dalam tube, Di = 0.01483 m densitas fluida dalam tube, = 820 Kg/m kecepatan dalam tube, ut = 1.525341 m/s nilai Reynold, Re = 5796.582 nilai jf = 0.0055 figure 12,24(P-668 - hal 685) diketahui reynold number pressure drop, Pt = Np * (8*jf * (L/Di)+2,5)**ut/2 = 66144.93 N/m = 0.661449 bar = 9.593544 psi Shell Side Calculation Diameter Shell, Ds = 595.9098 mm lb 119.182 mm Diameter Equivalent, De = 13.51958 mm fluida shell = 730 Kg/m L 5m kecepatan di shell, us = 0.536002 m/s nilai Reynold, Re = 12302.22 bundle cut 25 % nilai jf = 0.048 dari figure 12,30(P-674 - hal 691) diketahui reynold number dan bundle cut pressure drop, Pt = 8*jf*(Ds/De)*(L/lb)**us/2 = 74.46173 N/m = 0.000745 bar = 0.0108 psi SUMMARY OF THE PROPOSED HE DESIGN Split Ring Floating Head tube length 5m

1 Shell Pass 19.05 mm o.d.

4 tube passes 14.83 mm i.d

triangular pitch Pattern pitch = 23.81 Shell i.d = 595.9098 Shell-side coefficient = 1158.228 Tube-side coefficient = 680.882 Dirt/Fouling factors: Tube-side (crude oil) : 0.8 Shell-side (kerosene) : 0.0003 mm
W/m.C, clean W/m.C, clean W/m.C W/m.C

Tube Material : Carbon steel Shell Material : Carbon steel Heat Transfer Area(based on o.d) = 71.40802 m Baffle spacing = 119.182 mm and 25 %cut Overall coefficient, estimated = 300 W/m.C, dirty Overall coefficient required = 290.4459 W/m.C, dirty Pressure drops: Tube-side, estimated 0.661449 bar, specified 0.8 bar Shell-side, estimated 0.000745 bar, specified 0.8 bar

STEP 1-9 : SAMA SEPERTI KERN STEP 10 : KOEFISIEN HEAT TRANSFER Jumlah Tube = Nt = 360 Di Shell = Ds = 595.9098 mm Diameter Bundle = Db = 536.9098 mm Do Tube = Do = 19.05 mm mass flowrate shell = Ws = 20000 kg/h koefisien ideal bank, hoc tube area cross flow pd shell, As = (pt-Do)Ds*lb/pt = shell side mass velocity, Gs = Ws/3600(s/hour)/As = Reynold Number, Re = Gs/(Do*) = nilai jh = Prandtl Number, Pr = Cp*/k fluida =
Ideal bank coefficient, hoc = kf*jh*Re*Pr^(1/3)/Do =

0.01905 m

panjang Pitch, pt = Pitch/Do = Panjang tube = L = Pitch Baffle Spacing = Lb = Pattern Tube =

23.81 mm 1.249869 5000 mm 119.182 mm 0

14198.37 391.2812 17334.67 0.006 48.95522 2646.391

mm Kg/ms

0.0142 m

0= Triangular; 1=Square Pattern Tube = 0 12,31(P-694 - Hal 711) diketahui Reynold Number dan Pattern Tube W/mC 148.977 mm 297.955 mm

Tube Row Correction Factor, Fn


Tube Pitch Vertikal, p't = 0,87*pt =

Baffle Cut, Bc =
Nilai Ncv = tinggi baffle tips/p't = Tube Row correction factor, Fn =

20.7147 mm Buffle Cut Height, Hc = Bc * Ds = 25 % Tinggi antara Baffle Tips = Ds - (2*Hc) 14.38374 1.2 Figure 12,32(P-695 - Hal 712) diketahui Ncv 119.4774 22.2528 0.16 57.6 244.8 0.32 1.05

Window Correction Factor, Fw Nilai Hb = Db/2 - Ds(0,5-Bc) = Bundle Cut = Hb/Db = R'a Value =
Jumlah tube satu window, Nw = Nt * R'a = Jumlah tube cross flow, Nc = Nt - 2*Nw = Tube pada window/total, Rw = 2*Nw/Nt = Window correction factor, Fw =

mm Nt = 360 % Figure 12.41(P- - Hal )diketahui bundle cut[garis atas tarik kekiri]

Figure 12,33(P-707 - Hal 713)diketahui Rw

By pass Correction Factor, Fb


Nilai Ab = lb*(Ds-Db) = 7031.735 mm Nilai Reynold = 17334.67 As = 14198.4 mm Nilai Ab/Cross Flow As = Ab/As = 0.50 nilai = 1.35 jika Reynold number >100 -->=1,35 ; <100---->=1,5 Bypass Correction, Fb = exp(-*Ab/As)= 0.51 Jika terlalu rendah dilanjutkan dengan menentukan sealing strips number of sealing strips encountered by the bypass stream in the cross-flow zone, Ns = 1

number of constrictions, tube rows, encountered in the cross-flow section, Ncv =

Bypass Correction, Fb = exp(-*(Ab/As)*(1-(2*Ns/Ncv)^1/3) =

0.838645

Leakage Correction Factor, FL Di Shell, Ds = Tube-to-baffle, Ct = Baffle-to-shell, Cs = Atb = Ct**Do*(Nt-Nw)/2 = Nilai b = Asb = Cs*Ds*(2*-b)/2 = Al = Atb + Asb = Al/As = Nilai L = FL = 1- L*(( Atb+2*Asb)/AL) = Shell Side Coefficient hs = hoc*Fn*Fw*Fb*FL =

595.9098 0.8 4.8 7239.134 2.1 5982.722 13221.86 0.931223 0.5 0.273756

mm Nt = 360 Nw = 57.6 mm tabel 12.5 (standards, P-651 - hal 668) mm tabel 12.5 (standards, P-651 - hal 668) mm Baffle Cut = 25 % Figure 12,41(P-704 - Hal 721)[Garis Bawah tarik kanan] diketahui Baffle Cut mm mm Figure 12,35(P-698 - hal 715) diketahui Al/As

765.5382 W/mC

STEP 11 : OVERALL COEFFICIENT Outside Fluid Film Coef, ho = 765.5382 W/m.C Diameter dalam tube, Di = 0.01483 m Inside Fluid Film Coef, hi = 680.882 W/m.C Diameter luar tube, Do = 0.01905 m Outside dirt coef(pada SHELL), hod = 5000 W/m.C Tabel 12,2(P-640 - hal 657)tergantung jenis fluida yang mengalir Inside dirt coef(pad TUBE), hid = 2857 W/m.C Tabel 12,2(P-640 - hal 657)tergantung jenis fluida yang mengalir Konduktivitas material tube, kw = 55 W/m.C Tabel 12,6(P-662 - hal 679) / other Ref 1/Uo = (1/ho)+(1/hod)+((Do*ln(Do/Di))/2*kw)+(Do/Di*hid)+(Do/Di*hi) = 0.00389 Overall Heat Coeff (Uo) 257.343 W/m.C 14.219 %, jika >30% ulangi step 3

STEP 12 : PRESSURE DROP Cross-Flow Zone Gs = 391.281 Kg/ms Reynold Number, Re = 17334.7 Atb = 7239.134 mm shell = 730 Kg/m Ns = 1 Asb = 5982.722 mm AL = Ab/As = 0.50 Ncv = 5 13221.86 mm Kelajuan pada Shell, us = Gs/ = 0.536 m/s Nilai jf = 0.06 Figure 12,36(P-700 - Hal 717)diketahui Re dan tipe Pitch Ideal Tube Bank Press Drop, pi = 8*jf*Ncv**us/2 = 251.673 N/m = 4 (P-699 - Hal 716) Lihat bagian F'b dengan diketahui Re

F'b = exp(-*(Ab/As)*(1-(2*Ns/Ncv)^1/3) = 0.5937 Nilai 'L = 0.75 Figure 12,38(P-701 - Hal 718) Diketahui Al/As F'L = 1- 'L*(( Atb+2*Asb)/AL) = 0.27376 Pressure Drop Cross-flow, Pc = F'L*F'b*pi = 40.904 N/m Window-Zone F'L = 0.27376 p't = 20.7147 mm Hb = 119.477 mm Nw = 57.6 m= 20000 kg/h us = 0.536 m/s Ra = 0.19 Figure 12.41, diketahui baffle cut (Bc) Nilai Aw = (*Ra*Ds/4)-(Nw**Do/4) = 36574 mm 0.036574 m Kelajuan pada wall, uw = (m/3600)/(Aw*) = 0.208081 m/s Kelajuan mean geometrik, uz = squareroot(uw*us) = 0.333964 m/s Nilai Nwv = Hb/p't = 5.767761 Pressure Drop Window, Pw = F'L*(2+0,6*Nwv)**uz/2 = 60.8556 N/m Pada End Zone Pi = 251.673 N/m Nwv = 5.767761 F'b = 0.5937 Ncv = 14.3837 Pressure Drop End Zone, Pe = Pi*F'b*((Nwv+Ncv)/Ncv) = 209.333 N/m Total Pressure Drop Pada Shell L= 5000 mm Pc = 40.904 N/m lb = 119.182 mm Pw = 60.8556 N/m Jumlah Baffle, Nb = (L/lb)-1 = 40.95266 Pe = 209.333 N/m Pressure Drop Shell, Ps = 2*Pe + Pc*(Nb-1) + Nb*Pw = 4545.09 N/m = 0.045451 bar = 0.659211 psi SUMMARY OF THE PROPOSED HE DESIGN Split Ring Floating Head tube length 5000 mm triangular pitch Pattern pitch = 23.81 Shell i.d = 595.91 Shell-side coefficient =765.538 Tube-side coefficient =680.882 Dirt/Fouling factors: Tube-side (crude oil) : 680.882 Shell-side (kerosene) : 765.538 mm
W/m.C, clean W/m.C, clean W/m.C W/m.C

1 Shell Pass 4 tube passes 19.05 mm o.d. 14.83 mm i.d Tube Material : Carbon steel Shell Material : Carbon steel Heat Transfer Area(based on o.d) = 71.408 m Baffle spacing = 119.182 mm and 25 %cut Overall coefficient, estimated = 300 W/m.C, dirty Overall coefficient required = 257.3429 W/m.C, dirty Pressure drops: Tube-side, estimated 0.66145 bar, specified Shell-side, estimated 0.04545 bar, specified

0.8 bar 0.8 bar

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