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Not everything that can be counted counts, and not everything that counts can be counted.

Albert Einsteins office.

The majority of people live on their emotions. This leads to disturbance of their body hormones, as well as to economic and mental stress, all of which create imbalance in physico-physiological, physio-psychological and psychoneurological systems.

-A sign hung in

In yogic science, the asanas and pranayamas are particularly helpful in generating and distributing life-saving energy wherever and whenever it is needed, so that each cell in the body revibrates with sound health, satisfaction, contentment, and a composed state of attention and awareness in the brain and mind. -B.K.S. Iyengar

Yoga and Arthritis

Compiled by: Trisha Lamb Last Revised: April 18, 2006

2004 by International Association of Yoga Therapists (IAYT)

International Association of Yoga Therapists

P.O. Box 2513 Prescott AZ 86302 Phone: 928-541-0004 E-mail: URL:
The contents of this bibliography do not provide medical advice and should not be so interpreted. Before beginning any exercise program, see your physician for clearance.

NOTE: See also the Fibromyalgia bibliography.

American Yoga Association. Using yoga techniques to help with arthritis. Available online at Anandamitra Acarya, Avadhutika. The joints. In Avadhutika Anandamitra Acarya, Yoga for Health: Ananda Marga Yoga Exercises. Paco, Manila, Philippines: Ananda Marga

Publications, 1988, pp. 28-29. Angus, Carrie. Dont let osteoarthritis get the best of you. Yoga International, Feb/Mar 1998, pp. 71-73. Arthritis: Stretching and strengthening exercises. Article available online:,1767,,00.html. Atre, Jaya A. Meditation for certain ailments through a yantra. In H. R. Nagendra, R. Ragarathna, and S. Telles, Yoga Research & Applications: Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Frontiers in Yoga Research and Applications. Bangalore, Vivekananda Kendra Yoga Research Foundation, 2000, pp. 289-290. Ballentine, Rudolph M., Jr., M.D. Joints and Glands Exercises: As Taught by Sri Swami Rama of the Himalayas. Honesdale, Penn.: The Himalayan International Institute, 1977. Bell, Lorna, R.N., and Eudora Seyfer. Gentle Yoga: Yoga for People with Arthritis, Stroke Damage, Multiple Sclerosis, in Wheelchairs, or Anyone Who Needs a Guide to Gentle Exercise. Berkeley, California: Celestial Arts, 1982, 1987. Berman, Brian M., R. Barker Bausell, and Wen-Lin Lee. Use and referral patterns for 22 complementary and alternative medical therapies by members of the american college of rheumatology: Results of a national survey. Archives of Internal Medicine, 8 Apr 2002, 162(7):766-770. Abstract: Background: This stud y was designed to determine rheumatologists selfreported knowledge, perceptions of legitimacy, referral patterns, and use in practice of 22 complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) therapies. Methods: A survey was mailed to a random sample of 2000 physician members of the American College of Rheumatology asking respondents which (if any) CAM therapies they (1) knew enough about to discuss with patients, (2) considered part of legitimate medical practice, and (3) personally administered to patients, or referred patients to someone else to administer. The response rate was 47%. Results: On average, the respondents reported knowing enough to discuss 10 of the therapies with patients, considered 9 to be part of legitimate medical practice, and had referred patients to someone else for 8 of the 22 therapies. Correlates of use and/or referral included sex, age, belief in the legitimacy of the therapies, and self-reported knowledge. Conclusions: These results provide potentially important preliminary data regarding rheumatologists responses to dramatic increases in the use of CAM therapies among their patients. Bhajan, Yogi. Arthritis. In Alice Clagett and Elandra Kirsten Meredith, eds., Yoga for Health and Healing: From the Teachings of Yogi Bhajan, Ph.D. Santa Monica, Calif.: Alice B. Clagett, p. 53. Bhat, Vasanthi. Arthritis. In Vasanthi Bhat, The Power of Conscious Breathing in Hatha Yoga. San Jose, Calif.: Vasanthi Bhat, 1997, p. 219. Bhole, Dr. M. V. Cervical spondylitis. In Dr. M. V. Bhole, Therapeutic applications of yoga techniques, Yoga-Mimamsa, Oct-Jan, 1984-85, 23(3 & 4).

Brown, Ellen Hodgson. Arthritis as energy blockage: The perspective of yoga. In Ellen Hodgson Brown, Healing Joint Pain Naturally: Safe and Effective Ways to Treat Arthritis, Fibromyalgia, and Other Diseases. New York: Broadway Books, 2001, pp. 5560. Calman, Bette, and Joan Brodie. Yoga for Arthritis. Adelaide, Australia: Rigby, 1977. Chakravarti, Sree. Bayau mudra (for joint pains). In Sree Chakravarti, A Healers Journey. Portland, Ore.: Rudra Press, 1993, p. 207. Chang, Stephen T., with Richard Miller. Arthritis, rheumatism, bursitis. In Dr. Stephen T. Chang with Richard Miller, The Book of Internal Exercises. San Francisco: Strawberry Hill Press, 1978, p. 131. Christensen, Alice. The Easy Does It Yoga Trainers Guide. Kendall/Hunt Publishing, 1995.
___________. [20-minute workout for] joint disease or injury. In Alice Christensen, 20-Minute Yoga Workouts. New York: Ballentine Books, 1995, pp. 121-122.

___________. Chapter 4: Arthritis. In Alice Christensen, The American Yoga Association Wellness Book. New York: Kensington Books, 1996, pp. 50-57. ___________. Easy Does It Yoga. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1999. ___________. Arthritis: The Powerful Program for Greater Strength, Flexibility, and Freedom. An American Yoga Association Wellness Guide. New York: Kensington Books, 2001. ___________. R. A. Yoga Program 1 CD. American Yoga Association. URL: From the website: Exercise often feels like an impossible dream if you have rheumatoid arthritis, yet you know that exercise will often help you feel better. Here is an easy, enjoyable Yoga routine that provides all the right moves. All of the exercises can be done in a chair, and ma ny can even be done in bed. Program 1 is for those with mild to moderate RA, and Program 2 is for those experiencing a flare-up of symptoms. ___________. R. A. Yoga Program 2 CD. American Yoga Association. URL: From the website: Exercise often feels like an impossible dream if you have rheumatoid arthritis, yet you know that exercise will often help you feel better. Here is an easy, enjoyable Yoga routine that provides all the right moves. All of the exercises can be done in a chair, and many can even be done in bed. Program 1 is for those with mild to moderate RA, and Program 2 is for those experiencing a flare-up of symptoms. Coates, Ernest. Pawanmuktasana sequence. Yoga & Health, June 1998: 11. (Reproduced from Ernest Coatess Living Yoga.) (The twenty exercises in the pawanmuktasana

sequence are described as a sequence of wind ejecting exercises, commonly known as the anti-rheumatic stretches, which help to keep joints mobile.) Cooper, Deborah. Yoga: Relaxation and relief for arthritis sufferers. Available online: Coudron, L., and O. Coudron. Le yoga et les troubles du systeme osteo-articulaire. Ann Ille Colloque Yoga Sante, May 1987. Dash, M., and S. Telles. Improvement in hand grip strength in normal volunteers and rheumatoid arthritis patients following yoga training. Indian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology, Jul 2001,45(3):355-360. PMID: 11881576. Abstract: The present study aimed at assessing the effects of a set of yoga practices on normal adults (n = 37), children (n = 86), and patients with rheumatoid arthritis (n = 20). An equal number of normal adults, children, and patients with rheumatoid arthritis who did not practice yoga were studied under each category, forming respective control groups. Yoga and control group subjects were assessed at baseline and after varying intervals, as follows, adults after 30 days, children after 10 days and patients after 15 days, based on the duration of the yoga program, which they attended, which was already fixed. Hand grip strength of both hands, measured with a grip dynamometer, increased in normal adults and children, and in rheumatoid arthritis patients, following yoga, but not in the corresponding control groups, showing no re-test effect. Adult female volunteers and patients showed a greater percentage improvement than corresponding adult males. This gender-based difference was not observed in children. Hence yoga practice improves hand grip strength in normal persons and in patients with rheumatoid arthritis, though the magnitude of improvement varies with factors such as gender and age. Dawson, Brian. Ayurveda, Yoga and joints: A seminar for Ashram Yoga Teachers Training Course 1998. Article available online: Dickinson, Pauline. How I came to yoga. Yoga & Health, June 1999, p. 22. DiMartino, Christina. Lets do yoga: Forget pretzel proses. You can do yoga your way, the gentle way, to relieve stress, improve flexibility and strengthen muscles. Arthritis Today, Jul-Aug 2002, pp. 40-45. Dobson, Brian. Ayurveda, Yoga and joints: A seminar for Ashram Yoga Teachers Training Course 1998. Article available online: ns/Ithaca/9012/ttcsem.htm. Editors of Yoga Journal. Osetoarthritis care. Yoga Journal, Sep/Oct 2000, p. 60. (Critiqued by Matt Taylor, P.T., in subsequent letter to Yoga Journal. Copy on file with Yoga Research and Education Center.) Farhi, Donna. Arthr itis. In Donna Farhi, The Breathing Book. New York: Henry Holt & Co., 1996, pp. 205-206. FIBROMYALGIA. See the Fibromyalgia bibliography.

Francina, Suza. Yoga techniques to prevent or overcome arthritis. In Suza Francina, The New Yoga for People Over 50. Deerfield Beach, Florida: Health Communications, Inc., 1997, pp. 163-183. Gach, Michael Reed. Morning stretches for aching joints. Yoga Journal, September/October 1989: 19-28. Garde, R. K. Arthritis. In R. K. Garde, Principles and Practice of Yoga-Therapy. Bombay, India: D. B. Taraporevala Sons & Co., 1972, 1984, pp. 53-54. Garfinkel, M., and H. R. Schumacher, Jr. Yoga. Rheumatic Diseases Clinics of North America, Feb 2000, 26(1):125-132. Abstract: Yoga is an ancient tradition that has been westernized and often practiced for its proposed health benefits. Traditional texts describe its benefits for many types of arthritis. Two limited studies of yoga in osteoarthritis of the hands and carpal tunnel syndrome show greater improvement in pain than in control groups. Yoga uses stretching and improves strength so that it theoretically should be beneficial for some musculoskeletal problems. Yoga merits further study into its cellular and physiologic effects. ___________, H. R. Schumacher, Jr., A. Husain, M. Levy, and R. A. Reshetar. Evaluation of a yoga based regimen for treatment of osteoarthritis of the hands. Journal of Rheumatology, December 1994, 21(12): 2341-2343. (Abstract available from Medline database, Goff, Karen Goldberg. Yoga: Philosophy & fitness: Getting the mind and body to work in perfect harmony. Washington Times, 27 Feb 2000, Section: Family Times, p. D1. Forty-nine-year-old Yoga practitioner Dev Kar states that he has been able to cut his arthritis medication in half because of Yoga. Gordon, Ellen. Arthritis alternatives: Yoga. Available online: Gotthardt, Melissa. The tao of pain: Get arthritis relief by mixing Eastern and Western medicine. AARP, Mar/Apr 2003, p. 24. Cites research on Yoga and arthritis by Sharon Kolasinski, M.D. Haslock, I., R. Monro, R. Nagarathna, H. R. Nagendra, and N. V. Raghuram. Measuring the effects of yoga in rheumatoid arthritis. British Journal of Rheumatology, Aug 1994, 33(8):787-788. From a review by Robert Anderson in Townsend Letter for Doctors 7 Patients, May 2002, no. 226, p. 39: Twenty volunteers with severe rheumatoid arthritis requiring disease modifying drugs were randomized to act as controls with routine treatment or to engage in 2-hr. sessions of yoga 5 times weekly for 3 weeks followed by one 2-hr. session weekly for 3 months supplemented with daily practice at home for 10-30 minutes. Exercises included asanas, pranayama, meditation, lectures on yoga philosophy and sessions to soften the emotions. Blind assessment was accomplished at 15 months. Left hand grip strength rose from 141 mmHG to 204 vs. controls from 137 to 145 (P < 0.02). Right hand grip strength rose from 145 to 177 vs. 137 to 142 (NS). Left ring size improved (NS) and Health Assessment Questionnaire scores rose (NS).

Comment: Some of the improvements seen here did not meet statistical significance. Left hand grip strength, however, and the improvement in right hand grip strength was still impressive (22%). Practices such as yoga and Tai Chi are very beneficial for patients with arthritic changes of any kind, as well as demonstrating greater functionality for aging persons whether or not a pathological diagnosis has been made . . . Health Insider. Rheumatoid arthritis. Available online: Iyengar, B. K. S. Arthritis of the lower back; Arthritis of the dorsal region; Arthritis of the shoulder joints; Lumbago. In B. K. S. Iyengar, Light on Yoga. Rev. ed. New York: Schocken Books, 1979, pp. 488-489; 501. __________. Osteoarthritis (shoulders, elbows, wrists and fingers, hips, knees, ankles); Rheumatoid arthritis. In B. K. S. Iyengar, Yoga: The Path to Holistic Health. London/New York: Dorling Kindersley, 2001, pp. 306-318; 318-322. Joseph, Joanna. Nick Duncan. Yoga Journal, September October 1988: 36-37. Karmananda Saraswati, Dr. Swami. Arthritis. In Dr. Swami Karmananda Saraswati under the guidance of Swami Satyananda Saraswati, Yogic Management of Common Diseases. Munger, Bihar, India: Bihar School of Yoga, 1983, pp. 147-155. Keefe, Francis J., Glenn Affleck, John Lefebvre, Lynn Underwood, David S. Caldwell, Jana Drew, Jennifer Egert, Jessica Gibson, and Kenneth Pargament. Living with rheumatoid arthritis: The role of daily spirituality and daily religious and spiritual coping. The Journal of Pain, Apr 2001, 2(2). Abstract available online at: abs&id=a19296&nav=abs. See also brief article describing this study at: Khanna, S. L. Rheumatism. In S. L. Khanna, Yogic Health Plan for Human Race. Delhi, India: B. Jain Publishers, 1995, p. 90. Kin-yoga mailing list. Osteoarthritis of the knee thread. August 23-24, 2005. For Kinyoga information, see Kolasinski, S. L. Yoga for degenerative joint disease. Alternative Medicine Alert, 2001, 4:28-31. Yoga for the treatment of osteoarthritis of the knee. Not yet published. URL: Program Summary: Exercise has been recognized as an essential component of the management of patients with a variety of rheumatic diseases. Previous work has demonstrated that exercise can reduce the pain and disability of osteoarthritis, but compliance with exercise programs can be difficult to maintain. Our preliminary work has suggested that yoga has benefits in osteoarthritis management and we are continuing our investigations into the potential mechanisms that may be involved, including analysis of gait.

According to an article in the Mar/Apr 2003 issue of AARP magazine, this preliminary study found that two months of yoga cut pain by 50 percent among patients with knee osteoarthritis. Kraftsow, Gary. Chapter 3: Common aches and pains. In Gary Kraftsow, Yoga for Wellness: Healing with the Timeless Teachings of Viniyoga. New York: Penquin/Arkana, 1999, pp. 135-201. Kumar, Surendar. Yogic Cure for Rheumatic Arthritis (Jodon Ka Dard). Delhi, India: Books for All, n.d. Available from Nataraj Books, 7073 Brookfield Plaza, Springfield, VA 22150, 703-455-4996. (48-page booklet) La Cava, Lyn. Arthritis relief from the East., 3 Nov 2000. Available online: Lakshmi, K. Vidya. Physiotherapy and yoga therapy for osteo-arthritis. In H. R. Nagendra, R. Ragarathna, and S. Te lles, Yoga Research & Applications: Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Frontiers in Yoga Research and Applications. Bangalore, Vivekananda Kendra Yoga Research Foundation, 2000, pp. 230-232. Lawrence, Ronald Lawrence, and Martin Zucker. Yoga section. In Ronald M. Lawrence, M.D., and Martin Zucker. Preventing Arthritis: A Holistic Approach to Life without Pain. New York: G. P. Putnams Sons, 2001. Letters to the editor. Time, 30 Dec 2002 6 Jan 2003. Three out of the seven letters written in response to Times 9 Dec 2002 cover story on arthritis state that Yoga has helped in their recovery, and a fourth, written by Yoga teacher and postural alignment expert Jean Couch (author of The Runners Yoga Book) attributes much of arthritic degeneration to our cultural tendency toward curved, slouched posture. Macintosh, Sarah. Teaching tips: Aches & pains in yoga. Yoga & Health, Nov 1999, p. Mamtora, P. S., M.D. Yoga for Back and Joint Disorders. Santacruz, Mumbai, India: Dr. Jayadeva Yogendra for The Yoga Institute, 1997. Mehta, K. K. Nature cure for arthritis: Yoga therapy. Available online at Mehta, Silva, Mira Mehta, and Shyam Mehta. Arthritis and rheumatic conditions. In Silva, Mira, and Shyam Mehta, Yoga: The Iyengar Way. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1992, p. 185. Mishra, J. P. N. Arthritis. In J. P. N Mishra, Preksha Yoga Management for Common Ailments. New Delhi, India: B. Jain Publishers, 1999, pp. 197-199. Monro, R., R. Nagarathna, and I. Haslock. Controlled trials on the use of yoga for rheumatoid diseases. Journal Rheum., Nov 1992. ___________, R. Nagarathna, and H. R. Nagendra. Rheumatism and arthritis. In R.

Monro, R. Nagarathna, and H. R. Nagendra, Yoga for Common Ailments. New York/London: Simon & Schuster, 1990, pp. 48-51. (Includes information on rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, fibromyalgia, and ankylosing spondylitis.) Moore, Marcia, and Mark Douglas. Arthritis. In Marcia Moore and Mark Douglas, Diet, Sex, and Yoga. York, Maine: Arcane Publications, 1966, 1970, pp. 244-245. Moorhead, Mary B. Try yoga to relieve pain of arthritis. Contra Costa Times, 13 Jul 2002. Article available online: Motiwala, Sam N., and Rajvi H. Mehta. Treating chronic ailments with yoga: Cervical spondylosis. Yoga Rahasya, 1996, 3(2):29-37. Murphy, Erin. Therapeutic yoga. Yoga Journal, November/December 1988: 79-86. Muzumdar, S. Lumbago; Rheumatism. In S. Muzumdar, Healthy Middle-Age Through Yoga. Bombay, India: Jaico Publishing, 1960, 1993, p. 160. Nagendra, H. R., and S. Telles. [Yoga research] parameters to be recorded for specific diseases: Rehumatoid arthritis. In H. R. Nagendra and S. Telles, Research Methods. Bangalore, India: Vivekananda Kendra Yoga Prakashan, 1995, pp. 35-37, 41. Padus, Emrika. Yoga for arthritis. Prevention, June 1977, pp. 89 ff. Payne, Larry, and Richard Usatine. The musculoskeletal system: Back, knees, arthritis. In Larry Payne and Richard Usatine, Yoga Rx: A Step-by-Step Program to Promote Health, Wellness, and Healing for Common Ailments. New York: Broadway Books, 2002, pp. 97-150. Proof that meditation matters. Arthritis Today, March/April 1999, 13(2):22. Quail, Marie. [Gives advice for a student with an arthritic hip.] Yoga Biomedical Bulletin, Spring 1997, no. 34, p. 4. ___________, and Ruth Gilmore. Yoga for Arthritis audiotape. Available online: (click on Products, then Audiotapes). Rajesh, M. Yoga therapy for cancer, back pain, arthritis, headache, diabetes, and IHD. Vivekananda Kendra Yoga Research Foundation, 1991. ___________. Integrated approach of yoga therapy for cancer, IHD, back pain, arthritis & diabetes mellitus. Bangalore, India: Vivekananda Yoga Kendra Prakashana, 1992. Raman, Krishna. Arthritis; Gout. In Krishna Raman, M.D., A Matter of Health: Integration of Yoga and Western Medicine for Prevention and Cure. Chennai (Madras), India: Eastwest Books (Madras) Pvt. Ltd., 1998, pp. 466-477, 482; 481. (See also the sections entitled Immune System and The Joints, Muscles and Bones in the chapter entitled The Growing Years, the Aged and Yoga and the section on arthralgia in women, pp. 142-143.)

Ranade, Subhash, and Sunanda Ranade. Arthritis. In Subhash Ranade and Sunanda Ranade, Ayurveda and Yoga Therapy. Pune, India: Anmol Prakashan, 1995, pp. 13-17.
Ravishankar, N. S. Arthritis; Gout; Rheumatic fever. In N. S. Ravishankar, Yoga for Health: Curative Powers of Yogasanas. New Delhi: Pustak Mahal, 2001, pp. 136-137; 150; 166.

Reeves, Ute. Post on rheumatoid arthrisits to KIN-Yoga mailing list 12 Oct 2002. I have rheumatoid arthritis. I am doing quite well using an alternative treatment protocolsee, which saves me from taking the heavy-duty drugs. Its been a while since I had a flare-up, but I have a few hints concerning yoga. It is advised to not do weight-bearing exercises on an inflamed joint. Gentle joint opening exercises and range of motion movements are important. During serious flare-ups it is even advised to have someone passively move the joints to not lose range of motion. Im not suggesting that yoga teachers do that, I just want to stress how important the range of motion part is, because it gets lost fast. I have worked as yoga teacher (teaching 6-10 classes per week) even through some nasty flare-ups and can tell you that this has been my saving grace. Often I would have preferred not to move at all because of the pain but did it because of my commitment to my students and every time I felt better after yoga class than before. Hot bath before class (that infra-red sauna sounds great!) helped and after it lots of ice on the inflamed joints. I would start a couple hours before class to be ready for it. I would also splint or wrap flaring joints . . . Then I am modeling to my students how to take care of my body by modifying poses to my needs, while I am assisting them in doing the poses to their capacities. It works very well. Rheumatoid arthritis can involve any joint (there are joints I never knew existed until they flared up) but frequently hands, wrists, shoulders, hips, knees, ankles, feet are involved. Modifications are needed to avoid weight bearing on the inflamed joint. Fatigue is a component of the disease, so restorative poses, shavasana, meditation can help. I dont know if you get into it in your class, but diet is important. A sattvic diet helps and paying attention if any specific food causes a flare-up. Richmond, Sonya. Lumbago and sciatica; Arthritis and rheumatism. In Sonya Richmond, How to be Healthy with Yoga. New York: Bell Publishing, 1962, pp. 70-80; 97-101. Rothenberg, Robin. Therapeutic Yoga 101: A course in self-acceptance. International Journal of Yoga Therapy, 2004, no. 14, pp. 29-34. Author email: Abstract: This article is a personal essay describing the methodology for and orientation to teaching therapeutic Yoga in a mixed milieu. Many of the students have complex conditions such as multiple sclerosis, fibromyalgia, rheumatoid arthritis, cancer, or chronic fatigue. Others have suffered structural trauma from car accidents and are contending with soft tissue injury and disc compression. In spite of the irrefutable challenge of addressing these various conditions simultaneously, years of working in this field has convinced the author that not only is it possible to do so, but it is highly rewarding for both the students and the teacher. It is the authors hope that by sharing her experience it will encourage other therapists to move beyond the container of a specific

pathology and reunite body, mind, and spirit in a healing, communal environment. Ryder, Genevieve. Osteoarthritis of knee and hip. Structural Yoga Therapy Research Paper, Sep 2003. Author email: Sarkar, Shrii Prabhat Ranjan. Rheumatism. In Shrii Prabhat Ranjan Sarkar, Yogic Treatments and Natural Remedies. 3d ed. Calcutta, India: Ananda Marga Publications, 1993, pp. 43-45. Schatz, Mary Pullig, M.D. Yoga relief for arthritis: A pathologist and yoga teacher offers comprehensive guidelines for restoring and maintaining joint health. Yoga Journal, May/Jun 1985. ___________. Yoga for arthritis. Yoga Journal, November/December 1997: 30. ___________. Yoga relief for arthritis. Yoga Journal, May/June 1985. Schlorholtz, John. Ageless Yoga: Joint Freedom Standing & Chair Routines video. 30 minutes. Available for purchase online: John Schlorholtz is the principle yoga instructor for Harvard Universitys Center for Wellness. In this video, he shares yoga for people of all ages and types and those with injury and illness. Lubricates, strengthens, and creates space in all the major joints. Good for arthritis, poor circulation, and preparing for or recovering from surgery. Shah, J. T. Arthritis. In J. T. Shah, Therapeutic Yoga. Mumbai, India: Vakils, Feffer and Simons Ltd., 1999, pp. xviii, 2-7, 12-17, 20-23, 32-37, 42-45, 48-51, 54-55, 58-59, 66-75, 80-91. Shivananda Saraswati, Srimat Swami. Arthritis; Rheumatism. In Srimat Swami Shivananda Saraswati, Yogic Therapy or Yogic Way to Cure Diseases. 7th ed. Umachal Series no. 10. Guwahati, Assam: Shivananda Math, 1994, pp. 79-81; 302-306. Silva, Mira, and Shyam Mehta. Arthritis. In Mira Silva and Shyam Mehta, Yoga: The Iyengar Way. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1992, p. 185. Singh, R. H., R. M. Shettiwar, and K. N. Udupa. Physiological and therapeutic studies on yoga. The Yoga Review, Winter 1982, II(4): (sections on rheumatoid arthritis) 196, 199, 202, 204. ___________. Role of some hathayogic practices in the management of chronic rheumatic diseases. In Proceedings of the IX National Seminar on Rheumatic Disease, MML Centre for Rheumatic Disease, New Delhi, India, 1978. Sinha, Phulgendra. Arthritis: Inflammation of joints. In Phulgendra Sinha, Yogic Cure for Common Diseases. New Delhi, India: Orient Paperbacks, 1980. Rev., enl., pp. 98114. Available from Nataraj Books, 7073 Brookfield Plaza, Springfield, VA 22150, 703455-4996. Stacle, Mary. A house divided: Alienated from a body crippled with arthritis, one

woman finds her way home to wholeness through yoga. Yoga Journal, November/December 1997: 26-31, 156. STATISTICS. Lawrence, R.C., C. K. Helmick, F. C. Arnett, R. A. Deyo, D. T. Felson, E. H. Giannini, S. P. Heyse, R. Hirsch, M. C. Hochberg, G. G. Hunder, M. H. Liang, S. R. Pillemer, V. D. Steen, and F. Wolfe. Estimates of the prevalence of arthritis and selected musculoskeletal disorders in the United States. Arthritis and Rheumatism, 1998, 41:778-799. Stewart, Mary. Arthritis. In Mary Stewart, Teach Yourself Yoga. Lincolnwood (Chicago), Ill.: NTC/Contemporary Publishing/London: Hodder Headline, 1998, pp. 128129. Stiles, M. Tom. Yoga therapy for shoulders. Yoga International, August/September 1996: 77-80. Stott, Sharon. Arthritis. In Sharon Stott, Sarvangasana (shoulderstand) or candle pose, Yoga & Health, Dec 1997, p. 21. (On contraindications for sarvangasana.) Sukshma Vyayama. Available online: Taylor, Matthew. Osteoarthritis. Available online: Udupa, K. N. Stress and arthritis. In K. N. Udupa, Stress and Its Management by Yoga. Delhi, India: Motilal Banarsidass, 1985. 2d ed., pp. 321-325. . . . we have treated nearly 50 cases of rheumatoid arthritis of various joints including those of the spine with uniformly good results in almost all the cases within a period of six months . . . Weller, Stella. Arthritis (includes rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, and gout); Autoimmune sisorders (includes arthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, lupus, and scleroderma); Immune system disorders (includes rheumatoid arthritis and lupus). In Stella Weller, Yoga Therapy. London: Thorsons, 1995, pp. 90-91; 92; 111-112. White, Carrie. Some arthritis sufferers find yoga and diet can offer nonpharmaceutical comfort. East Valley Tribune (Scottsdale, Arizona), 3 Feb 2005. Scottsdale rheumatologist Paul Howard doesnt believe pharmaceuticals, by themselves, are the best way for people with arthritis to get better. Rather, Howard sees treatment for the diseasejoint inflammation affecting nearly 70 million Americansas involving a combination of exercise, supplementation, diet and, if needed, weight loss. His patients bear out his approach. Peggy McKee, 76, of Scottsdale first visited Howards office three years ago with an arthritis flare-up shortly after the death of her husband and a daughter. McKee, who suffers from rheumatoid arthritis, received a prescription for yoga. I sometimes wonder if I still have arthritis, McKee says with a chuckle. McKee, who attends yoga class twice a week at a studio set up by Howard for arthritis patients, says the gent le form of stretching has done wonders for me. I dont take nearly the amount of medication I used to.

Winifred Doane, 75, received a prescription for yoga after Synvisc injections in the knee failed to help her osteoarthritis. Yoga remade my whole life, says Doane, who attends yoga class twice a week at Arthritis Health in Scottsdale. Not only has her physical health improved, she says, but her mental well-being has, too. The Arizona State University professor emeritus is completely off medications, with the exception of glucosamine with MSM. And her bone density is back to normal after a diagnosis of osteopenia, a precursor to osteoporosis. Ginnie Livingston, a certified yoga therapist, oversees five levels of yoga at Arthritis Health. Livingston, a faculty assistant at ASUs College of Nursing, says the huge changes she sees yoga making in the lives of arthritis patients is inspiring. She sees yoga as a great alternative or adjunct to pharmaceuticals as it does not mask symptoms but increases balance and strength and elevates mood. It really improves quality of life, she says . . . Widdowson, Rosalind. Rheumatism and arthritis. In Rosalind Widdowson, The Joy of Yoga. Garden City, N.Y.: Do ubleday and Co., 1983, pp. 61-63. Yocum, D.E., W. L. Castro, and M. Cornett. Exercise, education, and behavioral modification as alternative therapy for pain and stress in rheumatic disease. Rheumatic Diseases Clinics of North American, Feb 2000, 26(1): 145-159, x-xi. MEDLINE PMID: 0010680202. Abstract: Stress and pain mechanisms are complex and share many central nervous system pathways. Both are critical issues for patients with rheumatoid arthritis and other connective tissue diseases. The link between stress and neuroendoimmune function suggests that alternative therapies focusing on improved psychologic and metabolic function could significantly change patients pain outcomes. Programs using alternative therapies such as tai chi and meditation in combination with traditional medications appear to be beneficial for patients with arthritis. These individuals appear to live better lives and may have better long-term outcomes. Yoga Biomedical Trust Survey. Statistics on arthritis and rheumatism and Yoga. Number of cases: 589; percent claiming benefit: 90%. See: Arthritis classes. URL: (click on Yoga Therapy & How to Try It, then click on Index-Alphabetical, then click on Arthritis).

The Yoga for Health Foundation. Yoga for Arthritis classes. For more information, contact: The Yoga for Health Foundation, Ickwell Bury, Ickwell Green, Biggleswade, Beds. SG18 9EF, Great Britain, tel: 01767 627261, fax: 627266, URL: m#arthritis.

Videotapes and Audiotapes

Adams, Jenni. Befriend Your Arthritis audiotape. Torquay, Devon: Mind Your Body Cassettes. (Address: 5 Thurlow Road, Torquay, Devon TQ1 3DZ, England) Focuses on legs, hips, neck, wrists, shoulders and balance. Includes fourteen postures, two link movements, pranayama (expansion and awareness of breath), deep relaxation

and visualization. Crotzer, Shoosh. Yoga for MS and Related Conditions video (previously titled Pathways Exercise Video for People with Limited Mobility). Mobility Limited. 48 minutes. URL:, tel.: 800-366-6038, 805-772-9253. This tape is for anyone with limited mobility, including those with: multiple sclerosis, mild arthritis, chronic illness or pain, post-polio syndrome, chronic fatigue, . . . seniors and anyone with daily stresses, as well as people who are overweight or temporarily limited. Comes with a 56-page instruction guidebook. Sidelman, Shelley. Yogability and You video or DVD. 60 minutes. URL: From the website: Shelleys approach to yoga combines soft and gentle stretching exercises (no pretzel postures!) with simple breathing and relaxation techniques. It is both therapeutic and rehabilitative, as well as heart healty and helps to gentle some of the tumbling thoughts that clutter your mind. Whether you have multiple sclerosis, arthritis, Parkinsons, or fibromyalgia or you are recovering from an illness, accident or surgery, Yogability and You is designed specifically to enable you to reduce pain, increase circulation, and improve flexibility. Yogic Sciences Research Foundation. Flexibility (anti-rheumatoid) video. East Lansing, Mich.: Yogic Sciences Research Foundation. Email:, URL:

Of Related Interest
Davis, Mary C., Alex J. Zautra, John W. Reich. Vulnerability to stress among women in chronic pain from fibromyalgia and osteoarthritis. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, Aug 2001, 23(3):215-226. Abstract: In two investigations, we studied vulnerability to the negative effects of stress among women in chronic pain from 2 types of musculoskeletal illnesses, fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) and osteoarthritis (OA). In Study 1, there were 101 fema le participants 50 to 78 years old: 50 had FMS, 29 had OA knee pain and were scheduled for knee surgery, and 22 had OA but were not planning surgery. Cross-sectional analyses showed that the three groups were comparable on demographic variables, personality attributes, negative affect, active coping, and perceived social support. As expected, FMS and OA surgery women reported similar levels of bodily pain, and both groups scored higher than OA nonsurgery women. However, women with FMS reported poorer emotio nal and physical health, lower positive affect, a poorer quality social milieu, and more frequent use of avoidant coping with pain than did both groups of women with OA. Moreover, the perception and use of social support were closely tied to perceived social stress only among the FMS group. In Study 2, we experimentally manipulated negative mood and stress in 41 women 37 to 74 years old: 20 women had FMS, and 21 women had OA. Participants from each group were randomly assigned to either a negative mood induction or a neutral mood (control) condition, and then all participants discussed a stressful interpersonal event for 30 min. Stress-related increases in pain were exacerbated by negative mood induction among women with FMS but not women with OA, and pain during stress was associated with decreases in positive affect in women with FMS but not women with OA. These findings suggest that among women with chronic pain, those with FMS may be particularly vulnerable to the negative effects of social stress. They have fewer positive affective resources, use less effective pain-coping strategies, and

have more constrained social networks than their counterparts with OA, particularly those who experience similar levels of pain. They also seem to experience more prolonged stress-related increases in pain under certain circumstances, all of which may contribute to a lowering of positive affect and increased stress reactivity over time. Ezzo, Jeannette, Victoria Hadhazy, Stephen Birch, Lixing Lao, Gary Kaplan, Marc Hochberg, and Brian Berman. Acupuncture for osteoarthritis of the knee: A systematic review. Arthritis and Rheumatism, Apr 2001, 44(4):819-825. From a review at Ezzo and her colleagues looked at seven studies including nearly 400 patients with knee arthritis, one of the most common sites for the joint disorder. Although the investigators deemed only three trials to be of high quality, they found that those studies results were strong enough to suggest acupuncture provides at least short-term relief from knee pain. The three studies compared sham acupuncture to real acupuncture. Two of the studies compared acupuncture with physical therapy and showed no advantage of one over the other. Acupuncture was first practiced in China more than 2,000 years ago. According to traditional theory, the human body has thousands of acupuncture points along pathways called meridians, and these pathways conduct energy throughout the body. Acupuncture is believed to keep this energy flow moving smoothly. Alternatively, some Western scientists speculate that the needle therapy helps release certain pain-killing chemicals from the central nervous system. According to the Arthritis Foundation in Atlanta, there is enough evidence to suggest acupuncture relieves pain for some arthritis sufferers. It has proven least effective against immune system- related arthritic conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis. Ivanhoe Newswire. Exercise helps arthritis. Winter Park, Fl.: Ivanhoe Broadcast News, 19 Aug 2002. For more information on this article, contact Peggy Nigh, University of Missouri, Dept. of Physical Therapy, 106 Lewis Hall, Columbia, MO 65211, email:, URL: Marilyn Bagnell learned [the] lesson when she joined [physical therapist Marian] Minors research program at age 75 with osteoarthritis. She says, I happened into it by accident and I found out how much good it does me. I find if I miss a class I have problems with stiffness, so isnt that an incentive to keep going? Different exercises seem to help different pain. For example, strengthening the legs can help pain from knee arthritis. Exercise in warm water reduces stiffness from rheumatoid arthritis and aerobic exercise reduces joint swelling. Minor says, Just knowing a few general exercises to do and how to do them can make a huge difference in your function and your comfort. It made all the difference in Bagnells life. It improved the arthritis in her hands. In two weeks, I doubled my time at the organ to 30 minutes and now I can play as long as I want to, she says. It also increased her energy. Now, theres no stopping her. LeBovidge, Jennifer Soriano, John V. Lavigne, and Michael L. Miller. Adjustment to

chronic arthritis of childhood: The roles of illness-related stress and attitude toward illness. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 2005 30(3):273-286. Author email: Abstract: Objective: To examine the relationship of psychosocial stress and attitude toward illness to psychological adjustment among youth with chronic arthritis. Methods: Seventy-five youths withchronic arthritis aged 8-18 years were administered a semistructured interview assessing illness-related and nonillness-related stressors in important life domains. Children also completed measures of attitude toward illness, depressive symptoms, and anxiety. Parents completed a measure of child psychosocial adjustment. Results: Higher levels of illness-related and nonillness-related stress were associated with higher levels of anxiety and depressive symptoms and parent-reported adjustment problems, while a more positive attitude toward illness was associated with lower levels of anxiety and depressive symptoms. Attitude toward illness moderated the relationship between stress and depressive symptoms. Conclusions: Results suggest the importance of assessing life stress and attitude toward illness among youth with arthritis and developing interventions to help children cope with arthritis-related stressors and promote a more positive attitude toward illness. Lumsden, D. B. Tai chi exercises improve strength, range of motion in osteoarthritis patients. Modern Medicine, Apr 1998, 66(4):23. Pennix, Brenda W. J. H., Stephen P. Messier, W. Jack Rejeski, Jeff D. Williamson, Mauro DiBari, Chiara Cavazzini, William B. Applegate, and Marco Pahor. Physical exercise and the prevention of disability in Activities of Daily Living in older persons with osteoarthritis. Archives of Internal Medicine, 22 Oct 2001, 161(19):2309-2316. Author email: Conclusion: Aerobic [walking] and resistance exercise may reduce the incidence of ADL disability in older persons with knee osteoarthritis. Exercise may be an effective strategy for preventing ADL disability and, consequently, may prolong older persons autonomy. Reuters Health. Acupuncture shown to reduce arthritis pain. 23 Feb 2001. Available online: http;// Reuters Health. Tai Chi may ease arthritis pain in elderly. 20 Mar 2001. Available online: Elderly people with painful arthritis may find relief in an ancient Chinese exercise that combines slow movement with meditation, preliminary study findings suggest. ___________. Aging US population increasing arthritis burden. 3 May 2001. Available online: An estimated 43.1 million Americans of all ages report having arthritis, and of those an estimated 7.8 million report that arthritis limits their daily activities in some way, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in Atlanta, Georgia . . . The data, from 1997, also indicate that the number of people with arthritis has increased by 750,000 people per year since 1990, and the CDC predicts that by 2020,

11.6 million Americans will be limited by arthritis. The federal agency reports the figures in the May 4th issue of the CDCs Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. Suttona, A. J., K. R. Muirb, S. Mockettc, and P. Fentemd. A case-control study to investigate the relation between low and moderate levels of physical activity and osteoarthritis of the knee using data collected as part of the Allied Dunbar National Fitness Survey. Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases, Aug 2001, 60:756-764. Correspondence to: BACKGROUND: Physical activity is being recommended as an intervention for seemingly almost universal improvements to health. A potential concern with this recommendation for increased exercise is that some believe increased levels of activity may lead to increased incidence of osteoarthritis of the knee (knee OA), as a result of accelerated wear and tear of the major joints. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the hypothesis that the occurrence of knee OA may be related to the duration of participation in some forms of sport and active recreation. METHODS: The relation between habitual exercise, reported by a cross section of people surveyed in England, and self reported knee OA was investigated. Data were derived from the Allied Dunbar National Fitness Survey (1990-91). A matched retrospective case-control design was used and a new exposure classification system which categorized different grades of activities for different time periods for each subjects lifetime participation in regular physical activities was developed. Additional data on knee injuries sustained and bodily composition were also included in a multivariate analysis. RESULTS: From 4316 people originally interviewed, 216 eligible cases (66 men, 150 women) were identified (mean age 57.1). Each case was matched to four controls. When habitual sport/exercise participation were examined during a subjects life, only exposure to regular long walks and being physically active between the ages of 20 and 24 suggested any association with developing knee OA later in life. The only strong association found was a greatly increased risk of knee OA having previously sustained a knee injury (p<0.01, odds ratio 8.0 (95% confidence interval 2.0 to 32.0)). CONCLUSIONS: There was little evidence to suggest that increased levels of regular physical activity throughout life lead to an increased risk of knee OA later in life. Previous knee injury was associated with an increased risk of knee OA. Additionally, most injuries were caused through participation in physical activities. Hence, when deciding on participation in activities, it is worth taking the likelihood of joint injury into consideration, as the chance of injury is greater in some activities than others. Tetley, Michael. Instinctive sleeping and resting postures: An anthropological and zoological approach to treatment of low back and joint pain. British Medical Journal, 2330 Dec 2000, 321:1616-1618.

Ongoing Research
Arthur J. Barsky, M.D. Professor of Psychiatry Brigham and Womens Hospital, Harvard Medical School 75 Francis St Boston, MA 02115 617/732-5236 Investigating relaxation response, somatic style, and rheumatoid arthritis. Funded by NIH

(NIAMSD). Measuring the power of positive outlooks. Ongoing research at the University of Wisconsin-Madison on the science of emotions. For details, see: Diagnosis with a serious illness can be overwhelming, but some people make a remarkable adjustment and manage to sustain a positive outlook and a sense of psychological well-being. This study compares symptoms and physiology in women with two debilitating conditions, fibromyalgia and rheumatoid arthritis, with the goal of determining the benefits of maintaining a positive emotional outlook. In a second phase of the study, half the women in each group will be taught a special type of meditation. Differences will be compared between the two groups in pain sensitivity, immune response and measures of psychological health.


YOGA IN HEALTH AND DISEASE Dr Nagarathna R, Dr Nagendra H R, Dr Telles S Vivekananda Kendra Yoga Research Foundation, Bangalore. ABSTRACT To date large number of publications are available studying various aspects of yoga in health and disease. Self-rated hostility and depression (Schmaling et al. 1997) and higher degree of frustrating situations in their life (Berezin et al. 1997) were found to be associated with decreased pulmonary function, blood immunoglobulin levels and clinical state of the disease. Khalsa et al (1996) tried the efficacy of a specific yoga breathing pattern on 8 subjects with obsessive compulsive disorder with significant improvement on OCD, as measured by anxiety and global severity indices. Several other studies (Sahay et al 1986, Jain et al 1993) have shown the beneficial effects of yoga in NIDDM through reduction in hyperglycemia and the need for oral hypoglycemic agents. Role of yoga in mechanical back pain, carpel tunnel syndrome, cervical spondylosis, fibromyalgia and chronic pain have been studied by many workers. The role of yoga in rehabilitation, promotion of positive health at physical, mental, emotional and spiritual levels have been reviewed by my colleague by Dr. Malathi in the session on other applications of yoga. The modern medical system has replaced almost all the traditional systems of medicine in different parts of this globe because of its rational basis. It has proved itself most effective in saving man from the fatal hands of contagious andinfectious diseases. However, rapidly increasing incidence of stress related ailments is posing a great challenge to the modern medical system . It is here that Yoga appears to make a vital contribution to the modern medical system. CONCEPT OF HEALTH AND YOGA According to the World Health Organisation (WHO), the state of Health is defined as a state of complete physical, mental and social well being and not merely an absence of disease or infirmity. WHO also suggests a fourth dimension i.e. "spiritual well being". It is clear from this definition that health and ill-health are not two discrete entities as commonly understood but it is conceived as a continuous function indicating the state of well being In the diagram (fig 1), the lower quadrant,

'health', represents what we normally designate as 'sickness'. Below this level, man acts instinctively and is akin to an animal. The first quadrant, the region marked as 'normal man', indicates the state of normal health. As he moves along the line further up, he becomes healthier, featured by many dormant faculties expressing more vividly. This is shown as the region of'superman'. In this stage, the limitations of normal man, namely, the strong urges of thirst, hunger, fear and sex are reduced greatly and are fully under control. According to the concept of Sri Aurobindo, the new faculties of deeper perceptions of the world beyond the five senses emerge in this phase of superhuman existence. Further, growth leads man to unfold the deeper layers of consciousness and widen the spectrum of his knowledge to move towards divinity or perfection. Yoga is a systematic conscious process for accelerating the growth of a human being from his animal level towards the ultimate state of divinity (Swami Vivekananda). It is a systematic methodology for an all-round personality development i.e. physical, mental, intellectual, emotional and spiritual components of man. Thus, Yoga in its general methodology for the growth of man towards divine heights includes techniques useful for therapeutic applications in making man healthier. According to the tradition of Yoga and Upanishads, man has five bodies or kosas (sheaths) which is graphically represented in fig 2. The first and the grossest, the physical body, is called "Annamaya kosa". The next subtler body is the Pranamaya kosa featured by the predominance of prana, the life principle. Controversies apart, Kirlian photography triggered the interest of a large number of scientists and technologists all over the world. The scientific study of the Human Aura by Tart, delineates the following aspects of the human aura; the physical aura, psychological aura, psychical aura and the projected aura. Manomaya Kosa or the psychical body is responsible for the functions of mind, namely perception, analysis, memory and also the emotions. The Vijnanamaya kosa characterised by discrimination and a capacity to judge, is aimed at channelising human behavior towards perfect health, in tune with nature. In the Anandamaya state, man is established in perfect harmony and balance of all his faculties and is featured by total mastery, bliss and freedom from fear. YOGIC CONCEPT OF ILLNESSES

The root cause of Stress induced ailments is the imbalance at the Manomaya Kosa. Amplified likes and dislikes at the manomaya kosa results in distressful emotional surges called 'Aadhi'. The life style gets disturbed because of long standing uncontrolled surges of stressful reactions like intense desire (Kama), anger (Krodha), fear (Bhaya), jealousy (Matsarya) etc., These agitations cause violent fluctuations in the flow of prana in the 'nadis' which are said to be the channels distributed all over the body through their branching system. Each and every cell in the body, the components of annamaya kosa, requires right quota of its pranic energy to carry on its biochemical processes in an efficient way. The example is that of uninterrupted power supply necessary for every electrical gadget in right quantities. Just as these equipments would fail if there is any irregularity in the power supply, human organ systems fail to function if they do not get the right quantum of prana. Thus the disturbances in the Manomaya kosa percolate into physical body (Annamaya Kosa) through disturbed prana flows. Hence the management of these stress induced ailments should correct imbalances at all these levels (physical, prana and mind) and help the patient establish himself in his Vijnanamaya and Anandamaya Kosa which is the state of freedom from illness. Hence Yoga techniques are offered at all these levels, to correct the imbalances through a set of yoga practices which we have termed as Integrated approach of yoga therapy (IAYT). The following are the practices, to correct the problem at various levels: Annamaya Kosa: Kriyas (Traditional voluntary internal cleansing techniques), Yogasanas (body postures) and Savasana (Relaxation posture), Pranamaya Kosa: Five types of systematic regulated slow deep breathing practices with or without breath holding, called Pranayama. Manomaya Kosa: Meditation (Dharana and Dhyana) and devotional session (Bhakti yoga), Vijnanamaya Kosa: Understanding the nature of ones problems in the light of Indian thinking through self analysis (Jnana yoga), Anandamaya Kosa: Practice joy under all circumstances (Karma yoga). Try to touch the inner core of one self in solitude and establish in the experience that Ananda is the basic fabric of this universe including the self. SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH ON MEDICAL APPLICATIONS OF YOGA To date large number of publications are available studying various aspects of yoga in health and

disease. Let us look at these under two major categories namely (a) application of yoga in disease including rehabilitation and (b) in promotion of positive health at physical, mental, social and spiritual levels. YOGA IN STRESS RELATED DISEASES The increasing awareness that many of the common psychiatric and psychosomatic problems have stress as the basic underlying factor, has led to many studies trying to apply techniques of stress management in these ailments with encouraging results. 'Yoga', which is an experiential science provides a systematic methodology with its firm roots in a holistic philosophy which is in total harmony with nature. This science is the offshoot of thousands of years of internal research by Indian sages. YOGA IN RESPIRATORY ALLERGIES There are several publications to demonstrate the role of emotions in asthma and also to validate the efficacy of different yoga practices in bronchial asthma. Some are well designed controlled studies whereas many of the earlier studies were observations on uncontrolled groups. Negative emotions and psychosocial pathology are found to be related to severe asthma (Friedman, 1984; Carswell, 1985; Carson and Schauer, 1992). Miller et al (1994) demonstrated that sadness was associated with greater heart rate variability and instability of oxygen saturation compared with happiness. There was mixed results for mixed happiness and sadness. Selfrated hostility and depression (Schmaling et al. 1997) and higher degree of frustrating situations in their life (Berezin et al. 1997) were found to be associated with decreased pulmonary function, blood immunoglobulin levels and clinical state of the disease. Alexander (1972) demonstrated the effect of systematic relaxation on flow rate in asthmatic children in whom emotional factors were prominent. Wilson et al (1975) evaluated 21 asthmatics after the practice of TM for 6 months with crossover at 3 months, indicating that transcendental meditation is an useful adjunct in treating asthma. Goyeche (1982) published his work on the integrated yoga approach to asthma with beneficial results. Singh et al (1990) studied 18 subjects with mild bronchial asthma after 2 weeks of practice of yogic pranayama by the use of a breathing device called pink city lung exerciser (PCL). Slow mouth breathing through this device simulates yogic pranayama with a ratio of 1:2 between inhalation and exhalation. This

was compared with breathing through a placebo device. In this randomised, double blind, crossover placebo controlled study they observed greater degree of improvement in PCL group than the control group on FEV1, PEFR, symptom score and inhaler usage. Fluge et al (1994) in a controlled study on 36 asthmatics followed up for 4 months concluded that breathing exercises had an additive effect when used in combination with Albuterol inhalation therapy. Vedanthan et al (1998) studied the effect of yoga practices on 17 students in the age group of 19-52 years in an university set up. Daily symptom score, medication score, AM and PM PEFR, weekly questionnaires and lung functions were measured. The subjects in yoga group reported significant degree of relaxation, positive attitude and tendency for lesser usage of inhalers. YOGA IN ANXIETY NEUROSIS Various yoga practices such as asanas, meditation, pranayama, savasana are now recognised as relaxation techniques comparable to many behavioral modification techniques like biofeedback and progressive muscular relaxation based on the famous work of Wallace (1970) who showed that the practice of Transcendental Meditation (TM) brings about signs of overall psychophysiological relaxation. Anxiety neurosis recognized as an exaggerated form of stress response with sympathetic hyperreactivity, could therefore benefit through any one of these relaxation therapies. (Udupa, 1972; Rapp et al. 1984), Norton & Johnson (1983), DeLuca & Holborn (1984), Tarrier & Main (1986) have demonstrated the comparative efficacy of different types of muscle relaxation therapies (taped instructions or applied relaxations) in different types of anxiety of both cognitive and somatic type such as snake phobia, nail biting, hair pulling, panic attacks as well as general anxiety. Tyrer et al (1988) in their randomised control study on 210 subjects demonstrated that self help group fared better than the diazepam group and consumed less psychotropic drugs. Further Rabat et al (1992) showed the effect of mindful meditation to reduce stress, anxiety, depression, panic and also the panic of agrophobia. Gagne (1990) compared the effect of therapeutic touch & relaxation and concluded that they could be palliative adjuncts in anxiety. Khalsa et al (1996) tried the efficacy of a specific yoga breathing pattern in 8 subjects with obsessive compulsive disorder with significant improvement on OCD, as measured by anxiety and global severity indices. Crisan

(1988) observed reduction in scores on Max Hamilton's a anxiety scale, general health questionnaire, heart rate, urinary level of VMA and a rise in galvanic skin resistance in 19 patients with generalised anxiety neurosis after 8 weeks of pranayama practice. YOGA IN DIABETES In both IDDM and NIDDM physiologically demanding stressful situations like infection, pregnancy etc. are known to increase the demand for insulin. Similarly emotional stresses also contribute to the irregular control of diabetes. Relaxation therapies using biofeedback or taped instructions have been reported to be useful in better control of diabetes (Me grady et al. 1991). Jobson et al (1991) in a well planned controlled study showed that although there was demonstrable physiological rest (reduced muscle activity and skin resistance) the progressive relaxation training and biofeedback given once a week did not help in improving diabetic control in 20 patients with type II diabetes. Monro et al (1992) carried out a controlled trial on 21 subjects with NIDDM. Fasting blood glucose and glycosylated haemoglobin reduced significantly (p<0.05) in the group of 11 who practised the integrated programme of yoga as compared to a matched control group of 10 who did not practice yoga. Several other studies (Sahay et al 1986, Jain et al 1993) have shown the beneficial effects of yoga in NIDDM through reduction in hyperglycemia and the need for oral hypoglycemic agents. Rice et al (1992) observed increased peripheral blood circulation in lower extremities as measured through toe temperature and blood volume pulse in 40 diabetes in the age range of 17 to 73 years after biofeedback assisted relaxation training. YOGA IN HYPERTENSION As early as nineteen thirties Swami Kuvalayananda of Kaivalyadhama started studying the effects of yogic practices on blood pressure, heart rate etc, in yogis. Datey and his coworkers (1969) showed the beneficial effect of savasana in mild hypertensives who were not taking medication. Patel (1973,75) has shown the beneficial effects of savasana in hypertension in her year long follow-up control study. In an open study comprising 23 hypertensive patients Sachdeva et al (1994) observed reduction in systolic blood pressure from 134.5 16.01 to 125.1 9.60mm of Hg and diastolic blood pressure from 88.5 9.42 to 81.62 6.48mm of Hg respectively after 2 months of yogic life style change.

Talukdar (1994) noted statistically significant changes in cell membrane enzymes after yoga practices in hypertensives. 10 to 12 weeks of practising certain yogasanas increased serum HDL levels and caused a trend of reduction in serum cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL and VLDL (Bhaskaracharyulu et al, 1996). Though its beneficial role in mild hypertension has been demonstrated, more in-depth study is required to document the effect of different forms of yoga on patients with moderate and severe hypertension and also the mechanisms have to be worked out through studying autonomic status, renin-angiotensin mechanism and platelet aggregation etc. YOGA IN CORONARY HEART DISEASE Coronary heart disease being one of the major killers of mankind even today, the role of life style modification to take care of all the risk factors to prevent CHD cannot be overlooked. Greenwood et al (1996) reviewed the literature and showed that both social support and life stresses influence the incidence and mortality of coronary heart disease, the latter more so than the former. The emotion support had the largest effect. Orth Gomer et al (1997) analysed the heart rate variability from a bolter record during transient myocardial ischeamia and observed suppression of the efferent vagal activity and suggested that this vagal blockage may be a forerunner to onset of ischaemia. Winneberg (1997) found positive correlation between collagen induced platelet aggregation and outwardly expressed anger as measured by anger expression scale. The work of Ornish et al has become a major land mark on this path of preventive cardiology. Gould, Ornish and coworkers (1995) studied the changes in myocardial perfusion by positron emission tomography (PET) after 5 years of intense risk factor modification. The experimental group of 20 followed a programme of very low fat vegetarian diet, mild to moderate exercise, stress management and group support. The abnormalities on rest-dipyridamol PET abnormalities of ventricular perfusion showed significant change in the experimental group (5.1 4.8% normalised counts) while the control group who continued under family physicians care with antianginal therapy had worsening of size, severity of PET abnormalities (10.3 * 5.6%). Although there was a significant degree of improvement observed in the percent diameter stenosis on coronary

angiography in the experimental group as compared to control group, greater degree of changes were observed in ventricular perfusion and the measurement of area of LV with less than 60% activity in PET. YOGA IN RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS Stress could be a major triggering or aggravating factor for the autoimmune inflammation in rheumatoid arthritis has been understood. Haslock (1994) reported the beneficial effect on grip strength and Stanford health assessment questionnaire disability index in 10 severe rheumatoid arthritis subjects, as compared to 10 matched controls who participated in a programme of IAYT. Role of yoga in mechanical back pain, carpel tunnel syndrome, cervical spondylosis, fibromyalgia and chronic pain have been studied by many workers. YOGA IN REHABILITATION Yoga practices have been tried in the rehabilitation of various socially disadvantaged groups like inmates of jails, drug abusers, alcoholics, congenitally blind, mentally retarded and children from community (remand) homes. In all these socially disadvantaged groups, either due to repressed anger or depression or anxiety, a heightened state of mental arousal could be a common underlying factor, that can interfere with their efficiency in any new learning for better living or for improved performance. YOGA IN COMMUNITY HOMES Children in community homes although physically normal were socially and emotionally traumatized (Ahvenainen, et al 1990) Significantly higher level of sympathetic arousal as seen by heart rate, respiratory rate, skin resistance was seen in community home girls in Bangalore compared to regular school children (Telles, Naveen & coworkers 1997). In a comparative study, we (Narendran & Raghuraj, 1997; Raghuraj & Telles 1997) showed significant reduction in breath rate, skin resistance, performance on muscle power, dexterity skill and visual perception in the yoga group compared to the group practising games in 14 pairs of girls in the age group 12-16 years, from a community home. YOGA FOR THE BLIND Naveen et al (1996) on repeated recording of middle latency auditory evoked potentials (AEPMLR) demonstrated that the information processing in the auditory pathways was much better in the congenitally blind than normally sighted children showing better sensitivity in hearing enabling

them to use echoes to perceive spatial position. Greater anxiety and higher heart rates were noted in the blind compared to matched normal children (Ollendick et al. 1985 & Wycherley 1970). YOGA FOR MENTALLY RETARDED Special education for the mentally retarded has now been well streamlined and these children are getting integrated into general education. Yoga has been tried out as an adjunct in education of children with mental retardation, learning disabilities and attention deficit hyper activity syndromes. Krishnamacharya yoga mandiram (1983) documented and reported subjective improvements and also described the practices of yoga adopted for these children. We (Uma et al 1989), in our matched control study on 90 retarded children practising IAYT for one hour daily for one academic year as an adjunct to the standard techniques of special education have shown significant improvement in IQ (Binet Kamat's test) and social adaptation (Vineland social maturity scale) in addition to improvement in locomotor skills (Siguine form board) in those with mild and moderate degree of retardation. Improved attention span after IAYT may be the mechanism that promotes learning. YOGA FOR PSYCHOSIS AND CHEMICAL ABUSE There are several reports of the use of TM in the rehabilitation of drug abusers and alcoholics (Shafi, 1974; Brautigam, 1972; Benson et al. 1972). We observed the beneficial effect of IAYT in the rehabilitation of schizophrenics (Telles, 1997) in a long stay home. YOGA FOR PROMOTION OF POSITIVE HEALTH Application of yoga for the first component (absence of disease) of the WHO definition of health has been highlighted. Let us now look at the other components namely promotion of positive health at the physical, mental, social and spiritual level. YOGA FOR POSITIVE PHYSICAL HEALTH Positive health at physical level includes normalcy of body mass index (Height weight ratio), flexibility of joints, supple but strong muscles, skill in motor performance, resistance in infections and tolerance to environmental variations. Large number of studies were reported by the TM group demonstrating improved physical health measured by motor and perceptual ability, athletic performance and reaction time (Shaw & Kole, 1971), and also by better performance of perceptual motor tasks (Karene, 1971). Six months of yogic asanas was shown to increase hip and shoulder flexibility in the middleaged men whereas

physical exercises had no such effect (Ray et al. 1983). YOGA IN PHYSICAL EDUCATION Nayar et al. (1975) demonstrated improvement in cardiorespiratory functions in NBA cadets trained in yogic practice as compared to those undergoing physical training, The body flexibility and the muscular efficiency improved after six months of yogic training (Ray et al. 1986). The improvement in muscular efficiency was reflected as an increase in endurance time probably due to alternate recruitment of motor units. Telles et al (1993) studied 40 senior physical education school teachers who were doing diverse physical activities for 8.9 5.8 years after 3 months of integrated yoga programme. There was a significant increase in PFR (6%),,FEV1 (16%), FVC (18%), breath holding time (40%) and a significant reduction in heart rate, respiratory rate, blood pressure, body weight and the number of errors made in the steadiness test reduced significantly. The galvanic skin resistance increased reflecting reduction in sympathetic tone. YOGA AND IMMUNE SYSTEM Psychological stress is thought to undermine host resistance to infection through neuroendocrine mediator changes in immune competence. 236 preschool children in the age group of 3 to 5 years, were studied by Boyce et al (1995). They compared the effect of laboratory stress of performing developmentally challenging task with two measures of environmental stress at the child care center and assessed the cardiovascular reactivity, incidence of respiratory illnesses, CD4, CDS & CD19 cell counts, lymphocyte mitogenesis and antibody response to pneumococcal vaccine. They showed that the incidence of illness was related to an interaction of child care stress and mean arterial pressure reactivity (measure of psychobiologic reactivity to stress). They also observed an interaction between stressful life events and CD19 reactivity during stress of entering school. Klemons (1972) in their controlled clinical study assessed the degree of gingival inflammation (GI) in 46 TM meditators compared with 26 non meditators. Improvement of GI was noted in 74% of the meditators Vs 15% in non meditators. Practice of IAYT by patients with open tuberculosis in a sanatorium through controlled studies showed faster recovery in their general health, X-ray changes and sputum positivity. Allergies, autoimmunity and cancer are other immune system disorders where the role of yoga has been experimented upon. YOGA FOR POSITIVE MENTAL HEALTH

A positive mental health would be achieved by sharpening of perception of information arriving to the brain through all our special senses, better analytical faculty (IQ), sharper memory and on the overall improvement in personality characteristics. Emotions being the major component of human behavior, mastery over the upsurges of emotion is considered as the sign of better health rather than just a sharpening of emotions. The capacity to replace instinctual violent emotions like anger or fear by soft emotions like love, sympathy, peace and contentment indicates higher levels of emotional health. YOGA FOR PERCEPTION Meditation has been described as a training in awareness, which when kept over long periods produces definite changes in perception, attention and cognition (Brown, 1977). Significant changes were reported in the visual perception of advanced meditators, who were able to distinguish subtle differences in color and shade. They were more perceptually sensitive to detect shorter light flashes and required a shorter interval to differentiate between successive flashes correctly (Brown et al. 1980,1984). It has also been shown that processing of sensory information at the thalamic level is facilitated during the practice of pranayama (Telles et al. 1992) and meditation (Telles & Desiraju, 1993). These two practices, along with IAYT were found to bring about an improvement in hand steadiness in college students following 10 days of practice (Telles et al. 1993). This improvement was believed to be due to improved eye-hand coordination, better attention, concentration and relaxation. We (Telles et al 1995) tested the visual discrimination in two groups of 18 college students (age 1722 years) each, by their ability to detect intermittent light of fixed luminance at varying frequencies on a Critical Flicker Fusion apparatus. The initial values were 37.60.7 and 37.90.6 which changed to 42.61.6 (p<0.01) and 36.4 0.7 (p<0.5) in Yoga and control groups respectively demonstrating sharper perceptual ability after yoga. In another study (Ramanavani 1997) in adults (25 to 39 years), we observed that the improvement in Critical Flicker Fusion in yoga group occurred after 20 days of yoga instead of 10 days unlike in children where the changes were demonstrable within 10 days. It has been shown that training in focusing the gaze on the stimulus reduces the optical illusion by 79% (Hochberg 1984). The degree of illusion was measured on Muller Lyer apparatus where the

lines although of equal length, appear unequal due to the two different types of arrows drawn at both ends of the line (<>), the close ended (<>) or open ended (<>). There was a 86% reduction (Tukey test, p<0.001) in degree of illusion in the group of 30 subjects after 30 days of integrated yoga practice where as the control group did not show significant change (Telles et al. 1997). YOGA FOR LEARNING AND INTELLIGENCE Shecter (1975) showed significantly greater improvement on measures of creativity (match problem test), Intellectual performance (Raven progressive matrices) and personality (Jackson personality inventory) with a reduction in their anxiety (Lickert scaled questionnaire) after practice of transcendental meditation (4 days ) and science of creative intelligence (14 weeks) Program in 60 high school students. Collier (1973) and Heaton et al (1974) demonstrated the improvement in performance and achievement in university students after transcendental meditation. In 1989 we (Uma et al) demonstrated the role of integrated approach of yoga in improving IQ in special children. YOGA IN MEMORY Improved information processing at thalamo-cortical pathway, better attention, concentration and emotional stability forms the basis for better registration and retrieval. Abrams (1972) showed a direct relationship between transcendental meditation, quicker acquisition and higher recall performance in 14 subjects. Effect of breathing through a particular nostril on selective memory test for 'right' (spatial) and 'left' (verbal) brain functions (Telles et al 1997) were studied. 108 school children with an age range of 10 to 17 years were randomly arranged to 4 groups. Each group practiced a specific yoga breathing technique namely (a) right nostril breathing (SAV), (b) left nostril breathing (CAV), (c) alternate nostril breathing (NS), (d) breath awareness without manipulation of nostrils. Yoga training caused an increase in verbal and spatial memory scores within 10 days. For all groups there appeared to be more marked improvement in right brain functioning. A marginal difference was obtained between the scores of the SAV and the CAV groups, suggesting an ipsilateral beneficial effect. YOGA FOR EMOTIONAL STABILITY Modern day living style in laden with the ill effects of stress. Stress according to yoga is an

uncontrolled surge of emotions like intense desire, anger, anxiety etc. When the stress is prolonged, the person loses his capacity to come out of the clutches of the loop of intensely heightened activity that shows up as imbalances in the function of the autonomic nervous system. This shows up as generalised complaints like anxiety, fatigue, addictions etc. or as localised problems (asthma). Role of yoga to reduce the force and speed of these violent surges of emotions has been validated by many workers through psychophysiological studies. In early 1970's, the epoch making study of Wallace (1970) showed that the practice of Transcendental Meditation brings about a unique "hypometabolic physiologic wakeful state" with overall signs of psychophysiological relaxation. A study from DIPAS (Delhi) showed that six months training in asanas (physical postures), pranayama (breathing practices), and meditation brought about definite physiological changes in normal volunteers, viz. an increase in orthostatic tolerance and an overall shift in the autonomic equilibrium towards parasympathodominance, as was shown during Transcendental Meditation (Selvamurthy et al. 1983). Further studies (Telles et al 1995) on OM meditation showed significant reduction in heart rate with an increase in cutaneous peripheral vascular resistance which is a sign of increased mental alertness even while physiologically relaxed. Telles et al (1994) published their interesting observation that breathing exclusively through right nostril (Surya anuloma viloma) showed a 37% increase in basal oxygen consumption, as compared 18% and 24% increase after alternate nostril (nadi suddhi) or left nostril (Chandra anuloma viloma) breathing. This suggested that breathing through right or left nostril breathing may have activating or relaxing effect on the sympathetic nervous system. This was supported (Telles 1997) by changes in systolic blood pressure and digit pulse volume suggesting the sympathetic stimulating effect of right nostril breathing. YOGA FOR SOCIAL HEALTH Better adaptability when exposed to varying sociocultural situations is an important faculty which is generally measured through various personality tests. According to yoga the most important parameter of positive social health is "Tatsukha Sukhitwam" which means joy in the joy of others. Movement from selfishness to selflessness is considered as the measure of growth of social health.

At the negative spectrum of the social health one could consider antisocial behaviors like crimes, accidents etc. that show up because of increasing degree of selfishness with total lack of social awareness and civic sense. In 1976 Borland et al. published their interesting paper on "Maharshi effect" wherein they demonstrated a sudden downward shift in the trend of increasing crime rate when about 1% of the city population had begun the TM technique. A comparison of 11 US cities with population over 25, 000 with 0.97% or more of their population practising TM with 11 matched control cities showed that the mean change in crime rate from 1972-1973 among the control cities had increased by 8.3% as compared to a decrease of 8.2% in cities with 1% meditators, the difference being statistically significant. YOGA FOR SPIRITUAL HEALTH Texts on Yoga and Upanishads describe the criteria of spiritual health as self awareness of one's natural state of contentment. The joy or happiness is independent of any external agency. Such a person's activities are not motivated by the need for material gains of money, name or fame and they function in the society totally in tune with cosmic order charecterised by simplicity, truthfulness and confidence. This is a state of eternal bliss and contentment, undisturbed by the ups and downs of the life. The nearest measure of such a state described by the modern psychologists could be that of "self actualization". Many studies were conducted on transcendental meditators to show improved scores on self actualization values, spontaneity, self regard, self acceptance, synergy, acceptance of aggression, capacity for intimate contact in meditation as compared to non meditators (Hielle 1974, Davis et al. 1984 and Nidich et al. 1973). This was measured by Shostrom's personal orientation inventory of self actualization. Triguna questionnaire which is based on Satva, Rajas, and Tamas type of personality described in Bhagavad Gita and other Indian texts may prove to be a good tool for measuring the spiritual growth of the individual. Studies on higher states of consciousness (Orme Johnson 1976), new theories in physics defining consciousness as the base of all being (Goswami 1993), research in ESP, telepathy, rebirth and Psychoneuroimmunology are all opening up newer avenues of understanding

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Asthma 19(1):3-10. 95. Vyavahare SV (1991). Yoga for jail inmates; Paper presented at International Conference on Frontiers in Yoga Research and Applications organised by VKYRF, Bangalore. 96. Wallace RK (1970). Physiological effects of Transcendental Meditation; Science 167:1751-1754. 97. Wennberg SR, Schneider RH, Walton KG, Maclean CR, Levitsky DK, Mandarine JV, Waziri R and Wallace RK (1997) Anger expression correlates with platelet aggregation. Behavior Medicine 22 (4):174-7. 98. Wilson AF, Honsberger R, Chiu JT and Novey HS (1975) Transcendental meditation and asthma: Respiration 32(1):78-80. 99. Wycherley RJ and Nicklin BH (1970) The heart rate of blind and sighted pedestrians on a town route, Egronomics, 13(2): 181-192. * Dr Nagarathna R, Chief Medical Consultant. * Dr Nagendra H R, Director, VK YOGAS, Bangalore. * Dr Telles S, Asst. Director for Research , VK YOGAS. 3.2 INVITED TALKS SPIRITUAL DIMENSION OF HEALTH Dr D B Bisht Director, Medical Education Research, Indraprastha Apollo Hospital, New Delhi, India. ABSTRACT It is good that humanity has rejected the narrow view of health, as merely the absence of ill-health or disease just as Life is not merely the absence of death. Life, in fact is much larger than death. Rightly, it has been said that health is not everything, but everything without health is nothing. This state has been mentioned as 'Cit-Ananda'by ancient Indians. Health was defined as 'A state of complete physical, mental and social-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity'. Health, therefore, should be considered as the key for the achievement of the goal of life and not merely a tool to satisfy the desires of man. No matter which way we look at health, all the great religious philoosphies identify the final goal of life either as attainment of emancipation, liberation from the cycle of life and death. Nirvana, salvation of Final Beatitude or something similar. All, one way or the other mean something similar. This state is described wherein all desires, egos, pain and pleasure cease to exist and where one's soul is engulfed in a supreme bliss of the highest pleasure. This state has been mentioned as 'cit ananda' by ancient Indians. This was, thus, a state of extreme well-being. The ancient dawns of human knowledge have left with us their witness to this constant aspiration:

"Today we see a humanity satiated but not satisfied by victorious analysis of the externalities of nature, preparing to return to its primeval longing. The earliest formula of wisdom promises to be its last God, Light, Freedom, Immortality". Health, therefore, should be considered as the key for the achievement of the goal of life and not merely a tool to satisfy the carnal desires of man. Seventh of April of 1948 was a red-letter day for the humanity, because on that day, the Constitution of the World Health Organization came into force and a momentum was given to human history, to go ahead with a universal joint movement for the achievement of health of the mankind. Health was defined as "a state of complete physical, mental and social-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity". It is significant to note that the definition of health confined to only three dimensions of physical, mental and social. Spiritual health was conspicuous by its not being mentioned at that time. CONSIDERATION OF SPIRITUAL HEALTH BY WHO This proposition took the form of a resolution on the spiritual dimension of health at the Thirtysixth World Health Assembly in 1983. There could indeed be a spiritual dimension of man, but could there be a spiritual dimension in health care programme? The matter of defining the spiritual dimension of health was referred again to the Executive Board. Based on further deliberations in the Executive Board, the Thirty-seventh World Health Assembly adopted a resolution to the effect that spiritual dimension should be added to the scope of health. It may be recalled that at the World Health Assembly in 1974, Member States of the World Health Organization adopted a resolution emphasizing the need to explore the role of psychosocial factors affecting health and human development. It was decided to initiate programs concerning the role of psychosocial factors and their influence on health in general, and mental health in particular, and on the part that these factors play in the functioning of health services (WHA 27.53). Two years later, in 1976, the World Health Assembly resolved to apply existing knowledge in the psychosocial field to improve health care, particularly for those most in need; to develop methods so that relevant psychosocial information is made available to health planners; and to acquire new knowledge on which health action can be based (WHA 29.21).

The milestone towards a new definition of health was created in 1978, when, on the initiative of the Indian representative in the Executive Board of WHO, it was proposed that the definition of health be enlarged to cover spiritual well-being, in addition to the physical, mental and social well-being. Finally, at the Thirty-sixth World Health Assembly, held in Geneva in 1983, a number of countries proposed a resolution concerning the spiritual dimension of health in Committee 'A' of the Assembly, which ran as follows : "The Thirty-sixth World Health Assembly, pursuant to the objective of WHO spelt out its Constitution, namely the attainment by all peoples of the highest possible level of health; Considering that a spiritual dimension is implicit in such a concept of health; Recognizing the major importance of the spiritual dimension in providing the best possible health care to the peoples: 1. Affirms the importance of spiritual dimension in providing health care to peoples; 2. Requests the Director-General to take the spiritual dimension into consideration in the preparation and development of primary health care programs aimed at the attainment of the goal of health for all, by the year 2000." Whether there could be a spiritual dimension in health care programme, he was not sure. Based on further deliberations in the Executive Board, the Thirty-seventh World Health Assembly adopted a resolution (WHA 37.13) to the effect that spiritual dimension should be added to the scope of health. The resolution contains an affirmation that ennobling ideas have not only stimulated worldwide action for health, but have also given to health an added spiritual dimension. THE THIRTY-SEVENTH WORLD HEALTH ASSEMBLY Having considered the Director-General's report on the spiritual dimension in the Global Strategy for Health for All by the year 2000 and the recommendation of the Executive Board, thereon contained in resolution EB73.R3; Understanding the spiritual dimension to imply a phenomenon that is not material in nature but belongs to the realm of ideas, beliefs, values and ethics that have arisen in the minds and conscience of human beings, particularly ennobling ideas; 1. Thanks to the Director-General for his report and the Executive Board for its recommendation; 2. Concurs with the reflections contained in the report; 3. Notes that ennobling ideas have given rise to health ideals, which have led to a practical strategy

towards 'health for all', that aims at attaining a goal that has both a material and nonmaterial component; 4. Recognizes that if the material component of the strategy can be provided to people, the nonmaterial or spiritual one is something that has to arise within people and communities in keeping with their social and cultural patterns; 5. Considers that the realization of the health ideals that form the moral basis of the goal of health for all, by the year 2000, will itself contribute to people's feelings of wellbeing. 6. Recognizes that the spiritual dimension plays a great role in motivating people's achievement in all aspects of life; 7. Affirms that ennobling ideas have not only stimulated worldwide action for health but have also given to health, as defined in WHO'S Constitution, an added spiritual dimension; 8. Invites Member States to consider including in their strategies for health for all, a spiritual dimension, as defined in this resolution, in accordance with their social and cultural patterns. In response to the above. Regional Director, SEAR requested the writer to prepare a paper which is annexed (see Annexure). In concluding para, it sums up thus: There has been commendable research work to determine a relation between consciousness and awareness, utilizing the animal model to fit in with the human being. Neither the study of physics nor chemistry, or its interpretation into the life sciences, can explain this phenomenon and that is the reason why it has been said that only man himself can be the real basis of the study of man. This can be achieved only be "self awareness", as Schuhmacher calls it, or "self-realisation", as Sri Aurobindo puts it. For this, it is necessary for man to transcend beyond the physical, mental and social parameters and deal with the qualitative values of life; the 'spiritual aspect, - "Factor X", which convincingly differentiates a human being from an animal. ETYMOLOGY OF THE WORD HEALTH' The word "health" appears to have derived from the Sanskrit word "swasth". This word is made up of two parts, "swa" and "asth". "Swa" means self and "asth" means existence. Thus, when an individual is capable of existing by oneself, without being dependent on any one, he is considered swasth or in health. With the passage of time and as the language spread further west, as "Sindh"

became "Sind", then "Hind" and later "Ind" on account of the phonetic differences in the Middle East where "SA" is often pronounced as "HA" "Swasth" became "Health". In this context, health should also represent a state in which one is fully capable of existing by oneself; and does not have to depend upon other external support. EVOLUTIONARY PHASES OF MANKIND From inert matter to vital, from vital to mental and from mental to still higher planes, are the stages perceived by seers, as stages of evolution. ".t is also recognized that each stage has its own evolutionary force and consciousness. It is important to conceive that as physical is something that responds to physical forces and has in itself a physical consciousness, vital is something that responds to vital or bioforces and has in itself a vital consciousness; mind is therefore that which responds to mental forces and has its own consciousness. Similarly, "spiritual" as a part of cosmic existence will respond to cosmic forces and will have its own cosmic consciousness. It should be appreciated that diverse forces play positive and negative roles in enhancing and maintaining good health or inducing ill health. The spiritual dimension of health, focuses and addresses this aspect of health. SPIRITUAL HEALTH AS A PART OF INTEGRAL HEALTH Holistic approach or integral approach, therefore, assumes great importance. The aim of healthy living cannot be divorced from the general aim of nature in us. To do that would be to place man as a phenomenon apart from nature, leading to an inevitable conflict between him and the forces of nature, both tangible and intangible. If we carefully observe, we shall find that through aeons nature has been toiling to find forms more and more fit to manifest higher and higher levels of energy substance. Finally, in a fully developed man, the body becomes capable of experiencing and expressing forces of knowledge, as thought forms and higher aesthetics. The previous faculties not only undergo a sublimating change but also partly lose their capacity proper to a lower form of body. Animals have a spontaneous capacity to heal the body. In man, this faculty is half lost but then man gains a new capacity - that of modifying, if not fully determining the course of physical processes and ailments. In general, the gist of both these emerging lines of evidence is to show that in man the mental energy and substance can manipulate the physical substance in a way, as to alter, govern and even determine its processes. "A logical conclusion of this evolutionary

hypothesis of our body is that this body is that this body will go on evolving under the pressure of this urge. Under the pressure of evolutionary forces, nature enters into rapid experiments, like the formation and dissolution of links and the emerging of intermediate species. A sick body or a sick mind or a sick soul, cannot exist in isolation. The concept to true and total health will therefore depend upon body and mind and soul harmony and equilibrium of body, mind and soul. UNDERSTANDING 'SPIRIT OR 'SOUL' Before we deliberate in any detail about spiritual health, it is essential that we deal with "spirit" and "spiritual" in larger detail. "Spirit" and "Spiritual" have been described in the dictionaries as follows: Chamber's - Twentieth Century Dictionary describes it as: "Vital principle; the principle of thought; the soul; a disembodies soul, an incorporeal being, ghost" and "Spiritual" as "pertaining to spirit incorporeal ecclesiastical etc." When we talk of body-mind-soul complex, an often asked question is - what is the necessity of bringing in soul when everything can be explained by mind itself such as, morality, ethics etc. Can all the higher qualities and attributes be included into human mind itself? Human brain is considered as the organ of the body, responsible for its mental attributes. The principle of reincarnation, therefore, is inherent in itself and the-almighty God is the regulator of all souls; although each soul is independent to whatever "karma" or action, it wishes to perform. The third view of the interrelationships of body, mind and soul, came up in the form of the theory of "all pervading consciousness", a view propounded and dealt extensively by Sri Aurobindo. In the Aurobindan philosophy, all pervading "consciousness" is the sheet(6) anchor of the understanding of the very existence. For Aristotle, mind was "noys intellect", the only part of the soul to survive death. There is thus a lot in common with what mind has been described and the soul or the spirit. "Spirit" is higher or deeper than "mind". It is the "soul" that governs the mind and its actions are manifested through the medium of our body, which is composed of matter. According to Upnishads which explain Vedas, spirit comes from the higher spirit or as they call the Atman, comes from Paramatman and therefore, it is part and parcel of the highest spirit and yet is not the same. This "spirit" or consciousness" even resides in the matter in unmanisfested form and as life or vital

"consciousness" enters into the matter and gives it life. This forms the base for the mental consciousness, which forms the base for supramental consciousness and it is perceived that in further evolutionary phase, it will form the base for universal, cosmic or highest consciousness to become one with the supreme spirit from which it originated. This has been called the "cycle of soul". Let us consider as to what we understand as the anatomical basis of consciousness. Reptilian brain consisting of life-sustaining activities such as breathing, eating, selfprotection, mating etc. Mammalian brain - one above plus complex emotional behaviour. Human cortex - one and two above plus "reasoning brain". It is almost impossible to say with confidence, as to where mind or spirit resides, but one of the views is that it resides in the cortex of the brain and forms the basis of consciousness. Aurobindo describes various levels of consciousness - what happens to the spirit? The Soul, the Atman, the Psychic self, the innermost awareness? It is perhaps best to reiterate certain basic principles of eschotology as defined by the Vedas and expanded by rishis in Brahmanas and Upanishads, in the post-Vedic era. 1. There is only one single entity, "superconsciousness", known as God by various names. Each name describes a particular aspect or quality. He is responsible for the creationof the universe and the seat of all pervading power, energy and holder of all" souls" and imparts to each soul fruits of its Karma or actions. 2 Each individual man, animal, plant and all living matter contain its own Soul and consciousness. 3. "Matter" "soul" and "God" have neither beginning nor end. 4. "Soul" is independent in the performance of its "karma" or actions and reaps the results of such "Karma". 5. The aim of life every individual is fourfold - the attainment of Dharma, Artha, Kama and Moksha by following the path of rightousness to acquire material wealth, satisfy desires and finally achieve emancipation and get rid of the cycle of birth and death. Spirit is thus the highest level of mind. As per Sri Aurobindo, "matter" has its own consciousness not perceived by us and it becomes the base for vital or life consciousness and in its yet to be manifested state, it will become the base of overmind and supermind and in its highest level during the process of evolution, will become the base for the highest plane of cosmic consciousness, which

we may call Godhead. SPIRITUAL HEALTH - ILL HEALTH So far what we have discussed perhaps raises more questions than what can be conveniently answered. Some of the issues which need be focussed are as follows: 1. Can mind, and therefore, mental health, or ill-health be separated from spiritual health or illhealth? Thus, what are the manifestations of spiritual health? 2. As when mind is affected, leading to signs and symptoms of ill-health, similarly can "spirit" be also affected leading to symptoms and signs? 3. Can preventive measures be undertaken to improve spiritual health; what about the rehabilitation of persons with spiritual ill-health? 4. If mankind or humankind is continuously evolving into a higher and deeper superstate or consciousness, in what way spiritual health or higher levels of consciousness can come to play with the spiritual levels. 5. Can 'spiritual' health be generalised at a community level or should it be only considered at an individual level? 6. Can we consider various human organizations, institutions such as schools, colleges, governments etc. in terms of spiritual health? 7. How can one monitor or measure the level of spiritual health or, for that matter integral health, as discussed earlier. 8. What type of futuristic human being is expected to evolve? Can we individually or collectively participate actively in this drama of human evolution? What type of teaching, training and educational institutions would be developed today, to give an impetus and direction so that the human being evolves into a Divine man and not into a devilish monster, who will destroy himself and his environment altogether? 9. What role international institutions like UNICEF, WHO and UN bodies need to play today for a better tomorrow and the day after to usher an accelerated evolution in the right direction? 10. Let us deal with these issues as an approach rather than as answers. We cannot consider any single dimension of health in isolation. Each aspect of health always influences the other. As a matter of fact, there is no human activity either individual or collective, which does not have some effect upon health. Health percolates through all our activities. If physical health influences mental health and mental health social health and vice versa, spiritual health will similarly be affected. If the collective spiritual health of a society is good, its individual

health will also be better. And thus, the integral model of health achieves great importance. Dr. Kapoor in his deliberations mentioned the following characteristics (symptoms and signs) of a spiritually ill person:(a) He is greedy. He is willing to take from the others what does not belong to him. Not only from fellow men but also from nature. The bigger the implements he possesses, more quickly does he divide and degrade the environment of its vegetation and all animal forms of life. It does not mater to him if the life process itself stopped as long as the crosssectional speck that he is getting his fill. (b) He is violent. In his greed, he is willing to hurt, maim or kill. The bigger the greed, the bigger the violence and tendency to kill becomes bigger than him. It does not matter if it takes his life, as well. Thus, the craze for acquiring more and more lethal weapons of war and destruction. (c) He is afraid to loose what he has. He therefore protects himself so closely that the inputs which help the living system continuously above must be maintained at all costs. Often he becomes alienated, withdrawn and is unable to give or receive love. (d) He always doubts. Does not believe in any one. Has no confidence, either in himself or in others. He is truly isolated in paid and pathos. (e) He has intense desires, is in anger, is intensely 'attached' and when he is so involved, he loses perception of the 'self. What we must realise is that what is true for an individual, is equally applicable to a community, an institution or a state. In the light of the above manifestations of spiritual ill-health, we can identify a number of parameters as indicate of good spiritual health of an individual, institution, community or state. Some of these are as under: (a) No. of crimes (b) No. of violent acts (c) Denudation of nature (d) Pollutions (e) Differential mortality and morbidity in a society (f) Terrorism, battles, war (g) Differential distribution of wealth - prevalence of poverty and sectarian affluence; (h) Animal welfare and biodiversity. These are but negative parameters of spiritual health. We can, on the similar lines, create positive indicators such as: (a) Universal love and care of the sick and aged, in a society (b) Distribution of national wealth (c) Nutrition and Education (d) Shelter and clothing

(e) Coming together in the event of natural disasters (f) Faith and temper conducive to acts of bravery (g) Better quality of life itself, both of an individual and the society (h) Interdependence in the community. Joint action against adversities. It is thus realised that spirituality cannot and should be perceived in isolation. It is an integral part of the total health and it percolates through all types of health. And yet, we can make a conducive environment for a person or a society to achieve the highest levels of spiritual health, such as (a) Environment for learning, teaching and performing and appreciating art and literature, which really enrich our minds and souls. (b) Training of people in Yoga, aesthetics, social interaction and meditations. (c) Beautification of the environment. (d) Avoidance of all types of pollution, land, water, air and not in the least noise pollution. (e) Creation of centres for spiritual retreats. Earlier, we mentioned that what is in the cosmos is also found within an individual. On similar lines, what is true for the health of an individual, is true also for an Institution and any other organization unit of people, such as a State or a country or even the world as a whole. STRATEGIES FOR ENHANCING SPIRITUAL HEALTH In order to achieve the highest level of human health, we have to create new institutions or reorient the existing ones so that they can meet the needs of tomorrow and the day after and be part of that unique human evolutionary process, which will enable the man of today to become the divine human being of tomorrow. UN and its agencies, such as UNICEF and WHO, will have to orient themselves and become more effective in the realization of its aim and goal of ushering in the universal peace, prosperity, good health and education. At man's level, some of the strategies that need to be followed are as under: (a) Awareness that inculcation of spiritual health is the basis of good social, mental and physical health. (b) This has to be inculcated through all educational systems, right from early childhood and therefore parents must be made aware of the need and importance of spiritual health. (c) Biologists, psychologists and sociologists should emphasize that "man" is being evolved. He has aim and goal and its achievement is of primary importance. He has to be prepared to receive the highest consciousness unto him and he must become an active partner in the evolutionary process.

(d) The teaching of meditations, asanas, pranayama and other yoga exercises which are essential for all, throughout the life. (e) Health care should be in the hands of those who are well versed in spiritual dimension of health. (f) Health must be taught as a "dynamic equilibrium" and balance in all its dimensions - spiritual, social, mental and physical. (g) Centres of spiritual (dimension) "Health" should be created, supported, and they should be integrated into general education. These should undertake research and developmental activities conducive to the furtherance of "spiritual health". (h) Work, wisdom and experiences of ancient rishis, seers and mystics should be appropriately recorded and not be confined to only a few individuals but should be adopted for the common good of mankind. (i) India, from time immemorial, has been a country which has given to the universe the highest form of wisdom through its Vedas, Upnishads, Brahmanas, Aurveda etc. India should take up the central role of the development of an international "spiritual grid" for coordinating spiritual activities and information dissemination. One such institution has been started at Pondichery the abode of Sri Aurobindo, one of the greatest philosopher of modern time, where "studying and understanding health in depth in all its dimensions, with a new and total awareness of the human being, so as to build a universal movement towards the realization of integral health by the Human Kind" has been started. This is aptly named after him, and is named as "Sri Aurobindo International Institute for Integral Health and Research". It is the good fortune of the writer to have been associated with the institution from its very inception. LOOKING FORWARD Before we conclude, it is better that we reiterate the story of human evolution and surmise on the future evolution of mankind. According to Indian mythology, there are ten incarnations of Lord Vishnu. This aptly describes the various stages of the human evolutions in a story form, which are highly symbolic. The series starts with matsya (fish) which denotes the life originating in water. The next is kurma (Tortoise). Life tries to enter the 'Land'. Next is varah (Boar) which is symbolic of a new manifestation of vital force gearing the earth and digging into it. The next is Narasimha (man lion) which is symbolic of half

animal half human. The next is Parashuram (the axe man) which denotes the earliest of human being with a stone "axe" for his survival and the use of a tool for his protection; however, still violent in a violent world full of huge animals. The next is Lord Rama who truly reflects a genuine human being full of ethics, morality and capacity to conquer his own emotions. Next is Lord Krishna and his brother Balaram. Their symbols are chakra and a plough which denote dominion of agriculture and the wheel of power with ability to govern and destroy all that is evil. Next is Lord Buddha, who chalks out a way to achieve "Nirvana" on realization of the deeper self, who reiterates that the cycle of birth and death, can come to an end by achieving this Nirvana through enlightened soul. What an excellent concept of things? The last of the incarnations is said to be Kalki, who has yet to manifest; who will put an end to all barbaric elements in man and will lead humanity towards the glorious path of spiritual realization. This tenth incarnation is promised but has not yet been manifested. However, when we look around us and see that man is making endeavors to put an end to barbarism in different forms, and is organising himself in various ways but with similar aims, we can safely assume that our Kalki has already been born in the hearts and souls of mankind and that future will see that man does achieve - his goal and aim for which he has been evolved from the lowest to the highest form of life. We started our theme with quotation from Sri Aurobindo as Man's 7 aspirations. Based on his teaching we can summarize the various evolutionary phases of man as: 1. Physical man 2. The vital man 3. The mental man 4. Psychic man; and finally 5. Spiritual man. Different aspects of the phases have been beautifully described in poetic form by Norman C. Dowscott from Sri Aurobindo Ashram, Pondichery and are reproduced here: PHYSICAL MAN Labour with longing, Labour with might, Labour all daytime, sleep deep in the night, Plough the green valleys and scatter the seed, Climb the Red mountain, feel proud of the deed, Fear not thy longing, ask and demand - The beast of the

fields are thine to command. Call on the elements, Conjure the fire, Master thy nature, conquer desire, Then when thy labours have fashioned a man, fashioned the best, that labouring can, Break all forms that upheld it, the ritual facade, The appearance that man and society made; Break the yoke of your ploughing -earth's prison bars; lift your eyes to the sun and the beckoning stars. MENTAL MAN To know, is to be- unalarmed, unafraid, unashamed To know is to be- fearless in darkness, faithful in doubt and more substinate than desire I would recapture experience through the memory of my mind Capture the form of the Formless, analyse class and kind. I would arrange and assemble feelings and thoughts that abound Into their place - the senses must rise to a higher ground, I would enquire and discover where true energy lies, Discover the truth of the world and why an eagle flies: I would search for the reason of colour, light and sound Whether they truly exist or only in sense are found 1 would seek the meaning in Matter, its elements I would unfold I would search the secrets of Nature to find the Alchemist's gold. I would fashion new ways and new methods and organise. Time and Space. I would believe in a God above when I meet him face to face, I would seek for the truth and the purpose in Matter, Life and Mind, And I would rather challenge creation than remain a mortal blind But lastly, I would truly know myself, the truth of I, the symbol of my birth, This secret sense of immortality that is in me and in this blessed earth. VITAL MAN I live in a world of action and strife the warrior fighting for his life Wars and battles rage in my breast - Untamed is the conflict and the unrest And yet I see a vast beauty around The flight of the birds, the wonder of sound. The green of the grasses, the high blue of the sky, the dawn of the sunset that says, "I am I" the power which runs through the blood in my veins The threat of the thunder, the voice that remains. The thrill of energy out of desire-The knowledge that I am born of the Fire. Deep in my darkness, grim passions arise, Yet will I offer them up to the

skies. I will use my power to climb the sleep way and mount up to that glorious Summit of Day. PSYCHIC MAN My hearts rose up within me, like the dawn of day, And everything around me was a means of say : Fire flowering into flame, sweet, blessed earth, waters sacred name, and Air's Name and Air's new birth - Manifest the bliss that would be born wonderous Sun oh happy smiling morn! SPIRITUAL MAN To be, in its essence, is to be at peace, in silence, at rest in action In love with Life and Nature and God I bow to the rising Dawn, and the new day's beginning with a great joy in the heart! I bow to all these wonders of the earth! My lord is the creator I adore the sun and the moon and the stars and my hearth is aflame! I faint not for His strength is with me and His energy sustains the worlds. I grieve not thought he sufferings of the world I have known - His peace is upon me. I rejoice for the Wisdom of the Lord is with me as I breathe His name. I enter in the secret of my being that the true self may emerge - Oh great unfolding Love! I venture out, in the cosmic worlds. To widen the reaches of my mind - vast is the knowledge Thou wouldst show to me I aspire, above the Powers beyond, that they may here descent into this labouring earth SUPREME IS THY ENERGY 'OH' LORD 1 manifest the truth of Thy Joy! , 1 manifest the knowledge of Thy Bliss! 1 manifest the power of Thy Delight! We conclude here with the ardent hope that this article will be able to stimulate the reader to become an active comrade and a participant in the pursuit of human "True happiness" the Chidananda which is the ultimate goal of both ' Life' and 'Health'. ACKNOWLEDGMENT The writer records with gratitude the kind permission given by the editor to extensively quote for Namah, A journal of Sri Aurobindo International Institute for Integral Health and Research" He sincerely thanks the Regional Director, WHO South-East Asia Region, Dr. Uton Muchtar Rafei and the staff of WHO, specially Dr Mochny of SEARO for their kind support and assistance. REFERENCES 1. The Life Divine - Sri Aurobindo Ashram, Pondichery 2. The Spiritual Dimension of Health -Dr D.B. Bisht

3. NAMAH, Vol. 4, Issue No. 2, pp. 51-52 4. NAMAH, Vol. I, Issue No. 4, pp. 17-19 5. NAMAH, Vol. 5, Issue No. I, pp. 45-53 6. The Light of Truth - Swami Dayanad, pp. 203-226 ANNEXURE BACKGROUND DOCUMENT PREPARED BY DR D.B. BISHT FOR CONSIDERATION BY THE EXECUTIVE BOARD AND WHO CONSEQUENT TO EB.74.R3 It is rightly said that health may not be everything, but everything without health, is nothing. The Constitution of the World Health Organization defines health as a "state of complete physical, mental and social well-being, not merely the absence of disease or infirmity". It is necessary, therefore, for health to be perceived in a more human perspective subjectively involving the qualitative values of life. Ignoring the semantics of the word, it can generally be conceded that there is "something" that makes us human beings, and hence, differentiating us from a pack of wolves. Perhaps only then would it be possible to achieve the near perfect health as a state of complete well being. Health can only be considered as a means to achieve the highest goal of life itself, and to consider health itself as a goal, is quite ambiguous in the evolution of human development. Achievement of "health" on the contrary should be the means to create a group of human beings with all humane qualities. Thus, as life can only manifest out of a material base and the mind out of a life base, so the spiritual can only manifest itself on a mental base or as a thinking of the mind. The question for us is: How are we preparing ourselves to facilitate the emergence of this spiritual man? This factor is of paramount importance. Blaise Pascal had said: "Man wishes to be happy and only exists to be happy and cannot wish not to be happy? Using traditional wisdom, we can arrive at a reassuringly plain answer: Man's happiness is to more 'higher'; to develop his 'highest' faculties. In his analysis of this concept, E.F. Schuhmacher has summarised the four levels of being as: Mineral = m Plant = m +x Animal = m+x+y Man = m+x+y+z Where m = inanimate matter x = life force (unexplained) y = consciousness z = self-awareness x, y and z are invisible; only m is visible.

There has been commendable research work to determine a relation between consciousness and awareness, utilizing the animal model to fit in with the human being. Neither the study of physics nor chemistry, or its interpretation into the life sciences, can explain this phenomenon and that is the reason why it has been said that only man himself can be the real basis of the study of man. This can be achieved only be "self awareness", as Schuhmacher calls it, or "self-realisation", as Sri Aurobindo puts it. For this, it is necessary for man to transcend beyond the physical, mental and social parameters and deal with the qualitative values of life; the 'spiritual aspect,- "Factor X", which convincingly differentiates a human being from an animal. HINDUISM AND QUALITY OF LIFE Dr G N Narayana Reddy Former Director, NIMHANS, Bangalore-560029, India ABSTRACT The edifice of Hindu life is to be truthful and loving to do the right. The foundation for this is knowledge - knowledge of world, knowledge of self and knowledge of God. The goal or the aim is to achieve full perfection of the self or liberation from bondages to merge with the Divine ultimately. The process involves the transformation of wordly life (animal life) to human and then to divine life. There cannot be any shortcut. Just as the physical discipline to maintain healthy body is essential, the moral values forms an indispensable preliminaries to maintain a good quality of life. The first two fundamental stages described by Patanjali in his Astanga yoga are Yama and Niyama. Yama is mostly negative, consists of (a) Non-injury (Ahimsa), the others include truthfulness, sincerity in thought word and deed. "He whose mind is undisturbed in the midst of sorrows and amid pleasures is free from desire; from whom liking and fear and wrath have passed away, is the sage of settled understanding. Who in all things is without affection though visited by this good or that evil and neither hates nor rejoices his intelligence sits firmly founded in wisdom" - says Bhagavadgita. HINDUISM The study to understand the human being in a comprehensive way, including health and well being is as old as history itself. Hinduism, which is really the Sanatana Dharma, has given importance to understand the man as a whole and in relation to cosmos. It is difficult to define Hinduism. It is all

comprehensive, Hinduism is very much individualised, unlike organised or institutionalised religions with dogmas. In addition, religious living in Hinduism is a blend of philosophy (theoretical, intellectual, reasoning) and practical experience. The Indian philosophy is dominated by synthetic tradition which is essential to the spirit and method of Indian philosophy. True religion comprehends all religions; hence the famous Sanskrit saying "God is one but men call him by many names". Hinduism is evolved or derived from individual experiences and from spoken out truths by seers and sages. These experiences are attainable by every individual being. A distinctive feature is that while it remains utterly loyal to the central eternal truths, it admits the need for new dogmas and rituals to suit the changing conditions. The two great epics - Ramayana and Mahabharata form the basis for the practical knowledge of truth and righteousness. The eternal truths are propounded in S Shastras, where as Smiritis deal with the changing patterns. Hinduism is fundamentally a way of life. The personal experience of practicing the eternal truths is not only the central factor, but the single fact that counts for a Hindu. The fundamental, eternal truths of Hinduism are : (1) Immannence of God - i.e. in nature, nothing exists without Him. He runs through all beings, as well as the whole of this universe as a thread in the necklace. This indicates underlying unity in the midst of diversity. (2) Essential divinity of man. Every human being is potentially divine and the natural evolution is to manifest this divinity. (3) Oneness of God: There is only one supreme God who manifests in different forms, names and ways. Though different gods in different forms are worshipped, it is well understood that all are same. (4) The Divinity of Soul: Each individual being is a part (Amsa) of divine and is capable of transforming oneself into the divine being. (5) Unity of existence: There is no being whether moving or unmoving, that can exist without God and nothing happens without His will. This is the basis of Hindu life. (6) Harmony of religions: Hinduism believes that the fundamental truths are eternal and universal in character. Therefore all religions have the same fundamental truths, though approaches differ. So there is no proselytization. TENETS OF HINDUISM a. God is one and exists both with and without form.

b. God manifests in different forms with the underlying unity amidst diversity. c. He is all pervading. Nothing exists without Him and runs through life like a thread in fabric. d. Nothing happens without His will or grace - virtue or vice, e. Man is potentially divine and natural evolution is to manifest this potentiality, f. Man's aim in life is to make oneself divine, g. Each individual is a transmigration of his past life (reincarnation) along with his tendencies (Samskaras); and each has his own Swabhava (nature or personality), h. Spiritual progress made in one life is not lost and the ending of one stage will be the starting point in new life. i. Depending on the Swabhava (personality), one adopts his own field of action (Swadharma) and chooses a spiritual path. j. Diversity of taste and capacity has to be accepted as an ineffaceable fact of nature and has to be provided for. HINDU CONCEPT OF BODY AND MIND According to Isopanisad, man consists of (i) Gross or physical body (ii) Subtle body or Antahkarana (Sukshma Sarlra) consisting of intellect (buddhi), mind (Manas), ego (ahankara) and ten sense organs (five for perception and five for action), (iii) Causal body (Karana Sarira): This is the body of acquired and inherited tendencies, while (ivj The Atman (Soul) is the spectator of these bodies, a conscious existence through and apart from them and without which life does not exist. It is a self luminous source of energy and power for all activities in the world. Therefore one has to rise above the body consciousness by refusing to recognize the body as Atman. A Hindu believes that Atman can be a friend or an enemy. Gita : Let a man lift himself up by his own self; Let him not depress himself; for he himself is his friend and he himself is his enemy. "To him who has conquered himself by himself, his own self is a friend, but to him who has not conquered himself, his own self is hostile like an external enemy". As a result of this understanding, man qualitatively learns to know himself and master himself, and he himself becomes steadfast, searches within himself for his failures and sufferings, develops an attitude of fortitude. Further Atman is the same in all. This is the concept of unity among diversity. Gita states "to see self (Atman) in all and all in the self ". This will enable the individual to perceive

all beings as himself, brings in harmony and balance, leads to sharing of joy and sorrow with all, lack of hatred or jealousy towards anyone. The understanding of eternity of Atman and the transient nature of the body makes the person accept death with grace and subdues the fear of dying. THE SCIENCE OF LIFE The Atman has triple status. These are (a) Lower Self - mutable, temporary and mobile (b) Higher self - immutable, immobile unit of the divine being and (c) Supreme Self- both of the above and even greater than both together. Sri Krishna declares in Gita: "The individual soul is myself, in the creation it is a partial manifestation of Me (mamiva amsah) and it possesses all my powers, it is witness, giver of sanction, upholder, knower, Lord. It descends into the lower nature (self) and thinks itself bound by action, so to enjoy the lower being; it can draw back and know itself as the possible immobile purusha (Higher self) free from all action ". The lower self consists of the physical body and subtle body. The working mind is influenced by (a) three gunas (qualities) - Sattva, Rajas and Tamas; and (b) Six passions namely lust (Kama), anger (Krodha) avarice (Lobha) delusion (Moha) pride (Mada) and envy (Matsarya). The above three gunas are equivalent to wind (Vata), bile (Pitta) and Phlegm (Kapha) of Ayurvedic system of medicine and called as Doshas. Harmony of these three is the basis for good health. The higher self is the source of light, energy, reflection of which is seen in lower self, as Prakriti. All objects in the world are created by various combinations of the basic concrete elements (Pancabhutas) - ether, air, water, fire and earth. Each of these five forms the base of one of the five subtle properties of energy viz. sound, touch, form, taste and smell, which determines the way in which the mind perceives the objects. This forms the objective aspects of the world while the subtle and causal bodies forms the subjective aspects. All life, all works are a transaction between the subjective and objective aspects of human experience. This interrelationship is complex and has to be fully understood, and the quality of life depends very much on the understanding of this fundamental interrelationship. It is only when both subjective and objective conditions are integrated in some way that there can be improved quality of day to day living.

(a) The Gunas may be defined as, Tamas-natures power of nascence, Rajaspower of active seeking, enlightened by desire and impulsion, Sattva-power of illuminated clarity, harmony and joy. The six passions which exist in every individual, but in varying degrees, some are dominating and others are subdued. Sri Krishna declares "It is desire (Kama) it is wrath (Krodha) born of the energy of Rajas, all devouring, all sinful; that, know thou, is the foe here. (b) The enemy of the whole world is desire or lust, from which all the evil comes to living beings. When obstructed by some cause desire is transformed into wrath. The senses, the mind, and reason are said to be the seat of desires. Therefore it is essential to restrain the senses and control the mind. LIBERATION FROM PASSIONS Gita repeatedly stresses the need to be freed from selfish desire, wrath, fera and attraction. For this we have to learn to bear their shocks which can not be done without exposing ourselves to their cause. Three steps or means are advocated to overcome these passions : (a) Titiksa or Stoic Equality - making character its pivot, founds itself upon self-mastery by austere endurance. (b) Udasinata or Philosophic Equality - is the happier, and serener, prefers self-mastery by knowledge, by detachment, by a high intellectual indifference seated above the disturbances to which our nature is prone. (c) Religious or Christian Equality - which is the perpetual kneeling or a prostrate resignation and submission to the will of God. Knowledge of Gunas and passions enable the individual develop stoic self discipline of endurance with serenity; eliminate selfish desires, slay egoism, not to envy others, to be equanimous, to be content with what obtains without repulsion or attachment and to restrain senses. This also helps to transcend the duality of good and bad, pain and pleasure, sorrow and happiness - they are related to Gunas and not self. VALUES OF LIFE The edifice of Hindu life is to be truthful and loving to do the right. The foundation for this is knowledge - knowledge of world, knowledge of self and knowledge of God. The goal or the aim is to achieve full perfection of the self or liberation from bondages to merge with the Divine ultimately. The process involves the transformation of wordly life (animal life) to human and then to divine life. There cannot be any shortcut. 1. Means and Methods

The means and methods prescribed by Hinduism to achieve the above include the development of physical, mental, intellectual, moral and intutitional aspects of life. Importance of healthy body and healthy mind has been repeatedly stressed in all the paths. The physical body of man is to be treated as a temple with all sacredness and also an important vehicle to carry man from imperfection to perfection. Quality of life cannot be improved unless the body is strong and healthy. Methods prescribed are: (i) Regular yogic exercises : Even the involuntary functions of body such as heart rate, B.P etc. can be voluntarily regulated. The essential aspect is to do regular exercises, asanas (postures) etc. in a fully relaxed manner and importantly to concentrate on what one is doing. Regular breathing exercises are a must. There is a relationship between breathing and actions of mind. A restless mind can be gradually made calm by breathing exercises. The well developed technique of Pranayama one type of breathing exercise - has been shown to be very effective. (ii) Habits: The common habits of taking food, sleeping, cleaning of the body, wearing clean clothes are discussed in Hinduism in detail. Gita "To him whose food and recreation are moderate, whose exertion in action is moderate, whose sleep and waking are moderate, to him accrues yoga which is destructive of pain". One of the common injunction is to avoid all forms of excessive indulgence in his habits and particularly taking alcohol and sex. This regulated, disciplined habits will improve the quality of life. (iii) Food : Great importance is given to the type of food one takes and also to the mood (mental attitude) while taking food. Hinduism stresses the point that food taken has direct effect on the rnind. The same analogy is extended to all sensory inputs, such as sight, hearing, touch and smell. They do influence the qualities of the individual and character is moulded accordingly. 2. Religiousness of Hinduism (i) Consists of daily prayers, rituals (Acharas) and worship of God. (ii) Provides different approaches - worship any form though rituals, devotional songs, namajapa (repetition of name of God or Mantra), or piligrimage, and results are assured accordingly. (iii) Encourages everybody however heinous. These methods provide quantitatively a great solace and comfort, particularly when one is in distress or unwell, induces self confidence, enhances faith and trust in himself and in God. This routine can bring discipline in life.

3. Moral and ethical values (a) Moral Values (i) Just as the physical discipline to maintain healthy body is essential, the moral values forms an indispensable preliminaries to maintain a good quality of life. The first two fundamental stages described by Patanjali in his Astanga yoga are Yama and Niyama. Yama is mostly negative, consists of (a) Non-injury (Ahimsa), (ii) Truthfulness or sincerity of thought and word (Satya), (iii) Honesty or abstention from misappropriating others property (Asteya), (iv) Celibacy (Brahmacharya) (v) Not hoarding of possessions (Aparigraha). (vi) Niyama : It is cultivation of virtues. It consists of (a) purity (Saucha) (b) Contentment (Santosha) (c) Fortitude (Tapas) (d) Study of scriptures or acquisition of real knowledge (Swadhyaya) (e) Devotion to God or dedicating all one's deeds to Him (Ishwara - Pranidhana or surrender). Thus the regulation and control of moral life; a strict purity of both body and mind; Truthfulness in deed, words and thought; abstinence from cruelty, stealth and sensual pleasures in thought as well as in deed, form the basic virtues to be followed by every one. (b) Ethical values Ethics in Hinduism is derived from certain spiritual concepts. It forms the foundation of the spiritual life. Hindu ethics differs from modern scientific ethics which is largely influenced by biology, and whatever is conductive to the continuous survival of a particular individual or species is considered good for it. It also differs from utilitarian ethics which is concerned mainly with the society. Hindu ethics is mainly subjective or personal. The purpose is to eliminate the mental impurities such as greed, egoism, cruelty, ruthlessness. Ethical disciplines are prescribed according to the stage and state of each person. Hinduism has given more importance to personal or subjective ethics than social ethics. The reasons are : (i) If individuals are virtuous social welfare will follow as a matter of fact. (ii) The general moral tone in Hinduism is that every one is expected to do his appropriate duties, which includes rendering help to one's less fortunate fellow beings. The spiritual help is of more enduring value than material help. Spiritual knowledge, by following the subjective or personal ethics can easily bear the physical pain and privations, with calmness and patience (iii) Lastly, the Hindu philosophers believe that the sum total of physical happiness and suffering

remain constant. The chief components of subjective ethics are (a) austerity (b) self-control (iv) renunciation (v) non-attachment (vi) concentration. Austerity helps an individual to curb impulses for inordinate enjoyment of physical comforts and acquisition of intense thinking preceding creative work; making an individual indifferent about his/her personal comforts or discomforts. Self-control means guiding one's senses choose the right objects by discrimination, determination and develop dispassion. The objective ethics is a means to an end. The purpose being to help the members of the society to rid themselves of self centredness. Among the social virtues, hospitality, courtesy, duties to the family and community for social welfare are stressed. The ethical life in Hinduism emphasizes on leading a simple life, not to be greedy, to be charitable, compassionate, gentle, pious, conductive to the welfare of others, provide succor to the distressed, be of service to all and to bear no ill-will towards others. PURUSARTHAS The affirmative attitude of Hinduism towards life has been emphasised by its recognition of four legitimate and basic desires - the first three being Dharma (righteousness) Artha (wealth) Kama (Sense pleasure) are secular in the realm of wordly welfare (Abhudaya) and fourthly Moksha (Liberation from bondage or communion with God which is perfection (Nisreyasa). The fulfillment of Abhyudaya paves the way for Nisreyasa. Though Dharma is the basis, both Artha and Kama are legitimate. The acquisition and possession of wealth are indispensable in the world. Money must be earned and all efforts should follow Dharma. The Kama enjoyment of sense pleasure covers a vast area, including conjugal love, appreciation of art, music, poetry, beauty etc. Life becomes drab and gray unless one cultivates aesthetic sensitivity. But sense pleasures, if not pursued according to Dharma, degenerate into sensuality. Dharma : The key to the individual and social ethics of Hinduism is the conception of dharma. The word signifies the law of inner growth by which a person is supported in his/her present state of evolution and is shown the way to future development. Dharma determines an individuals proper attitude towards the outer world and governs the mental and physical reactions in a given situation. It is the code of honour.

Various lists of the general duties are found in scriptures. Manu Smriti reckons that the following ten injunctions are sufficient to attain the highest perfection. They are (1) contentment (2) forbearance (3) gentleness (4) respect for other's property (5) cleanliness (6) self-control (7) knowledge (8) philosophic wisdom (9) veacity (10) patience. Another list given by Yajnavalkya contain the same except for philosophic wisdom, but includes nonviolence. If these are negative and self-regarding, they generally point to the rights of others as their correlatives. The great emphasis placed on negative virtues only means that self-denial is the very soul of morality. "Their neglect is sure to lead to a lapse" observes Manu, "even if one practices the positive virtues with scrupulous care". Purusarthas underscore the importance of health and wealth to be acquired in a righteous way. It insists to follow one's own duty and not to give up obligatory functions, to keep the motives high. Personal vagaries are checked, personal desires are restrained. The above ten injunctions makes a person to lead a high quality of life. Stages of life : Life, in Hinduism, is regarded as a journey to the shrine of truth. It is divided into four stages. Each stage has its own aspirations, responsibilities, obligations and code of conduct. If these are not fulfilled, the quality of life suffers and may end up as a miserable failure. The first stage is called Brahmacharya and starts after childhood. It is a period of training and study, as a preparation for future life. The individual has to cultivate the mind. He/She is trained not to swerve from truth and Dharma; never to indulge in slothfulness, nor seek luxury, not to neglect personal welfare and their obligations to family and society. The second stage is householder (Grihasta) after marriage. It is a period of training and study, as a preparation for future life. The Hindu ideal emphasises the individual and the social aspects of the institution of marriage. Hinduism recognises the inevitable; irreducible peculiarities between any two individuals; tastes and tempers, ideals and interests. The private or individual interests and inclinations are to be subordinated to a larger common ideal which can bind together the most unlike individuals. Sensual love is to be sublimated into self-forgetful devotion and pure love. He should be ambitious, be a support to the homeless and the destitute and always hospitable. This ideal life of a householder is

one in which artha and kama are harmonised with Dharma. The third stage is retreat from wordly life (Vanaprastha) arises when the responsibilities of home are handed over to their children. The main purpose is to devote full time to the studies of scriptures and meditate on the higher spiritual problems. Silence and solitude are preferred. To be in constant remembrance of God and eliminate all other thoughts. The fourth stage is renunciation (Sanyasa), when an individual renounces the world and embraces the monastic life and turns away from the vanities of the world devoting himself to the cultivation of God consciousness. In a journey through the four stages of life, a Hindu learns progressive, self-control and non-attachment to the transitory world, and inculcate righteousness, responsibilities and accountability. THEORY OF KARMA Each life with all its pains and pleasures is the necessary result of the past lives and becomes in its turn the cause through its own activities for future births 'What you sow, so you reap'. Each one realises that whatever happens it is their own making and no one else is responsible. Every action leads to two results - (a) direct observable result (Phala) of pain or pleasure and (b) establishes a disposition (Samskara), tendency to repeat the same deed. These tendencies are both acquired and hereditary, carried forward from previous births. The direct result cannot be escaped; but the tendencies can be changed or modified. Motive of any action is either selfish or unselfish. Selfish motives may be for wealth, name, fame or power. If work done for the sake of work, even without a motive to go to heaven that becomes unselfish. 'That which is selfish is immoral and that which is unselfish is moral' says Swami Vivekananda. 'To work we have the rights, but not the fruits thereof. Understanding of this theory makes the person responsible and accountable for everything in life. When misfortune befalls no one is blamed. Such individuals are free from bitterness even in misery. It provides better scope to live rightly and do good for their own furtherance. Misfortunes and suffering ennobles them to mould their character. They realise misery is a greater teacher than happiness and accept both pleasant and unpleasant as their own making and try to transcend the dualities of pain and pleasure. FAITH (SRADDHA) The action controlled by Sastras is an outcome of intellectual, ethical, aesthetic and religious

culture. This is the outcome of experience and wisdom. Faith or Sraddha is the acceptance and will to believe and realise this greater rule of Sastra. The religion, the ethical law and cultural idea in which one develops faith, defines one's nature, work and an idea of relative right, or perfection, in proportion to one's sincerity and completeness of faith. This sraddha or faith is the basis for all types of living. Gita says "He obtains wisdom who is full of faith, who is devoted to it, and who has subdued the senses. Having obtained wisdom, he attains the supreme peace". The next verse in the Gita, says the ignorant, the faithless and one of doubting self is ruined. Sri Ramakrishna says "Once a person has faith, he has achieved everything. There is nothing greater than faith". ROLE OF SANKALPA, SRADDHA AND SAMARPANA Sankalpa - is the intelligent will and commitment. Sri Aurobindo defines the yoga of intelligent will as " to act with right intelligence, and therefore, a right will, fixed in the one, aware of the one self in all and acting out of its equal serenity, not running about in different directions under thousand impulses of our superficial self. Gita says there are two types of intelligence in the human being. The first is concentrated, poised, one homogeneous, directed singly towards the truth; unity is its character, concentrated fixity is its very being. In the other there is no single will, no unified intelligence, but only an endless number of ideas in pursuit of the desires. The first is the right will and the second is the wrong will. So man has to work with the right intelligence will and have full commitment to whatever one does. This is Sankalpa. When an individual operates at this level the individual will be deeply involved, with all the responsibility and accountability. One becomes more creative and promising. But this should always be associated with the attitude of surrender and Shraddha, if not it will result in tension or despair. Sraddha (Faith) : The importance of faith in maintaining high quality of life is stressed. Faith will make the individual develop intense interest in life and help to create an order within. Anything done without faith will lead to chaos and failure. But if one has full faith, one works hard with sincerity, and even the difficulties or sorrows that ensue are considered as Prasada (gift) from God. Samarpana (Surrender) : This is giving up the whole self to the Divine, with full devotion and consideration of all our acts. But if the Surrender is not associated with the commitment to work,

they may be restful, but, unless one is highly evolved spiritually when no work needs to be done, one may fall into Tamasic nature. Therefore, to lead a quality life of a high level, one should have the intelligent will (Sankalpa) the attitude of Surrender (Samarpana) and work with all faith (Sraddha). QUALITIES OF A LIBERATED HINDU With the realisation that the will of the supreme inspires in the cosmos and the human soul is only a channel of his power : (a) no personal hopes and hence remains as part of cosmos. (b) does not seize on things as his personal belongings, (c) Covets nothing, (d) Jealous of none and no personal enemies (e) Whatever comes he takes without repulsion or attachment (f) What goes from him he allows to depart from him without repenting or grief or a sense of loss (g) Free from reaction to passion and sin (h) Wrath and hatred become foreign to him (i) Remains in a perfect state of inner joy and peace (j) Depends on nothing in the world (k) Remains beyond dualities (Dvandvatita) of promise and blame, honour and dishonour, sin and virtue - a state of equality and (1) Always acting for the good of others. SUMMARY To sum up the quality of life depends largely on the mind which controls the body. The mind needs to be kept in peace or equipoise at all times by the use of one's intelligence (Buddhi) which is higher than the mind itself. When the impurities of the mind are eliminated by discrimination, dispassion and renunciation the person will be in a state of psychological equipoise (Sthitapragna) with constant intellectual alertness and emotional stability and will be at peace with self and others. LIVE ENERGY RESONANCE THERAPY (LERT) Dr P G Kurup Indian Institute of Research and Application in Indology Sanjivini Holistic Health Farm, P.B. No. 2, Kalrakka Vilai - 629 153, Tamil Nadu. Ph: 04651-60162, Fax : 60923 ABSTRACT Slow paced walking on polished pebbled garden path, cakra exercises, Dhanya puja, Cetana crystal meditation, auric diagnosis, cetana music etc., in the first phase of LER will help the healee's capabilities to appreciate vibrational energy resonance upto the resonance frequency of sunlight. In

the second phase of LER Therapy, the patient is prepared to accept vibrational frequencies upto 10100 times the vibrational frequency of sunlight through various steps like magneto therapy. The Third Phase consists of fusion of the organising field energy and thought field energy of healer and healee. The patient now gets energy resonance of 10m times the vibrational energy of sunlight, which is the cosmic live energy. The cetana energy can be transferred to a glass of distilled water by the healer which then becomes LERT fluid. This fluid can be taken by the patients to effect of their ailments. The subject of my talk today is Random Thoughts on Medicare of the 21st century. The advances in the field of physics especially in the post Einsteinian Era of high energy particle physics and the advances in the field of molecular biology, genetic engineering cloning with recombinant DNA, all point to one thing that the universe is only energy and that whatever matter is there, is only frozen particularized energy. So man, animal, plant ,every thing is only energyfrozen particles of energy. Man is the most evolved of the three as he has evident mind and latent soul but my presumption is that all the three - the physical body, etheric mind and spiritual soul are only energy waves of different vibrational frequencies and resonances. Thus Energy medicine will become the scientific Holistic Medicine from the 21st century onwards. In other words from 21st Century, health will be based on subtle energy principles and interventions involving body-mind-soul trio against the background of the new paradigm shift of Echofeminism, social ecology and deep ecology and spirituality interpreted in the most advanced physical and biological sciences. This Holistic approach will put an end to NYD cases which today constitute more than 15% of all hospital admissions (and curiously these undiagnosed NYD cases also get treatment) and will give humane considerations, spiritual love and care in the management of terminal cases. Mind you, there will be no incurable cases then. They will then scoff at the present day modern medicine man for his emphasis on disease rather than health. The advances in physical and biological sciences have ushered in the Einsteinean Era of energy medicine which is far away forwards from the 1800 AD Newtonian Descartes ping pong atom theory of matter as the ultimate end to which the modern medicine man

clings on with great religious fanatic favour characteristic of the materialistic scientism. I think now I have to take a little digression into a few of the latest advances in physics. Newton the great physicist, by 1800 AD, established the atom theory of matter. The atom is then described as the ultimate indestructable particle and matter is constituted by these atoms which are like pingpong balls joining together in various permutations and combinations to form molecules which join together to form tissues, organs and the organism. So man is what he is, and what be has, in height, weight, wealth, education, socio-economic-political status. This was the basis of development of human civilization in the 19th and 20th century and it is a really marvellous development in every field of human existence - medicine, science, arts, economics, sociology, education and even politics. But science went ahead with farther discoveries and proved that atom is not the final end of matter and that it can also be broken down to its components- neutrons, electrons, positrons and the breaking of atom was associated with release of tremendous energy etc. So a holy integration of body, mind and soul will become the basis of scientific medicare of the 21st century. This is holistic medicine and we have advanced very much in this field through our spiritually oriented Cetana Cikitsa with live vibrational resonance energy. If we study physics side by side with physiology we will find that there is a gradual evolution towards holistic medicine. The 1800 model of Newtonian Descartes Ping-Pong atom theory of matter with all attendant materialistic scientism tells us that every biological phenomenon can be understood on the basis of the sequence equation Function Structure Chemistry. This view is even now held by almost all, in the field of modern medicine. Any dysfunction of an organism is due to structural defects in the organism which is from some chemical or biochemical imbalance. At least a few eminent scientists and medical men have already started thinking of the possibility of some deeper level vibrational energy structure for every organism including man. Scientists have proved the close links between chemical fields and EM fields. Researches into Neurosciences have shown that application of small electric currents between specific brain points produce behavioral changes similar to those seen with some Psychotropic and Psychedelic drugs.

Minute DC currents applied to WBC produce regeneration while larger currents induce degeneration. This phenomenon is used by orthopedicians to enhance fracture healing. Thus EM fields have an effective role in cell metabolism. Then the above equations gets structured to include the added element of EMfields. Function Structure Biochemistry EM Field energy. This is the science behind the Wolfs law of bone healing after/ fractures. Fibres and collagen are both piezoelectric so an electrostatic field is produced with specific orientation and polarity. This electrostatic field with its micro currents causes redistribution of both ions and colloids in the surrounding tissue fluids to affect bones. The second equation also is defective in that it ignores the mental factor. There is a close link between the conscious mind and the universal mind to both structure and function. Mind can control various autonomic body functions like pain. Mind can repair body. Mind can get brain tissue in general and hypothalamiclimbic system in particular synthesize whatever is needed for the body even if it has to involve transmutation process. Certain chemicals influence mental states just as certain Mental states influence chemical states. So now you have to add this mental subtle energy field also to the equation which will read Function Structure Chemistry EM fields Subtle energy fields. This is the equation best suited at the cellular level and at each step you get support from the factor on the right. Any imbalance in any of these will disrupt homeostasis. So there is need for an early warning system some electrical devices to monitor bioelectric system (Now we do not have equipments to measure the subtle energy system) (Volts Dermadron is an electromagnetic equipment that can select remedies to correct the imbalance. Motoyama's AMI machine Squid, Kirlian gun are attempts to measure subtle energy fields.) The addition of subtle energy fields to the above equation makes it read as : Positive space/time entropy domain Physical chemistry EM energy fields subtle energy fields ME energy fields Etheric Chemistry Negative space-time entropy domain Functions positive space-time entropy domain. You see two different levels of chemistry, physical and etheric and two different kinds of energy fields EMR and MER operate in two different space - time entropy domains.

There is a growing interest in Holistic medicine in the West as people clamor for nontoxic treatments. Emphasis on disease rather than on health had split apart allopathic and Ayurveda systems of medicare. Significant bioenergetic principles emerge to develop the Einsteinian medicine and smash the Newtonian medicine. Recent trends in medicine reveal that modern physicians have begun to deal with finer and finer forms of energy vibrations for both diagnosis and treatment. The X-ray, U.S.S, C.T. Scan , M.R.I, the Radiation therapy are all convincing proof of a Continuing Paradigm shift towards recognition of the subtle nature of our mind and body and the need for subtle approach to therapy. You don't kill flies with shotguns nor do you manipulate electrons from an atom with hammers. Modern scientific medicine is comparable to shot guns and hammers when you view it from the subtle energy cure for ailments - many human maladies can't be fixed with our current shot gun drugs and hammersurgery. You have to go up to finer and finer vibrational frequencies in the lighter cosmic reaches of energy where consciousness and physical body fuse together, mind and matter fuse together, where time loses its linearity. Only those healers who have alarmed cosmic level can heal and the energy medicine will become the scientific holistic medicine of the 21st century. In other words 21st century health will be based on the subtle energy Principles and interventions involving mind-body-soul, environment and spirituality. This will be the holistic approach which can provide a new-hope for many a NYD cases, so called incurable illness, and the terminal illness. The doctors at the end of the 21st century will look back with scorn at the doctors of the 20th century for their barbaric, unscientific, brutal, inhuman and their crude ways of diagnosis and treatment. We have to know a little more of the advances in Physics to understand the Tiller-Einstein model of Positive - Negative space/time entropy. It is based on Einstien's theory of relativity equation S = MC2 But this is not the entire expression and is modified by the proportionality constant called Einstein Lorenz transformation which is the relative factor to describe different parameters of measurements of time, length, breadth, mass. All will vary with velocity. Enstiein's theory tells us that the energy contained in a particle is equal to its mass- this is a tremendous amount of energy

and the world had experienced with real agony, this truth in the atom bombs over Hiroshima & Nagasaki. From Einstein equation further studies led to the understanding of the multi diamentional nature of the universe. Einstein suggested that matter and energy are interconvertable - sub atomic matter is only condensed frozen particularized energy. This has lead to Einstein-Lorzen transformation which states that if you accelerate a particle up to the speed of light its kinetic energy increases to KE = 1/2 MV2 where V=Velocity, M= Mass. It was thought that it was physically impossible to accelerate particle beyond the speed of light which Einstein stipulated as the ultimate speed. There is thus exponential relationship between matter and energy at the velocity of the speed of light. It was thought that you cannot accelerate the matter beyond the speed of light as the solutions to problems there after leads to the imaginary number of square root of -1. You don't like imaginary numbers in physics, so better set your maximum velocity limits to the speed of sun light. Then Mathematicians like Charles Muses came up with the concept of Hyper -numbers for the numbers in the category of square root of -1. This has helped to explain subtle energy phenomena of the inter actions of living systems and to explain the electromagnetic, magnetoelectric and quantum theories. This concept will help us to understand Einstein-Lorentz transformation better. POSITIVE - NEGATIVE SPACE / TIME MODEL This model tells you of the energy of a particle relative to its velocity from zero to speed of light and beyond. Dr. Tiller calls the domain within the speed of light as domain of positive space/time entropy and physical space-time Universe where particles, exist only up to the maximum vibrations of the speed of light. The domain beyond the speed of light is the domain of negative space /time entropy or negative space time universe. This concept of Dr. Tiller is confirmed with the discovery of particles known as tachyons which exist only at speeds exceeding speed of sunlight. Tachyons have very special properties. If in positive space/time domain matter is associated with forces of electromagnetic radiation, in the negative space time domain it is associated with magnetism and magneto-electric radiation. The physical atom has particles which are charged as positive, negative or neutral. It conceives that magnetic monopolize particles magnetically charged either north or

south can exist in nature in the tachyon realm and sadly enough we do not have any equipment which can measure it. All superluminal velocities are in the negative space/time entropy domain:and negative space/time particles should have negative mass, and negative space/time matter would have properties of negative entropy. Entropy is tendency for disorder in a system, greater the entropy greater the disorder. Matter in the physical universe is in the positive entropy with greater disorder leading to disintegration . The only exception is living system which can integrate various items of food into complex Proteins, Carbohydrates, fats and their conjugates. So man is in the;domain of negative entropy till he dies when the body moves over to the positive domain, as is seen by the disintegration of body after death. So Cetana is associated with negative entropy character. If Cetana is in the negative entropy domain then all the Auric bodies are also in the negative entropy domain. This is the reason why the first layer of the Auric body - the etheric body, has a cell to cell representation of the physical body and the blue print upon which the physical body is built up. Like wise the Ketheric template of the seventh layer Auric body is the blue print for the etheric body. The negative space-time matter is magnetic in nature. The studies comparing the effects of magnetized water and LERT fluid shows that both have similar effects. This magnetic field is only a part of the broad spectrum of energetic vibfatibnal frequencies in the domain of negative entropy which are different from the conventional magnetic field as is demonstrated with the use of the latest measuring device, the Squid. The healing hand has magnetic activity of 13000 gauss, which has 26000 times more power than earth's magnetic field (0.5 gauss). Now permit me to introduce Energy vibrational resonance therapy which we have named Cetana Therapy through live energy resonance. This LER Therapy we feel will be the struggle to find as the ultimate in self preservation and preservation of every thing on this earth through religion, through spirituality and through a revolutionary Paradigm shift of ecofeminism, social ecology and Deep ecology. If the atom bomb power wins the effects of decimating every thing on this earth will be far more disastrous than what earth had witnessed during the end of Atlantis civilization at the fag end of Treta Yuga. For the latter to win, spirituality should accept the garb of most modern

science, cast aside superstitions, religious, racial and cultural fundamentalism and egoism. When this is translated into the health care field, you have to cast aside a lot of the present medical science which are based on Newtonian - Descartes materialism and go deeper and forwards through Einstein, Miller, Bohr, Bolim and other Nobel prize winners to reach the Vedic Science of India. A peep into the scientific aspect of Indian Spirituality through the spectacles of health and illness during the last quarter of a century at the Sanjivini Holistic Health Farm and Indian Institute of Research and Applications in Indology has brought out what we firmly believe as the ultimate in Medicare System. We have named this as Chetana Chikitsa or Live Energy Resonance Therapy (LERT). The Sanskrit word Cetana has a much wider connotation than Prana, which is confined only to the apparently living beings of this Universe. Cetana is the force which is the subatomic tremendous power pervading the universe and permeating every thing living and nonliving. Meditation and Research into the available literature of Pre-Vedic, Vedic and Post-Vedic times have helped us to formulate in a scientific way the concept of energy medicine and we have incorporated the various steps of realization of this concept in our Cetana Cikitsa which is now attracting the attention of the entire world. In the treatment with every form of therapy, the fundamental and most cardinal part is the proper understanding and cooperation between the healer and the healee. This is especially so in LERT of Cetana Therapy which thus has two main components: (1)The meaning therapy of Intentionality by the patient where by under the guidance of the healer the patient raises his level of appreciation of vibrational resonance frequencies to the upper limit of Positive Entropy Domain (the vibrational frequency of the speed of sunlight) and (2) Other is the Being therapy of Assistance whereby the healer raises his energy appreciation level to the negative entropy domain, beyond the limits of positive entropy domain and transfers healing energy frequencies to the patient to cure his ailments. We have developed a phased programme to achieve this, which I will briefly enumerate here. At Brahma Muhurtam (4 AM) the healer and healee wake up to the sound of conch shell and seeing OM in the light of oil lamp. After morning routine and drinking

Cetana Tea and Herbal health tonic they go through (1) The polished pebbled garden path to Punyavana to receive electromagnetic and green negative ion energy from the garden plants and the trees of punyavana; Then they go to the Cetana and Yoga - Homa halls to do (2) Recharging exercises ( 3 ) Cakral exercises (4) Meditation exercises (5) Kalari Smruthi. Then they take part in (6) Namo therapy, (7) Homa therapy and (8) Dhanya Puja for transfer of cosmic energy by the healer to the healee. (9) This is followed by Cetana Pranayama (10) Cetana meditation and relaxation (11) Then Cetana crystal meditation (12) This is followed by a slow paced walk on the polished pebbled pathway, in the green tunnel to stimulate the reflex Marma points on the sole of the feet and to get the negative ion-energy brought down by the green tunnel of flowering creepers. (13) The next is the stimulation of marma points by medicated herbal powder (Udvarthanam) and epsom bath, jet bath, splash bath , Steam bath and shower bath. (14) This is followed by Satwik vegetarian breakfast of live green Salad, Idli, Satwik Saambar and fruits. (15) After breakfast the patient goes to the Cetana hall and energizes himself in front of the lighted oil lamp. (16) Then his aura is swept clean by the energized hands of the healer who cleans up the Cakras with the help of Camphor. (17) The healer now makes an auric diagnosis of the healee's illness. He probes into childhood trauma, and the relevant past births of the healee. Then he inducts energy into depleted Cakras and drains extra energy from congested Cakras. (18) Thus the healee is given preliminary energy from Cetana Induction, Cetana Music and Color appropriate to his ailment, electrical equipments to transmit 9 volt electricity into the healee to get rid of lurking slow virus particles and parasites , flower energy with appropriate flowers, tuning fork energy, argon energy etc. These steps in the first phase of LERT will help the healee's capability to appreciate vibrational energy resonance up to the resonance frequency of sunlight. This is EMR phase of LERT. (19) Now the patient goes to the second phase of/ LERT. The intention here is to prepare him to accept vibrational frequencies up to 10100 times the vibrational frequency of sunlight. This is done by magneto therapy where 2000 to 4000 G magnetic power is used to induct energy. This will transfer energy of 1010 times the vibrational resonance of sunlight. This is the MER phase of LERT. The third phase of LERT consists in

fusion of the organizing field energy and thought field energy of healer and healee. This is O.T. fusion. (20) Now the healer gives Sakti therapy to the Sakti and Brahma Sarira of the healee. (21) This can transfer energy vibrations 1020 to 10100 times the vibrational frequency of sunlight. (22) The final phase is giving the LERT fluid 5 ml each for each of the affected Cakra and organ of the healee chanting the appropriate mantras. The patient now gets energy resonance of 10100 times the vibrational energy of sunlight, which is the cosmic live energy. The LERT fluid is prepared during Dhanya Puja. Details of Dhanya Puja are given here. This incorporates flower energy, Crystal grid energy, Gem energy, Color energy, Sunlight energy, Pyramid energy, the Ultra Sonic Vibrational energy of mantras and last and most important the thought energy of the energized healer transferred into it from his Ajna Cakra through his Palm Cakras, when he holds the glass of energized distilled water in his both Palms. This supercharged LERT fluid can cure any ailment from common ailments to allergic and auto immune disorders, congenital and hereditary disorders, mental ailments and cancer. Even Aids patients who have not damaged their etheric body by previous therapy can be helped by LERT. The main ritual through which we achieve the LERT is Dhanya Puja. This was a ritual commonly practiced during the Atlantis civilization about 150000 Years back - a civilization completely lost today. Here in the six corners of the Sat-Kona Yantra (the star of David pattern) with in a square, different pattern in Pancaloha are placed to absorb the Cosmic Energy which is augmented with the help of quartz crystals and appropriate flowers and coloured gems. In the centre of Sat-Kona are placed Nirapara made of mature Jackfruit tree, ornamented with brass rings filled with paddy. In the centre on the surface of the paddy is placed in a small Nazhi made of mature bamboo, germinated paddy. In this are placed patterns of Ganesa in Quartz crystal and a quartz crystal lotus containing a small gold Ganesa, Om in Ivory, a crystal gem and small quartz crystal. In the Nirapara in front of the Nazhi are placed a big amethyst crystal with two quartz crystals on either side, on which are placed two Ruby Gems. In front of it are placed the big conglomeration of crystals and a spherical crystal with Navaratna embedded in a gold ring. Near the conglomeration of crystals is the

sacrificial brass vessel (kindi) on which is placed gold plate decorated with the Navaratnas. These at the centre act as the focal point of crystal energy grid. The cosmic energy collected by the patterns at the various comers in the Sat-Kona is augmented and directed to the focal crystals at the centre. There the energy level reaches to the level of 10100 of sunlight frequencies and will energize the person to this energy level who does Cetana Pranayama, Cetana Meditation and Crystal Meditation. This tremendous cosmic energy is transferred through the central quartz lotus crystal in the germinating Paddy Nazhi to the patient's Ajna Cakras chanting the Surya Gayatri Mantra. Om Bhaskaraya vidmahe Om Dyutikaraya dhimahi Om Tannoadityah prachodayah Om Japakusuma Sankasam Om Kasupayam Mahadyutim Om Tamo rim Sarvapapajnam Om Pranatosmi Divakaram This is LERT - The Live Energy Resonance Therapy or the ultimate medicine through Cetana Therapy. This energy can be transferred to a glass of distilled water by the healer who conducts the Dhanya Puja by holding the glass of water in his both palms and chanting the specific Mantra. This then becomes LERT fluid, which can be taken by the patients to effect cure of their ailments. EFFECTS OF YOGA IN THE AIRSICKNESS MANAGEMENT Dr V Chandramohan, Air Cmde A K Sengupta Department of Psychology, Institute of Aerospace Medicine, Ministry of Defence, Vimanapura P.O. Bangalore-560 017 Dr M S Thimmappa, Professor of psychology and registrar, Bangalore University Jnana Bharati, Bangalore-560 056 ABSTRACT Airsickness results in wastage of flying time, effort and cost of training, hence, it is a great concern to authorities responsible for Flying Training Establishments. A number of nonpharmacopeal methods have been developed around the world for the management of airsickness, however, these methods were not quite successful. Author discussed this problem with many experts and visiting Flying Training Establishments and developed a hypothesis that possible yoga, relaxation and behaviour therapy could be effective in airsickness management. Hence, the present study was undertaken. The behaviour therapy, along with certain selected

yogic exercises, is effective in the management of airsickness and this method seems to be one of the most cost-effective and less time consuming method of airsickness management. The method of treatment suggested by this study has been accepted by Indian Air Force for rehabilitating airsickness cases with the aim of relighting them as quickly as possible. CORONARY ARTHEROSCLEROTIC REVERSAL POTENTIAL OF YOGA LIFE STYLE INTERVENTION S C Manchanda MD, R Narang MD, U Sachdeva MD Adhyatma Sadhana Kendra, Chhattarpur, Mehrauli, New Delhi-110 030 ABSTRACT It is not very clear if lifestyle modification has any role in control of symptoms, progression of coronary lesions and prognosis in patients with advanced obstructive coronary artery disease. At the end of 1 year, the yoga groups showed significant improvement in number of anginal episodes. Yoga lifestyle intervention is beneficial in improving the symptoms and excercise capacity, lowering weight and serum lipid levels. It also retards the progression of coronary artheroscleros is in patients with severe coronary disease and reduces revascularisation procedures . A number of studies have documented that a change in lifestyle chiefly consisting of dietary modifications, physical excersises and stress relaxation techniques results in reduction of cardiac events in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). However, there is a paucity of studies to determine whether lifestyle modification can result in regression of the coronary atherosclerotic plaques. Ornish et al observed a regression of coronary aterosclerotic obstruction by strict, lifestyle intervention. However the coronary stenoses were mild (40% and 43% diameter stenosis in treatement and control groups respectively) and the diet prescribed in their study was also very stringent, with only 5 mg of cholestrol allowed per day. It is likely that such strict control of diet may not be practical for most patients. The present study was designed to assess the effects of strict but 'user friendly' intervention using yoga lifestyle methods (with strict control of risk factors) on the angiographic severity of artherosclerotic obstructions in patients with advanced CAD (>70% luminal daimeter stenosis in at least 1 vessel). The effects on symptoms, excercise capacity serum lipids and cardiovascular events were also analysed. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES

The objective of this study was to determine whether user-friendly yogic lifestyle intervention program (including yogic exercises, dietary management, moderate aerobic exercise and stress management) with control of other risk factors can reverse the arthesclerotic obstructions in patients known to have coronary artery disease. MATERIALS AND METHODS Forty-two male patients (mean age 51.0 + 9.5 range 32-72 years) with angiographically proven CAD were included in this prospective, randomised, controlled trial. At baseline detailed clinical assesment, serum lipid profile, treadmill excercise testing using modified Bruce protocol and coronary arteriography were performed. Patients in the control group (n= 21) were managed on conventional medical theraphy (with cintrol of risk factors, AHA step 1 diet, moderate aerobic exertion), while those in the yoga group (n=21) were advised strict lifestyle modifications and yogic excercises as detailed below. The medications for angina were continued. No patient was receiving lipiud-lowering drugs. The patients were followed for 1 year with regular assessments. At the end of 1 year, the patients again underwent detailed clinical assesement, serum lipd profile, treadmill excercise test and repeat coronary arteriography. Coronary arteriography was analysed quantitatively using the caliper method. All arteriograms were analysed by two independent blinded (blind- folded) observers. For coronary angiography the effect on individual lesions was compared in 2 groups. Ethical clearance was obtained from the institutional ethics committee and all patients gave informed consent to take part in the study. THE BASELINE CHARACTERISTICS OF THE PATIENT POPULATION Most patients were in NYHA functional class II (52% patients) or class III (41%). The patients in both groups had eleveated mean total and low density lipoprotein cholestrol. The study was conducted before the results of major in coronary artery disease were published and none of the patients were on lipid lowering therapy. All patients had at least 1 mm ST segment depression during exercise testing. KEY WORDS Kayotsarg = Relaxation exercise to prepare the body and mind for meditation. Pranayama = Breathing exercise Asanas = Yogic postures for stretch relaxation by performing asanas. The muslces are toned up, joints become flexible, body and the mind becomes lighter.

Preksa Meditation = Seeing deeply within. This is the search of the self. The Samskrit equivelant of the term meditation is Dhyana Anuvrat and Anupreksa = Reflextion of the moral values being followed. Stress Management - Relaxation, breathing exercises and preksa meditation Coronary arteriography showed majority (81%) of patients to be having triple vessel disease. YOGA LIFESTYLE INTERVENTION PROGRAM After inclusion in the yoga group, patients, alongwith their spouses, spent 4 days at a yoga residential centre, where they underwent training in various yogic lifestyle techniques. The yogic lifestyle intervention program consisted of yogic life style method and stress management: YOGIC LIFESTYLE METHODS 1. Health rejuvenating exercises: a set of movements for improving the general tone of the body and to improve co-ordination 2. Relaxation exercise : a method of complete relaxation to prepare the body and mind for meditation (= Kayotsarg). 3. Breathing exercises (= Pranayama) 4. Yogic postures for stretch relaxation (= Asanas) 5. Seeing deeply within (= Preksa meditation) 6. Reflection on moral values (= Anuvrat and Anupreksa) STRESS MANAGEMENT -Dietary control -Moderate aerobic exercises. Patients visited the yoga centre every fortnight for monitoring and evaluation. The compliance as reported by the patients themselves and by spouse, was recorded. In addition, the patients were followed every month in cardiac clinic of the hospital for clinical examinations and investigations. DIETARY CONTROL Patients were advised to take a low fat diet (mostly poly or mono unsaturated diet providing 15% of calories), low cholestrol (50% mg/d), high carbohydrate (mostly complex, providing 65% of calories) diet. Patients were also encouraged to have high soluble fibre diets (>50 gm/d) consisting of vegetable and fruits, oat bran, soyabeans, gram and other beans. They were also prescribed 15gm psyllium husk (almost entirely fibre) daily. In addition, the diet advised was rich in antioxidants (carrots for beta-carotene, fruits for vitamin C, nuts like almonds and walnuts for Vitamin E and flavonoids from onions, coloured fruits and vegetables). Illustrative recipes and menus with known nutritional values were provided to avoid monotony. The compliance of patients was assessed in a quantitative manner using a standard questionnaire

and the score could range from 0 to 100. AN EVALUATION OF YOGA AS A THERAPY FOR CERTAIN AILMENTS Dr Latha Nityanand Krishnacharya Yoga Mandiram, # 12, Kandaswamy Street, 1st Floor, R K Mutt Road, Mandavelli, Chennai-600 028 ABSTRACT More and more people today are concerned about their health and well being. Dissatisfied with modern medicine, patients are turning to alternative and complementary therapies. On gathering in formation pertaining to the clinical symptoms and case history and after establishing rapport, the therapy was given. Based on this physio-psychological constitution and reported symptoms, each patient was given individualised Yoga Training once a week for a period of three months. Each course designed consisted of asanas and pranayama which were modified and adapted to suit individual needs. The perennial philosophy of yoga is so broad that it can accomodate within its range, people of all backgrounds, tastes and temperaments. STRESS AND GENES Dr Padmanabhan Professor emiratus, Dept. of Molecular Biology, visiting Professor for Chicago University ABSTRACT The blue print of life is now known through DNA. Basically we believe there are 70,000 proteins that are responsible for life process. The food we take in is oxidized in the body is metabolizing the body. Energy is stored and utilized. Information present in the DNA has to be decoded. It is decoded in the form of proteins. All of us have 99.99 % identical DNA. But why do we look different ? This is because the way genes express is very individualistic, depending on the micro or macro environment. This DNA has information blocks and there are about 3 billion such blocks. They have got to be arranged in a perticular order which is called sequence. This information of how genes are differentially expressed has been uncovered by science and the credit goes to it. What has modern genetics achieved? Where genetic will be found inadequate, of course it is going to be a biased presentation. Very briefly let me explain what genetics have achieved in few decades. We now know the blue print of life basically. It is the DNA. This DNA has information blocks. 3 billion information blocks have to be arranged in a particular order, what we call it a sequence and once the sequence is known we know what information is present in this DNA. It is

basically the life process is encoded in this DNA and this information has to be decoded. How it is decoded ? It is decoded in the form of proteins. The genes has to be 70000 genes + or - 10%, 20% it really doesn't matter. Basically we believe there are 70000 proteins approximately that are responsible for life processes. When we say life process for example - the food we take is oxidized in the body is metabolizing the body, energy is stored and the energy is utilised. All these are enzymatic processes involving proteins for which information is present in the DNA. Every aspect of life the physical exercise we do, the behavioural aspects everything today is codified or at least one believes it is codified in these 70000 genes. That's why I said we basically understand the blue print of life that all the information for all the activities of life including the behavioural characters are encoded in this genes. And what had really happened in two decades is that we are able to manipulate death, birth, (increase in life expectancy) Ex - birth of Dolly, is the sheep born out of a cell of two female sheep. One cell was taken from one sheep and the other cell was put into the X cell of other sheep after removing the nucleus of the cell and full blown sheep was born when of course exactly was identical to the sheep which donated the nucleus. It is an exciting operation because we believe that mammals have lost toty potency unlike plants because they are able to re-programme an adult cell, like a liver cell. This has given rise to the idea of clone in human beings. Theoretically it is possible but technically we do not know as yet. When cloned physically it may be different that is because the behaviour depends on the sum total of information we all have plus how this information we all have plus how this information is modulated and expressed. All of us have 99.99% identical DNA. But why do we look different? Even we do not look alike except for identical twins. This is because the way genes express is very individualistic, depending on the micro environment, macro environment. What do I mean by expression? Again in terms of proteins some proteins are made, some proteins are not made, some proteins are made for sometime and shut off and this pattern of 70000 proteins varies from individual to individual. That's why we are all different. Not because the information content is different the information content is similar, that's the

reason why a primordial cell for example which is formed by the fusion of egg and sperm, how does it differentiate giving the brain, giving the liver, the heart? The information content is same as that of the liver, heart or brain, but there has been a process by which this got differentiated into different lineages as we called it. Because again the pattern of expression of genes is different the lineage that takes you to the brain, the lineage that takes you to liver, the lineage that takes you to heart is different, the pattern of expression is different. But where we get stuck is what is the Que what is the trigger that makes it to express differently. We may say this hormone, that hormone but what is the primary one that really is responsible to cause this differential lineages to takes place. This kind of tremendous progress that has been achieved, we have to give credit to science that this information of how genes are differentially expressed, what is the difference between a normal cell and a cancer cell. We understand a great deal about this and the applications have really become possible to clone the genes by knowing the sequence of gene and once we know about it, it may be possible to find out why some persons are susceptive to infectious disease etc. Genetic disorders there are 5000 disorders where the genes are mutated like sickle cell anemia, thalasemia, dushen muscular dystrophy. And today we know at least 75 genetics disorders exactly. What is the exact molecular defect that has taken place, and this information helps you to diagnose, the diagnosis has undergone a revolution from infectious diseases to genetic disorders. You have today powerful diagnostic procedures, and this concept of Gene therapy has come. Now there is a hope that a normal gene can replace a defective gene, it is called gene therapy. It is at an experimental level. The modern genetics have pushed gene knowledge into mind-boggling levels. Now we know what happens in aging why anybody ages and how you can prevent aging cells called apeptosis. Cells are programmed to die. So there is a tremendous knowledge that is built up. If you look at questions like, the origin of species, origin of universe, origin of life we really see that it is a matter of debate. It is not like today's perception like which gene is mutated, which gene is expressed, which gene is not, but that kind of finality, I cannot talk about the origin of life. What is the present perception of origin of life? There are certain gases - may be nitrogen, oxygen,

hydrogen and carbon and there was an electric ark and then all these condensed and we have primitive molecules amonia, hydrocynic acids. And condensed to form aminoacids, and aminoacids formed proteins and these purine pyremidienes formed nucleic acids and it was enclosed in a membrane and that is the primitive cells. The question is when did the cell start living? All the above can be created like amino acids, proteins, artificial membranes, crystals we can make it form, grow, destroy but it does not have life. What is it that makes the 'LIVING' in these things? If we study the Darwin's theory, he says there were few organisms like this and life was breathed into this. Then comes the question of what is it that life was breathed into this? I am not very sure if science will ever be able to catch up this kind of questions. Like when does actually the process of living start.? Can it be defined in terms of molecular biology, biochemistry, in terms of physics? The same problem you have for the origin of species as Darwin's is the sequential evolution we call it. There are also alternative theories of evolution. There are people who believe Darwin is not right. There are arguments that this primordial pond, where all these gene assembly took place and may be it is not just few cells, may be it is complex cells which were already existing in it. Even the genetic mutations and evolution is not adequate to give the answer to the origin of species. It is only an argument. A frog can give birth to a frog so on so forth. Suffice to say but some of the theories are not absolute. Even the origin of universe one talks of big bang credibility, there are also people who do not believe that. The question is before big bang what was it, how things existed who is responsible for that kind of things? So whether you take origin of species, origin of life or origin of universe, science can go up to a point and end up with a situation where you are not able to explain the situation and this is not undermining science, science has a place in evolution. So you feel that somewhere somebody or even you can call it nature, are regulating the things, somebody has programmed this DNA and he must be a super scientist that may be GOD. REJUVENATING THE AGED WITH SELF PROGRAM Dr Shaila Shibad MD Bhavani Hospital, No. 4, Anand Mayee, Anand Niketan Society, Karvenagar, Pane - 411 052. 365016. e-mail: suups @ ABSTRACT

It is now accepted that the life style change suggested by Dean Ornish Programme for Reversing Heart Disease (DORH), although may not reverse heart disease in every individual case, it can halt the progress of the disease. Yoga techniques which provide better self awareness and relaxation may offer additional benefits when incorporated into DORH. To study whether addition of a SELF Program of yoga to DORH Programme could give any additional benefit in patients with heart disease. 3.3 ORAL PRESENTATIONS YOGA - MEDITATION AND HEALTH Dr K V Ranga Rao, Ph D (Director) Energy and Radiation Research Foundation, 2-2-647/182/4 MEH 173, Sarda Nagar, Street No. 3, Bagh Amberpeth, Hyderabad - 500 013. ABSTRACT Since last four and half years I have been interested in energy radiations and their effects on living beings and found that thought and energy are behind any system of healing through any system of medicine. The major causes of chronic diseases are; exposure to non-ionising radiation (NIR) and Emotions Measurement of energy radiations have revealed many interesting results. The objectives behind the study were: * Role of NIR in causation of chronic illnesses, * To find out techniques to neutralise the negative effects of NIR on human system, To measure total energy level of people, places and objects. Yoga practices of asana and pranayama can only help temporarily unless accompanied by life style modification by Yama and Niyama, cultivation of noble qualities like love, compassion forgiveness and Manava sfva and only this can have long lasting healing power. Yoga has been interpreted in various ways by various people and practiced by different people in different ways. The real meaning of Yoga as per Upanishads and Patanjali is "THE CONTROL OF THOUGHT WAVES IN THE MIND". It means removal of all negative thoughts and emotions, acquire positive thoughts and emotions. By practicing Dharana, Dhyana and Samadhi you will be able to realise divinity and liberation and self realization. So, all the future research on Yoga should be concentrated on methods to remove negative emotions and thoughts and develop methods to teach positive emotions and thoughts. I have so far not come across any scriptural literature on Yoga where healing is supposed to occur by Yoga practices, though a lot of Yoga practitioners use

Yoga for healing. Excellent results can be obtained in healing, the quality of life of the individual, happiness, etc.. All the 20 Upanishads which talk about Yoga and meditation and Patanjali do not talk of Mantras in meditation and healing. Automatically healing, liberation, realisation, happiness, spirituality will come. How many people have become spiritual of the millions of the people meditating and practicing Yoga ? Neither the Upanishads nor Yoga Sutras talk about any healing of any disease due to any Yogic methods. I measured the energy levels of 10 yoga practitioners at three Yoga centers at Visakhapatnam three years back. As the students were practicing prayer, pranayama, and Meditation for 35 to 40 minutes, I measured the initial energy levels of people. When meditation ended the negative energy level slowly increased to +8,000, +9,000 and 12,000. I can interpret all scriptural practices, rituals etc. social, superstitions, Pujas, Yajnas, mantras recitation, scientifically by energy measurements. Of all the food items next to cow's milk product turmeric has highest positive energy level. I can teach people dowsing. The scriptures never talked of any healing benefits from Yoga and Meditation but they only mention spiritual power can be obtained by Yoga and Meditation. PATANJALI ASHTANGAYOGA
1) Yama - Abstention from harming other, falsehood, theft, incontinence and greed. Mental Exercises for removing Negative Qualities and Emotions 2)Niyama - Purity, contentment, mortification, study and devotion to God. 3) Asana Physically 4) Pranayama improves 5) Pratyahara Health 6) Dharana Spiritual Self realisation or liberations, Siddhis etc., 7) Dhyana 8) Samadhi

The 358 research papers on TM/TM Siddhi show slight improvement, or reduction in condition of the diseases like B.P, Diabetes etc., slight increase in performance of physical, physiological, neurological factors. WHAT IS HEALTH ? Good health helps people to achieve their goals and enjoy Life to full. Thought gets converted into energy and heals people. All the therapies cure the disease or the symptoms of the disease but not the cause of any chronic disease.

Since I have some simple methods not only to neutralise the negativity acquired by people but also increase the Vital energy to that of great Saints, I started using these methods of neutralising and energising people to improve their health. Those without emotions got cured. I found out various causes (20) for many chronic disease like Diabetes, B.P., Cancer, AIDS, Asthma etc., all the therapies cure the disease or the symptoms of the disease but not the real causes of the disease. The major cause are: 1. Exposure to non-ionising radiations (NIR) 2. Emotions 3. Disti. Unless the exposure to NIR is neutralized and if possible energized, no chronic disease can be permanently cured. Apparently in the Vedic period people lived happily, and were healthy because of the high positive energy level they used to acquire during Yajfias. Now a days, high energy level is produced during the Yajna (in both the place and people) but as soon as the fire is extinguished, the energy level disappears at the place and from the people. Since Yajfias did not solve my mass energisation problem, I thought Yoga and meditation may help. The second floor of my house is having extremely high positive energy level, probably the highest energy level at any place that I have so far visited and measured. LET ME PRESENT A FEW FACTS 1. 20 Pranic healers sitting in my place for about 21 to 22 hours acquired high positive energy. Their Sahasrara Cakra and other Cakras expanded to 3 feet their AURAs increased 18 to 20 feet and they are still retaining these energy levels after 8 months. 2. One T.M. Siddhi Student who can fly after Siddhi Meditation. In his college he could fly 22 times after 50 minutes of TM/TM Siddhi Meditation and had to rest for 45 minutes to come back to normal. His energy level slowly peaked to 2800 units when started flying. Two hours after the jump, he lost the energy he acquired, during meditation his energy level increased to 10,000 units, he flew 42 times and after 6 minutes of rest he came back to normal, fully fresh and energetic, with his Sahasrara Cakra expanding to 3 feet and his AURA about 15 feet which he is still retaining after 4 months. Then practice noble qualities like Love, Compassion, Forgiveness etc., simply by practicing Manava Seva and noble qualities like Love, Compassion, forgiveness etc., people have acquired some

amount of spirituality and gained some vital energy, without doing any Yoga, Meditation, Pooja etc., I have confirmed this after checking about 20 people who arc absolutely ignorant of any meditation system. Manava Seva and Noble qualities will lead to self realization. Siddhasana, Padmasana are required for prolonged Meditation. Meditation is considered to be stilling the mind. BENEFITS OF MEDITATION During meditation the Energy level increases and if it is retained, a number of benefits occur - Some such changes are: 1. Metabolic Changes 2. Electro Physiological Changes 3. Health 4. Improvement in Motor, Perceptual ability and Athletic Performance 5. Intelligence, Learning and Academic performance improves 6. Development of personality 7. Biochemical and Cardiovascular changes 8. Quality of life and productivity 9. Increased creativity 10. Increased energy and dynamism 11. Freedom from stress 12. Increased resistance to disease 13. A number of other benefits. METHODS TRIED TO NEUTRALIZE PEOPLE 1. Yoga - Meditation 2. Yantras - Sri Cakra and other powerful geometric patterns etc., 3. Mantras - Gayatri, Visnu, Lalita Sahasranamas etc., 4. Yajfias / Homas - I have found only at 5 places out of the 182 there was positive energy which remained even today. 5. Music - Certain type of Music and dance produce lot of positive vibrations. Some type of music produce very strong negative vibrations. In most of the cases the energy produced by music does not remain in people and places. 6. Recitation of - GIta, Ramayana, Mahabharata, Vedas etc., Holy Bible, Holy scriptures Koran and other religious scriptures of any religion. 7. Exposing to very strong positive radiations like the radiations in my house and some temples which are very highly positive. You are all aware of emotions can be a major cause for chronic diseases. You are not aware that non-ionising radiations are the most important primary cause for any chronic disease including Cancer and AIDS. Another important cause you are not aware is Evil Thought, Evil Eye (Disti/Nazar), of others going upto black magic, causing some chronic diseases, I have so far treated 50 people with different chronic diseases, some time unexplained, some times with pains all over the body, without clinical test not showing any diseases, who are effected only by Disti (Evil Thought) All the

medical records show that all clinical tests show nothing is wrong but they suffer for years. By removing Disti all of them got cured whose only cause is Disti in a very short time. SAMADHI Realisation, Liberation or truth is nothing but to realise you are divine (God), Every child is born divine. Their Sahasrara Chakra is open upto 8 years when Upanayanam is performed to boost the lost energy. Every one is divine which we are not told or we can understand. To carry out research to make people continue their divinity is my aim in life. I promised Sankaracharya of Kanchi that I will make every man a saint physically, mentally and spiritually and every house a temple. The methods are very inexpensive, simple and takes very little time, within less than a minute. I can help a great deal if any one wants to conduct research on this aspect. T M SIDDHI By making Samyama concentration, meditation and absorption (Dharana, Dhyana and Samadhi) on the relation between the body and the ether or by acquiring through meditation the lightness of cotton fiber, the Yogi can fly through the air. Through mastering of Samyana, on different aspects, various powers can be obtained. RESEARCH ON YOGA AND MEDITATION Any type of meditation, Yoga Nidra, Silva mind control. Asanas, Pranayama, Kriyas, Bandhas (not mentioned in Yoga texts). Many people get healed due to faith. Placebo effect, Suggestions and Auto suggestion, I have earned out lot of research on faith and miraculous healing. From the study of 358 scientific research papers on TM/TM Siddhi I found that most of the healing was only reduction in problems but not a total cure or permanent cure. Mostly people who regularly practice yoga show better results but not total cure. METABOLIC CHANGES DURING YOGA PRACTICE - A REVIEW M S Chaya, Dr H R Nagendra, Dr G L Khanna Vivekananda Kendra Yoga Research Foundation # 9, Appajappa Agrahara, Chamarajapet, Bangalore - 560 018. ABSTRACT The vital role played by yoga i.e. physical fitness, fitness related to health, skill and performance has assumed tremendous importance in recent times. A review, of research papers on yoga practices, physical exercises and its relation to metabolic changes is conducted at Vivekananda Kendra Yoga Research Foundation, Jigani, Bangalore. The goal of the review was to establish a comprehensive

literature review and provide a rationale for future research concerning metabolic changes during yoga practice. Computer searches were conducted using medline, pubmed, along with library search, and review of published journals and standard textbooks. An elaborate list of energy expenditure pattern of various physical activities is available but little documented for yogic exercises. Reviews are not large and need extensive research coverage. There is lack of replicated studies which will confirm the methods results. Evidences suggest yoga as a mind/ body approach which has very vast application. The vital role played by yoga i.e. physical fitness, fitness related to health, skill and performance has assumed tremendous importance in recent times. The life style changes leading to positive energy balances has been the causative factor for many of the metabolic disorders like hypertension, diabetes malites, cardio vascular diseases and obesity and related problems. Yoga, which is a timetested method, has shown great positive influence on physical, mental, psychological, social and spiritual personalities of a person. With the above in background various research works have been undertaken to measure the changes that takes place during yoga practice. The measurement of metabolic changes is one of them. METABOLISM It is a process by which nutrition material of the food we take is built into (anabolism) and brokendown to give energy (catabolism). The expenditure of energy is measured in terms of K Cal by respiratory quotient (RQ = CO2/O2). MEASUREMENT OF METABOLIC RATE Concern for physical activity levels was shown as early as 1900 by Mr. Hitscok, who observed that physical fitness level in school children was below normal. In 1922, American Physical Education Association came out with a physical fitness index. Thereafter a lot of physical fitness tests and measurements have been developed to assess physical fitness. The modern day procedure includes height/weight ratio, skin fold thickness, chest measurement, body composition table, blood pressure assessment, cable tension meter, ergometer, treadmill, brain function tests, stress tests, Co2 expulsion, O2 uptake etc. RESEARCH REVIEW Some of the major research works have been highlighted here. Though it is not exhaustive it does provide us with a glimpse into the type of research done at various centers on yoga meditation and pranayama etc.

PUBLISHED RESEARCH WORK 1. Toor S (1996) in a study "comparative effect of ten weeks modified strength training on aerobic and anaerobic capacity" conducted concludes that the strength training has improved aerobic and anaerobic capacity significantly. 2. Beta TK, Rajapurkar MV (1990) in their study "somoto type as an indicator to the performance ability ........" concludes that there was significant correlation between the somoto type scores and the mean performance of asanas and endomorphic physique have lower performance in selected asanas. 3. Kalidasan R et al (1998) in their study "influence of training with and without selected yogic practices ......." concludes that the performance of the boys who had training with yogic practices was better in technical skills and performances than those of other groups. 4. Telles S et al (1991) in their study "oxygen consumption during pranayamic type of very slow rate breathing" showed that Kumbhak pranayamic breathing caused a statistically significant increase (52%) in oxygen consumption (and metabolic rate) compared to the prepranayamic baseline period of breathing and the different types of pranayamic breathing may lead to different types of oxygen consumption and metabolic rate 5. Helaine M Alessio and Eileen R Blasi in their research "physical activity - a natural antioxidant booster and its effect on health and life span" concludes that the physical activity appears to enhance antioxidants in proportion to the exercises is due to oxidation stress. 6. Pratap V, Berrettini WH, Smith C (1978) in their study on 'Arterial blood gases in pranayama practice' concluded that Pranayama is a yogic breathing practice which is known experimentally to produce a profound calming effect on the mind. 7. Keller s, Seraganian P (1984) in their study 'Physical fitness level and autonomic reactivity to psychological stress' explored the influence of aerobic fitness level on autonomic reactivity to psychological stress in their studies. 8. Raju PS et al (1986) in their study on 'Effect of yoga on exercise tolerance in normal healthy volunteers' selected 12 normal healthy volunteers. The volunteers were taught only pranayama and later on yogasanas were added. Minute ventilation and oxygen consumption were estimated before and during the test. Post exercise blood lactate was elevated significantly during initial and phase-I but not in phase-II. There was significant reduction of minute ventilation and

oxygen consumption only in males in phase-I and II at the time when the volunteers reached their 80% of the predicted heart rate. Female volunteers were able to go to higher loads of exercise in phase I and II. 9. Blumenthal JA et al (1991) in their study "Long-term effects of exercise on psychological functioning in older men and women" determined the psychological, behavioral, and cognitive changes associated with up to 14 months of aerobic exercise training. Results indicated that subjects experienced a 10-15% improvement in aerobic capacity. 10. Balasubramanian B, Pansare MS (1991) in their study "Effect of yoga on aerobic and anaerobic power of muscles" inferred that aerobic power (VO2 max) and anaerobic power were estimated in medical students before and after 6 weeks of yoga training. A significant increase in aerobic power and a significant decrease in anaerobic power was observed. This may be due to conversion of some of the Fast Twitch(FT) muscle fibres into Slow Twitch fibres (ST) during yoga training. 11. Rai L, Ram K(1993) in their study "Energy expenditure and ventilatory responses during Virasana - a yogic standing posture" studied the energy expenditure and ventilatory responses to yogic standing posture of Virasana on 10 healthy men. The parameter used were minute ventilation, respiratory frequency (RF) tidal volume, oxygen consumption, carbon dioxide eliminaiton, respiratory exchange ratio, heart frequency, oxygen pulse, ventilatory equivalent, multiple of resting (VO2) and metabolic cost. 12. Brea TK, Rajapurkar MV (1993) in their study "body composition, cardiovascular endurance and anaerobic power of yogic practitioner" revealed that a significant improvement in ideal body weight, body density, cardiovascular endurance and anaerobic power was observed as a result of yoga training and did not show significant change in body fat, skeletal diameter and body circumferences. 13. Schell FJ et al (1994) in their study "Physiological and psychological effects of hatayoga exercises in healthy women" measured heart, blood pressure, harmones cartisol, prolactin and growth harmones and certain psychological parameters in a yoga practicing group of young females. There was no difference in the group concerning endocrine parameters and blood pressure. The course of heart rate was significantly different.

14. Rai L, Ram K et al (1994) in their study "energy expenditure and ventilatory responses during siddhasana - a yogic seated posture" observed various cardioventilatory responses and found out that the posture was characterised by greater minute ventilation, larger tidal volume, higher oxygen consumption, greater carbon dioxide elimination, higher heart frequency and greater oxygen pulse. The observation suggests that siddhasana is a mild type of exercise and may have its applications in conditions of low cardiorespiratory reserves especially in individuals in whom heavy exercises are contra indicated. DISCUSSIONS AND CONCLUSION The above establishes the role played by yoga in fitness, fitness in relation to health, skill and performance. Though this study was done in small groups the results are significant and more research need to be done in yogic exercises and its effect on physical, emotional and spiritual dimensions and the therapeutic applications. There is vast scope for research in this field and as the benefits of yoga unravels itself the awareness will increase. Yoga can be taken up for intense research and applied for betterment of day to day life. Yoga is a mind/body approach, which has very vast application. REFERENCES 1. Balasubramanian B, Pansare MS. Effect of yoga on aerobic and anaerobic power of muscles. Indian J Physiol pharmacol 1991 Oct;35(4):281-282. 2. Bera TK, Rajapurkar MV. Somoto type as an indicator to the performance ability of selected yogasanas. National Institute of Sports, Scientific Journal Vol 13, No. 3, July 1990. 3. Bera TK, Rajapurkar MV. Body composition, cardiovascular endurance and anaerobic power of yogic practitioner. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol 1993 Jul; 37(3):225-8. 4. Blumenthal JA et al. Cardiovascular and behavioral effects of aerobic exercise training in healthy older men and women. J Gerontol 1989 Sep;44(5):147-57. 5. Blumenthal JA et al. Long term effects of exercise on psychological functioning in older men and women. J Gerontol 1991 Nov; 46(6):352-61 6. Helaine M Alessio, Eileen R Blaskh. Physical activity as a natural antioxidant booster and its effect on health and life span. Research quarterly for exercise and sports Vol 68 No. 4, 292-302 1997. 7. Kalidasan R. Gosh SK et al . Influence of training with and without selected yogic practices on the

test match skill level among cricketers. Sports Authority of India, Scientific Journal Vol 21(1) 25-28 1998. 8. Keller S, Seraganian P. Physical fitness level and anatomic reacivity to psycho social stress. Journal of psychosom research 1984;28(4):279-87. 9. Margret J Safrit. Introduction to measurement in physical education and exercise science. 1992. Human kinetic publishing USA. 10. Margret J Safrit, Terry M Wood. Measurement concept in physical education and exercise science. Human kinetic group, 1989. USA. 11. Pratap V, Berrettini WH, Smith C . Arterial blood gases in pranayama practice. Percept Mot Skills 1978Feb;46(l) : 171-4 12. Rai L, Ram K et al. Energy expenditure and ventilatory responses during siddhasana- a yogic seated posture. Indian journal Physiol Pharmacol 1994 Jan;38(l):29-33. 13. Raju PS, Kumar KA et al. Effect of yoga on exercise tolerance in normal healthy volunteers. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol 1986 Apr-Jun;30(2):121-32. 14. Rai L Ram K. Energy expenditure and ventilatory responses during Virasana - a yogic standing posture. Indian Journal Physiol Pharmacol 1993 Jan ;37 (1): 45-50. 15. Schell FJ, Alien B. Schonecke OW. Physiological and psychological effects of hatayoga exercise in healthy women. International journal of psychosom. 1994;41(l-4):46-52. 16. Thomas (Jerry R) and Nelson (Jack K). Research methods in physical activity 1990. Human kinetic group USA. 17. Telles S., Desiraju; Oxygen consumption during pranayamic type of very slow rate breathing. Indian journal of medical research 94(B);357-363. 1991. 18. Thorpe (Jo Anne). Methods of research in physical education. 1980Toor DS. Comparative effect of 10 weeks modified strength training on aerobic and anaerobic capacity. Indian journal of sports, science and physical education Vol 8, 19-22, 1996. EFFECT OF SELECTED YOGIC PRACTICES ON MENSTRUAL DISCOMFORTS Rajani Nirmal Research Scholar ABSTRACT Introduction: Stress is known to be an important factor that could be responsible for menstrual problems in teenaged girls. The abonormality could be corrected if yoga can reduce the stress levels. The present study was undertaken to study this effect. Aim: To study the effect of yoga practices on menstrual discomfort in teenaged girls. Methods: The procedure of the selected Asanas. Pranayama and Kriyas was explained with

demonstration to the subjects. The questionnaire was answered by the subjects before and after the training period. Subject: For this study 40 female students who had been facing menstrual discomfort were selected from the Maheshwari Kanya School, Amravati, Maharashtra, India. Their age was from 13 to 17 years. Selection of subjects was done through personal interviews and they were put into two groups according to their menstruation dates. YOGA FOR CONTROL OF DIABETES Namrata V Kadam Nuclear Fuels Group, Bhahha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai-400 085 ABSTRACT Diabetes is a chronic metabolic disorder caused by malfunction of the pancreas. It can cause complications affecting various organs of our body. Obesity, unhealthy diet, sedentary life style and also lack of awareness of our body are resulting in sharp increase in diabetes. An attempt is made to examine the benefits of yoga for control of diabetes in a graded programme of yogabhyas over a duration of 75 days. Chronic diabetics in the age group of 40-50 yrs participated in this programme. Though the aim of the programme was to control diabetes, the asanas were chosen to bring about an over all improvement in health, which in turn helps in controlling diabetes. Significant improvement in self confidence, feeling of relaxation and calmness, efficiency and stamina were observed. In conclusion it could be stated that this programme has been reasonably successful towards the influence of yoga on diabetes. Diabetes is a chronic metabolic disorder caused by malfunction of the pancreas. Diabetes, if not controlled can cause many complications affecting the eyes, kidneys, heart, brain and feet. Obesity, unhealthy diets and sedentary life style are brining about a sharp increase in diabetes prevalence. India is estimated to have the largest number of diabetic patients in the world and the number is growing. Lack of education, unbalanced diet and poor awareness about primary health care are the root causes for many a disease in our country and diabetes is no exception. It is rather surprising that at the end of the 20th century, awareness about diseases is minimal even among the so called literates. In fact, knowing about certain diseases is treated as 'taboo'. Modern world is rediscovering a number of holistic ways of living known to our ancestors for controlling different

diseases and the present day practitioners of modern medicine are recognizing and appreciating the alternate pathways to control, if not completely cure, many diseases. Yoga stands first among these pathways. Yoga itself is an education. It creates an awareness about the body. Yoga leads to physical and mental health. Yoga teaches to attain and maintain a healthy condition of body, mind and spirit. Yoga practices help to solve health problems. Due to innumerable benefits, it is understood that yoga could help to control, if not completely cure, many diseases including diabetes. In view of this, a project work, consisting of a carefully graded programme of yogabhyas was undertaken to help the chronic diabetics in the age group of 40-50 years for a duration of 75 days. Primarily they were taught certain asanas, pranayamas, relaxation techniques, mudra and bandha. The outcome of this project work and the effect of yoga on the participants are descried in this paper. ROLE OF YOGA IN CONTROLLING DIABETES Diet, physical activity and mental tranquility are the cornerstones of diabetic management. No disease requires as much attention to diet (Ahara) as diabetes. Yoga advocates a light satvik vegetarian diet because it believes in the ancient yogic maxim, "as is your food, so is your mind". As such there is no restriction on the type of food for a diabetic. He/she can eat almost any food that other people normally eat provided the food is balanced and within the permissible caloric limits. The daily requirement should be well distributed between the different meals. In the Yoga Plan for Health, Ahara (food), Vicara (thought) and Vihara (recreation) go hand in hand. Yoga, indeed, works wonders with weight, the bugbear of diabetics. It helps overweights to reduce, under-weights to put on and normal weights to maintain their weight, this is not the only benefit. Yoga wards off heart disease and circulatory risks to which diabetics are easy targets by stepping up blood circulation and lowering cholestrol and triglyceride levels. Yoga is the best detressor. It relieves emotional tension and stress which trigger diabetes, and accounts for swings in blood sugar levels. Yoga lowers blood sugar by increasing the number of insulin receptors and increases glucose uptake by the muscles, thus lowering glucose blood levels. YOGA PRACTICES The word "Yoga" derived from the Samskrit verb "Yuj' which means 'to join' or union of Atma and

Parmatma i.e. with the supreme reality. We can also say that it is the union of mind and body. Hata Yoga is a branch of the Yoga which necessarily starts from the body. It is body-mind-spirit path towards samadhi. The full yogic technique of Astanga Yoga helps to develop the body, mind and psychic potencies to achieve a mind-body balance which cushions us against the stresses and strains of modern living. It helps us to become an oasis of calm in the turbulent sea of today's existence. In the current project controlling of diabetes through yoga has been evaluated on diabetic patients who undertook the yoga classes for a duration of two and half months. It consisted of fifty sittings of 45 minutes duration. One of the areas was stress management. There were 10 participants (Smales and 2 females) in the age group of 40 to 50 years. All of them are diabetics, having case history of 2 to 5 years. Before starting the yogic practices, the participants were sent for general medical check up for height, weight, blood pressure, pulse rate (PR), urine, sugar, fasting, blood sugar, post-prandial blood sugar (PPBS), blood cholesterol, haemoglobin etc. This was repeated after completion of the classes (two and a half months) to examine the possible benefits accrued. A carefully graded programme of asanas conditioning or meditative asanas, cultural asanas, simple pranayamas and mudras, was chosen. Each and every asana was demonstrated and participants were helped to learn and practise these asanas. Daily programme used to start with Prarthana and Omkara chanting followed by loosening exercises, various asanas and pranayama. The asanas taught were: 1. Sukhasana, 2. Savasana 3. Vajrasana, 4. Majrasana A and B, 5. Tripada Majrasana, 6. Savasana Marga Suddhi 7. Pavana Muktasana with Asvini Mudra, 8. Sulabha Bhujangasana, 9. Sulabha Dhanurasana, 10.Vakrasana, 11. Sulabha Matsyendrasana, 12. Gomukhasana, 13. Nadi Suddhi Pranayama, 14. Suryanuloma Pranayama, 15.Trikonasana,

16. Sulabha Makarasana, 17. Parvatasana, 18. Bhramari Pranayama, 19. Parivartita Cakrasana, 20. Viparita Karani Mudra, 21. Nishpandabhava, 22. Sarvangasana, 23. Savasana, 24. Uiiayi Pranayama. 25. Jihva Bandha and 26. Simha Mudra. The programme used to end with relaxation by Savasana for a duration of 10 minutes. Participants were advised to practise this programme on Saturdays and Sundays on their own. In addition to this initial course of Yogabhyas, the participants were advised to practise one or more of the following " Yogic Suddhi Kriyas" i.e Yogic cleansing processes once in a month: (l)Vaman Dhauti and (2) Laghu Shankha Prakshalana. Participants were advised to practice Ushappan (drinking 2 glasses of water early in the morning) and a 40 minutes of relaxed walk. At the end of the training, general medical check up to all the participants was done. RESULTS AND OBSERVATIONS The reports indicate that almost all participants have got the benefit. As is seen, the extent of benefit varied from a small fraction to very high success. All the participants felt a sense of well being with relief from symptoms like tiredness, frequent urination, tension, headache, constipation and indigestion. A few of them got a feeling of exhilaration, lightness and suppleness of body. It is found that good diet practices along with the yogabhyas could help in bringing down the blood sugar levels. It could be concluded that this programme has been reasonably successful towards the influence of yoga on controlling the diabetes. MANAGEMENT OF DIABETES MELLITUS (NIDDM) BY NATUROPATHY AND YOGA Dr Prashanth Shetty Medical Officer, Shri Dharmasthala Manjunatheshwara Yoga and Nature Cure Hospital, Dharmasthala - 574 216. 08256- 771 77 ABSTRACT Nowadays alternative medicine is gaining importance in treating human ailments. Naturopathy and Yoga are two very important ancient alternative drugless systems of treatment. Patients were given 1 hour of yogic treatment including yogasanas, pranayama and meditation.

Along with this, nature cure treatments like partial messages to the abdomen, cold hip bath and other eliminative treatments were also given. Yogic exercises and nature cure treatments helped in increasing the homeostasis of sugar in the human body, where as pranayama and meditation helped to reduce the stress. By these means, all patients got significant improvement. Naturopathy treats the diseases of a person by stimulating the human curative power through natural dieting, right way of living and different baths and yoga is found to be very good remedy for stress induced disorders like Diabetes, Bronchial Asthma, Hypertension etc. METHOD Subject were the inpatients from SDM Yoga and Nature Cure Hospital admitted for 3 weeks. Study was explained to the patients. Number of patients was 25, out of which 6 were females of age group 30-60 yrs. On admission all of them were on, hypoglycemic drugs and they were assessed for both subjective and objective parameters like pulse-rate, blood pressure and lab investigations like blood sugar level, urine sugar level, cholesterol, Blood urea were recorded. Patients were subjected to strict diet regime like morning 7.00 am Bitter guard juice (300 ml) 11.30 am 200G boiled vegetables, 2 Chapatis and 1 glass of buttermilk, (300 ml) along with which a spoon of methi powder was added. At 2.30 pm they were given a glass of lemon juice (300 ml). At Night around 7.00 pm the same diet was given. Patients were advised to practise yogic practices for one and a half hours, like yogasanas, pranayama and meditation, in the morning-Patients were asked to take naturopathic treatments mainly partial massage to abdomen, cold hip baths with friction and other eliminative treatments. By observing the vital data and blood sugar level, drugs were slowly tapered and finally stopped. At the time of discharge, the patients' vital data and blood sugar level were once again recorded. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS There is no difference in the average level of blood sugar before and after treatment, that means are equal symbolically (M1=M2). Before treatment implies use of drugs, after treatment implies no drugs,Varuate Xbi ; observed values after treatment (no drugs) Variate Xai ; observed values after treatment ( use of drugs) Difference di- Xai-Xbi = O1-24 25-6 1 35 114 43 82 8

n = 25, 41 24 26 -9 62 60 125 88 115 30 25 15 107 158 1 17 Mean of di = d = 44.730769 Standard deviatic n of di = = 47.059339 Observed ratio T= n -1 d = 25x44.730769/47.059339 = 4.7525921 This follows + distn with n-1 dif Test procedure suggests that reject Ho if T> tx n-1 such that P(T> txn-l)=X By interpolating table value (theoritical) at 1% level of significance is 2.485 Observed value =4.7525921 Table value=2.485 Observed value >table value Hence reject Ho Alternatively accept Hence M2<M1 The average level of blood sugar without drugs is less than the average level of blood sugar with drugs. Hence yogic and naturopathy treatment is more effective in bringing down level of blood sugar in the management of diabetes mellitus. RESULT There was a significant improvement in all the 25 cases, even though the drugs are stopped completely. Blood sugar level was normal. This pilot study clearly shows that yoga and naturopathy treatments and diet definitely show a new life for diabetics. DISCUSSION Natural methods of treatments and yogasanas well help glucose receptors to absorb more and more glucose and abdominal massages and yogasanas, massages specially stimulate the pancreas in to the production of insulin. Pranayama and meditation will help reduce the stress. The diet which contains more fibres will reduce polyphagia by delaying the gastric emptying. Hypoglycemia agents like methi, Naulkol Juice, Bitterguord juice act as hypoglcemic drugs which will reduce the blood sugar by enhancing the consumption. REFERENCES 1. Hydrotherapy by J.H.Kellogg, 2. Clinical Medicine by Davidson 3. Dr.Nagaratna and Nagendra, Yoga for common ailments 4. Singh R.H.Shetiwar, R.M.Udupa K.N. Physiological and therapentic studies on Yoga 5. Art of massage by Ds.J.H.Kellogg. 6. Diet and Diabetes by T.C.Raghuraman 7. Swaran Paricha, R.D.Sharma 8. Clinical medicine by Harrisons, 9. Food for healing by-Medical Physiology by Guyton EFFECT OF IAYT ON STRESS INDUCED AILMENTS Nobuyoshi Murai RESEARCH OF JVYOGA YON AGO CITY JAPAN

No.253/223 4th cross 1st block Jayanagar Bangalore.Ph : 6657353 ABSTRACT Yoga is becoming popular in Japan. Stress and stress related ailments are increasing as life expectancy has increased due to decreased infant mortality. The first major cause of death in Japan is cancer, followed by heart disease. The medical expenses are increasing. In 1995 health insurance expenses were about 2,15,000 yens per person per year (collected as taxes). Yoga and yoga therapy classes are popular in Japan. 80% of particapants are ladies. This work is carried out in partial fulfilment of the nonresidential yoga therapy instructors course in Japan conduted at Yoga Niketan by VK YOGAS. Integrated approach of yoga therapy has beneficial effects. In Japan with very high level of stress at all ages, yoga can be a great boon to prevent problems of stress. This research has been done by Yoga Therapists who received the certificate of YTIC on VK YOGAS in Japan. In 1994, this YTIC was held on in Japan, we invited Yoga teacher who is Sri Dharmaprakash N M from VK YOGAS. 33 people have got certification until now. As you know, Japan is small-island around the sea on East Side Asia. In these days, the highergrowth of the Japanese economy has made remarkable advances. Electronics, Automobile industry etc. are keeping high quality level in the world. But people are suffering from so much stress. As VK YOGAS sound the alarm, stress induced ailments are increasing alarmingly, There is increasing interest in their own health, and how to reduce stress. That is why Ayurveda, Yoga therapy, other alternative therapy also receive much attention. In the first place, I may tell you about the social of Japan. (OHP Sheet No.l) The population of Japan is 120000000. Population composition is 0-14, 15.1%, 15-64 69.3 %, 64 over, 15.6 %. The average life span of Japanese is more than 75 years old Gents, Ladies 83.59%. This reason is to decrease an infant mortality rate, to not always increase long life persons. Family size is 2.79 persons. The family structure is almost parents and two children. Life style (OHP Sheet NO. 2) Smoking rate Gents : 58.8% Ladies : 15.2% Drinking 63,978,000 53.3% Sleeping hours about 7.5-8 hours 10 G 8.18 L 8.06 20 G 7.47 L 7.41 30 G 7.34 L 7.20 40 G 7.36 L 7.04

50 G 7.43 L 7.16 60 G 8.08 L 7.44 70 G 8.57 L 8.46 Working average 7.5 hours (but this data is only total average. Some people are working much more.) Back pain, Shoulder pain, Arthritis is complained by 283.3 persons out of 1000 numbers. And in Hospital 285.4 persons put of 1000 complain of Hypertension, Back pain, shoulder pain. So, the life is stressful. Almost people, businessmen, but also babies, children, aged women feel much stress everywhere at company, school, home etc. They understand the reason that stress more often bring about many diseases, but it is difficult to changing their own life style in the present circumstances. The data shows the ranking of course of death is 34 years old - 54 years old: 1st cancer, more than 54 years old 1st apoplectic ictus, 2nd cancer, and 3rd heart disease. Accordingly, Almost Japanese people die in cancer, apoplectic ictus, or heart disease. And in medical facility, there is much high level of medical technology hospitals. But It may be always crowded, they are to wait for 3 hours then they can get 3 minuets treatment, They are not satisfied and afraid of side effect of medicines, but on the other hand they are depending on medicines also. In 1995, the health insurance of medical expenses is about \ 27,000,000,000,000, (In Japan medical expense should be paid about 70% -80% according to health insurance system by government ) for each person \215000 for one year. This is collected as other tax. Now, in Japan yoga classes are spread widely and slowly. The general yoga classes usually are performed once weekly, each for one and half hour for the most part, we don't have residential facilities like Prashanti kuteeram. About 80% of participants are Ladies and almost of them have problems to shoulder pain, back pain, climacteric disorder, irregularity of menstruation and hypertension etc. Some yoga therapists are taking special yoga class for mentally handicaped people old aged in welfare facilities and nursing home for ages. The acknowledgment of the efficiency of yoga therapy rise step by step. As mentioned earlier, there are much stress induced diseases, gastro intestinal injury, hypertension, back and knee pain and irregularity of menstruation are typical. THE RESEARCH OF HYPERTENSION Then, I introduce the report of result of IAYT for hypertension. Aim : To search for effective of

IAYT for hypertension Method : Nonresidential, weekly once, About 90 minuets, To encourage practice at home every day Duration: 3 months Numbers : Male - 5 persons; Female - 32 persons Ratio of Age in forties 3 persons, In fifties 13 persons, In sixties 16 persons In seventies 5 persons, 27 persons take medicine MAIN TECHNIQUES 1. HAND IN AND OUT BREATHING 2. TRIKONASANA BREATHING 3. HEAD FRONT AND BACK BREATHING 4. SASANKASANA BREATHING 5. BHUJANGASANA BREATHING 6. SALABHASANA BREATHING 7. MAKARASANA 8. PADA SANCALANA WITH BREATHING 9. SHOULDER ROTATION 10. Q.R.T. 11. CHANDRANULOMA VILOMA 12. NADI SUDDHI PRANAYAMA 13. D.R.T + PET + Cyclic Meditation. COUNSELING (Contents & Advice) 1. Explanation of hypertension disease, 2. Differences between Western medicine and Yoga therapy approach 3. Importance of relaxation 4. Putting on a diet, to reduce weight, to take balance nutrition 5. Improving life style-No smoking, No alcohol, No much sugar & salt 6. To take care of own body, (avoid overwork, lack of sleep) Yoga therapist become good adviser for them to consult with trouble of life RESULT After 3 months Reduced blood pressure normal value- 20 persons 54% Reduced blood pressure border value -7 persons 19% . No changing blood pressure -7 persons 19% Increased blood pressure -3 persons 8% Reduced medication- 3 persons 8% Reduced Heart rate- 35 persons 95% Increased Heart rate -2 person 5% Ratio of Heart rate -50-60/min Spersons, 61-70/min 12 persons 71-80/min 12persons, 81-90/min 3 persons CONCRETE CHANGING OF SYMPTOMS B female 62 years old, She is a beginner still doing yoga for 6 months, she lives with husband only. Before 3 years she has been operated on removal of cholecyst, (10 years back also, she has her nose operated on for sinusitis, now her nose is not so bad). From about that time blood pressure has started to increase. She retired as insurance saleswoman

27 years back. Mainly her work is to keep housework only, but suddenly her heart pounds and sometimes her chest feels tight. She is afraid of terror of death; it looks as if she died. She can not stand and not sleep well in spite of tired. She is always thinking about misfortunes and feeling so lonely at home alone. One day she got a panic and visited her friend's house, at that time her friend advised her to do practice yoga. She tends toward neurosis, and an affable person, but she always telling about herself "I am timid." The therapist started treatment weekly once for 2 hours. Special technique for hypertension, asana for neck ankle joints, strength for muscle of back and abdominal muscle, nadhisudhi pranayama, QRT etc. were given to her. In counseling, she has said "I am afraid that it looks as if I may die too because of two persons suicide around me". She was in bad health and felt loneliness, uneasy for the future, and spiritless for facing new things. She kept irregular hour and many often goes out. She seems to be pessimistic and depression. The yoga therapist has given advises to lead a well-regulated life to refrain outing and remove stains of nostril with sesame oil as her nose was stuffed. She has been feeling about death and growing old but she has become cheerful after hearing about concept of yoga. The therapist has added some other advice to avoid over eating in her nose bad condition and to take moderate amount of hot milk in spite of midnight snack or eating between sweet meals, because she has taken cold milk so much after eating. And as she had sweet meals, because she has taken cold milk so much after eating. And as she had a hurried meal, the therapist recommend to chew her food well, to fix her bed time and time to get up. The therapist has told patient should have very regular habits calmly. About medication, She has taken antihyperse-nsitive "zestril (2nc 201)" one tablet every morning and tranquilizer and somnifacient also in case of panic not usually. RECORDS 03-12 BP 153/86 HR 95 RR 19 BHT 22 WT 52 Sometimes she was flustered, as she cannot follow instruction 10-12 BP 144/84 HR 86 RR 17 BHTWT 52 Very often breathing through her mouth as her nose stuffed up. 17-12 BP 144/78 HR 81 RR 14 BHT-WT 53 ,;, She felt out of sorts for less sleep. Showed signs of fatigue. 14-01 BP 147/78 HR 81 RR 14 BHT-WT 53 Stuffed nose. Getting a cold, feel heaviness,

BP is little higher than usual. 18-01 BP 137/89 HR 79 RR 18 BHT-WT 53 After yoga, she feels so good for her nose smoothly. , ; 28-01 BP 141/76 HR 86 RR 10 BHT 40 WT 53 Shoulders are stiff, the hack is hard. After stopping breath, She feel bad because of her head swam. I was telling "Take it easy" 11-02 BP 132/82 HR 83 RR 15 BHT-WT 52 She has forgotten to take medicine but BP is normal value. She recognized " There is no need to take medicine for me." 18-02 BP 137/76 HR 78 RR 12 BHT-WT 51.5 She flung herself into yoga practice with determination. While doing Asana, she keeps with awareness. She said "Asana can be nicely, my nose does not stuff' . 25-02 BP 129/66 HR 82 RR 10 BHT-WT 51.5 , It seems to 'be relaxed. She' got confidence as BP is stabilized without taking medicine. She refused to take medicine from doctor. Doctor gave her permission to stop Medicine. But as she feel a little uneasy, in case of panic she has accepted Tranquilizer and somnifacient only. 04-03 BP 137/81 HR 79 RR 13 BHT 30 WT 50.5 She said "Last night I could not sleep well because of thinking many things". I told her to stop taking a nap with patience, but she was sleeping while DRT. 11-03 BP 138/78 HR 81 RR 9 BHT 45 WT 50 BHT increases. RR less. 18-03 BP 132/76 HR 74 RR 13 BHT 45 WT 50 BP is less. (First time 153 / 86) Mind has steadied. But not perfectly, we will continue to practice in doing very good savaasana, she will sleep more nicely. RESULT Before After BP 153/86 132/76 HR 95 74 RR 19 10 BHT 22 45 WT 52kg 50kg Medication - - - - - - - Stop - Mind is calm. As this case shows, it was a very good chance. The beginner also can recognize that efficacy of yoga therapy and gain confidence for her future or her life, she was taking advantage of that which is in spite of forgetting to take medicine but BP has become normal. She could be convinced by herself, and put into practice. As she has direct experience, she was dealing with her problem positively, so that it was accepted as being beyond doubt what she can get good result.? And we can find out that it is important not only to practice special technique, pranayama but also counseling. According to I.A.Y.T. In this case, patient could recognize most important thing to enrich

her life, what is more, as a result they can make a relationship of mutual trust, it effects make themselves felt. This therapist says "I wish her growth and would be sharing each other's joys or pains which are to train oneself for getting an ideal life habit according to their personality. So that I also owe my growth entirely to the patient. She never mean to force patient as teacher. A good relationship may produce very useful result. It is overriding importance that we try to improve personality of therapist themselves." The other hand, it rack our brain that how to continue special technique at home. If they are quite their class very well, but that takes a back seat to jobs, playing, habits etc. I introduce that a therapist flung oneself into this problem with determination. She is taking yoga class for handicap people and old ages. She wants to continue for them to practice little by little at home, so she made the home work "Yoga Calendar". The first one : A5 sheetto see, and check This is so small that is why it is difficult space also small. Only good body condition people can do. The second one: A4 sheet / for one month One or two persons can do it at home, The third one: A4 sheet / for one week People to do nicely provoked other persons more. As most of them can not check by of themselves, they can do by obtaining the cooperation of other family members. The fourth one: A4 sheet /forone week + Name space To increase doing practice people by writing own name by themselves or stuff. Or family because it produces to become conscious of doing for themselves. She calls out each person as looking and checking their home work calendar. She keeps constant consideration for them , and she had opportunities to talk with them one by one as long as possible before doing practice. And she talked about efficiency of Y oga Therapy. To be done is a small thing, but it is content enough for handicap people and old age people. CONCLUSION As you know old age people or bedridden persons also can perform yoga practice. If they cannot

move their body, they try to move it mentally. As the days go by, patients do find their voice increase, and they can do loud voice gradually. Many thinks of as effort have brought yoga therapy spread widely more and more in Japan. In fact, from now on there are many old aged in Japan. The care of old aged is a serious problem In education also it is important thing what is health and how to talk students about that. In 1995 17-Jan. at Kobe city Japan, we have an extraordinary earthquake, which called Hanshin daisinsai. Most of the sufferers are tormented by severe fear and stress even now. As an oral report some persons who are not able to sleep at night attended yoga class. It takes a long time to go to class from their shelter. As they remembered D.R.T. at yoga class, finally they could have slept every day. After a disaster also Yoga therapy was of practical use, then it relaxed their mind and body. Many Yoga therapists feel big theme to balancing mind and body to start with, and so they feel that how does human being live in our life through activities of Yoga therapy. CLINICAL YOGA TECHNIQUES IN THE MANAGEMENT OF CHRONIC HEMIPLEGIA PATIENTS - A STUDY Dr K V Dilipkumar M D (Ay) Project Officer, Clinical Yoga Research Institute Vidyaratnam, PS Varier Ayurveda College Kottakkal, Eradidode - 676 501, Kerala, India Dr P K Narayana Sarma M D (Ay) Lecturer, Vidyaratnam, P S Varier Ayurveda College, Kottakkal, Kerala, India ABSTRACT Nowadays the rehabilitation of Hemiplegia patients is being done mainly through physio-therapy techniques, such as Bobath N euro-Development Techniques (NDT) and Brunnstroem Rood's technique, and Proprioceptive Neuro-Muscular Facilitation (PNF) concepts. A four week NDT rehabilitation programme has shown significant improvement in stance duration, weight acceptance, push-off of both legs, and stance duration symmetry, although the functional performance of the patients did not improve considerably. At some stage or other, many hemiplegia patients in Kerala approach Ayurvedic system of Medicine for supplementary benefits. Special Keralite Pancakarma Therapy (KPT, Ayurvedic Purification techniques) is popularly believed to be effective in the management of chronic hemiplegia. Expansion of internal awareness has an effect on many inhibitions in hemiplegics. Clinical Yoga may

help to open up some of the motor areas which are kept idle due to lack of stimulation. The improvement in feeding and dressing ability reflects improvement in fine movement capability. As an effort to develop an effective clinical Yoga method in the management of Chronic hemiplegia, a preliminary clinical study was conducted in 8 subjects for 3 Weeks. Selected clinical Yoga techniques like Pranayama, Sukshma Vyayama, Pranic Energisation Techniques were practiced as a group. Data collected using Edinburgh Prognostic Scale and Barthel ADL index before and after the treatment were compared. Analysis of results is encouraging. Remarkable changes are shown in fine movements. A detailed comparative study with proper control is essential, which will be an ample contribution in the rehabilitation of Hemiplegia patients. Nowadays the rehabilitation of Hemiplegia patients is being done mainly through physiotherapy techniques, such as Bobath Neuro Development Techniques (NDT) and the Brunnstroem, Rood, and proprioceptive neuro muscular facilitation (PNF) concepts1. A study conducted during the 4 week NDT rehabilitation programme, showed significant improvement in stance duration, weight acceptance, push-off both legs, and stance duration symmetry. However, the functional performance of the patients did not improve considerably2. At same stage or other, most of the hemiplegia patients in Kerala approach Ayurvedic system of Medicine for supplementary benefits. Special Keralite Panchakarma therapy (Ayurvedic Purification techniques) is popularly believed to be effective in the management of chronic hemiplegia3. However, a proper scientific evaluation is yet to be conducted to prove its efficacy. With available management techniques the prognosis of chronic hemiplegia is not much encouraging. During some Yoga practices, it has been observed that under altered state of consciousness, hemiplegia patients could raise their hands beyond the level upto, which they used to raise normally. This may be due to the removal of inhibitions over the unaffected area of the brain. In acute attack of stroke, generally every person becomes"'completely immobile. Then they gradually recover and start movement to reach maximum level in 3-6 months. In some case this recovery is not complete. This is due to lack of awareness. Understanding of minute levels of damage may help the patient to improve the use of the affected limp (some more). Since yoga being a science to

expand internal awareness a set of clinical yoga techniques (Yoga techniques designed for treatment of diseases) were tried in hemiplegia patients. This study is conducted to test the effectiveness of the clinical yoga techniques to improve the quality of the life of hemiplegia patients. SUBJECTS AND METHODS The study was conducted at Clinical Yoga Research Institute, Kottakkal. A total of 8 male patients were selected and admitted in Vaidyaratnam P.S.Varier Ayurveda College Hospital as inpatients for the study. The patients belonged to an age group from 22 to 64 years. The duration of ailment ranged from 11 months to 84 months, out of them 3 were left side affected and 5 right side affected. The following criteria were confirmed on these patients. (I) Hemiplegia with more than six months duration (II) Patients having the capacity to sit erect (III) Patients who have no severe cognitive and communication impairment. (IV) Patients who are able to control urine and bowel. All the patients were admitted in the same period and clinical yoga training were given for 3 weeks as a group practice. Daily two hours training were given during the treatment period. They underwent Pranayama4, Sukshma Vyayama5, Pranic Energisation Technique6 practices. The therapy was performed by experienced therapist. In pranayama all the three cooling pranayama i.e., Sitkari, Sitali, Sadanta were avoided. 'A'kara, 'U'kara, 'M'kara chanting were introduced at the end. The patient affected with left side were asked to perform suryanuloma pranayama and right side affected person were instructed to practice chandranuloma pranayama. During Sukshma Vyayama practice advice was given to close the eyes and imagine that both the sides are moving simultaneously. After an initiation assistance was given to complete the movement on each of the affected joint. After performing the exercise, instructions were given to observe themselves the minute changes so as to increase the awareness. In Pranic Energisation Technique, slight modifications were made. As the patients were unable to perform Namaskara Mudra, they were asked to press their unaffected palm against the chest. DATA COLLECTION Patients were investigated before and after a 3-week inpatient treatment. Two major scales were used as evaluation criteria i.e., ( I) Edinburgh Prognostic Scale7 (II) Barthel ADL index6 RESULTS

Comparison of data collected before and after the study shows improvement in memory recall, proprioception motor function in both limbs and in expression. (Fig. 1) Results of Barthel index score indicate noticeable changes in activity of Daily Living. (Fig. 2) More changes were achieved in memory recall, proprioception, dressing and feeding. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION The analysis of results showed that the expansion of internal awareness have an effect on many inhibition of hemiplegia. Clinical Yoga helps to open up some of the motor areas which are kept idle due to lack of stimulation. The improvement in the feeding and dressing ability showed an increase in the fine movement capability. Some of the patients were not able to involve properly in the practice due to their inability to understand the instructions properly because of the educational backwardness. Even though the study was conducted in a small group of subjects, some of the observations have proved to be of significance. A detailed study has to be conducted in a big sample. A comparison with physiotherapy techniques and Ayurvedic techniques will be relevant. In a well designed controlled study psychological aspects also can be included. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS We express our sincere thanks to Dr. R. Nagaratna, Chief Yoga Therapy Consultant, Vivekananda Kendra Yogas, Bangalore for her valuable suggestions and inspiration. REFERENCES 1. Dewald JPA. Sensorimotor neurophysiology and the basis of neurofacilitation therapeutic techniques. In: Brandstater ME, Basmajian JV, eds. Stroke Rehabilitation. Baltimore, Md:Williams & Wilkins Co: 1987: 109-182. 2. Stefan A.H; Mathias T. J; Christine M.B; Carl S; Daniela LTA; Karl-HM, Gait out came in Ambulatory Hemiparetic Patients After a 4-week comprehensive Rehabilitation Program and Prognostic Factors. Stroke 1994;25: 1999-2004. 3. Vaidya Ratnam P.S.Variet, Chikitsa Sangraham, Arya Vaidya Sala, Kottakkal Ninth Edition 1980. 4. "Yoga, an instruction Booklet", Vivekananda Kendra Prakasan Trust, Chennai; 1977. 5. Yoga Therapy Practical Manual, Vivekananda Kendra Yoga Research Foundation, Bangalore (Private Circulation). 6. Nagendra HR; Pranic Energisation Technique: Vivekananda Kendra Yoga Prakasan, 1995. 7. Prescott RJjGarraway WM; Akhtar AJ; Predicting functional out come following acute stroke using

a standard clinical examination. Stroke 1982; 13:641-647. 8. Wade DT. Measurement in Neurological Rehabilitation. Oxford, UK, Oxford University Press. 1992. EFFECT OF YOGA IN INTRAUTERINE GROWTH RETARDED PREGNANCY - A STUDY Dr Shamantakamani Narendran 716, 7th Main, J P Nagar, III Phase, Bangalore-560 078, India ABSTRACT IntraUterine Growth Retarded Pregnancy (IUGR) is growth restriction of the baby inside the uterus. With respect to gestational age a new born may be preterm, term or post term. With respect to size and weight, the baby may be normally grown or is less than normal. The low birth weight (LEW) baby, may be due to pre term delivery or due to failure of gorwth. These babies are prone to severe short term and long term complications. Hence it is essential that this condition should be prevented. The result and the conclusion of this study has given enormous encouragement to conduct a bigger study with many more scientific parameters. We now stand on the threshold of another quantum leap in perinatal care. Our ability to diagnose and evaluate maternal and foetal pathology has progressed to the point whether foetal therapy and early treatment of newborn is possible. Stress in teh mother, adversely affects the growth and development of the baby. It also gives rise to various psychosomatic disorders like asthma, migrane, gastric ulcers, hyperthyroidism, back pain, hyperemesis and bleeding. Most harmful complications are, 'Pregnancy induced Hypertension' (PIH) and 'Pregnancy induced Diabetes' (PID) with their associated sequelae like, convulsions, abortion, pre term labour and eclampsia. Foetal growth will be markedly affected leading to IUGR (Intra uterine growth restriction) with all its complications like birth asphyxia, brain haemorrhage, hypoglycemia, hypocalcemia and congenital abnormalities. They also suffer from long term sequelae like cerebral dysfunction, hyperactivity, short attention span, learning and speech difficulties, behaviour and personality problems. It is extremely important to minimize physical, intellectual and emotional injury to both mother and child during the reproductive process. Previously it was thought that IUGR is solely related to mother's poor physical conditions; but now it is clearly established that next to medical risks, high stress in the mother is a very important factor.

Yoga, as a therapeutic modality is now fast advancing as an effective tool in many physical and psychosomatic disorders. Enough proof is available of the beneficial effects of yoga practices on the mind and body. Definition of IUGR: It is growth restriction of the baby inside the uterus. With respect to gestational age a new born may be preterm, term or post term. With respect to size and weight, the baby may be normally grown or is less than normal. The low birth weight (LEW) baby, may be due to pre term delivery or due to failure of growth. COMPLICATIONS OF IUGR Immediate complications * Birth asphyxia * Brain haemorrhage * Hypoglycemia * Hypocalcaemia * Congenital abnormalities Long term Sequelae * Minimal cerebral dysfunction * Hyperactivity * Short attention span * Learning difficulties * Speech defects * Behavioural and personality problems CAUSES OF IUGR Maternal 1. Vascular disease 2. Chronic renal disease 3. Mal nutrition Foetal 1. Foetal infections 2. Chromosomal abnormalities 3. Congenital malformations MATERIALS AND METHHODS Twenty five women with IUGR, diagnosed by clinical tools and ultrasound measurements, were given yoga practices. They continued allopathic treatment as well. Data of twenty five IUGR cases treated with only allopathic treatment were collected retrospectively and taken as control group. They were matched for age of the mother, parity, and gestational age. Complete data was available in eighteen cases of yoga and twenty five cases of control group. Duration of practice: Two hours per week for fourteen to sixteen weeks till delivery. ANETENATAL DIAGNOSTIC TOOLS 1. Ultrasound studies 2. Doppler ultrasound studies 3. Non stress test 4. Contraction stress test

5. Foetal biophysical profile 6. Biochemical/Hormonal studies * Predicts IUGR, PIH, before clinical onset. * Foetal parameters and abnormalities visualised * Blood flow to the utero-placental circulation is visualised HOW YOGA ACTS IN PREGNANCY 1. Enhances placental blood supply 2. Gives better oxygenation to the mother as well as the foetus 3. Improves the immune system 4. Improves muscular performance and efficiency, specially of the pelvic and abdominal muscles. 5. Tilts the autonomic function towards parasympathetic dominance 6. Promotes endocrine changes which improves the ability to cope up with stress 7. Has profound effect on hypertension and diabetes. 8. Increases efficiency of lung functions. 9. Lowers basal metabolic rate. 10. Gives enormous mental relaxation and tranquility. Foetal brain starts functioning much before it completes its growth and development. Hence it is absolutely essential to give the urborn child a calm, serene healthy uterine and external environment. YOGA PRACTICES Intrated basic set of practices were given, cautions and contra indications were explained. The periodic progress is given in the table below: Clinical Data Parameters Age rangeYoga Group Control Group No. of cases 18 25 Average age 23 years 24 years Age range 20-29 years 17-30 yrs Gravida 1 11 15 Gravida 2 3 5 Gravida 3 2 3 Gravida 4 2 2 Bad Obstetric History 1 1 Diabetes 2 2 Hypertension 2 2 Data Analysis Parameters Birth weight Yoga Group Control Group Mean 2535 SD 392.3 Mean 2332 SD

293.3 NO of cases % No of cases % Birth comlications Nil Nil 2 8 Abnormal delivery Breech Caesarian section 1 5.5% 4 16% 3 16.6% 13 52% Normal delivery 14 77.7% 8 32% Psychological scores 16 90% 4 16% Mean duration of pregnancy (in weeks) 39.6 37.9 RESULTS Abnormal deliveries were less in yoga group that is, 1. Cesarian section by 36% 2. Breech delivery by 10.5% 3. Birth complications by 8% Normal deliveries were significantly more in yoga group by 45% 4. Birth weight improved by 203grams. 5. Mean duration of pregnancy improved by 1.4 weeks 6. Psychological scores were significantly positive in yoga group by 74% CONCLUSION It is clear that there is significant improvement in the birth outcome asseen by the, 1. Increase in the weight of the at birth 2. In enhancing the duration of pregnancy till terms 3. Achieving normal delivery, and 4. Preventing ceasarian sections. Most important of all is that they could relax very well physically and mentally. PRANIC HEALING A GLIMPSE INTO BIOFIELD THERAPY J P Vrunda M D All India Pranic Healing Trust, Bangalore, India ABSTRACT Pranic healing is an art and science with a consciously directed process of absorption, modulation transfer of bio-energy from the sorroundings and projection on the desired part of the patient, so as to relieve the patient of the physical and/or psychological disorders. It is a non-touch form of healing. It uses prana, the vital energy to heal oneself and others. The diseased energy is removed from the patient's energy body and transforing it to the effected parts with the use of hands. It is possible for one to heal and/or prevent physical and psychological ailments. Bio-field practitioners have a holistic focus. The word medicine and meditation both come from the same root word, meaning "to take care" Medicine takes care of the human body. Meditation takes

care of the human soul. Pranic healing deals with the human bio-energy field which is the connecting link between the human body and soul. Pranic healing is an art and science with a growing following, a consciously directed process of absorption, modulation & transfer of bio-energy from the surroundings and projection on the desired part of the patient, so as to relieve him/her of the physical and/or psychological disorders. It is a non-touch form of healing which uses vital energy (Prana) to heal one's self and others, near or afar ( Sui 1998). Healing is accomplished by removing diseased energy from the patient's energy body and transferring energy to the affected areas with the use of the hands. By balancing the energy level in the energy body, one can heal prevent physical and psychological ailments. Pranic Healing is an ancient method of treatment which originated in the Orient. Its present form is the result of several years of research conducted by Master Choa Kok Sui (World Pranic Healing Foundation) who perfected the ancient practice and its application to modern day health problems. The earliest Eastern references to Energy Healing are in the ancient Indian scripture, Taittiriya Upanisad and in the Chinese Huang Ti Nei Ching Su Wen between 2,500 and 5,000 years ago. Extensive use of energy healing is evident in many ancient civilizations including Egyptian, Greek, Indian, European and Japanese. Prana is an Indian (Samskrita) word which means vital energy that keeps the body alive and healthy. The human body is known io have two aspects: a visible physical body that we can see and touch and an invisible body which is called the etheric body, the bioplasmic body or the energy body. This energy field is known by different names such as Prana, Chi, Qi, and the Bio- plasmic body in different mytological scriptures. In Japanese, it is known as 'ki' or the breath of life. Pram'c Healing is based on two fundamental principles - the principle of selfrecovery and the principle of life force. The principle of self-recovery means that in general, the body is capable of healing itself and can recover within a few days. The healing process can be accelerated by increasing the life force in the affected parts and on the entire body. The rate of healing is increased substantially when Pranic energy is applied to the affected part of the body. Authors conversant with the use of energy based therapy consider health and disease to be closely

associated to the existence and pattern of a subtle, invisible energy field that surrounds all living organisms. In the human body, this energy is described to have focal centers of origin/control at several anatomic locations, most of which are along the midline and in close approximation to nerve plexi. These are called 'Cakras'. In this century, the scientific liasis of energy therapy is being explored in more and more depth at an increasing pace. Various instruments have been developed to document the existence of the energy field and its different properties. Kirlian used a special technique to photograph the energy field (Kirlian photography). A versatile gas discharge emission visualization (GDV) camera has recently been devised by Dr. Korotkov (St. Petersberg Technical University, Russia 1998). This instrument based on Kirlian effect. It documents and analyzes the bio-energy field from the fingertips after exposure to high frequency, high voltage current. Using the principle of acupuncture meridians, Korotkov et al have developed a method of interpreting the changes in fingertip aura, to determine organ and behavioral function in health and disease. With training, it is possible for a therapist to examine this energy field and alter it so as to achieve balance or the normative pattern, which in turn results in resolution of physical health problems. (Sui, 1983) Empiric use of Pranic Healing has been found to be beneficial in multiple disorders including symptomatic relief of pain, fever and diarrhoea acute and chronic infections; episodic disorders such as asthma and migraine; arthritis; hypertension; wound healing; and emotional problems. Pranic Healing has been used mostly as a complementary therapy to conventional or allopathic therapy. However, sometimes we have used it as the sole therapy, with benefit. 3.4 POSTER PRESENTATIONS EFFECTS OF AGNISARA KRIYA Kiran K S # 99 A, 13th Loop Road, Ideal Homes Town Ship, Rajeshwari Nagar, Bangalore - 560 039. Ph: 8600012 ABSTRACT There are no better means than the yogic system of purification to keep the body clean and healthy. Six types of yoga, purification practices called Satkriyas, help to maintain them in the balanced form. They are Neti, Dhauti Nouli, Basti, Kapalabhati and Trataka. Agnisara Dhauti or fire purification as it

is described in Gheranda Samhita is also called by different names like Vahnisara Antar Dhauti, Uddiyana Kriya etc. Agnisara kriya is said to help in releiving gastric trouble. It also helps in reduction of waistline there by helping obesity people. The claims of Gheranda Samhita are validated by demonstration of significant reduction in waist line. There are no better means than the yogic system of purification to keep the body clean and healthy. Our body has 3 basic properties viz., Vata, Pitta and Kapha. If these three are present in the body in the balanced form, the body remains pure and disease free. Six types of Yogic purification practices called "Satkriyas" help to maintain them in the balanced form. Our present day habit of consuming unnatural food and leading a sedentary life-style is the cause of several body disorders through the accumulation of impurities in the body. To remove these impurities "Satkriyas" are prescribed. They are Neti, Dhauti, Nauli, Basti, Kapalabhati and Trataka. There are different types of Dhauti like Vamana Dhauti, Danda Dhauti, Vastra Dhauti, Agnisare Dhauti etc. Agnisare Dhauti or fire purification as it is described in Gheranda Samhita is also called by different names like Vahnisara Antar Dhauti, Uddiyana Kriya etc. Agnisare Kriya is the basis for practicing Uddiyana Bandha and the king of Kriyas called Nauli Kriya. METHOD Place your hand on your knees and stand on your feet keeping them one foot apart. Bend slightly at the knees and stoop forward. Inhale deeply. While exhaling, pull the stomach back towards the spine. Again, while inhaling, let the stomach come back to its original position. Repeat this process for about 10 times in the beginning and increase gradually. After completing the practice, stand up straight and relax completely. This is done by rubbing the stomach gently with the right hand palm in the clockwise direction (Pradakshina Hasta) and with the left hand palm in the anti clock wise direction (Apradakshina Hasta). In Gheranda Samhita, it is described as fire process . This gives success in the practice of yoga. It cures all the diseases of the stomach. In Hatayoga Pradipika, it is said that cough, asthma, enlargement of the spleen, leprosy and diseases of the stomach are cured by Dhauti Karma. EFFECTS Agnisara Kriya is helpful to persons suffering from gastric trouble. Increased waistline is a common

problem faced by many persons in the society. It leads to obesity, which is the root cause of all diseases. Practicing Agnisara regularly reduces the waistline of the sadhaka and hence prevents obesity. This kriya should be practiced preferably in the mornings on an empty stomach after evacuating the bowels. This kriya is also helpful to persons suffering from constipation, weight gain etc. RESULTS Case 1 : Sri U aged 32 years reduced his waistline from 34 inches to 31.5 inches after he started practising Agnisara Kriya regularly. Case 2 : Sri B aged 61 years reduced his waistline by 6 inches in 4 months after he started practising this kriya. The above results can be illustrated with a histogram: REFERENCES 1. Hatha Yoga Pradipika 2. Gheranda Samhita 3. Satkarma Vidhi by Sri. Sriraghavendra Swamiji of Malladi Halli. EASILY ACCESSIBLE SALVATION YOGA PRACTICE V D Deshpande No. 326, Shaniwar Peth, Hnd Floor, Sitaram Mansion, Pune - 411 030. 4450406 ABSTRACT Author discusses about salvation as a stage where one does not get involved in the emotions and attachments. This is achieved through easy yoga practice of Sandyashram tradition. Salvation is not achieved after death but it is the amalgamation of one's Somatic Consciousness with the Cosmic Consciousness. During the process one travels through the 'Chromosphere', 'Photosphere' and ultimately enters the 'Cosmosphere' which is the penultimate stage of salvation. Then he enters 'Absolute Absence' which is also the state of'Salvation'. The Vedic Philosophers have accepted the cycle of birth and death. A human life is packed with more miseries and few moments of happiness. As the person wanted to get rid of this cycle, he found out the way-out and outcome of this way is called 'SALVATION' which is the point of no return. The central idea behind this is the acceptance of cosmos which is infinite in all directions and fully packed with Cosmic Potential Energy having the sense of being present which is called as 'COSMIC CONSCIOUSNESS'. According to Astrophysicists, there was a big explosion in this Cosmic Potential Energy. This potential energy gave rise to Kinetic Energy and finally to Matter. (Refer to Einstehien Equation

E=MC2). This is the process of expansion. After expansion, the contraction process starts; and Matter amalgamates in the Cosmic Potential Energy. Further, the Cosmic Potential Energy dissolves in the absolute absence. These two processes are continuously going on since the time unknown. During the expansion process, the Cosmic consciousness gets coating of energy-consciousness and Matter consciousness one over the other and together gets a general name as 'Somatic Consciousness'. Somatic consciousness is wonderful human mind, which enjoys happiness and suffers from miseries too. Physical contraction, after the completion of physical expansion takes a very long time. Human mind can follow the contraction from matter consciousness to cosmic consciousness and then to ABSOLUTE ABSENCE' by dissolving the human mind-cell into absolute absence with a less time taking process. Here, absence is not the antonym of presence. This is 'SALVATION'. The "EASY" Yoga student, first enjoys the chromosphere, where he sees to display of rainbow colors. He then goes to 'LACTOSPHERE' and finds himself amidst a bright fog. Further, he enters 'PHOTOSPHERE' and gets in the realm of very bright sunlight. After this he goes to 'COSMOSPHERE', which gives the experience of ocean of bright glittering golden light. Here he gets rid of worries, anxieties and emotions. This is the penultimate stage of 'SALVATION'. During Meditation, he is a silent witness of things happening in his mind and around. These steps resemble with the great Indian philosophy known as the Vedanta. 1. I am that 2. Everything is that 3. Whatever is present will be absent after some time. Present and absent both will be dissolved in space. 4. Space will be dissolved in the cosmos leaving behind the sense of being omnipresent. For complete free state of mind he must go in the state of absolute absence, which is ultimate stage of 'SALVATION'. A person enjoys a mind with balanced views, without any prejudices, a true feeling of equality which loves friends and foes in the same manner; a compassionate like a rational human being. CONCLUSION As per 'EASY-YOG' practice of SANDHYASRAM tradition. SALVATION is not the achievement to be

achieved after death. But my Yog-Student can enjoy SALVATION in this birth only in their day-to-day life. In the penultimate stage of Salvation, the student does not get involved in the emotions, thoughts about the lust for life, expectations and the normal attachments of the human beings. Student's Somatic Consciousness gets amalgamated with Cosmic consciousness.

PSYCHONEUROIMMUNOLOGY AND INTERVENTION STRATEGIES - A REVIEW Raghavendra Rao M, Chandrashekara S, Nagarathna R Vivekananda Kendra Yoga Research Foundation Bangalore, India
ABSTRACT A recognition of the interactions between the nervous, endocrine and immune systems and their clinical and bioregulatory implications has spawned the exciting field of psychoneuroimmunology. Traditional immunologic theory has held that the immune system operates in a reflex like manner, with the central nervous system playing little, if any role in modulation of immune functions. Numerous summaries of clinical and experimental observations challenge this view and suggest that psychological and emotional factors may profoundly alter resistance to disease in general and WBC function in particular. Studies examining the effects of psychosocial factors and stress on a variety of immune measures have revealed central nervous system mediated change in immune functions that can alter the health status. Central nervous system is capable of detecting alterations in immune responses and subsequent to detection is able to initiate a change in immune response upon reexposure to the conditioned stimulus. As the immune system is influenced by CNS factors, it is a potential mediator of psychosomatic phenomena. Despite the existence of a vast literature supporting the role of psychological factors in the onset and exacerbation of psychosomatic disease; many of these studies are unclear and still others are correlational with little evidence of cause- effect relationship between mental events and immune system. Stress is defined as the physiological, psychological and behavioral response of an individual seeking to adapt and adjust to both internal and external pressures (stressors). The responses

elicited by stress ; cognitive (eg. emotional distress) or noncognitive (eg. immune insults such as infection) appear to have multiple functions. Not surprisingly therefore the pattern of responses is dependent on the nature of stress, its intensity, duration (acute, chronic, intermittent) hosts nutritional and immunological status, ethnicity, age, socioeconomic conditions and genetic makeup. In acute stress there is secretion of glucocorticoids and physiological arousal following the stressful episode which is essentially a tailing off response to dampen the stress. It is only when the stress becomes chronic or intermittent with persisting stressful stimuli and maladaptive coping life styles that the body's homeostatic mechanism gets disturbed and leads to immunological hyperactivity (allergies), hypoactivity (cancer) and immune aberrations (autoimmune diseases). ROLEOFCNSIN IMMUNE MODULATION Various hypothetical models have been put forth over the decades enumerating the various pathways by which stress influences the immune system. The stress induced immune dysfunction model proposed by Irwin. M is illustrated in the fig.l. This model predicts that various stressors and buffers in the social environment will act through individual adaptation to produce biological changes in endocrine and immune systems that can result in illness. Cortical and limbic system (nucleus and centres in hypothalamus, medulla, pons and midbrain) are involved in altered immune responses to stressors, behavioural conditioning and psychosocial factors. These are the sites that respond to administration of cytokines, immunization by altered neuronal activity and monoamine metabolism. These areas have high density of glucocorticoid receptors which regulate the balance of neuroendocrine and autonomic outflow. A Typical neuronal circuitry concerning the organisation of central mechanisms has been proposed by Sawchenko. All the visceral and sensory inputs relayed to the Nucleus of Solitary tract, paraventricular nucleus and central nucleus of amygloid complex lead to fall out of specific neurotransmitters like epinephrine, neuropeptide, enkephalin,

galanin etc. which stimulate various neighbouring nucleii and various centres and cause release of corticotrophin releasing factor, vasopressin and oxytocin stimulating the anterior pituitary and posterior pituitary or directly activating the autonomic nervous system. The autonomic and neural connections consisting of two chains for sympathetic and parasympathetic connect the brain stem to spinalchord and target organs ( cardiac muscle, smooth muscle, exocrine glands and cells of the immune system). Signalling between the nervous and immune system occurs bidirectionally via chemical mediators such as hormones, cytokines, neurotransmitters, neuropeptides and receptors present on the target cells of both systems. Signalling molecules provide integrated responses between neurons and lymphocytes. Thus lymphocytes act as"Sensory organs" converting information from contact with pathogens to useful endocrine signals mediated by release of cytokines which influence the brain (Blalock J.E. et al 1984). Various studies on animal models have corraborated the evidence of CNS influence on the immune system such as removal of pituitary gland or denervation of nervous communica tions produce striking changes in the lymphoid tissue morphology and immune system. STRESS AND ITS EFFECTS ON THE IMMUNE SYSTEM In particular there has been a growing interest in how stress with its accompanying influences on autonomic, endocrine, psychological and behavioral responses may effect the functioning of the immune system with wide ranging implications for the pathophysiology and treatment of disease. There are many studies supported by anecdotal evidence about increased stress and susceptibility to infectious disease. Retrospective studies reveal that stressful life events increase the risk of contracting upper respiratory tract infections and studies on latent Herpes virus infection suggest that disease episodes follow emotional distress. The immune system is gifted with the memory for recognising "self from nonself' just like the higher centres of CNS. The immune system is also gifted with specificity also termed adaptive immune responses carried out principally by the T lymphocytes which recognise and bind to

foreign antigens by virtue of receptors on their surface formed in the early stages of their differentiation and proliferation when they first come in contact with the antigen. The critical step in mounting effective immune response against an infectious organism is the bringing together of antigen ,the antigen presenting cell and the lymphocyte with the correct receptor specify in an environment which is condusive for clonal expansion of lymphocyte count. The probability of this specify and contact is influenced by a variety of factors which when altered by stress reduces the efficiency of immune response. Stress is known to suppress the immune system by the release of stress hormones like cortisol , adrenaline etc. and by sympathetic activation causing release of catecholamines through peripheral nerve endings or directly into the circulation through adrenal glands. They effect the immune system by: 1. Altering the migrating characteristics of leukocytes Physiological changes of cortisol levels influence leukocyte trafficking in cohesion with circardian rhythm. Peak numbers of T & B lymphocytes occur at night when cortisol levels are lowest and lower numbers in the morning when it is highest. There's found to be rapid loss of lymphocytes from circulation on administration of hydrocortisone. Sympathetic stimulation causing vasoconstriction of the vessels and affecting migration and immune surveillance. 2. Altering cell growth, proliferation and differentiation Glucocorticoids extend both positive and negative influences on cell growth de-pending on their concentrations. They suppress proliferation and differentiation of lymphocytes and Natural Killer cells by inhibiting release of cytokines and growth factors. They are known to induce apoptic events causing cell death and useful in preventing autoimmunity and activating of oncogenes. Stimulation of sympathetic causes release of granulocytes from the marrow indicating that haemopoieses and granulopoieses is responsive to neuronal signals. 3. Alterations in the release of cytokines and neuro peptides Glucocorticoids suppress the release of these soluble mediators and exert the irant-inflammatory and immunosuppressive effects. Sympathetic activation suppresses the

cellular immune response but activates antibody production. . Majority of stress response to situational changes are homeostatic and adaptive. However where coping appears to be compromised , pituitary-adrenal activation occurs simultaneously to deal with the situation. Long term over activity in these networks in association with a defect in endogenous opoid control (dynorphin) may be associated with severe psychopathology as in depressive illness and chronic anxiety state. There is no steady homeostatic state in the body since most of the physiological changes are oscillatory ,it is the abnormal oscillatory states created by stress which influence the changes in immune system and lead to disease. INTERVENTION STRATEGIES IN PSYCHONEUROIMMUNOLOGY (PNI) The intervention strategies in PNI mainly focus on stress management evolving appropriate coping mechanisms like relaxation training, imageries, meditation , isometric exercise and pranayama .The autonomic nervous system acts as a neural matrix coupling states of mind with metabolism and immune system. Various studies indicate that lateralised cerebral states may correlate with lateralised expression in the immune system (Stein .M 1985). During the past three decades research studies suggest connection between imagery/emotions and improved physical functioning have been available (Klopfer, 1957; Simonton et al, 1978; Cousins ,1976). There have been clinical confirmations that this relationship applies to all bodily systems .including the immune system (Achterberg,& Lawlis 1981,Borysenko , 1987). Various studies on healthy subjects with guided imagery following training in neutrophills was significantly corelated (p<0.5) with adherance function of neutrophils . Exercises are also known to profoundly influence the changes in immune system. However an effective imagery requires a strong belief on the subject to influence the immune system, knowledge of specific functions and anatomy of the cells ,vividness of the image, awareness of functions being altered and depth of relaxation. Most of the studies have concentrated on the immunological changes initiated by psychological factors in pathological states but have not strived to apply nonpharmacological

interventions described above in mediating a change in immune modulation. REFERENCES 1. Achterberg , J. & Lawlis, G.F. 1979. A canonical analysis of blood chemistry variables related to psychological measures of cancer patients. Multivariate Experimental Clinical Research 4,110. 2. Ader, R.1981. Psychoneuroimmunology. New York: Academic press. 3. Bartrop R.W et al. 1977. Depressed lymphocyte function after bereavement. Lancet 834-836. 4. Gruber , B.L. et al. 1988. Immune system and psychological changes in metastatic cancer patients using relaxation and guided imagery: A Pilot study . Scandinavian Journal of Behavior Therapy 17,25-26. 5. Marvin R.Brown et al. Stress Neurobiology and Neuroendocrinology. New York. Academic Press. 6. Nicholas J. Goulding and Roderick J.Flower. Glucocorticoids and the immune system A review article .1997. New England Journal of Medicine , 7, 98-103. 7. Rogers , M.P. Dubey, D. & Reich .P. (1979). The influence of psyche and brain on immunity and disease susceptibility: A critical review .Psychosomatic Medicine 41, 234-364. 8. Sklar L, & Anisman.H. (1979). Stress and coping factors influence tumor growth. Science 205,513-515 . 9. Stein M. Bereavement Repression ,stress and immunity. New York Raven Press, 1985:29-44 3.5 CASE PRESENTATIONS INSOMNIA H S Keshava Murthy Yoga Expert, Chinmaya Yoga Centre, 41, Vth stage, Rajeshwari Nagar, Bangalore - 560039. ABSTRACT Sleep is a boon as well as a curse to human beings. A healthy adult needs at least 6 hours of sound sleep per day preferably during the night. For some, 3 hours of sound sleep may be sufficient to carryout normal work. There are many reasons for lack of sleep. One important reason for insomania may be mental stress. Two cases of insomnia in our centre were cured by administering yoga therapy which included dieting, nature cure techniques, asanas, Pranayamas, Dhyana and Savasana. Sleep is a boon as well as a curse to the human being. A healthy adult needs sound sleep of at least

six hours per day preferably during night for three hours. For some, three hours of sound sleep may be sufficient to carry out normal work. Intellectual and aged people require five hours of sleep. Hard working people need eight hours of sleep, but sleep is an essential factor for all, to be healthy and strong. Insomnia means lack of sleep . Although this is mostly observed in aged people, it is not uncommon among yougsters. If a student gets sleep as soon as he takes a book, then sleep becomes a curse. CAUSE FOR INSOMNIA There are many reasons for lack of sleep, so one cannot come to the conclusion that any particular reason is the cause of insomnia. Among many reasons the most important may be mental. For some lack of money for some others the expenditure and for yet others, how to safegaurd the money? Where to deposit, how to invade Income Tax, danger from thieves and robbers. Another important reason is lack of good excercise to the mind and body, lack of good circulation of Vyana Vayu through the body. Last but not the least may be consumption of drugs, liquors and smoking. KINDS OF INSOMNIA Though there are many types of insomnia, two types are worth noting: people murmur during sleep, which is named as somniloquism. Another type of insomnia is somnambulism in which people resort to all kinds of activities like walking, talking, taking bath etc. All disorders of insomnia can be controlled by the practice of yoga. YOGA THERAPY Yogasana : Janusirshasana, Parvatasana I and II, Paschimottanasana, Parvatasana, Utthanasana, Sarvangasana and Prasarita padotthanasana. Each should be performed for two minutes. Pranayamas : Nadishodhana Pranayama, Bhastrika Pranayama, Bhramari Pranayama, Shanmukhi mudra. Dhyana for five minutes. Savasana for 5 minutes. Diet (Pathya) : Diet also plays an important role to cure insomnia, sattvic food, sweet curd, pulses, butter milk and two to three liters of water per day. Apathya: Avoid late meals during the night, avoid to go to bed soon after consuming food, less food during night, Citrus fruits, spicy foods, salt and pickles. Prakriti Cikitse : Walk a mile after night food, neither too fast nor too slow. Before you go to bed, drink a tumbler of luke warm water and sit in a chair keeping the legs in tolerably hot water for ten minutes and listen to music during that period. After meditation for three minutes, go to sleep. You

will get sound sleep for 5 to 6 hours. RESULTS Case 1 : Sri Ravindranath, 35 years was suffering from Insomnia. He was getting sleep only for two hours during the whole night. After practice of yoga as given above for 10 days, he was able to sleep for eight hours during night. Now he complains of getting more than required sleep! Case 2 : Sri Vijaynath Shenoy 72 years old used to sit and spend the whole night observing how his children and grandchildren were sleeping. After practice of yoga for two months, he started getting sound sleep. WONDERS OF YOGA THERAPY ACHIEVED IN OUR CENTRE Obesity and Overweight: Mrs. Salima Ali, 45 years, mother of 10 children reduced her weight from 80 to 70 kgs. Mr. Basava Aradhya, 62 years reduced his belly by 12 cms. Headache and Sinusitis : Dr. Pallav Chatterji, MBBS, MD 30 years old got rid of his disorders by Yoga therapy. He also got complete relief by Suthraneti. Diabetes : Sri Basava Aradhya, 62 years. His blood sugar level was brought down from 345 to 90. Height: Sri Amith Rai, 15 years, height improved from 154 to 174 cms. Ulcer : Sri MS Patil, Advocate 32 years, whose date was fixed for operation of D. ulcer but got rid of the ulcer completely in one and a half months. Heart Diseases : Mr. Sharma, 62 years, a retired engineer, who was suffering from heart disease, has shown improvement in a fortnight and he was able to drive his car for 50 kms. Arthiritis : Mr. S. Krishnappa, 80 years old was suffering from pain in the knee joints for the last 10 years. After 15 days of practice, he was completely cured and stopped medicine. Now he is 88 years old and doesn't have any complaint and he is working as a purohit, actively Hunchback : Mr. K.P. Pramod, 17 years old 165 cms has hunchback. After regular practice of yoga he was set right. Blood Pressure : Dr. Shankaran MBBS. DCH whose blood pressure was 150/110. It was reduced to 120/80 in one month. EFFICACY OF YOGA IN CORONARY ARTERY DISEASES Dr T A Ramanujachar, Dr M S Krishna Murthy, Sri K R Muralidhar Ramamani lyengar Memorial Yoga Institute, Pune Chief Advisor: Yogacharya Dr BKS lyengar ABSTRACT Ischemic Heart Disease is one of the common problems of the elderly, especially in those who are diabetic. A number of studies have been pointing to the role of yoga as an adjunct in its

management. The aim is to evaluate the role of yoga therapy in an advanced case of ischemic heart disease, when commenced in immediate post infarction period. Yoga Therapy is a very useful mode of therapy even in immediate post acute phase of IHD and may delay or postpone or avoid the need for surgery if done routinely under good supervision. The incidence of CAD (Coronary Artery Disease ) is on the, increase alarmingly worldwide; more so in the western hemisphere. It has pervaded 'The oriental population because of the adoption of the western style of living. In U.S.A. it is the 2nd commnest cause of death next to cancer. This has caused a lot of socio-economic problems. In the last two decades this has necessitated a number of invasive treatment regimens like PTCA (Percutaneous Transluminal Coronary Angiography) and CABG (Coronary Artery Bypass Graft) which are out of reach for even the upper middle class. Secondly, it is not the final cure - is inadequate, temporising than healing, does not address the underlying cause. This is prone for recurrence. In this context the introduction of yoga therapy is gaining ground, as an alternative mode of treatment. It not only improves or corrects the coronary pathology, but also improves the overall physical, mental and spiritual wellbeing of the patient. It is not only curing but healing. This regimen is of negligable and easily affordable. This case report is being presented in this Conference with the sole purpose of impressing upon the medical faculty and enthusiasts the efficacy of yoga therapy in CAD as a cheap alternative to the prohibitively costly and invasive procedures. CASE REPORT Mr 'K' 74 years old male presented to us with history of having been treated for recent inferior wall infarction with hypothyroidism reputed local private hospital from 11.7.98 to 20.7.98 with thrombolytic agents (thrombokinase and hepharin) along with dilatiazem, isosarbide mononitrite, metaprolol ecosprin etc. He had two episodes of post infarct angina on 16.7.98 and 20.7.98 inspite of the treatment. He was shifted to a cardiac care centre for further evaluation, underwent coronary angiogram and Echo etc. CORONARY ANGIO REVEALED - Triple Vessel CAD LAD - 80% - 90% stenosis in two tandem long segments. 80% - 90% stenosis in proximal segment, osteal stenosis 20-30%. Minor plaques in mid segments. 50% -60% in distal segments. Long stenosis at the apex. CIRCUMFLEX: Non dominant with 30% stenosis in mid segments.

R.C.A: 95% ulcered proximal stenosis in the mid segment and 50% distal stenosis. L.V. ANGIO: Normal systolic and diastolic dimensions. Mild posterobasal inferior hypokinasia. EJECTION FRACTION: 60%, No M.R. No Clots DOPLER STUDIES: L.V. Mild posterbasal hypokinasia, good L.V. function, L.V. Diastolic dysfunction. Otherwise normal. Other Studies: Like EGG changes and enzyme studies were consistent with A.M.I. Lipid profile was within normal limits. Border Protinurea. He was Advised: CABG with grafts to LAD, DI, OM, PD. Patient refused surgery and opted for Yoga Therapy with medical line of management. He was started on Yoga Therapy on first week of August, 1998 as per the protocol of Dr. BKS lyengar along with life style modification. The asanas are as follows : 1. Savasana on heart bed - 5 minutes 2. Sukhasana with opening of chest with the help of a wooden block 3. Suptabaddha Konasana - 5 minutes 4. Purvothanasana - 5 Minutes 5. Viparita Dandasana - 5 Minutes 6. Setubandha Sarvangasana - 5 Minutes 7. Viparita Karani - 5 Minutes S. Sarapanjarasana - 5 Minutes 9. Savasana with spinal bolster - 10 Minutes All these postures are all modified by Dr B K S lyengar using various kinds of props devised by him. He was advised a low, fat, vegetarian diet; (Of, course he is a strict vegetarian) with plenty of fresh vegetables and fruits. We did not insist on any type of meditation. He was advised regular walks within his limitation, (with his effort tolerance). Within 3 weeks the patient showed both subjective and objective improvements like frequency and duration and intensity of angina reduced, effort tolerance increased. He could walk two kms. without-pain, climb 3 flights of stairs and lost 5 kgs. of weight (69 to 64kgs.), he was looking more bright and agile. E.C.G. began to improve after 7 weeks and kept on improving slowly. His antianginal and other drugs were gradually reduced in dosage starting from 12th week onwards. Now he can walk 3 kms. and is attending to his normal work. Echocardiographically there was a significant improvement in ejection fraction from 60% to 70%A, and found disappearance of significantly noted posterior wall hypokinasia found in immediate post infarction period. DISCUSSION

Stress has been accepted as one of the leading factors in the causation of CAD. Other risk factors like high cholesterol, obesity, atherosterosis high blood pressure, smoking, lack of exercise is only half of the story. Blakenhorn et. al. of University of California, School of Medicine; Helsinki Studies; Lipid Research Clinic; National' Heart, Lung and Blood Institute of U.S.A. have proved that there is no stastically significant reduction in the incidence of CAD and mortality by using cholesterol reducing drugs, and marginally reducing the fat intake from 40% - 30% on the other hand Dean Ornishes, studies have proved that by adopting a low fat (15%) vegetarian diet containing complex carbohydrates; stress management by yoga, abstinance from smoking, cutting down on/stopping alcoholic beverages can increase the coronary arterial blood flow even upto 270% without cholesterol lowering drugs. Their dosage of drugs like antianginal, antihypertensive, antiplatelet, have been gradually tampered and eventually withdrawn, flanchands of AIMS, New Delhi has conducted controlled, randomised prospective study on 42 angiographically proved patients similar to that of Dean Ornishes. After one year he has shown excellent results. Yoga which is a complete way of life rather than merely some asanas may produce changes in the neurohumoral system and bring about harmony between the body and the mind. K N Udupa of E.H.U. has shown that yoga acts on the autonomic nervous system resulting in the production or regulating the beneficial neurohumors. Re.cent investigations have shown that there are a number of neuropeptides which influences the brain cells to produce emotions. Brain also communicates with immune system through neuropeptides. Macrophages are called wandering synspses carrying and releasing neuropeptides throughout the body. Perhaps this may have beneficial effects on the pathology of the CAD. Further research is needed in the direction to unravel the mysterious way that yoga helps to cure and heal. Perhaps there is truth in what Aristotle had said 'the centre of thoughts (emotions) lies in the heart and brain helps to cool the body'. Our studies on Mr. K. has shown results consistent with Dean Ornishes and Manchanda's study. In conclusion yoga and a comprehensive life style change may prevent /reverse the CAD. It may prove an alternative to prohibitively costly invasive procedures like PTCA and CABC and adjuvant to medical management. It may prevent unwanted complications resulting from the invasive

procedures. It may change the scenario and its management in future. PHYSIOTHERAPY AND YOGA THERAPY FOR OSTEO- ARTHRITIS K Vidya Lakshmi Physiotherapist, No. 41, 5th Stage, Rajeshwari Nagar, Bangalore - 560 039. ABSTRACT Osteo-arthrosis is the general complaint of old age especially in females after menopause. To reduce pain and restore mobility, a combination of physiotherapy and yoga practices including meditation, deep breathing and a few asanas has been tried for 15 days. 5 women (aged between 33 to 45 years) underwent two weeks of yoga program. All of them had ankle pain, 4 had shoulder pain, 4 had knee pain and one had elbow pain. In the first week they were taught breathing exercise and physiotherapy exercise. In the second week they learnt 5 asanas in addition to the first week practices. At the end of the second week there was reduction in pain in all 5 of them, 90% in two, 75% in one and 50% in two women. The Yoga technique has reduced the tension and anxiety in patients while the asanas introduced after the reduction of pain and swelling have restored the mobility of joints to a remarkable extent. Administration of both Physiotherapy and Yoga Therapy gives an interesting result in case of osteoarthirities. Osteo-arthirities are of two types. They are: 1st type : Which affects one joint generally a large joint as hop or shoulder and a disease of old age. The exact cause probably an injury. 2nd type : Beginning in late middle age, attacks first in hands and spreading to other joints. It probably attacks the hands because these joints have been so much used in course of life. This type is common in women than in men and often begins at the menopause. Both forms are due to fault of metabolism and not bacterial infection. There may be a hereditary defect in the articular cartilage. PATHOLOGY In this type of arthirities, cartilage is first attacked and becomes hyperaemic and fibrous. The soft structures round the joint next become involved. Scheamie degeneration taking place in the ligaments. Later, Synorial membrane becomes inflamed. Sometimes, parts of these fringes break off, forming loose bodies in the joint. SYMPTOMS In the first type, the disease comes on gradually. One of the large joints - hip, knee or shoulder being generally the first to suffer and other joints involved later. The local symptoms are chronic

inflammation, swelling and joint may become much enlarged owing to the formation of Osteophytes. Pain and aching are felt in the affected joint, worse when the limb is kept constantly at rest, creaking in the joint is always present. In the polyarticular form, the small joints of the hands are first attacked and may spread to other joints. TREATMENT The aims of the treatment are: 1) To reduce pain 2) To restore mobility 3) To avoid contractures Application of heat improves circulation in and around the joints which reduces the pain. For deep seated joints like hip, spine, shoulder, short-wave diathermy will probably give the best result. Parafin and wax - both are also very useful for smaller joints. To restore mobility, strong forced passive movements and to improve strength, pulley exercises are more useful. In case of knee : (i) knees-up pulling, (ii) high sitting lift 1-2 kg of weights to improve strength at knee joint. For shoulder joint, pendulum exercise will help a lot. Diet: (1) One glass of warm water with one spoon honey (2) Avoid oily foodstuff. Meditation and breathing exercise: Deep breathing exercise followed by meditation will help to decrease the tension. Yoga Therapy : Once the pain is reduced, simple yogasanas are advised. 1st week: 1) Svastikasana 2) Ardhacakrasana 3) Ardhakaticakrasana 4) Makarasana / Bhujangasana 5) Anuloma - Viloma pranayama 6) Meditation / Supta Visrantiasana 2nd week: 1) Svastikasana 2) Ardhacakrasana or Ardhakaticakrasana 3) Makara / Bhujanga & Salabhasanas 4) Pavana Muktasana or Cakrasana 5) Setubandhasana 6) Anuloma / Viloma Pranayama 7) Nadisodhana Pranayama 8) Meditation / Visrantiasana Special Instructions: 1) To avoid sitting in on place for more than half an hour 2) To walk 100 steps daily after supper. Following are the tables showing how physiotherapy and yoga therapy helped in treating Osteoarthirities. FIRST WEEK Name Age Complaints Results

Mrs. Shantala 43 Shoulder Pain, Ankle joint pain 50% Relief of pain Mrs. Girijamma 35 Knee joint pain No change Ms. Lakshmi G 33 Elbow, Knee & Ankle joint pain 75% Relief of pain Mrs. Kumuda 40 Shoulder Joint pain Pain reduced Mrs. Shanta 45 Knee and Ankle joint pain 50% Relief of Pain SECOND WEEK Name Age Complaints Results Mrs. Shantala 43 Shoulder Pain, Ankle joint pain 90% Relief of pain Mrs. Girijamma 35 Knee joint pain 50% improved Ms. Lakshmi G 33 Elbow, Knee & Ankle joint pain 90% improvement Mrs. Kumuda 40 Shoulder joint pain 50% relief Mrs. Shanta 45 Knee and Ankle joint pain 75% Relief ROLE OF YOGA THERAPY IN PEPTIC ULCER A CASE STUDY S B Jogdand Ph.D ND Rader and Head Dept. of Botany, S C S College, Omerga-413 606 Dist. Osmanabad M.S. India-091 ABSTRACT This is a case where patient was suffering from an acute peptic ulcer. He was looked after first by physician and next he was asked to go to a surgeon. The surgeon warned him that if he did not undergo surgeory he could only survive for not more than 6 months. It was a challenge to the patient. The patient was none other than the author himself. Harmful items from the regular diet were stopped. Spices, condements severely sour and oily food were restrained. Heavily pungent food, potato, pulses, tamarind, rumex etc. were kept away from consumption to avoid hyperacidity. Yoga therapy was administered with pranayama, meditation and yoga nidra. Along with this about 36 yogasanas were pressed into practice. The problems faced were gradually minimised and at the end there was a feeling of having completely cured and healed. Twnety three years have passed since then. The doctor's warning of a death bell has neither made a sound nor the patient suffers from any sign or symptom of the disease. I was detected as acidity patient during 1976. I suffered from acute acidity with all the usual sympotms like chest burning, vomitting sensation, indigestion, followed by frequently recurring heavy Mouth Ulcers and hyperacidity making me quite restless and feverish. I was admitted in a renouned hospital at Ahmednagar and treated by a famous Physician. Then the case was referred to a popular surgeon, he diagnosed it as a severe peptic ulcer and warned me that if you do not undergo surgery you can never survive for more than six months. I wasquite afraid of surgery and death as well. Still I accepted his challenge.

So I studied my own physiology and observed the harmful items from my regular diet and stopped taking food items like spices and condiments, severely sour and oily food, heavily pungent food, potato, pulses, tamarind, rumex etc. to avoid the hyperacidity but there was little use. Simultaneously I completed my N.D and yoga course at Pune (M.S). I started regular yoga therapy along with Pranayama, meditation and Yoganidra. I used to do about 36 asanas in four postures. After 6 months of regular yoga, the acidity gradually subsided. It was a miracle, made by yoga therapy. After one year Abdominal pains subsided, digestion improved, registivity improved, gradually weakness had been minimised, spiritual power increased and subsequently I felt that there is no illness at all. years passed by and still there was no recurrence of the Pepitc Ulceration, which was found completely healed and cured. Now twenty three years have passed after the doctor's warning there is no trouble, any sign or symptom of peptic Ulcer. Through my experience of last 20 years of yoga, I am of the opinion now that these hopeful results may be due to integrated effect of all the asanas together, which I practiced regularly during last 20 years. My regular schedule included Warm up movements of legs, hands and neck. Followed by : 1) Utthana padasana 2) Pavanamukta asana 3) Asvini mudra 4) Noukasana 5) Viparitakarani 6) Sarvangasana 7) Halasana 8) Matsyasana 9) Savasana 10) Bhujangasana 11) Salabhasana 12) Dhanurasana 13) Hanumanasana 14) Makarasana 15) Agnisara 16) Simhamudra 17) Yogamudra in Vajrasana 18) Suptavajrasana 19) Ustrasana 20) Yogamudra in Padmasana 21)Vakrasana 22) Ardha matsyendrasana 23) Udarakarsana 24) Cakrasana 25) Katicakrasana 26) Tadasana 27) Vrkshasana. After completion of yoga I used to practice some pranayamas like 1) Deep breathing 2) Fast breathing 3) Sitali 4) Anuloma viloma 5) Bhramari 6) Aurhkar 7) Yoganidra. This peculiar yoga therapy was preceded and followed by prayers and slight meditations, which was found quite effective tonic for the tranquality of mind. Occasional Sankha Prakshalana and Vaman were also found useful for this purpose. In addition to good effect of pranayama, prayers and meditation, some of the asanas, and mudras were found more effective than others. The more effective one's are 1) Simhamudra 2) Yogamudra

3) Kapalabhati 4) Agnisara 5) Aurhkar 6) Dhanurasana 7) Bhujangasana 8) Salabhasana 9) Jalandarabandha 10) Yoganidra and others which were found more useful for peptic region. Thus conclusively it may be stated that overall Yoga therapy was found quite effective for curing peptic Ulcers, mouth Ulcers or Ulcers in any part of the alimentary canal.


Chapter 1 Role of Yoga in total health 3-18 Chapter 2 Health management through Yoga and naturopathy 19-34 Chapter 3 Utility of science of living in life building 35-46 Chapter 4 Common Yogic and naturopathic Prescription for healthy living 47-73 Chapter 5 Outcome of spirituality: vasudhaiv kutumbakam 74-76 Chapter 6 Formation of sacraments in girls: first through prekshdhyan Yoga 77-90 Chapter 7 Concept of thought 91-95 Chapter 8 Physiological effects of asans and pranayam 96-104 Chapter 9 Role of Yoga in coronary heart Disease 105-113 Chapter 10 Yogic Management of Diabetes 114-121 Chapter 11 Yogic management of hypertensive Patient 122-127 Chapter 12 Obesity, causes complications and Yogic 2 management 128-136 Chapter 13 The spiritual and scientific aspects of Suryanamaskar 137-147 Chapter 14 Special situation in modern life in relation to problems of infusing of Yogic practices in day to day life 148-156 Chapter 15 Importance of Yogic lifestyle for school children 157-163 Chapter 16 Importance of Yoga in the development of ideal life style: with special reference to university student 164-172 Chapter 17 Management of dietary fats for healthy living 173-179 Chapter 18 Effect of Yoga-nidra on hypertensive patients 180-200 3


Role of Yoga in total health

What is Yoga?
Yoga is the science of life and the art of living. It is the common sense answer to overall physical and mental fitness. Basically Yoga is a system of physical and mental self improvement and final liberation, that people have been using for thousands of years. Yoga arose in the age of the Vedas and Upanishads. It is India's

oldest scientific, perfect spiritual discipline. Yoga is a method of training the mind and developing its power of subtle perceptions so that man may discover for himself the spiritual truths on which religion, beliefs and moral values finally rest. It is realization of our hidden powers. Swami Shivananda said, "He who radiates good, divine thoughts does immense good unto himself and to the world also". Yoga is science of life, it offers us simple, easy remedies and techniques and methods of health and hygiene to assure physical and mental fitness with a minimum of time, effort and expense. Yoga in other term Preksha Dhyan invented by prominent Jainacharya Mahaprajna is such an uncomplicated, easy to learn technique of meditation. It comprised of the following i. Kayotsarga (Total relaxation) ii. Antaryatra (Internal trip) iii. Svash preksha (Perception of breath) 4 iv. Sharir preksha (Perception of body) v. Chaitnya-kendra preksha (Perception of psychic centers) vi. Leshya dhyan (Perception of psychic spectrum) vii. Perception of the present moment viii. Perception of thoughts ix. Self-discipline x. Bhavna (counter-vibrations) xi. Anupreksha (contemplation) xii. Concentration. Yoga is one of the most ancient metaphysical sciences, which investigates the nature of soul and, through its discipline, awakens the super-conscious mind of the man which unites the moral being with the immortal supreme spirit. Yoga leads to balance and also provides both a philosophy and a religion. The real joy of life appears when we can unify nature and culture, wealth and poverty, movement and stillness, attachment and detachment. Yoga can serve both the individual and society. Yoga is neither a sect nor an ideology but a practical training of mind and body. Broadly speaking, it has three main outcomes : it makes us more aware of our natural wisdom, it strengthens the body's ability to recover from illness or injury; it teaches us how to co-operate with others. Yoga teaches us truth through mind and body rather than theory, it brings about deep change of attitude. The entire thrust of our life is to devote total attention to every action and, at the same time, to trust in the power of sacred. 5 Eight stages of Patanjal Yoga are : i. Yama : The universal moral laws. ii. Niyama : Personal moral roots of conduct. iii. Asan : Yogic postures. iv. Pranayama : Acquiring and controlling prana or energy, by means of the breath. v. Pratyahara : The withdrawl of the senses from the outer environment. vi. Dharana : Concentration.

vii. Dhyana : Meditation. viii. Samadhi : Enlightenment.

Yoga is also a technique for achieving purest form of selfawareness, devoid of all thoughts and sensations. Today some kind of reconstruction of thought is necessary to understand clearly what the great Yoga teachers of the past have taught. Patanjali, the systematiser of Yoga, has explained the thoughts through Yogasutra. In the Gita and Upanishads we find a broader and positive expression of Yoga. Our ancient masters through Yoga teach us an art of living a life for eternally blissful experiences of even flow of happiness by removal of miseries and sufferings of our limited life. The term Yoga means a systematic practice and implementation of mind and body in the living process of man to keep harmony with in self, within the society and with nature. 6 Kundalini Yoga is a systematic and integrated practice for body and mind and its thrust to make a man creative. By a new method, which is wholly safe, one can get the Kundalini power aroused in minutes. Hence this method is called the simplified Kundalini Yoga, abbreviated to "SKY". Kayakalpa is the culmination of Kundalini Yoga and its objective is to enable the practitioner to postpone the ageing process and death. In all sky centers in India, Malaysia, Singapore, South Korea, Japan and USA, Kayakalpa Yoga is now being taught at regular intervals. These two yogic practices are very important in karma Yoga, the world religion.

What is total health

Health is precisely, that condition in which human being has full sensitivity and in which all his faculties are operating fully. To actively work towards this condition is to cure illness and to develop maximum health. Yoga is both a philosophy and a living religion, believes that the body is so important and trains it so strictly. Without health we can neither practice meditation nor attain enlightenment. For total health one should seek the truth by skepticism. The body mind system possesses the innate power of recovering health and the yogic method of curing human ills, aims at stimulating it. Prominent health specialist Ben Jonson said, "O, health! health! the blessing of rich! the riches of the poor! who can buy thee at too dear a rate, since there is no enjoying the world without thee! 7 Preksha (means to see inside with full concentration) may appear to mean different things to different people because it contributes to increase physical, nervous as well as spiritual energies. As per prominent Jainacharya Mahaprajna inventor of Preksha Dhyan Yoga total health consists of physical, mental, emotional and spiritual health. i. On physical level, it helps each bodily cell to revitalize itself; it facilitates digestion, it makes inspiration more efficient and improves circulation and quality of blood. ii. On mental level it proves to be an applied method to train the mind to concentrate; it offers way to treat serious psychosomatic illness without drugs; it is an efficient tool

for ending addictions and other bad habits; it reveals to one the mysteries of his mind by the realization and real experience of the inner consciousness which includes the subconscious and the unconscious. iii. On the emotional level, the strengthening of conscious reasoning controls reactions to environmental conditions, situations and behaviour of others; harmonization of the functioning of nervous and endocrine system, results in control and ultimate eradication of psychological distortions. iv. On spiritual level, regulation and transformation of bloodchemistry through proper synthesization of neuroendocrinal 8 secretions, dispassionate internal vibrations leads one to attain the power to control the mind and to become free from the effect of external forces compelling one to lose to equanimity. The following table shows the relation between endocrine glands and the Chaitnya-kendras : Endocrine glands Chaitnya-kendras Pineal Jyoti-kendra Pituitary Darshan-kendra Thyroids Vishudhi-kendra Thymus Anand-kendra Adrenals Taijas-kendra Gonads Swasthya-kendra and Shakti-kendra Constant triggering overreaction of the lower endocrine glands viz. adrenals and gonads result in pernicious habits, effecting our physical and mental health. For good physical health Dr Dastur recommends: Sleep on a thin firm mattress with a wooden board underneath. Don't sleep on foam rubber mattress. Prolonged standing in one place puts great pressure on the spine, shift your weight from one foot to other to relieve the strain. Learn to relax when under stress. Do not lift a heavy load with straight knees from the floor. Bend your knees and lift it up. 9 Jainacharya Mahaprajna inventor of Preksha Dhyan Yoga inspires for maintenance of total health: i. For maintenance of physical health one should always walk in morning fresh air and should observe Asans and Pranayama. ii. For maintenance of mental health one should get rid of worries and should deep dive in meditation and kayotsarga. iii. For achieving emotional health one should think positive and should always live in present and not in past or future. sound health and peaceful mind are a must for man to enjoy the material world and develop the consciousness to its perfection. In order to achieve this purpose of birth one has to maintain harmony between body and life force, life force and

mind, between individuals and society and between nature and will. Practicing appropriate exercises of body and mind and a virtuous way of living to maintain the harmonies described above constitute Yoga. Thus Karma Yoga is a system of life utilizing the full potential of the body and mind with understanding and awareness for a happy, prosperous and peaceful life. All experiences in life are enjoyed only by the mind. Mind is the peripheral stage of consciousness. In the infinite state, the consciousness itself is the truth. As a man is endowed with the sixth sense which inherits the purpose of the realization of self, in time he should realize the self, which is consciousness. By 10 realizing consciousness man can live with satisfaction, harmony and peace. Realization of consciousness is the only one perfect and higher knowledge by which one can know everything in the universe. The mind is nothing but the extended and perceptional activity of the consciousness. One should do every action, whether thought, word or deed, with a perspective awareness not to inflict pain to self or others, at present or in future, to the body or mind. Physical and mental health are important for a happy and successful life. One has to maintain these with due care, following moderation in the following five aspects of life : i. Food, ii. Work, iii. Rest, iv. Sex, v. Use of thought-force. These five should not be neglected, over-indulged or improperly dealt with. The proportional requirements of daily food are 10% protein, 10% fat, 40% carbohydrates and 40% vegetables and fruits. Protein, the essential food-element, is best provided by milk, curd, soyabeans, drynuts, pulses and lentils. Carbohydrates are starchy food consist in rice, chapatti, grains, maiz, oats, potatoes etc. 11 Man's existence is connected with physical cells, brain, biomagnetism, life force and sexual vital fluid. If he neglects, overindulges or improperly deals with food, work, rest, sex and use of thought-force, he has to suffer from illness and sorrow. As every action brings an appropriate result, he should deal with all the five aspects of life in moderation. Following the principle of limit and method in every enjoyment is detachment. Keeping the physical body in a healthy condition and the mind is highly culturally enlightened level and thereby leading a creative life so as to be a useful member of the society thoughtout the span of one's life is the chief aim and thrust of Karma Yoga. An integrated practice of reorganizing and restructuring the body and the mind for a newly planned life is Kundalini Yoga. Kundalini is the life force. For all human beings the working centre of the life force is in the sexual gland called technically mooladhar in spiritual terminology. Only when the working centre is shifted to the point

between the eyebrows (Agya chakra), the mind can perceive its existence and functions. So in Yoga practice, raising the working centre of the life force and making the aspirant to feel it at the Agya chakra point is initiation.

Role of Yoga in total health

Yoga blends the two states tension and relaxation. Life always seeks to restore balance and the ideal state is that in which static force and dynamic power are in harmony. In this state, the deepest 12 relaxation is found within the highest tension and this forms the basic for the new life of service and cooperation. The basic characteristic of Yoga is its use of meditation, for by utilizing this discipline, the mind and body are purified and adjusted and personality is heightened. Yoga enables everyone to more towards that state of developed consciousness which is oneness with the sacred. The first step is to harmonize, purity and strengthen both body and mind. In Yoga we find people practicing fasting, celibacy, the renunciation of wealth and possessions as well as living home, loved ones and society. The aim is always same to control desires and since desire is mental and emotional, there are many ways of doing it. Fasting is the most natural and fundamental training for the control of desire, being practiced instinctively by animals and primitive men who live close to nature. There are seven centres for meditation in the body. Each centre is connected with its relevant endocrine gland as below. Meditation on any chakra should be learnt and practiced under the guidance of a master in Kundalini Yoga. Self effort in this Yoga should be strictly avoided as it could lead to complications. Chakra Endocrine gland Mooldhara Sex gland Swadhisthana Connecting sex gland and adrenals Manipuraka Adrenal gland Anahata Thymus gland 13 Vishuddhi Thyroid gland Agya Pituitary Brahmarandhra Pineal A regular practice of Yoga 30 to 50 minutes daily with faith in "self", proves a blessing in the form of spiritual illumination which slowly develops into awareness of reality. The main purpose of practice of Preksha Dhyan Yoga (To see inside with deep concentration) is to purify the mental states. Mind is constantly chocked by contaminating urges, emotions and passions. This hampers the flow of wisdom. The hurdles of uncleanliness must first be removed. When the mind is cleaned, peace of mind automatically surfaces. Balance of mind, equanimity and the state of well-being are also experienced simultaneously. It should always be remembered that the ultimate aim of Sadhna is purity and equanimity-freedom from contamination of passions. The state of well-being is not our ultimate aim; it will inevitably ensure; nevertheless, it is not the objective. Similarly peacefulness

is also a secondary benefit and will always be achieved, but not the aim. We have to transcend both these mental states to reach our ultimate purpose. Viz. total purity of mind and goodness. Realization of truth is the birthright of everyone; everyone has the natural potential with in. Karma Yoga will add all people to realize the Truth when they wish for it. A karma Yogi can do immense good to himself and others by blessing self, life-partner, children, sisters and brothers, close-friends, bosses and assistants 14 and enemies too, if any, the whole world of humanity for individual peace, harmony in the society and peace among all nations. One should steadfastly observe five duties in life towards : (i) self, (ii) family, (iii) relatives, (iv) society and (v) world community, giving importance to each in the above order without neglecting any of the other four. One should allot at least 1% of his income to be spent only for the help and welfare of the needy. In order to achieve the purpose of life and develop one's consciousness, one must learn and practice meditation on the lifeforce, which will result in peace of mind, physical health and enlightenment of consciousness. Yoga maharshi swami Deva-Murti offers to every earnest seeker his seven master keys which will also ensure realization of his spiritual goal and destiny: i. One mother, one wife/husband, ii. Jaisa Anna Taisa Man, iii. Spinal twelve Exercises, iv. Netra-Jyoti-Prakashini Neti, v. Pranayama, vi. Nauli Kriya, vii. Firm belief in God (spirituality). Yogis and mysties have proclaimed that coiled serpentine power lies locked in Kundalini, and that the spinal chord with its seven 15 chakras is the mystic reservoir of human energy. A very large percentage of human illness can be attributed to the wrong posture and consequent distortion or malfunctioning of the spinal chord. So, figuratively speaking, charging the spinal chord is recharging the human battery and build up an immense reservoir of human energy. Right physical and mental posture for effective meditation are : i. Physical - A stabilized posture which is, in fact, the natural body. Balanced breathe and the practice of right diet. ii. Mental - Original mind, detached, purified, strengthened and active. The mind of faith arising from a developed physical and emotional centre of the body. Yoga began at least six thousand years ago and has continuously been enriched by the wisdom accumulating from humanity's struggle for survival. But such practices as right posture, correct breathing and sound diet have a wider relevance, for they can be seen as the factors necessary for maintaining the

integrity of the life-force, health, society and even the cosmic laws. Those people who use Yoga just for exercise or relaxation or to calm the mind, fail to understand the aims of Yoga. Aims of Yoga are: i. To bring us to greater humanity. ii. To awaken in us the mind of service. iii. To bring us to true meditation. 16 Most of the Yoga that is taught today is not real Yoga. That is because it neither pursues nor maintains these aims. Furthermore, because most Yoga is unbalanced, it actually harms people by developing them one sidedly. If a human being can live strictly according to nature he will have total health and happiness, because such a way of life is balanced. One sided training makes people unbalanced and neurotic. The blessing of total health comes to those who find their own individual life-style and adhere to it. It does not come to those who merely accept this or that ready made system.

Yoga is the science of life and the art of living. It is India's oldest scientific, perfect spiritual discipline. Yoga is a method of training the mind and body for discovering spiritual truths. Yoga is science of life, it offers us simple, easy remedies, techniques and methods of health and hygiene to assure physical and mental fitness with a minimum of time, effort and expense. Yoga is neither a sect nor an ideology but a practical training of mind and body. Yoga is also a technique for achieving purest form of selfawareness, devoid of all thoughts. Health is precisely, that condition in which human being has full sensitivity and in which all his faculties are operating fully. According to prominent Jainacharya Mahaprajna inventor of Preksha Dhyan Yogatotal health consists of physical, mental, 17 emotional and spiritual health. Sound health and peaceful mind are a must for man to enjoy the material world and develop the consciousness to its perfection. By realizing consciousness man can live with satisfaction, harmony and peace. Realization of consciousness is the only one perfect and higher knowledge by which one can know everything in the universe. The man is nothing but the extended and perceptional activity of consciousness. Keeping the physical body in a healthy condition and the mind in highly culturally enlightened level and thereby leading a creative life so as to be a useful member of the society throughout the span of one's life is the chief aim and thrust of Karma Yoga. Yoga blends the two states tension and relaxation. Yoga enables everyone to move towards that state of developed consciousness which is oneness with the sacred. The main purpose of practice of Preksha Dhyan Yoga (to see inside with deep concentration) is to purify the mental state. A regular practice of Yoga 30 to 50 minutes daily with faith in "self", proves a blessing in the form of spiritual

illumination which slowly develops into awareness of reality. If a human being can live strictly according to nature he will have total health and happiness, because such a way of life is balanced. One side training makes people unbalanced and neurotic. The blessing of total health comes to those who find their own individual life18 style and adhere to it. It does not come to those who merely accept this or that ready made system.

1. Meditation and YogaMasahiro Oki, published by Oki Yoga publications, Japan, first edition, 1978. 2. Yoga and HealthSwami Manuvaryaji Maharaj, Dundubhi printers, first edition, 1994. 3. Preksha Dhyan Basic PrinciplesAcharya Mahaprajna, Jain Vishva Bharati, Ladnun (Raj.), January-2003. 4. Preksha Dhyan Theory and PracticeAcharya Mahaprajna, Jain Vishva Bharati, Ladnun (Raj.), January-2003. 5. Preksha Dhyan Human Body (part-II), Health CareJ.S. Zaveri, Jain Vishva Bharati, Ladnun(Raj.), edition 1993. 6. Karma YogaYogiraj Vethathiri MaharshiVethathiri publications, Erode (T.N.), third edition, 1995. 7. Yoga-PraxisYoga Maharshi Swami Deva Murti, 1971-72, International Yoga Centre, Schloss Aubach, West Germany.



Health management through yoga and Naturopathy

What is Yoga?
Yoga is a science as well as an art of healthy living. It is no way limited by race, age, sex, religion, caste, creed and any other boundaries and can be practiced by those who seek an education on better living and those who want to have a more meaningful life. Yoga is the surest way of complete health. Yoga is the science of life and the art of living. It is India's oldest scientific, perfect spiritual discipline. Yoga is a method of training the mind and body for discovering spiritual truths. Yoga is science of life, it offers us simple, easy remedies, techniques and methods of health and hygiene to assure physical and mental fitness with a minimum of time, effort and expense. Yoga is neither a sect nor an ideology but a practical training of mind and body. Yoga is also a technique for achieving purest form of self-awareness, devoid of all thoughts. Integral Yoga equips us with the right tools to handle life's uncertainties in a remarkable calm manner. It is nothing mysticaljust a practical and scientific guide to an improved way of life. It is the science that harmonizes the mind body connection most effectively. It is a power tool for facing life's challenges with an 20 attitude that will delight us. It has four major tools which are well meshed into one another : (i) Postures (Asanas) for physical exercise. (ii) Meditation for mind exercise.

(iii) Breathing (Pranayam) for channeling energy correctly. (iv) Deep relaxation. Naturopathy is a philosophy of balancing the energy system of the body-physical, emotional and spiritual using the natural methods, prevent stress and distress on the organs and promotes overall well-being and rejuvenation.

Benefits of Yoga
At the physical level Yoga and its cleansing practices have proven to be extremely effective for various disorders. Yoga is beneficial as follow:

(a) Increasing flexibility

Yoga has position that act upon the various joints of the body including those joints that are never really on the "radar screen" let alone exercised.

(b) Increasing lubrication of the joints, ligaments and tendons

The well researched Yoga positions exercise the different tendons and ligaments of the body. Surprisingly it has been found that the body which may have been quite rigid starts experiencing 21 a remarkable flexibility in even those parts which have not been consciously work upon.

(c) Massaging of all organs of the body

Yoga is perhaps the only form of activity which massages all the internal glands and organs of the body in a thorough manner, including those such as prostate-that hardly get externally stimulated during our entire lifetime. Yoga acts in a wholesome manner on the various body parts. This stimulation and massage of the organs in turn benefits us by keeping away disease and providing a forewarning at the first possible instance of a likely onset of disease or disorder. One of the far-reaching benefits of Yoga is the uncanny sense of awareness that it develops in the practioner of an impending health disorder or infection. This in turn enables the person to take pre-emptive corrective action .

(d) Complete detoxification

By gentle stretching muscles and joints as well as massaging the various organs, Yoga ensures the optimum blood supply to various parts of the body. This helps in flushing out of toxins from every nook and cranny as well as delayed ageing, energy and remarkable zest of life.

(e) Excellent toning of the muscles

Muscles that have become flaccid, week or slothy are stimulated separately to shed excess flab and flaccidity. 22

Attitude training in Yoga therapy

Most of the Asans and Pranayam are classified as if they are for particular physical or mental problems. For example matsyendrasan Asana is good for a diabetic patient or savasana is good for controlling high blood pressure. As a matter of fact, only Asanas or Pranayam is not going to help if it is done in a

mechanical pattern or form. There are other factors, which are playing a major role in recovery process. The Yoga therapist must and should impart the technology and philosophy of this science while providing the training to their patients. The traditional poses are not at all suitable to the needs of the men of this age where our life style is completely different from those of the old days. It is more important to teach more simplified versions as Yoga is nonspecific when it comes to effective and positive results, especially if other factors are not incorporated, for example, diet, routine, positive attitude, openness to accept the changes and learning new healthy habits etc. These other factors are :

(i) Awareness
A person who is practicing Yoga as a therapy must understand the reason for this practice. It is not important that the pose should be perfect in order to get its benefit but more important is the awareness of the body and attitude. 23

(ii) Concept
The concept of pose and Pranayam must be explained and should be very clear before its practice. The scientific explanation is a must.

(iii) Commitment
There has to be a commitment from both the sides-the therapist and the practioner. There must be a mutual understanding that one is there to explain and teach and the other is these to learn, recover and gain.

(iv) Dedication
Quite often people are taking up Yoga as an experiment. Sometime when all other doors are closed, people come to Yoga practice and expect a miracle or instance change or recovery. Just as there is a big difference in allopathic medicines and herbal medicines, likewise there is a big difference between other holistic physical training and Yoga. Once the person feels some positive results, he has to practice on a regular basis as a routine. Once a weak, one hour practice is not going to help.

(v) Trust and faith

Just as a patient trusts his doctor or any other health practioner, in the same way there has to be a faith and trust in whatever the patient is practicing during Yoga therapeutic sessions. It is very important that a good relation is maintained during the treatment and follow up sessions. 24

(vi) Attitude
Often, people who believe in other faiths or religions are not ready for certain Yoga practices when it comes to the philosophy and devotional practices for relaxation and meditation. The attitude is that "I want to learn Yoga but I do not want to learn philosophy, I am here to learn only poses and breathing." In other words, "I want to learn swimming but without getting wet. It is very important far a therapist to provide the scientific explanations with spiritual support. All Yoga practices are based on the laws of

the nature. It is very true that the science of Yoga was developed in India and majority of Hindu people practice that. The base is of Hindu, Jainism and Buddhism faith-but as a way of life. All Hindu, Buddhist and Jains scriptures and literature are explaining Yoga. One has to have some sort of knowledge of Bhagwat Gita, Preksha Dhyan, Patanjali Yoga Sutra, Health Yoga Pradipika and such texts. Here the intention is not to teach the religion but the philosophy behind the practice. If certain techniques are practiced with a certain attitude then it helps, more than a mechanical practice e.g. chanting of OM as an universal sound. Many attitudes are cultivated while practicing any pose. Each and every move can provide a space to learn a certain attitude if explained and developed during its regular practice. It could be from gross to the 25 subtlest level, that will help the practioner in the long run to change his life style and in cultivating healthy habits.

Health management through Yoga positions (Asanas)

Yoga poses have ban developed over centuries of research and experience. They have been found to be extremely effective. We should adopt Yoga positions and preferably Yoga routine in our life. Yoga results in huge benefit in terms of : (i) Correcting metabolic disorders. (ii) Overcoming stress and mind behaviours that seem beyond our control. (iii) Changing firmly entrenched attitudes or personality disorders. Integral Yoga ensures all round personality and health development by concentrating on Yoga positions, meditation, pranayam techniques and body cleansing methods. Yoga has simple and effective body movements that strengthen our back, firm the stomach and redistribute body weight. Yoga exercises stretch and tone the body muscles. To increase endurance and improve flexibility, Yoga asanas or positions are the best among all exercises for toning muscles, lubricating joints and massaging the body. Yoga postures bring physical as well as mental stability. These asanas were developed thousands of years ago and have evolved over centuries. They 26 work wonders in keeping the body healthy and the mind peaceful. Asanas exercise the nerves, glands, ligaments and muscles. In other words, Yoga exercises are the most comprehensive method of self care. Although the asanas are very powerful, the effect becomes dramatic when they are done the right way. The mind must be in harmony with the body movements, for this it is essential to equip overselves with the other tool of Integral Yoga. We must always begin with simple poses and gradually overtime move towards the complex ones. It is not as if maximum benefits cannot be achieved with simple positions. Quite contrary, maximum benefits would be achieved by what is "acceptable" to our body. To achieve the maximum benefits of Yoga, a specific

Yoga routine must be developed by first basic positions to free various rigid joints and get the mind in suitable mode. Only then we should be moving to these positions. The process of Yoga is just as important as the result.

Health management through Preksha Dhyan

The main purpose of the practice of Preksha Dhyan is to purify the mental states. Mind is constantly choked by contaminating urges, emotions and passions. This hampers the flow of wisdom. The hurdles of uncleanliness must first be removed. When the mind is cleaned, peace of mind automatically surfaces. Balance of mind, equanimity and the state of well being are also experienced simultaneously. 27 It should always be remembered that the ultimate aim of sadhana is purity and equanimity-freedom from contamination of passions. The state of well-being is not our ultimate aim ; it will inevitably ensure ; nevertheless it is not the objective. Similarly peacefulness is also a secondary benefit and will always be achieved, but not the aim. We have to transcend both these mental states to reach our ultimate purpose, viz. total purity of mind and goodness. Preksha Dhyan is an uncomplicated, easy to lean technique of meditation. It is comprised of the following : (i) Kayotsarga (Total relaxation) (ii) Antaryatra (Internal trip) (iii) Swash preksha (Perception of breathing) (iv) Sharir preksha (Perception of body) (v) Chaitnya kendra preksha (Perception of psychic centres) (vi) Lesya Dhyan (Perception of psychic colours) (vii) Bhavana (Auto-suggestion) (viii) Anupreksha (contemplation) We live in the age of tensions and because we are confronted with more and more situations that produce stress, increasing numbers of people at younger ages are suffering from hypertension which results in high blood pressures, heart attacks and premature deaths. Our most pernicious anxiety involves common problems of daily life such as the daily commute in a congested city, rising cost of living, unabating shortages of daily 28 necessities, polluted air and water. These and many other insoluble difficulties appear to have been built into our daily life. Bodily movements, speech and mental functions are three fold activities of our organism. One of the facets of meditational practice is reduction or total cessation of each of these activities. Three types of meditational practices thus ensure from the trinity of activities. As per prominent Jainacharya Mahapragya inventor of Preksha Dhyan total health consists of physical, mental, emotional and spiritual health.

Health management through Naturopathy

(I) Cure of heart disease by Naturopathy
Millions of people in the world suffer from the diseases of

the heart and blood vessels. The heart which is muscular pump, keeps the blood circulation continuous. But when there is a break down of this complicated mechanism, blood supply to a part of the body may be affected leading to what is known as heart attack. But with naturopathy the following cardiovascular diseases can be cured : Coronary Thrombosis-sudden blocking of one of the arteries. Arteriosclerosis-hardening of arteries. Degenerative heart disease-gradual decay of blood vessels due to excessive smoking of tobacco. Hypertensive heart disease29 straining of blood vessels due to high blood pressure. This leads to hardening of blood vessels, hence diminishing the supply of blood. High blood pressure (Hypertension)-Blood pressure remains high leading to disorder like lack of strength, bad temper, visionary troubles, tiredness, headache, coldness of hands and feet.

Nature cure

Routine-mudpack Specificfull massage (reverse direction), neutral spinal spray, ice massage to spine.

(II) Diabetes
Diabetes a very old disease, has a common featureexcessive accumulation of sugar in blood, due to malfunctioning of pancreas. The general prevalent method of treating the diabetic patient is to inject insulin to compensate what could be produced by the pancreas. The yogic treatment restores the normal functioning of the pancreas and other endocrine glands. The chemistry of the body becomes normal leading to a healthy body.

Nature cure

Routine-enema, mudpack Specific-full massage, partial massage to abdomen, cold abdomen pack, cold hip bath.

(III) Cancer
Cancer has affected millions in the entire world. It is the fobia of the disease which causes more suffering than the caner 30 itself. In cancer, floating starved non-functional cells group together and manifest themselves as toumers, ulcers and cancer.

Nature cure

Routine-enema, mudpack, cold spinal spray/bath, wheat grass juice therapy, grape diet. Specific-full massage, steam bath, under water massage, cold circular jet.

(IV) Obesity
Obesity is becoming a common health hazard and leads to many other diseases like coronary heart disease, high blood pressure, diabetes, psychosomatic disorders and a shorten life span. The main cause of obesity is excessive eating. The best method to control weight is to reduce the intake of protein, carbohydrates and fat and increase the supply of mineral and vitamins and also increase exercises.

Nature cure

This method of cure involves body purification. The method lightens the body and makes it free from toxins and morbid matter which in turn results in problem free weight loss. The procedures are : Full body dry friction-for 10 minutes daily. Enema (colon irrigation)-with luke warm water, alternate days. Steam bath-20 minutes, twice in a week. 31 Hot foot bath-20 minutes, 5 days per week.

Heath management through chakrascentres of consciousness

Level-I of Amrit Yoga-chakra 1 to 4
A primary focus of Amrit Yoga is to build heat by charging battery of the body, which is based in the lower three centres. As this energy is aroused and consciously directed from the lower chakras to the upper ones, our biological prana awakens to its evolutionary potential. Awakened prana, called kundalini, carries out healing and cleansing at an accelerated level resulting in the purification of the nerve channels in the body as well as cleansing kriyas-all of which prepare the body for accelerated spiritual development.

(i) Muladhara chakra (roots, alignment, earth)

Muladhara is the body in physical space and time, developing grounded ness, stability and foundation. In Amrit Yoga, the attention is alignment in all poses, building awareness and strength in the legs especially all standing poses. Anything that stabilizes and roots the foundation reinforces muladhara.

(ii) Swadhisthana chakra (sensation, flow, water)

In swadhisthana chakra we become aware of the senses, sensation (pleasure/pain) and emotions that accompany each pose. 32 We allow our awareness of ecstatic energy to build in the second half of the pose. Suggested poses include pigeon, bridge and he spinal twist.

(iii) Manipura chakra (flower, fire)

In manipura, our fire (spiritual heat) is stimulated. We "jump-start" the battery of the body, the physical storehouse of energy, through strong standing poses like the warrior. The willful aspect of the practice is also associated with chakra three. Here we are building the battery in the belly and then consciously directing that energy upward. This is an essential part of conscious generation and directing of energy is necessary for prana to awaken and move upward to higher centres.

(iv) Anahat chakra (Awakening to the spiritual path)

In Anahat, we are asked to open the heart. This requires spiritual commitment to let the ego drop away. In Amrit Yoga the heart energy is engaged with the use of the arms, with mudras, giving and receiving movements, some heart opening poses can be camel, Yoga mudra, cobra, half locust (opens arms and heart meridians) Breathe (lungs) and the forth chakra are closely

connected. 33

Level-II of Amrit Yoga (chakra 5 to 7) (v) Visuddha chakra (Internal/external)the power of sound vibration
Visuddha chakra is more apparent in level II of Amrit Yoga, but also in level Iwe turn into vibration of prana that sources the movement. Use sound vibration when in the pose and the power of our word (opening intention and om) to create the vibration field we intend. Become aware of our own inner dialogue and if it serves us or not. In Amrit Yoga the throat chakra may be stimulated through chanting, bridge, camel and shoulder stand postures.

(vi) Ajna chakrathe third eye

Meditation, witness, meditative, awareness, pratyahar, deep absorption without choosing for or against what is present in Ajna chakra. In the second half of the pose and third eye integrationconsciously allow energies to grow with meditative attention and draw freed energies upwards toward the third eye for integration. All forward bending poses where the head is lower than the heart brings attention and energy to the third eye (child, Yoga mudra, wide angle forward bend)

(vii) Sahasrar chakra (silence)

In the sahasrar, the elixir of Amrita comes through silencing the fluctuations of the mind. This is the entry into the bliss body which can happen in the second half of the pose, in third 34 eye meditation integration or in any pose. All these practices of Amrit Yoga are intended to reach the final point of stilling the modifications of the mind, which is always associated with the seventh chakra.

(1) Preksha Dhyan : theory and practiceAcharya Mahapragya, Jain Vishva Bharati, Ladnun (Raj.), edition 2003. (2) Article by Manjari Bhatt, Yoga teacher and therapist Yoga Education centre, Ontario. (3) (4) Meditation and Yoga-Masahiro Oki, published by Oki Yoga publication, Japan, first edition, 1978. (5) Karma YogaYogiraj Vethathiri Maharshi-Vethathiri publications, Erode (T.N.), third edition, 1995. (6) Yoga PraxisYoga Maharshi Swami Deva Murti, 1971-72, International Yoga centre, Schloss Aubach, West Germany. 35


Utility of Science of Living in building our life

Deterioration of cultural values
We see that there has been a great deterioration in human

values all over the world. Eternal values like spiritualism, nonviolence, harmony, tolerance and truth etc. are getting deteriorated. That is why immorality violence, intolerance, terror, callousness, fear and discontentment are on the spread. Man fears his fellowbeings, there is no trust. The sources of pleasure, peace, happiness and sensitivity have dried up. Man is restless, frightened and scared. That is why the importance of balance between individual liberty and administrative control is being increasingly felt. Administration, discipline and self-restraint all the three are essential to society. Liberty in the absence of self-restraint amounts to madness and crime.1 According to the famous literary figure Jainendra Kumar, "Culture comprises human relations. Deformity occurs when violence gains entry in these relations and it then poses a great threat to culture." Jainendra kumar has suggested a remedy too for this malady. According to him, there should be no pressure, no striking, no disrespect between man and man. Instead, there should be sympathy, respect and co-operation. There should be brotherhood among neighbours, economic relations should be based on cooperation, people should be willing to help other and privacy and 36 individuality of man should be maintained. All these factors are both the necessities and the characteristics of culture. 2 According to prominent Acharya Tulsi, the founder of Anuvrata movement only that culture flourishes and succeeds that produces persons devoted to duty. A country maintains and preserves its culture, civilization, art and national integrity only on the force of its saints and monks. According to Dr. Radhakrishanan, the only thing that can provide dignity to mankind is its spiritual endeavour. No culture can be permanent until it practices and supports this spiritual endeavour. 3 Swami Vivekanand proclaimed, "India cannot die, it is immortal and will remain so long as a majority of people do not give up spirituality.4 In the present circumstances, Indians do not proud of being Indians and how can they do so? So long as there is no Indianization of education, respect for nationality will not develop. He said that no importance is given to Indian vernaculars and Indian culture. We cannot have good and healthy citizens so long as Indian spirit is not introduced in education. 5

Measures to be adopted for the protection of Indian culture

The main characteristic of Indian culture is the formation of such rules and life-style that bring about the development of physical, mental and spiritual faculties, an over-all development of personality. The whole concept of Yoga and the different methods 37 of meditation are the result of this very peculiarity. Nowhere else do we find such an arrangement for physical, mental and spiritual development. Putting into practice the famous saying, "Sound mind in a sound body", a well-planned programme was made for physical development that helped in mental and spiritual development as well. In no other culture of the world is found such

an organized programme. This is the first and the foremost peculiarity of Indian culture.6 It is clear now that the values of human life and the gist of culture can be learnt and taught in early childhood only. A vigilant and cultured man glows with the sense of life and sense of the world. Without this vigilance and awareness, the importance of values cannot be appreciated. Awareness of beauty, affection, harmony, equanimity, respect for all religions, tolerance, coordination, healthy feelings of heart, keen intellect, scruple, sense of the best forms of man, balance between liberty and equality, duties and rights are the essential elements of culture. The education that is imparted to the students in the present time, does not provide these values to students. 7 Education is an indispensable part of development. It removes superstitions, social evils, false beliefs and refines life. Education has a two-fold function. On the one hand it teaches the art of living and on the other hand adds skill and efficiency to traditional arts. Educated persons are conscious of their aims and goals and at the same time they are ready to meet the challenges of 38 time. But all these things are possible only when value-based education is imparted. The present education system provides nothing of the sort. The tragedy is that our language and culture have been reduced to a secondary level in our own country and consequently the desired results are not being obtained. Children are not being taught what they ought to be taught. It is futile to blame children for what they are learning in the name of standard of life, as the Indian spirit is missing in their education. Our culture can be preserved only through the medium of education. 8 Science of living has emerged as a ray of hope in this dark and gloomy world. It is the lamp that will remove the darkness of ignorance.

Science of living : A sure means of building of life

It was winter break in the educational institutes. A Teacher's training camp pertaining to spiritualism, Yoga and moral education was organized in 'Tulsi Adhyatma Needam' from 25-121978 to 31-12-1978. Acharya Mahaprajna graced the occasion with his benevolent presence. The need for a new system of education was being keenly felt. There was a long discussion as to what name should be given to this new activity. After much thinking, Acharya Mahaprajna named this mammoth task of providing this spiritual, Yoga and moral education as SCIENCE OF LIVING. His suggestion was approved and applauded unanimously and this new programme came to be implemented as Science of living. According to Acharya Mahaprajna, "Science of 39 living is the name of a coordinated and harmonized system. There is in it a coordination of non-violence, moral education and internal change. It has been developed in the sphere to education with the coordination of Anuvrata and Preksha Dhyan." The main aim of Science of living is the building of spiritual-scientific personality. One, taught by this method will neither be a scientist nor a spiritual entity only. One will have all the attributes of both a

scientist and a spiritual personality. This is the greatest requirement and the urgent need of the period. The acute problems of the present time need as immediate and sure solution and for this, it is necessary to understand life and to make suitable changes in lifestyle, if needed. There are three aspects of Science of living : conative, emotional and practical. Science of living aims at : (i) Finding out the rules of life by which all these three aspects can be achieved. (ii) Finding out the rules by which a proper balance between emotional and intellectual development can be established. (iii) Finding out the rules by which intellect, pure conscience and inner-self can be aroused. Acharya Mahaprajna has brought out the following aspects of the science of righteous living : (i) Science of living is training of righteous living. (ii) Science of living imparts training in non-violence, moral values and brings about internal change. 40 (iii) Science of living is the co-ordination of Anuvrata and Prekshadhyan. (iv) Science of living is the study of anatomy of body and to observe experiments with them.

Science of living and the components of life

What is life? This is the first and foremost question that confronts every rational being. It is the first question because everything depends on life. Everything may happen when there is life. If there is no life, nothing will happen. All the activities follow life. The end of life signifies the end of all the activities of mind, body and speech. It is a big question because the things have value when life exists and become meaningless with the end of life. The components of life are : 1. Body, 2. Breathing, 3. Vitality, 4. Mind, 5. Emotions/aura/psychic colours, 6. Karma, 7. Consciousness, Let us ponder over them one by one :

1. Body
41 The first component of life is body. Everything lies in body. A physician too examines the body first of all, when someone complains of some ailment. And it is very mysterious. A physician examines the body from medical point of view. He tries to understand both the nervous system and the glandular system. But the concept changes when the body is studied from the point of view of Science of living. There are certain centers in the body where consciousness is highly dense centred. In Prekshadhyan, they are known as centers of psyche. Experiments in meditation

are carried out on them. If spiritual power is to be aroused, we will have to concentrate on the center of intuition. If we want to be balanced, disciplined and self-restrained, we will have to concentrate on the center of purity. If the habit of drinking is to be given up, one has to concentrate on the ear. Vigilance center is the center for de-addiction. Ten systems in all, such as digestive system, nervous system, respiratory system etc. are responsible for the various activities of body. All these systems are closely related not only to the physical activites but to human behaviour also. 42

2. Breathing
The second component of life is breathing. The brain has two sidesright side and left side. The breathe taken with the right nostril activates the left side of brain. The various experiments made in breathing help in bringing about emotional change.

3. Vital force
Vitality is the main source of our life-force. Body is conducted by vitality. Breathing is conducted by vitality. Mind and speech too are conducted by the force of will and speech. Balance of vitality controls the whole life. When it gets imbalanced, the physical health is affected adversely and the whole system of life gets disturbed. In Prekshadhyan, there are many means that can maintain balance in vitality (i) Perception of body, (ii) Perception of Taijas center, (iii) Perception of purifying center, (iv) Perception of equanimous breathing. Health means balance of vitality. Man gets sick when this balance is disturbed. Vitality is a subtle element. It is not perceived by any instrument. Hence it is unknown.

4. Mind
The fourth ingredient of life is mind. There are two stages of mindinstability and concentration. An instable mind is responsible for failure and a concentrated mind is the key to 43 success. The means by which concentration can be gained are as follow : (i) Perception of deep breathingrhythmic deep breathing. (ii) Restraint in breathing by adopting some particular procedurebreath stopping. (iii) Perception of vitality center. (iv) Perception of Intuition center. (v) Perception of thoughts. (vi) Perception without a wink. (vii) Contemplation. Too much instability of mind causes many problems. On the other hand, concentration of mind provides solution to many problems. Memory, imagination and thinking all three are the business of mind. When these three reach to an undesirable point, they cause mental tension.

5. Psyche

The fifth ingredient of life is psyche. Psyche is a ray of the light of knowledge. It is affected by our consciousness and in return, affects our gross body. Through brain and nervous system, it conducts and controls every activity of lifebody, speech and mind. The aim of Preksha meditation is purification of psyche. It aims at removing anything that covers consciousness so that no dirt of delusion may defile it. The means that help purifying psyche are as follow : 44 (i) Perception of the centers of consciousness. (ii) Experience of attachment and aversion free moment. (iii) Experience of pure consciousnessequanimity. (iv) Thought-free meditation. (v) Experiment of knowerperceiver feeling. (vi) Psychical activity.

(6) Emotions : Psychic colours : aura

The sixth ingredient of life is emotions. The test of the purity or the impurity of psyche is the purity or the impurity of emotions, psychic colour and aura. Success and contentment are gained by positive emotions. Healthy emotion is the basis of the mental health. The basic aphorism of Preksha meditation is freedom from physical, mental and emotional ailments. Man instinctively wants to lead a life of ecstacy. Physical, mental and emotional ailment are the obstacles in gaining this state of absolute meditation. In Preksha meditation, emotional health is given the utmost importance. If one is fit emotionally, one is sure to be fit mentally and physically too. The experiments for gaining emotional health are as follow : (i) Psychic colour meditation. (ii) Contemplation of friendship. (iii) Contemplation of compassion. (iv) Contemplation of tolerance. 45 Mind is a nonsentinent element. It is not self-conducted. Its motivating force is emotions. Mind is related to subtle body. There is a subtle body within the gross body and that is known as Taijas body. That is an electrical body. In the center of that body are formed emotions. Emotions are the motivating and determining factors of life. They affects the psyche in the gross body. This psyche, through the brain, affects and conducts all the activities of life.

(7) Karma
The seventh components of life iskarma. Karma is the result of human endeavour. The endeavour of the present is known as self-exertion and that of the past is known as karma. Karma is one of the elements that affect human life the most. This invisible force can neither be denied nor can it be regarded as supreme. Whatever happens in life is not always accidental, without rhyme or reason or result of circumstances. Some incidents may be affected by circumstances but behind most of them there is some reason and that is karma. Some diseases too are the result of karmas. It is surprising that the physiologists who have

investigated each and every cell of body and have tried to find out the bio-chemicals, did not come forward to search the soul. The first step towards the search of the soul is the search of karma. The ways by which karmas can be transformed are as follows : (i) Indeterminate meditation. 46 (ii) Congitational meditation on worldly troubles. (iii) Righteous analysis. (iv) Psychic colour meditation. (v) Psychic center meditation. (vi) Prayer. The aim and object of Science of living is to study the effect of Preksha meditation on these seven aspects of life with scientific tools and psychological tests in order to realize the innumerable mysteries of life and for the building of life. In the direction of understanding life as a whole, concentrating on these seven points and constantly trying to refine them is the first step to be taken by any human being. By paying full attention to these aspects and by following them we can build our life and can mould our character.

1. Outline of culture and science. 2. Education and Culture, Jainendra Kumar, 84-85. 3. Our cultureDr. Radhakrishanan. 4. Development of Indian culture. 5. One drop : one ocean. 6. World religion perception, 400. 7. Outline of culture and science. 8. Prekshadhyan magazine, December, 1994.


Common Yogic and Naturopathic prescriptions for healthy living

During the prolonged process of evolution of Universe the human body is a creation of nature. A healthy human being in a span of 24 hours produces 450 cubic tones of energy. He can speak 4800 words; he can utilize 750 muscles, relaxes 7 million nerve cells, respires 23040 times and heart beats 103689 times. Blood circulates through blood vessels to a distance of 1.68 billion kilometers. These vital processes are possible to continue in normal pattern only when there is a proper co-ordination and balance between the process of respiration, digestion, nutrition and excretion. The major biological systems function in a typical manner only on the basis of the functioning of the above process. With this, one achieves an elevated status of healthy living. A healthy daily routine lays the foundation of a healthy life style. A person with healthy life style, compared to others develops much better physically, mentally, socially and spiritually. In Yoga science, for

healthy living, there is significance of Yama, Niyam, Asana, Pranayam, Pratyahar, Dharana, Dhyan and Samadhi. In 48 Naturopathy various therapeutic measures which contribute significantly towards the healthy living include; Hydrotherapy, Chromo therapy, Diet, Fasting therapy, Air etc. For a healthy living it is also important to follow the laws of nature. Along with this one must discard the ill habits which cause adverse effects on health. Following are the typical characters of healthy living:1. Ailments free life. 2. Desired preventive measure towards the physical, mental and emotional factors. 3. Perception with realities. 4. Co-operative attitude and co-operative behaviour. 5. Adjustment with the changed circumstances. 6. Sensibility. 7. Awareness of realities. 8. Desired social and spiritual characters. 9. Balanced emotional control and reconstitution. 10. Lack of jealously, complexity and hatred. 11. Unified personality. 12. A proper co-ordination over the psychic stage, psychosomatic stage and organic stage towards the available health.

Standards of healthy living

49 Healthy living is governed by several factors. Healthy living on one side affects physical and mental health and on other side is influenced by living environment personal factors, family relation and the consumable food ingredients normally. Following are the major factors:1. Physical and mental disorders. 2. Over all food and nutrition. 3. Exercise. 4. Regulated respiration process. 5. Normal digestion and excretion. 6. Stress-free routine. 7. Contentment. 8. Level of moral and traditional values. 9. Physical and mental paucity. 10. Positive thinking. 11. Daily routine in compliance with nature. 12. Control of lust and submission to God. 13. Physical and mental total relaxation.

Barriers of healthy living

In the ancient time man used to live in the midst of nature. As a result he was the master of health, personality, excellence, contentment and pleasure. On the other hand as of today advancement of science and technology as brought forth a heap of 50 option for physical comfort. Nevertheless, there is void with

respect to physical and mental health. In this background there is a best possibility of healthy living. Following are the barriers for healthy living:1. Uncontrolled food habit. 2. Liquor consumption and smoking. 3. Cardiac disorders. 4. Hypertension. 5. Diabetes. 6. Obesity. 7. Stress. 8. Insomnia. 9. Tension. 10. Arthritis and other joint disorders. 11. Constipation. 12. Distress and disappointment. 13. Frustration.

Role of Yoga in healthy living

Yoga is a subject of science of high order, which carries in it the mystery of conservation of health and transformation of life. A complete expression of life is possible only through Yoga. Yogasana, pranayam, meditation develops faith in a person, chiefly because it is half a therapy. It is common saying that confidence is 51 half the cure. The concept of Ashtanga Yoga proposed by Mahrashi Patanjali with different aspects have enormous contribution towards healthy living as out lived here:

1. Yama
Under this include different aspects such as Ahinsa, Satya, Asteya, Bhramcharya and Aparigraha. Through this first step of Ashtanga Yoga one turns to more ideal in his day to day life. With this he discharges his duties towards society in a more orderly manner.

2. Niyama
The major components under this include Shauch, Santosh, Tapa, Swadhyaya, Ishwarpranidhan. Practice of this aspect of Yoga turns a person, more disciplined and orderly. With this one can overcome the deformities of personal senses. In fact the reformation of personal actions for us is the basic foundation of healthy living.

3. Asanas
Having achieved the perfection over the guideline of Yama and Niyama only then one must commit for the practice of Yogasanas. Without this the Yoga practices is ineffective. For various Yogasanas body is flexed for an specific posture regularly at a given time for a given purpose. This exerts special effect on different body joints, muscles, heart, digestive system, endocrine glands, lungs & nervous system. This revives the normal 52 functioning of respective organs and body system. At present time special significance to Yogasana is direct relation to healthy living.

4. Pranayama

Pranayam is a highly sophisticated procedure of Yoga, where by one achieves a total control over the vital force which governs the proper functioning of bodys life process. Pranayam helps to tone-up the most vital activities of the body, such as respiratory system, cardio-vascular system. In addition, it strengthens the body immunity which is extremely important for maintaining the quality of life and healthy living.

5. Pratyahar
The real purpose of this Yoga practice is to drive the bodys consciousness inwardly and focus at a pleasant thought or a point of auspicious feeling. In a daily life the practice of such yogic terms helps to achieve a high order of quality life.

6. Dharna
For the purpose of achieving the spiritual excellence, this type of yogic exercise, called Dharna carries special significance. It is mainly for the reason that Dharna itself means to focus on a solitary point through flow of thought. Continuity of this state is termed as- Dhyan, which is the final objective of Yoga practice for healthy living.

7. Meditation
53 Meditation acts as a powerful tonic. It is a mental and nerving tonic as well. The holy vibrations penetrate all the cells of the body and cure the diseases of the body. Those who meditate save doctors bills. The powerful, soothing waves that arise during meditaion exercise a benign influence on the mind, nerves, organs and the cells of body. The divine energy freely flows like Tailadhara (flows of oil from one vessel to another) from the feet of the Lord to the different systems of the Sadhakas. Considerable changes take place in the mind, brain and the nervous system by the practice of meditation. New nerve-currents, new vibrations, new avenues, new grooves, new cells, new channels are formed. The whole mind and nervous system are remodeled. You will develop a new heart, a new view of mind, new sensations, new feeling, new mode of thinking, acting and a view of the universe (as God in manifestation). The fire of meditation annihilates all foulness due to vice. Then suddenly comes knowledge or divine wisdom, which directly leads to final emancipation. Real peace and Ananda (bliss) manifest only when Sankalpas get extinguished. When you fix the mind on the supreme energy even for five minutes Sattva guna is infused into the mind. Vasanas (impression) are thinned out and the force of sankalpa become less and less. You will feel peace and bliss during the five minutes. You can compare this Ananda from meditation with the transitory 54 sensual pleasures. You will find that this Ananda from meditation is a million times superior to sensual pleasure. Meditate and feel this Ananda. Then you will know its real value. You will get the full Ananda of the divine glory only when you merge deep into silent meditation. When you are on the border land of divinity of

God, when you are at threshold of God, when you are in the outer skirts, you will not get the maximum peace and bliss.

8. Samadhi
Samadhi is provided to super normal healthy person.

Role of Asanas, Pranayam & Meditation in common diseases

Ujjayi (energy-renewing Pranayama), Nadi-Sodhana (altenate breathing).

Paschimottanasans (stretching the back and legs), Ardhamatsyendrasana (Simplified version of the Yogi Matsyendra Posture), Sarvangasana (Shoulder-stand), Sirshasana (Head-stand), Savasana (Complete Relaxation Posture). 55

Change over to foods rich in iron and Vitamin-B juice of wheat sprouts(grass), uncooked Juices or soups of leafy vegetables, fresh fruits, germinated corn and beans, pulses etc.

Rhythmic breathing, Nadi-Sodhana(alternate breathing).

Trikonasna (triangle posture), Padmasana (The lotus Position), Salabhasana (The Locust Posture), Dhanurasana (The Bow Posture), Vakrasana (Spinal Twist), Viparitakarani (The Inverted posture), Savasana (Complete Relaxation Posture).

Avoid sours and masala food. Eat light vegetable foods. Take alkaline content fruits like sweet lemon and orange, pineapple etc.

Silent meditation for 20 minutes.

Rhythmic breathing, Nadi-Sodhana (alternate breathing without retention of the breath). 56

Vakrasana (Spinal Twist), Paschimottanasans (stretching the back and legs), Viparitakarani (The Inverted posture), Savasana (Complete Relaxation Posture).

Avoid milk and milk product, non vegetarian food, eat fruits and vegetables in season and cooked rather than raw vegetables.

Silent Meditation for 15-30 minutes.



Uddiyana (Rising of the diapharm), Trikonasana( triangle posture), Vakrasana (spinal twist), Paschimottanasans (stretching the back and legs), Sarvangasana ( shoulder- stand), SuptaVajrasana ( The Supine Pelvic Posture). Diet- Include food with flares and roughage in daily diet. Plenty of raw vegetable, fruits, whole wheat chapaties etc. should be taken. 57

Rhythmic breathing, Nadi-Sodhana(alternate breathing without retention of the breath).

Uddiyana (Rising of the diapharm), Paschimottanasans (stretching the back and legs), Ardhamatsyendrasana (Simplified version of the Yogi Matsyendra Posture), Sarvangasana ( shoulderstand), Savasana (Complete Relaxation Posture).

Avoid starchy food, eat more fibbers and protein content food, restrictions should be followed.

Rhythmic breathing, Nadi-Sodhana (alternate breathing without retention of the breath).

Halasana (The Plough posture), Vakrasana (spinal twist), Paschimottanasans (stretching the back and legs), Sarvangasana( shoulder- stand), Matasyasana (The fish posture), Sirshasana (Head- stand), Savasana( Complete Relaxation Posture) 58

Rhythmic breathing, that revitalizes the nervous system.

Uddiyana (Rising of the diapharm), Viparitakarni (The Inverted Posture), Sarvangasana(shoulder-stand), Matsyasanas (The fish posture), Shirsasana (Head-stand), Savasana (Complete Relaxation Posture).

Only light easily digestable food with plenty of fiborous materials should be taken.

Rhythmic breathing, Nadi-Sodhana (alternate breathing).

Viparitakarani (The Inverted posture), Savasana (Complete Relaxation Posture).


Easily digestable food.

Heart Trouble
Rhythmic breathing, Nadi-Sodhana (alternate breathing). 59

Depending on the case Uddiyana (Rising of the Diapharm), Trikonasana (Triangle Posture), Sirshasana (Head-stand), Savasna (Complete Relaxation Posture).

Avoid foods containing fats and cholesterol. Eat more vegetable and fruits. Take light vegetarian meals.

Silent meditation for 20-30 minutes.

High blood pressure

Rhythmic breathing, nadi-sodhna (alternate breathing, without retention of the breath).

Padmasana (the lotus position), viparitakarani (the inverted posture), savasana (complete relaxation posture).

Consume less salt and fat. Eat 10 vegetables more.

Silent meditation for 20 minutes. 60

Bhastrika (Bellows), Nadi-Sodhana (alternate breathing).

Uddiyana (Raising of diapharm), Bhujangasana (The Cobra Position), Salabhasana (The Posture), Salabhasana (The Locust Posture), Dhanurasana (The Bow Posture) Trikonasana (Triangle Posture), Pachimottanasana (Stretching the back and legs), Sarvangasana (Shoulder-stand), Savasana (Complete Relaxation Posture).

Include food with flares and roughage in daily diet. Plenty of raw vegetable, fruit whole-wheat chapaties etc. should be take.

Liver Ailments
Rhythmic breathing, Nadi-Sodhana (alternate breathing). Asanas Uddiyana (Raising of diaphram), Baddha Konasana (Yoga-Mundra, feet jointed), Mayurasana (The Peacock Posture), Pachimottanasana (Stretching the back and legs), Vipritakarani (The Inverted Posture), Savasana (Complete Relaxation Posture).

Take liquid diet for a period and gradually change over to our usual. Eliminate fatty food and alcohol from diet. 61

Low Blood Pressure

Rhythmic breathing, Bhastrika (Bellows).

Siddhasana (Posture of the Ac), Halasana (The Plough Posture), Pachimottasana (Stretching the back and legs ), Sarvangasana (Shoulder-stand), Sirshasana (Head-stand), Savasana (Complete Relaxation Posture).

Obesity or Overweight
Bhastrika (Bellows), Ujjayi (energy-renewing Pranayama), Kapala bhati (breathing that revitalizes the body).

Uddiyana (Raising of the disphram), Pachimottanasana (Stretching the back and legs), Trikonasana (Triangle Posture), Vakrasna (Spinal Twist), Sarvangasans (Shoulder-stand), Sirshasana (Head-stand), Dhanurasana (The Bow Posture).

Restriction in diet are unavoidable, if reduction in weight is desired. Reduce drastically the in take of foods containing high proportion of carbohydrate and raw vegetables should form a major part of daily diet. 62

Sinus Trouble
Nadi- Sodhana (alternate breathing), Surya Bhedana.

Viparitakarni (The Inverted Posture), Savasana (Complete Relaxation Posture).

Rhythmic breathing, Nadi-Sodhana (alternative breathing).

Viparitakarani (The inverted Posture), Sarvangasans (Shoulder-stand), Sirshasana (Head-stand), Savasana (Complete Relaxation Posture).

Take rich protein diet.

Silent meditation for 15-30 minutes. 63

Kapalabhati (breathing and revives the body), NadiSodhana (alternative breathing). Kumbhaka (retention of the breath).

Suptavajrasana (The Supine Pelvie Posture), ArdhaMatsyendrasana (Simplified version of the Yogi Matsyendra Posture), Trikonasana (Triangle Posture), Dhanurasana (The Bow

Posture), Sarvangasana (Shoulder-stand), Savasana (Complete Relaxation Posture).

Japa, Ajapa silent meditation for 15-30 minutes.

Rhythmic breathing, Surya-Bhedana (breathing that revitalizes the nervous system), Bhastrika (Bellows).

Vakrasans (Spinal Twist), Bhujangasana (The Cobra Position), Salabhasana (The Locust Posture), Halasana (The Plough Posture), Vakrasana (Spinal Twist), Paschimottanasana (Stretching the back and legs), Sarvangasana (Shoulder-stand), Savasana (Complete Relaxation Posture). 64

Silent meditation for 15-20 minutes and antara mouna.

Rhythmic breathing, Nadi-Sodhana (alternative breathing), Ujjayi (energy-renewing Pranayama).

Halasana (The Plough Posture), Paschimottanasana (Stretching the back and legs), Ardha Matsyendrasans (Simplified version of the Yogi Matsyendra Posture), Sarvangasana (Shoulder stand), Matsyasana (The fish posture), Sirshasana (Head-stand) Savasana (Complete Relaxation Posture).

Silent meditation for 15-30 minutes.

Rhythmic breathing, Nadi-Sodhana (alternative breathing).

Yoga-Mudra (The Symbol of Yoga), Vakrasana (Spinal Twist), Salabhasana (The locust Posture), Halasana (The Plough Posture), Mayurasana (The Peacock Posture), Viparitakarni (The Inverted Posture), Savasana (Complete Relaxation Posture). 65

Silent meditation for 15-30 minutes.

Rhythmic breathing, Nadi-Sodhana (alternative breathing), breathing that purifies.

Baddha Konasana (Yoga-Mudra, feet jointed), Halasana (The Plough Posture), Vakrasana (Spinal Twist), Sarvangasana, Savasana (Complete Relaxation Posture). Note: Above is a short list of various Pranayama, Meditation and Asana exercises corresponding to different disorders and illnesses,

both functional and organic. It is absolutely essential to ensure the guidance of a properly trained and experienced expert, able to adapt these exercises, based on long experience of Yoga, to the needs of the individual.

Naturopathic techniques for healthy living

Naturopathy is a unique therapeutic system where the natural measures and sources are employed to keep a person hale and hearty. The basic concept of naturopathy is that a man is an integral component of nature and he is made up of five basic 66 elements earth, water, fire, ether and air. In a state of imbalance of these elements the morbid matters start accumulating in the body and a person turns sick. Under naturopathy mud, water, air steam, sun-rays are employed to treat a patient. Under naturopathy bodys in built power or immunity is toned-up to reconstitute healthy living through following technique:-

1. Food and nutrition

For an ideal life style balanced diet plays a vital role. As we know there are four major aspects of health; physical, mental, social and spiritual. All these major aspects must be built-up for achieving an ideal health. The purpose of food is not to satisfy the hunger or the taste of tongue. Instead of this the purpose of diet must be to offer nutrition to body along with toning-up the mental spiritual health. This is significant since the body mind and the inner conscience all the three are the strong pillars of health. Until all the three are healthy one can not term it as a complete health. In the ancient Indian literature the food has been classified under three major categories, Sattvic, Rajsic and Tamasic. It is mentioned that those who desire for a good physical, mental and spiritual health, they must go for sattvic diet. Those who look for the two aspects of health i.e. physical and mental only, they must opt for Rajsik diet. With pure food mental rejuvenation is ensured, 67 it means that it helps to control bodys functional components i.e. Indryas. Further, pure food helps to generate mental concentration. The most suitable food is that which offers vitality to the body, reduces destructive forces, provides desired body temperature, must be digestable, non-stimulant and promotes memory, longevity strength, courage, mercy and co-operation. All type of synthetic and confectionery food products, salt, alcoholic drinks, meat products, hydro peroxides used for food processing, plastic wares, pesticides. Chemical fertilizers and food, cosmetics, toilet products and various chemicals which come under the direct contact with the body may cause diseases on prolonged use. The sprouted food and fresh eatables carry with them a higher percentage of enzymes, vitamins and essential minerals. Enzymes play a vital role in the biological process of digestive system. Moreover, it helps in providing essential portions for the regeneration of body cells, enzymes and also purifies the vital body fluid; blood. The cooked food entirely lacks the enzymes; as

a result the body runs into enzymes deficiency. Enzymes are the key factor for health and longevity. Enzymes are present essentially in the sprouted and uncooked food material. Life promoting food includes fresh unripe fruits, fresh green vegetables, sprouted cereals, wheat aqueous extract; milky Juice of sprouted seeds etc. Such biologically live food stuffs, contain high quality and partially digested carbohydrates, dextrose, 68 sucrose lactobacilli, Saccharomyces proteins, fat, Vitamin-A, thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, pyridoxine, B-12 biotin, pantothenic acid, folic acid, choline, inosital, Para amino benzoic acid vitaminA, B, C, D, E, K, G, L, M and W all sorts of vitamins, calcium, phosphorus, Sulphur, Sodium, Magnesium, Chlorine, Iron, Manganese, Copper, Iodine, Zinc, Chromium, Molybdenum, Boron, Cadmium, silicon etc. Such major mineral elements and those enzymes which participate in biological reactions, for combating physical and mental disorders and for maintenance of normal health. Life supporting food items carry clinical importance in fighting against common ailments. Leading scientists related to Bionutrition such as Dr. Vigmor and other Biochemists have investigated the role of micro-nutrition for the management of various chronic disorders such as cancer, eczema, intestinal disorders, paralysis, arthritis, anemia, asthma, psoriasis, posrosis etc. With this it may be inferred that food of biological origin especially vegetable, non-cooked or sprouted cereals may built up the deteriorating physical and mental health of entire world. This may not be possible with other expensive therapies. All types of fast food lack vital elements eg. Vitamin A, B, C, E, Calcium, Phosphorus and Iron. Due to the deficiency of the essential nutrients the persons who consume the fast food, turn highly irritable, pain in their calf muscles hand and feet, breathlessness, lack of concentration, heart and kidney disorders, 69 lack of interest in studies, body imbalance, indigestion etc. several such clinical symptoms. Due to the presence of excess salt, sugar and several synthetic chemicals the fast food turn extremely poisonous and toxic. As a result the symptoms of liver, kidney disorders, hypertension and diabetes start appearing.

2. Hydrotherapy
1) Steam bath
Mild steam bath is extremely useful for various ailments, such as joint disorders, respiratory problems, oedema, asthma, obesity, apart from this it relieves liver disorders, hysteria, nephritis and prevents kidney failure.

2) Neutral- full tub immersion bath

Under massage during full immersion tub bath stimulates the functional activity of kidney and lungs which stimulates bodys immunity. It relieves blood circulatory problems. More over it tones up the mental capacity and hearts strength.

3) Hot full tub immersion bath

It stimulates excretion of toxic wastes including uria, uria

acid, ammonia, amino acid etc. It relives serious clinical problems such as ascites, oedema, respiratory congestion, pneumonia sciatica, arthritis, psoriasis, cystitis etc. 70

4) Sauna bath
The special feature of sauna bath is the use of hot and dry flow of air over the body. Due to this the blood capillaries get dilated and their oxygen retention capacity increases. Due to the hyper-thermic effect the melanin cells get activated.

5) Hipbath
It suits to relieve constipation, indigestion, prostrate glands disorders, ulcer, insomnia, anemia etc.

6) Hot hipbath
It is useful to relieve inflammation of colon, urinary bladder, uterus prostate gland neuralgia, sciatica and spondilitis.

7. Spinal bath
Cold spinal bath acts as nervine tonic and general tonic. It tones- up the entire spinal nervous system. 8) Hot-cold fermentation Different body parts are sequentially exposed to hot and cold treatment. Thus employing various techniques of hydrotherapy it is possible to prevent various ailments, keep healthy and thus avail an ideal healthy life.

3. Chromothrerapy/Heliotherapy
Sun is the Atman of world. Sun controls the biological clock. The sun rays are indispensable not only for conservation of health but also for maintaining a healthy daily routine. 71 The infra rays exert the temperature regulation effect. Where as the ultra violet rays exert the physio-chemical and physio-biological effect and thus regulate the blood pressure. When sun rays belong to 0.4 to 0.65 wave length they turn useful to mankind, as during sunrise, where it tones up blood vessels. Such rays divert the blood flow towards skin and thus nourishes it. This activates the sensory nervous system, expands the constricted cells, regulates the peripheral resistance and thus lowers blood pressure. The sun rays of low density, as during morning and evening stimulates melamine formation and controls the synthesis.

4. Airings or Air bathing

This means that once every so often one removes the clothing, allowing the pores to breath freely. This is extremely good for the body and improves the exterior tone of the nurovegetative system so that the body develops a wonderful power of resistance.

5. Fasting
Fasting for one day in even ten or twelve days, even one is in good health, purifies the body and thus can prevent the inception of diseases. 72


1. Dr. Singh S.J., Chromotherapy. 2. Dr. Singh S.J., Naturopathy. 3. J. Chandra, Prakriticayur Vigyan. 4. Gore M.M., Anatomy & physiology of Yogic Practice, Kanchan Publication lonavala, Pune, India. 5. N.Kumar, Rogo Ki Sahi Chikitsa. 6. N. Kumar, Prakritic Chikitsa Avam Yoga: Vaigyanic Prayog. 7. Chopra Dr. Deepak, Perfect Health, Bantam Book Publisher, New York, 1989. 8. Creating Health, Boston, Houghton Mifflin Company, 1987. 9. Bagchi B.K. and Wender N.A., Electrophysiological Correlates of some Yogic Exercises, Electroencephalography and Neurophysiology, 1957. 10. Hewitt James, The complete book of Yoga, Rider Publication. 11. Pranayam, V.K.S. Iyengar. 12. Dutta S. Ray, Yogic Exercises, (Physiology and Psychic Processes) 13. Bakhru H.K., Hand Book of Nature cure. 14. Marwah. B.S., Health and Efficiency through Yogasanas, Army Educational Publicaton, New Delhi, 1965. 73 15. Rawls, E.S., A Hand book of Yoga for Modern living, Parker wast Nyak, N.Y., 1966. 16. Singh. Pancham, Hatha Yoga Pradipika, Lalit Mohan Basu, the Panini Office, Allahabad ,1915. 17. Acharya, Pundit, Breath is life, Prana Press, New Delhi, 1939. 18. Sir Ananda, The complete Book of Yoga Harmony of Body & Mind Orient Paperback, New Delhi. 19. Gupta, Yogi, Yoga and Long, life, Dodd mead Toronto, 1958. 20. Carrington P, and Ephron S: Meditation as on adjured of Psychotherapy. In New Dimensions in Psychiatry Ed Arieti. S and Chrzanowski G Wiley Interscience Publication, New York, 1975. 74

Chapter-5 Outcome of spirituality : vasudhaiva kutumbakam

Fundamentals of Spirituality
We are not living in isolated compartments the world has become one family. In a society plagued with domestic and communal violence, we need to globalize wisdom. Though we have advanced technologically, we have cared very little for the emotional and spiritual needs of people. A sense of belongingness with the whole world-rising above the narrow considerations of color, culture or back ground, is the need of the hour. We need to

look back and learn from the mistakes of the past, we need to understand what is lacking in society and how we can nurture the human values without which his earth cannot be sustained. Once the spinning impact of west becomes weak, there is bound to be a more helpful and harmonious process of mutual give and take. And that will be for the benefit of all. But for this to happen, India will have to intervene with his powerful spiritual influence and his characteristic integral philosophy and way of life. That alone will help resolve the conflicts of the present situation and reconcile the seeming contradictions in a harmonious and 75 holistic vision. That is the role which India is declined to play in the new millennium. Mere listening to spiritual discourses is not enough. One should always sit back and reflect on what had been said to actually benefit from them. It is said, "one hour of reflection is equal to seventy years of pious worship. It is only when we introspect about good things that we try to imbibe them in out life. Listening to the best of things without reflecting back on them has only superficial affects, By reflection, one can realize the depth of the issue and its meaning. Janism says that the dharma is made up of "Non-violence, Self control and austerity."i Positive emotions bring pleasure and negative emotions make life miserable. Non-violence is the heart of Jainism. All worldly problems can be solved by keeping nonviolence in center. We can protect environment (i,e earth, water, fire, air, vegetables and small creatures) by reducing our day to day requirement by reducing our greed. We should meet on injustice not with the force but with forbearance, Violence begets violence, emity leads to Emity. There is nothing in the world or even out of it that can be called good except the principle of nonviolence of all living beings. The root course of violence is material goods. The virtue of non-violence and Aparigraha are capable of establishing universal peace. Anand (bliss) is experienced by the sage who is free from all desires. Gita tells us that the actions should be performed after brushing aside all 76 attachment and the desire for the fruit. The highest aim of human life is to attain eternal bliss. All the conduct should be such as would bring us the maximum of happiness and remove miseries from our lives. Religion is the banana skin and spirituality is the banana. The misery in the world is because we through away the banana and are holding on to the skin. ii Knowledge and spiritual awareness should go hand in hand win social and political systems. Religious leaders, political leaders, business establishments and social workers should get together and spread the message of unity. All religions and traditions have a common value system. These shared values have to reach every corner of the world. Even if one pocket of the world remains ignorant of these values, the world will not be a safe place. Sit a while in solitude, meditate, reflect on your thoughts,

actions, your immediate environment the world around us. Think over and over again, introspect, and we will here that inner voice, God's voice, cleanse our soul always. Never let dust or dirt settle on it and distort our vision. Keep it bright and Shining. The heart is God's treasury. Keep it pure and radiant. Let our thought be pure, let our whole life be pure. It is also vary necessary to teach our children about the importance of purity of life. Moral education is a must today. Young children have impressionable minds and we should try to develop a spiritual outlook in them 77 from a very young age. We should help them inculcate good values and thoughts. Religion comes from the Latin word religate, which means "to bind". Thus, the rule of religion is to bind, to unite. Religion is a unifying force that which unites man to man. Religion simply binds us by commands so that we may no degenerate in miserybodily, mentally or spiritually. We ought to be sensitive to the cause of the society and humanity. We must involve ourselves in the activities of the society and try to reform it from within as much as we can. We should not shut out eyes to the crimes taking place in the society. We are about to enter a new era, which will see the dawn of a new divine civilization on earth. Let us now try not to divide the people into smaller sects or sections but unite them to accept one religion, one God and one humanity. Remember, we are not an integral part of God. All religions emphasize moral and spiritual values of love, mercy, compassion, forgiveness and good conduct.

Fundamentals of Vasudhaiva Kutumbakam

Vasudhaiva Kutumbakam is essential a cultural and spiritual concept. It looks upon the whole world us one's own family. Love and harmony, co-operation and mutual support are the basic ingredients here, as in a family. Naturally the idea of exploitation is alien. Individual and collective interests are complimentary to each other. Unlimited consumerism is ruled out, 78 because every one has to be provided with the necessities-the cake has to he shared more or less equally. According to Vedic traditions God has gifted intelligence to man. Let us make full use of this intelligence in uniting the mankind. The earth is the garden of God. Let us not spoil it. Let us not annoy God by destroying what he had built with love. The best thing is to begin with children. Let us sow the seed of love in them and not to say or do anything that would create feelings of hatred in them. Why say this country is mine, that country is yours? Why not say the entire universe is mine and thine? Are we not foolish for fighting each other in the name of religion or nationality. When the entire universe is ours and the Almighty God is one. There is hardly any sense in fighting each other and destroying God's creations. It is not painful? Think over it. The Indian sages and seers propounded the gospel truth "Vasudhaiva Kutumbakam". Let us Vow to follow this divine teachings and consider ourselves as the citizen of the world. We need unity to

build a new one world country. The concept of human unity is very old. Indian seers had unequivocally proclaimed that not only humans but the entire creation is one single family. For those who have a refined and generous outlook, the whole world is just one family. iii The joint family system of Indian is an example of unity in diversity. In mast Indian homes it is normal to see a family living together with the grand parents. They are of different age, yet they 79 are all united and happy. All this is due to the great teachings of our religion. Hinduism believe in universal unity and happiness. As one of its prayer says, "May all be happy." iv That is why some religions, so may races live in unity in diversity in peaceful coexistence in India. The Hindu system of varnashram dharma and the four Purushartha reinforce unity as well. They are meant for the proper development of society. Shri Krishna himself made it clear in Bhagavad Gita that a person's action determines his caste. The message of Bhagavad Gita is addressed to all men without distinction. The famous law of karma and rebirth, the concept of immortalality of the soul give hope and light, peace and solace to people of all castes, creeds and religions. It is considered a universal gospel. Peace and harmony in the world will come through brotherhood and love. With true enlightenment a person rises above the level of boundaries of race, religion, language or nation. Unless our mental horizon and perception is broad we cannot achieve success in life. Due to our ignorance we are trying to establish the superiority of our own race and religion. The cause of today's dangerous situation is the ignorance of mankind . It is by understanding the spirit of "Vasudhaiva Kutumbakam" that world peace can be ushered in this world. Today the world is on the verge of total destruction. Every country in the world, in the name of peace and self defence, has accumulated weapons of mass destruction. But through such weapons peace cannot come in this 80 world. In this dangerous situation respect for all religions and "Vasudhaiva Kutumbakam" can usher peace in this world. India is land where ideal of unity in diversity has existed for long. A variety of religions like Hinduism, Jainism, Buddhism, Sikkhism, Islam and Christianity flourish there. The Hindu religion itself is made of many creeds like Vaishnavism, Shaivism and Shaktism. This clearly give us an idea of unity in diversity existing in the heart of Hindu religion. India is a world in itself for its diversity.

Outcome of Spirituality : Vasudhaiva Kutumbakam

The aim of life should be to realize God and follow his teachings. We should think twice before we act so that our actions do not cause miseries to others. Let us dedicate the rest of our life in the service of God. The best service to God is service to society. Let us turn our own self-interest into public interest. Selfless actions are the actual prayers to God. Hatred in society has

caused immense harm to the society. Worship is that which inspires us to perform a good deed, worship is that activity which makes other happy. Worship is that which provides succour to the needy. Renouncing selfish desire is the highest state of renunciation. When such divine state is achieved one dedicates 81 oneself to the service of mankind. Only a selfless person is worthy of leading the mankind. A selfless person belongs to no particular nation, religion or culture. Such a selfless person is a citizen of the world. Let us follow selfless person for achieving one world dream. The basic teachings of all religion are same. Prophets of all religions have stressed upon the need of knowing and realizing God by following his teachings. Vedas say, for wise people, the entire humanity is but one family. Ramayana preaches God is present in all human beings. The Gita teaches, "Be involved in the good of all humanity". According to Jainism "Do not indulge mind, body and speech in the evil of all other creatures." According to Islam, " O God! give prosperity to all humanity." According to Guru Granth Saheb, "All humanity has sprung from light of one source i.e. God. Who is big, who is small? i.e. all are equal. Bible teachers, "Love they neighbor and the world is but family. All religions give the same divine message of unity of God. All schools should, therefore, teach children to follow the teaching of all prophets. From the first day in school, a child should learn that God is one, religion is one, humanity is one. The simple truth is that every one of us belongs to this universe and the universe belongs to us. The all human beings are small part of this great universe. Then why this disunity, why this mutual hatred. Why this mutual suspicion? According to Vedic 82 philosophy, "God conveyed his message through his messengers that we are all his own creation. Does this message not enjoin us to live in unity, peace and harmony? We all are equal in his eyes. Why should we then create differences and manipulate things to act against God's design? The time has arrived when we should come close to each other for realizing the one world dream. v

Every creature of globe wants to live and no body likes to die. Therefore no one has any right to destroy or harm any other living being. Jain ethics believes non-violence means universal truth. There is only one caste namely manhood. vi Jainism teaches us "Attainment of total freedom from the cycle of birth, life, pain, misery, death and achieving the blissful state of one's pure self, unity, tolerance, non-violence, truthfulness, chastity. Complete detachment from people, places and material things. Lord mahavira's teachings are to highlight the importance of practicing unity, non-violence and giving up anger, egoism, deception, greed and similar vices to be able to attain salvation. There are countless persons or organizations in the world

who advocate world peace and world unity. Our forefathers were great visionaries for advocating world peace and world unity. Therefore, they incorporate article 51 in the constitution of India to enjoin the Government to work for the unity of mankind in the spirit of our ancient belief of Vasudhaiva Kutumbakam. Taking 83 a cue from this article of the constitution of India we should try to build a global opinion for formation of a World Parliament and World Government, so that the entire world become one country and the mankind its citizens. All wars will come to an end when the World Government is framed. The existing stockpile of nuclear weapons will be destroyed by the World Government thus formed. A new era of everlasting peace will then prevail on earth, ushering in a new era of everlasting peace will then prevail on earth, ushering in a new civilization. Come, let us all join in this World Government movement. Humanity will forever remember India for bequeathing to it the ideal of Vasudhiva Kutumbakam.

1. Dasavaikalika, 1.1, Dhammo mamgala mukkitham ahimsa

samjamo tavo. 2. Sri Sri 3. Udara charitanam tu vasudhaiva kutumbakam. 4. Sarve bhavantu sukhinah : sarve bhavantu niramaya. 5., p. 4-13. 6. Adipurana 38.45, Manusyajatirekaiva. 84


Formation of secraments in girls through Prekshadhyan Yoga

Need for the formation of sacraments
Indian philosophy and the philosophies other than the Indian one have expatiated the word "sacraments" or habits in their own way. Considering from a broader point of view, formation of good habits, or bringing about refinement and purification means inculcation of human virtues in man. All the philosophies and ideologies agree to this definition. The present age is an age of science and of materialism. By making new discoveries in all the fields of life, science has made life extremely comfortable and convenient. The quest for convenience has given birth to materialism. Presently, materialism is at its highest level and the whole world is dazzled by it. No doubt there has been a great development in the whole world but the fact that there has been a great deterioration in values which cannot be denied. The fact most alarming is that the greatest deterioration has been there in human values. We see that human values like the feeling of friendship, compassion, brotherhood, sensitivity, morality, forbearance, renunciation, honesty, simplicity and positive thinking etc. are nowhere to be found. That is why human qualities liketerrorism, immorality, 85

insensitivity, selfishness, corruption, cruelty, dishonesty, distrust, stress, negative thinking, resentment and absence of peace etc. are prevailing everywhere. The ones who are still clinging to the good human values, are feeling suffocated. Hence a great need for the formation of sacraments, for bringing about refinement and for the development of human values is being acutely felt. Good habits are important for and useful to each and everybody, but here we are particularly concerned about the need for and utility of forming sacraments in girls. We will try to throw light on the ways and the experiments by which this purification may be brought about. Man is the smallest unit of world peace. Acharya Tulsi has rightly said Sudhre vyakti, samaj vyakti se! Rastra svayam sudhrega!! First of all there should be improvement in an individual. If the individuals are improved, society will improve, as society is nothing else but a group of individuals. And if society is improved, nation will improve automatically. In order to bring about and establish peace in the world, we will have to think of the ways of improving man, the smallest unit. In this regard, it has been aptly said Apna sudhar sansar ki sabse badi seva hain Improving oneself is the greatest service to world. If every person brings about a change in himself, improves himself, the world will be automatically changed and improved. By improving oneself, 86 one can render the greatest service to the world. The first thing required for improving the world is to make man a 'good man'. All the great thinkers of the world are emphasizing the fact that without the restoration of human values, there can be no happiness and prosperity in the world. Today, things have changed immensely. Globalization has reduced the whole world to the level of a small village. A village being very small, anything happening in it, immediately comes to the knowledge of each and everybody living in it. In the same way because of the great revolution in the field of Information and Technology, anything that happens in the remotest corner of the world, immediately spreads all over the world through T.V. I.S.D, internet, e-mail and mobile. This is human weakness that a person grasps evil earlier than he grasps good. We will have to arouse awareness for human values; we will have to attract man to goodness. Man, by instinct, is drawn to evil. In order to restore human values, we will have to start a campaign for the formation of good habits. The need for bringing about refinement and purification in man with the help of experiments and training is being felt all over the world. Such a refined person can bring about refinement in others as well. Thus the number of the people refined in this way will go on increasing and their ratio will also increase. 87

Utility of the formation of sacraments in girls

A Girl is a seed; a mother is a tree and a grandmother is a banyan

tree. The quality and form of a tree depends on the seed. If the quality of seed is improved, the quality of the tree will automatically be improved. The life of a girl is like a plain paper. We can write and imprint on it whatever we like. Childhood is the best period for the formation of good habits. Habits acquired in childhood persist for the whole life. A girl puts two families in proper order. Before marriage, she takes care of the household of her parents and after marriage; she manages and looks after the household of her in-laws. A girl today is the mother of tomorrow. If a girl has developed and inculcated good values and habits, she will remain refined and cultured even when she becomes a mother. Mother is the first school of a child. A child gets all his sacraments and characteristics from his mother. According to Ayurveda, a child gets his body's tender parts like brain, blood and heart from his mother's blood and menstruation and hard parts like bones, hair and nails from the sperms of his father. During pregnancy the child feeds on his mother's blood and the food that she takes. When he is born, the mother rears him up. Women are the embodiments of affection, compassion, devotion and tenderness. They are said to be the ornaments and dignity of the family. They play on important role 88 in establishing men's households. A mother can rear up ten children but without her a man cannot properly rear up even one child. Affection dwells in the heart of a mother. Man's life is incomplete without woman. Man and woman are the two wheels of the chariot of household. Woman is an embodiment of love and affection but she can be as brave as goddess Durga and Laxmi Bai, the queen of Jhansi if an occasion arises. In the present day world, women are proving themselves superior to men in every field of lifepolitics, administration, business, science, telecommunication, education and medical science. The background of a woman is a girl. A woman is initially a girl. Hence to form good habits in her is very important. If a girl is not refined and cultured in early childhood, she presents a very ugly picture when she grows up into a woman. The whole society is stained and we have to bow our heads with shame when we behold the ugly form of a woman. Women not having good values are responsible to a great extent for the increasing corruption in society. A refined woman is the basis, the backbone of society whereas an unrefined woman brings only wastage and destruction in life. If we want to remove corruption, we will have to give good sacraments to our children; we will have to make them realize the importance of values. You may think from any point of view, but if we want a good and decent society, we will have to give good habits to girls specially. 89

The ways of forming sacraments

Our habits of today form our fortune (karma) of tomorrow. The habits earned previously are our fortune (karmas) of today. In Jain philosophy, apprehension, speculation, perceptional judgment

and retention have been said to the means of gaining knowledge. Retention means storing our sacraments. Sacraments may rise in our present birth and they may rise in our future births also. What are sacraments? Sacraments are the deeds done by us. The sacraments that have been accumulated for thousands of years may rise now in the present. In the same way, sacraments acquired today may rise even after thousands of years. According to the karmic theory of Jain philosophy, the condition of karmas depends on the stages of bondage like duration, fruition, quantity and nature etc. Mind, body and speech are the parts of our attitudes. Similarly, body, senses, mind, prudence and emotions are the parts of out life. For the formation of habits we will have to go to the subtle world, to the sub-conscious mind. Transformation takes place in the sub-conscious mind. According to Frayed the famous psychologist, there are three levels of mind (1) conscious mind (2) sub-conscious mind and (3) unconscious mind. Conscious mind works at the level of brain. Imagining, thinking and memory are the functions of the conscious mind. It is the controller of all the activities of out gross body. Senses receives the subjects from outside and carry them to the conscious mind. It is the controller of 90 all the activities of our gross body. Senses receives the subjects from outside and carry them to the conscious mind. This conscious mind pertains to all the three periodspresent, past and future. All the function of the material world is controlled by conscious mind. Body and speech too are controlled by it. Now we come from gross body to subtle body. After coming in contact with the gross body, we come to the subtle-Tejus-body. This Tejus body is known as electric, etheric or astral body. Vitality is controlled by Tejus body. All the wonderful acts of vitality are performed through Tejus body. The parts of Tejus body are aura and volitions. Sub-conscious mind is related to Tejus body. There is no reach of words there; it is a world of vibrations. Transformation begins to take place when something enters sub-conscious mind. We are transformed if we manage to carry our emotions to subconscious mind through contemplation. In order to form good habits in girls, we will have to carry them to their sub-conscious minds through relaxation, meditation and contemplation. These habits are permanently fixed there. A thing, once received by sub-conscious mind, can never be forgotten. A person may be transformed as we like by putting the feelings in the subconscious mind again and again. If human values are carried again and again through contemplation to the sub-conscious minds of girls, they may be moulded as we wish them to be moulded. Now let us proceed even beyond sub-conscious mind. The subtlest body is the karmic body that is mixed with our soul in the 91 same way as milk and sugar-candy are mixed together. There are vibrations in soul. There are vibrations in karmic body also. Connected with our karmic body is our unconscious mind. All our sacraments are stored there as goods are stored in a godown and are exposed when they get a chance of rising. Unconscious mind

is our ware-house in which all our auspicious and inauspicious habits of many lives are stored. Our desires, that are not fulfilled, are all stored in our unconscious mind. The Tejus body, that is coming in contact with the gross body, is bringing the raw-material from the ware-house of unconscious mind. As Acharya Mahapragyaji says, we should try to understand the process of refinement and then refine and purify our karmas.

The practical aspect of the formation of sacraments

In order to provide permanence to habits, practice and training are required. Families will be refined when girls are refined. It is a girl who acquires the status of a mother when she grows up. Mother is the first school of a child. A child gets most of his sacraments from his mother. Although each and everybody should inculcate good habits and honour values, yet forming good habits in girls will be all the more fruitful. In my opinion, Preksha meditation is the best means of forming good habits. Good habits can be developed in girls by means of practice and training in Preksha meditation. Here 92 I am presenting the practical forms of the eight steps of Preksha meditation and their advantages :

1. Relaxation
In this method, the body is relaxed. One forgets the existence of body even when it is there. Every limb of the body is relaxed and distressed by auto-suggestions. One feels that every part of the body is relaxed and distressed. One feels very light. When we reach this stage we forget the existence of our body though it is there. May people go to such depths during relaxation that their Tejus (astral) body comes out of the gross body and travels to faroff places. The great advantage of this practice is that we come to know the science of differentiation. We feel that soul is different from body. This science of differentiation teaches us right faith and the transformation of life begins.

(2) Perception of breathing

In this experiment, the speed of breathing is slowed down. Breathing is long, slow and at an equal interval. The breath, that come in and goes out in between the two nostrils, is reflected on. By training one learns to take as much time in breathing out as in breathing in. The number of breathing is slowed down from 15-16 to 6-7 per minute. Mental concentration will increase in proportion to the decrease in the number of breaths. The greatest advantage of perception of breathing is that one gets rid of stresses and excitement. This riddance increases the feeling of Joy in life. 93 Perception of breathing gives mental peace and increases mental concentration.

(3) Journey to the inner-self

In this experiment; energy is raised from the lowest point of the spinal chord and taken to the center of knowledge, the highest point of head through the spinal chord. Energy is taken from the center of energy to the center of knowledge with every breath.

Psyche is again concentrated on the center of energy while breathing out. The greatest advantage of this journey to the inner self is that one is freed from lust and the feelings of sexual enjoyment. Knowledge and memory are enhanced, as the center of knowledge gets active. Through this journey, energy is transferred from the center of energy to the center of knowledge.

(4) Perception of body

Every external and internal part of body is reflected on by autosuggestions. Psyche is concentrated on every part of the body. The latter gets relaxed as it is reflected on and begins to function properly. The greatest advantage of reflection in body is that one gains physical and mental health. The part of the body that is having pain is relieved of pain when it is concentrated on.

(5) Perception of psychic centers

There are, in all, 13 spots in the body, which are the centers of soul (consciousness), they are centers ofknowledge, peace, light, perception, purification, joy, health and energy etc. These centers 94 get active when psyche is concentrated on them and the energy of the soul is centred on these spots. Perception on different centers of consciousness yields different advantages. For example, excitement is subsided when the center of light is concentrated on. Equanimity is enhanced and transcendental knowledge is gained when the center of perception is reflected on. Tissues of knowledge are developed when the center of knowledge is concentrated on. Lust and the feelings of sex are purified when the center of purification is concentrated on Feelings are purified when psyche is concentrated on the center of joy.

(6) Aural meditation

Aural meditation is brought about by concentrating on colours. The center of consciousness is concentrated on keeping different colours in mind. Memory is enhanced when yellow colour is concentrated on the center of knowledge. Passions like anger, vanity, illusion and greed etc. are subsided when the white moon is experienced while concentrating on the center of light. Transcendental knowledge is gained by gradual and constant practice. With the result that we move from the gross world to the subtle world of intellect. Thoughts and ideas gets purified when yellow colour is realized while concentrating on the center of purification. Feelings are purified and joy is gained when green colour is realized while concentrating on the center of joy. Vitality 95 gets enhanced when blue colour is experienced while concentrating on the center of Tejus. Will power is enhanced when blue colour is thought of while concentrating on the center of health. Lusts are subsided when blue colour is realized in mind while concentrating on the center of energy.

(7) Volition
By auto-suggestions, mind is filled with the feelings of noneternal, birth, non-shelter, oneness, separateness, non-greediness, stoppage, influx, dissociation, religion, enlightenment, friendship,

and compassion etc. By the development of these feelings, psyche is purified, fickleness of mind is removed, attachment is destroyed and the feeling of renunciation is encouraged. Attempt is made to fill mind and soul with each and every feeling. By doing so again and again, this act is formed into a habit with the result that there is no chance of evil habits getting developed. Good habits may be developed in girls by filling their minds with these positive feelings.

(8) Contemplation
Thinking again and again for which Preksha meditation is carried out in mind, is known as contemplation. In order to form good habits in girls, practice of the reflection on compassion, friendship, mutual trust, adjustment, humility, morality and authenticity is given to them. While reflecting, first of all mind is concentrated by relaxation and aspirate sound. When mind is concentrated, it is 96 given auto-suggestions that the feelings of compassion, friendship and morality are getting strengthened. This process is repeated many times. Attempts are mode to carry these feelings upto the sub-conscious mind. So that they are retained and get permanent and strong. By reflection on these feelings, we are moulded into their form. We get accustomed to these habits and we begin to behave accordingly. Acharya Mahapragya says, "You will have the feelings as you have the auras, the thoughts as you have the feelings and the behaviour as you have the thoughts." We have to purify our feelings and this can be done only by the practice of reflection. Thus, with the practice of these eight steps of Preksha meditation, the feelings of girls are purified. After doing that, good habits may easily be formed in them. If these steps are practiced daily, there will be no possibility of inauspicious habits getting developed. The ideas with which we fill our mind and soul are always hovering in them and we behave with our mind, body and speech in conformity with them. Bringing about refinement in a girl means bringing about refinement in two families. A girl is the plant that grows into a big tree in the form of a sister, a mother, a wife and a grand mother. She gets an even greater form as a banyan tree. Harmony in families is very necessary to remove and solve the present day problems. In order to establish this harmony, giving good habits to girls is the first priority of the present age. The following lines of 97 Acharyashri Tulsi will automatically be realized if the girls develop good habits. Sudhare vyakti samaj vyakti se, Rastra svayam sudhrega. If an individual is improved, society will be improved and eventually the nation will be improved. 98


Concept of Thought

Thought are like seeds from which feelings, habits, words and actions grow. Thinking is the maximum used and most underestimated power; that is everyone thinks all day long and even at night we still think (dreaming). But how conscious we are of our thoughts and the effects they have on ourselves and others?

Necessary Thoughts
What shall I have for dinner to night; at what time do I pick my children from school, what is the number of my bank accountall necessary and practical thoughts to see to your daily needs. But if these thoughts are repeated again and again they become waste (superfluous thoughts).

Waste (superfluous Thoughts)

Worrying, brooding, thoughts running around in your head, this type of thought has a high tempo but adds to zero. They only cost our energy. Waste thoughts are often about the past, if only I had, if this had not happened, or about the future, I hope if he does not show up. One could say that these thoughts are not realistic because the past has already gone by and the future is yet to come. 99 In other words we are not living in present, but living in the past. We make our past into our present, which then automatically becomes our future.

Positive Thoughts
Positive thoughts include thoughts about love, joy, respect, peace, enthusiasms, happiness, mercy, harmony, hope, honesty, tolerance and understanding. This list makes some people feel a bit faint or even stubborn. Once there was a woman who did not consider love positive at all, she only had bad experiences with it, so we see how important it is to revalidate all these qualities to separate personal feeling due to bad experiences from the common sentiment people have. Most people have no problems at all in writing a list of their own negative character traits, but feel difficulty in writing positive thoughts. Who can accept a compliment without feeling embarrassed? It shows how little we know ourselves. Positive thoughts by nature are slow. In between positive thoughts there is a space or gap, because of these positive thoughts gives rest to the mind. One feels relaxed and also gets happiness.

Negative Thoughts
Have a negative result. One might also call these thoughts materialistic because they are mostly based on materialistic needs, 100 desires and prejudices, rather than on inner (spiritual) values and qualities. We judge each other by the color of our skin, our car or bank account. Negative thoughts includes thoughts about criticism, carelessness, lust of power, egoism, jealousy, attachment, greed, anger, prejudice, revenge, sexism, laziness, stress, racism.

Effects of Thoughts
More and more scientist and doctors are becoming aware of the enormous effect thoughts have on the physical health. We literally think ourselves sick.

This has another side to it also, we can think ourselves well again, and the effect of the so- called placebo pill (influence our imagination and belief in our healing process) is already well known and is even effectively used for treating patients. If we dont ask ourselves the question. Do you love me? in order to restablish the broken relationship inside, we will keep on asking other, Do you really like me? Really? Only me? And still we will not believe it. Instead of looking at others all the time, its interesting to see how the relationship inside of me is. Do we suppress feeling and intution or do we give them a chance. Do we dare to take major decision and to think big? Are we able to express our opinion or we are afraid and hide ourselves away and apologize even for our being there. Do we always want to be right 101 about everything and have things our way, or can we also give mind and confess we have made a mistake? Do we accept ourselves? What do we accept and what do we deny? Whatever we accept in ourselves will lead to self respect. Even accepting certain weakness will eventually add to more self respect, stability and independence. We will not be so vulnerable when other remark on these weakneses; we know they are there and that we are working on them. We do not have to defend ourselves or get angry on it.

Essence of human nature

These five qualities are the essence of human nature. This is who we really are behind the outer form.

Essence of Human Nature

Peace Love Power Purity Happiness 102

1. Sen Gupta, S.K, Silence of thought, Alwin Publication Chennai. 2. Verma, S.N, Power of Mind, Friends Publication, Kolkata. 3. Mukherjee T, Philosophy of Mind, Gena Publication, Mumbai. 4. Acharaya Sridhar, Concept of Chitta and Mind, Ancient Publication, Mumbai. 103


Physiological effect of Asanas and Pranayama

Yoga is great ancient discipline, it is recognized as one of the most important and valuable gifts of our culture. The modern era, with the development of Science and Technology provides

man more comfort for his basic necessities. But with these comforts only today the world is looking for solutions to solve the menacing problems of unhappiness, restlessness, conditional imbalance etc. Now the time has come to think of change in attitude and take a new dimension to solve the problems. There is the importance of Yoga and spiritual lure. Yoga is the gift of our Rishi culture, is a science and art of pure life style. Yoga offers man a conscious process to solve his problems. Yoga helps the man to evoke the hidden potentialities of man in a systematic and scientific way by which man becomes a full individual. All his faculties physical, mental, intellectual and emotional developed in a harmony and integrated fashion to meet the all-round challenge. At the modern technological era, with its hectic speed the specialty of the yogic process is that the faculties get sharpened in time with the spiritual progress of man. 104 Yoga refers to a science, which helps to receive an ideal body build-up, mental elegance and excellence of consciousness. Yoga refers to an utmost height of physical mental and spiritual health. Yoga refers to a science of total transformation of life. Yoga is an experiment for expression of truth of life. Yoga is the scientific process of transition of mind to a state of thoughtless sub-consciousness. Yoga is the philosophy of enjoying a life filled with comfort and pleasure. With Yoga practice each and every part of the body is affected with positive responses. Yoga and Asanas practice leads to flexibility, stability and functional integrity of nerves, muscles, vessels and blood capillaries. Asanas exert influences particularly over the heart, lungs, spinal cord and endocrine glands.

Yoga and Health

Yoga asanas impart physical and mental health over the body by controlling, regulating and balancing the effect over the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system. Through regular practice of Yoga normal physiological activities of nervous system, flexibility and contractibility of muscles vital capacity of lungs, blood circulation etc such biological processes are toned-up.

Specific effect of Yogasana on different systems

1. Digestive system
105 Regular practice of Yogasanas activates the contractibility and physiological activity of stomach. Secretion of gastric Juices and hormones is increased. This helps to normalize the digestive processes. Through various studies it has been observed that by Yogasanas the peristaltic activity of intestines is increased. Moreover the absorbing capacity of Villi of small intestine is promoted by asanas. As a result of which adequate amount of nutrients are absorbed and desired supply of nutrition is made available to respective part of the body. Yogasanas help to regulate these body processes, which thereby control gastric disorders, such as constipation, indigestion and acidity chiefly Yogasans, which cause positive effects on

digestive system include Udar Shakti Vikasak Kriya, Padmasana, Vajrasana, Ardhayamatyasendrasana, Gomukhasana, Dhanurasana etc.

2. Respiratory System
A regular practice of deep Pranayarna, Shavasana helps to regulate inspiration and expiration, which, in turn, provides adequate amount of oxygen in the body. Oxygen gets attached to blood and circulates the entire body. A regular practice of Pranayam helps to prevent the infestation of bacterial infection in the lungs, more specifically the apical region of lungs. Especially the saprolactic bacteria are prevented, which subsequently cause T.B. Apart from this, the 106 practice of finer techniques of paranayam, helps to relieve pulmonary disorders, such as bronchitis, pneumonia etc.

Effects on Endocrine Glands

It has been revealed through extensive researches that various meditative asans, especially, Padmasana, helps to regulate endocrine secretion of serotonin and dopamine. In such persons in whom there is more secretion of adrenaline and cortisone, meditative asanas such as Padmasana helps to control such secretions. This helps to control serious disorders, such as high B.P., stress and anxiety. Thus, every asana regulate one or the other endocrine gland and thus offers physical and mental health and alleviate disorders. Hyperactivity of parasympathetic nervous system results into aggressiveness and criminal behaviors in a person. On the other side, hyperactivity of sympathetic nervous system leads to inferiority complex and down with undue terror. With the result of Yogasanas the activity of both these nervures systems are well regulated and balanced, which leads to progressive growth and development of the person.

Effects on Muscular System

A regular practice of Yogic Asanas and Yogic processes tones up muscles and offers flexibility. It normalizes the 107 physiological activities of muscles. Moreover, at minute levels it reconstitutes any damage to muscles. Yogasana accelerates the oxygen supply to blood and thus promotes the normal catabolism of glycogen to release desired level of energy. This helps to regulate the lactic acid level in blood and energy based different metabolic processes continue in a normal manner.

Effect of Yogasanas on Circulatory System

Regular practice of Yogasana promotes purification and circulation of blood in different systems of the body. An accelerated blood flow during Yoga practice helps to deplete various harmful deposits, such as cholesterol in the blood vessels. Thus Yogasanas helps to prevent various disorders related to cardiovascular system.

Physiological Effects of Pranayama on Respiratory system

The concept of pranayama is often mistaken for deep breathing. In the later situation, movement of breath is fast and forceful. There is no time for the cells to get soaked in the inhaled oxygen. In pranayama, the movements are so slow that there is adequate time for every alveoli to soak in oxygen. 1. The respiratory system is geared to aerate the internal atmosphere. 108 2. The venous return is much better due to phasic changes in breathing. The pulmonary vascular bed relaxes to accommodate more inflow of oxygen and blood. Better diffusion of gases occurs. 3. Elasticity of the lungs and the entire respiratory tract is maintained to a ripe old age. 4. The hemoglobin/oxygen saturation is enhanced during kumbhaka, as there is enough time for saturation. 5. The vital capacity, inspiratory volumes are increased. The dead space is reduced. The residual volume is decreased as more complete exhalation is performed. 6. The alveoli are exercised, which promotes excellent excretion of toxins and gases. 7. Due to more efficient changes in blood gases, proper maintenance of pH is achieved. This is the most important requisite, for better cellular function. 8. The ventilation of sinuses is made excellent, promoting good drainage. 9. The healthy movement of diaphragm massages the abdominal organs, improving their blood supply and aiding the venous drainage to the thoracic, cavity.

Physiological Effects of Pranayam on Digestive system

109 The flow of breath in sitali pranayama stimulates the taste buds. In other types, the salivary glands get rest. 1. The proper return of lymph and venous blood improves the digestive, absorptive and eliminating functions of the abdominal organs. 2. Constipation is relieved. The Stomach is massaged. The intestines are contracted and reflex expansion promotes excellent blood flow and venous return. 3. The liver and gall bladder are massaged, improving their function. 4. Die to reduction in sympathetic tone, acid secretion diminishes, relieving stress-related peptic disorders.

Yogic asanas impart physical and mental health all over the body by controlling, regulating and balancing the effect over the sympathetic arid parasympathetic nervous system. Through regular practice of Yoga normal physiological activities of nervous system, flexibility and contractibility of muscles, vital capacity of lungs, blood circulation etc such biological processes are toned-up.

A regular practice of Deep Pranayarma, Shavasana helps to regulate inspiration and expiration, which in turn, provides adequate amount of oxygen in the body. Oxygen gets attached to blood and circulates the entire body. 110 Our human body is a marvelous piece of machinery. Proper maintenance of it keeps it going without problems to a ripe old age. The practice of Yoga Asanas and Pranayama is unquestionably an ideal method to preserve the health and longevity of our body. Yoga is unique in that it recuperates the entire system. In the Yogic system, the mechanism is quiet and restful. Asanas provide a soothing effect on both the outer and inner organs, The result is organ franquility. Yogasanas, Pranayam, Bandh, Shatkarma, Dhyan etc. such yogic processes carry specific effects on heart, lungs, nervous system and on endocrine glands. Pranayama and other yogic processes control various clinical disorders. It promotes vital capacities of various endocrine and exocrine glands. Moreover, yogic exercises regulates nervous system excretory system and normalizes the nerve stimuli. This helps to regulate and normalizes the physical, mental and social state of the person to lead a normal day to day life. Overall the Yoga practice builds-up a positive attitude in a person, which itself relieves various aliments and offers a heavenly life.

1. Grade, R.V., Principles and Practice of Yoga therapy, Publication, Taraporevala Bombay, 1972. 111 2. Bernard, T.H. Theos, Hatha Yoga, Publication, Columbia University Press, New York, 1944. 3. Brena, S.F., Yoga and Medicine, Publication, Julian Press, New York, 1972. 4. Ray, S. Dutta, Yogic Exercises, Publication, Jaypee Brothers, New Delhi 1998. 5. Kumar. N, Prakritic Chikitsa Lvam Yoga, Publication, Nirogi Duniya, Jaipur, 2002. 6. Hewitt James, The Complete Yoga Book, Publication, Random House, 1983. 7. Pandiamani, B.K., Principles of Yoga therapy, social skills and living value based education, Annamalai University Publication, 2004. 8. Vishvanathan S., Science of Yoga, Annamalai University Publication, Tamilnadu, 2004. 9. Singh, Gurucharan, Contours of Yoga With Reference To Religious Approach, International Yoga Conference, University of Jammu, 2003. 112


Role of Yoga in Coronary heart disease


Coronary heart disease is the commonest cause of the cardiovascular disability and death. This pathological state includes Arteriosclerotic Coronary Arterty Disease and Ischemic heart disease. The heart functions as the pumping station for the supply of blood to the whole body, whereas Coronary arteries which come out of the aorta, supply the blood and feed the heart muscles themselves. The main coronary arteries lie on the surface of the heart and small arteries penetrate into the cardiac muscle mass. The left coronary artery supplies mainly the anterior part of the left ventricle, whereas the right coronary artery supplies most of the left ventricle. The fresting coronary blood flows in the human being averages approximately 225 ml per minute, which is about 4 to 5 percentage of the total cardiac output. During extra work period the heart increase its cardiac output as much as four to five folds, and it pumps the blood against a higher than normal arterial pressure. Consequently the work output of the heart under severe conditions may increase as six to eight folds. The coronary blood 113 flow also increases four to five folds to supply the extra nutrients needed by the heart. Coronary Heart disease is a condition in which the heart muscle receives an inadequate amount of blood because of an interruption on its blood supply. Depending on the degree of interruption, symptoms can range from a mild chest pain to a full scale heart attack. Generally, the symptoms manifest themselves when there is about a 75 percent narrowing of coronary artery lumen. The underlying causes of this disease are many and varied. Two of the principal ones are Aterosclerosis and Coronary artery spasm.

Aterosclerosis (Something called hardening of the arteries) is a situation characterized by thickening of the arterial wall with:Large number of smooth- muscle cells. Deposits of cholesterol and other substances in the portion of the vessel wall closest to the lumen. The mechanism that initiates this thickening is not clear, but it is known that cigarette smoking, high plasma cholesterol concentration hypertension, diabetes and several other factors increase the incidence and the severity of the atherosclerotic process. The extra muscle cells and various deposit in the wall 114 bulge into the lumen of the vessel and increase resistance to flow. This is usually progressive, often leading ultimately to complete occlusion. Acute coronary occlusion may occur because of Sudden formation of blood clot on the roughened vessel surface, a) The breaking off of a fragment of blood clot or fat then loges downstream, completely blocking smaller vessel, or b) A profound spasm of the vessel, smooth muscle.

Coronary Atery Spasm (CAS)

CAS is a condition in which the smooth muscle of a coronary artery undergoes a sudden contraction, resulting in vasoconstriction. It typically occurs in individuals with atherosclerosis and may result in chest pain during rest, chest pain during exertion, heart attacks and sudden death. Although the causes of coronary artery spasm are not well known, smoking, stress and alcoholism are said to be the triggering agents.

The most common symptom is angina, where the patient suffers recurrent chest pain of effort, which normally does not produce pain, such as walking on level ground or climbing a flight of stairs. This is due to poor circulation of blood and oxygen to the heart muscle. 115 Unstable angina is the condition where the patient suffers chest pain, which is difficult to stabilize with drugs. Rhythmicity is lost. In unstable angina, the pain occurs at rest (Prinzmetals angina), which means that the blood flow to the heart is grossly reduced. Emergency bypass surgery may be required. Yet another manifestation of underlying ischemia is occasional chest pain often overlooked as being due to wind, giddiness, or the presence of hypertension.

Yogic Management
Yoga insists that prevention is better than cure. Asanas relieve angina pain very quickly. Asanas and pranayama practiced regularly keep CHD at bay, each of the different practices contributing in its own way. When the process of aterosclerosis advances, the blood vessels are narrowed beyond a critical degree. So strokers, heart attacks and malfunctioing of all organs occur. Thus, the elasticity of the blood vessels is lost and pressure rises in the blood vessels. Asanas maintain the elasticity of tissues and prevent changes in pressure. Yoga is the wonderful solution to all circulatory problems. It works by keeping the two gates of the body-the circulatory system and the respiratory system-clean. Regional circulation (blood flow to each organ) reduces, as one grows older. There is a 116 fall in perfusion pressure, dampening the flow of blood to vital organs.

Effect of Standing Asanas

Standing poses strength the cardiac reserve. No lactic acid is formed and hence fatigue of the muscle does not occur. Lung capacity can be increased by standing poses. As the various returns are higher, varicose veins do not occur and the pumping efficiency of the heart is higher; Endurance is built up. All standing poses alternatively increase and decrease the flow of blood to the other organs like the liver, spleen, kidneys.

Effect of Forward Bending Asanas

Forward bends stretch the posterior surface of the abdominal organs. Forward bends soothe the nerves and improve

the function of the sympathetic nervous system. Forward bends bring down the heart rate and pulse. Since the body is parallel to the floor, gravity does not affect the heart and blood flows to both extremities without strain. The sympathetic nervous system is given a tremendous boost of energy so that when these poses are completed one feels extremely energetic and refreshed. Forward bends trend to close the chambers of the heart. 117

Effect of Back-Bending Asanas

All back bends stretch the cardiac vessels, so that blood flow increases and blocks cannot occur. It is precisely for this reason that patients with coronary ischemia are taught back bends and no forward bending asanas initially. The massaging force literally breaks down the molecules of obstruction in the arteries. This natural outcome is called physiological bypass. The quality of contraction of a muscle fibre is directly proportional to the initial length of the muscle. As all back bends stretch the thoracic organs, venous return is enhanced. It improves coronary blood flow. The flow of blood to the frontal lungs is greatly increased in all back bending asanas. Elasticity of the tissues is maintained so that the vital capacity of the lungs does not decrease with age. Because of increased blood flow to the lungs, oxygen uptake is stimulated. There will be no areas of hypo perfusion in the lungs of a yogi. A healthy lung leads to a healthy heart. If the lungs perform efficiently with excellent intake of oxygen, the myocardium gets the benefits as the oxygen rich blood flow into the heart.

Effect of Inverted Asanas

Inverted poses drain all the venous blood from all organs, revitalizing them with fresh blood. An important effect of inverted 118 poses is on the vasculature of the legs. The constant strain of gravity and the effort needed to pump the blood upward to the heart is removed and rest is given to the entire musculature and nerves of the leg. So, varicose veins do not occur. The small muscles inside the calf, which continuously pump the lymph up the body, get rest. Practice of inverted postures re-establishes the blood flow to the heart and penetrates to the level of the microcirculation. The coronary cells cannot die prematurely. The cerebral nerves are rested in this pose and one feels soothed with revitalization of the centers in the brain that control the heart.

As a deep inhalation is done, enhanced venous return occurs along with better lymphatic drainage. The rhythmic up and down movement of the diaphragm massages the abdominal organs, increasing their circulation and efficiency. Blood flow changes in the kidneys, permitting better filtering action of water and solutes. Changes in coronary flow occur during paranayama,

allowing more blood to flow into the coronary vessels. The input of healthy blood into the lungs increases, allowing better uptake of oxygen and build up of adenosine triphophate (ATP) molecules at the cellular level, which is the source of energy to the cell. Blood flow in the brain can change with pranayama where a prolonged 119 exhalation soothes the neurons by increasing the blood flow. Quietening of the mind during pranayama is very beneficial to cardiac patient, reducing stress on the sympathetic nerves. Relaxation of the nervous system allows excellent perfusion of blood with the coronaries relieving oxygen starvation of tissues. Angina vanishes rapidly after pranayamic practice. It is the only science that delivers oxygen directly without strain and facilitates storage at the cellular level.

Suggested Practices
1. Breathing practices 2. Uttkatasana 3. Bhujangasana 4. Makrasana 5. Padmasana 6. Savasana

1. Sectional breathing 2. Nadi Sodhan 3. Ujjayi pranayama

120 Silent mediation for 20-30 mints.

Avoid foods containing fats and cholesterol. Eat more vegetables and fruits. Take light vegetarian meals.

1. Grade, R.V. Principles of Yoga Therapy, Taraporevala, Bombay, 1972. 2. James Hewitt, The Complete Yoga, Rider Publication,1983. 3. Gupta, Yogi, Yoga and Long Life, Dodd Mead, Toronto, 1958, Y. Gupta, new York, 1965. 4. Marwaha, B.S., Health and Efficiency through Yoga Asanas, Army Educational Publications, New Delhi, 1965. 5. Sinh Pancham, (TR), Hatha Yoga Pradipika, Lalit Mohan Basu, The Panini Office, Allahabad, 1915. 6. Mumford, J., Psycomatic Yoga , Thorsomns, 1962. 121


Yogic management of Diabetes

Diabetes is a disease of the prosperous and in wealthy countries. It is one of the major health problems. Dietary sugars

and starch are broken down to glucose by the process of digestion and this glucose is the major fuel for the various processes, organs and cells of the body. Glucose metabolism is under the control of the harmone insulin, which is secreted by the pancreas, a large gland behind the stomach. When this gland becomes stressed or exhausted, the hormone insulin becomes deficient in quantity or sensitivity. As a result, the blood sugar level becomes high and uncontrolled, then patient suffers from Diabetes.

Type I: Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus (IDDM) or Juvenile onset

In this type of diabetes the hormone insulin is completely or almost completely absent from the islets of langerhans and plasma, and insulin treatment is essential. It is called insulin dependent diabetes because of compulsory periodic insulin administration, to control the rise of blood- glucose level. It can 122 occur at any age, though it most commonly occurs during younger age.

Type II: Non-Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus (NIDDM) or Maturity Onset

This type of diabetes is much more common than juvenile onset and most often occurs in people who are over 40 and over weight. Since it occur in the later stage in life, it is termed as maturity onset diabetes. In this condition of diabetes the hormone insulin is often present in plasma at near-normal or even above normal level and additional insulin is not required to sustain life and to maintain normal blood glucose level. Patient with this type of diabetes produces little or excessive insulin in their pancreas, it either is not enough for proper function or is not being produced quickly enough to influence glucose levels in the blood effectively. This happen probably due to defects in molecular machinery that mediates the action of insulin on its target cells. That is why this diabetes is called non- insulin dependent diabetes mellitus.

Yogic science recognizes two interrelated causes of diabetes. Firstly long term devitalzaticm and sluggishness of the digestive process due to dietary abuse, overeating, obesity and lack of exercise. High intake of sugar and carbohydrate rich diet is 123 especially implicated. If a person takes a large amount of sugar, sweets or chocolates etc. then his pancreas is ready to respond by pouring out a large amount of insulin to rapidly manage the rocketing blood sugar level without incident. However, if such a sugar-rich diet is eaten every day, the pancreas is being called upon constantly to secrete enormous amounts of insulin, and it begins to get tired and become depleted. Insulin production in response to sugar stimulation becomes increasingly inadequate. As a result, the blood remains saturated with sugar for long periods of time, it is then only a matter of time before diabetes is diagnosed. This usually occurs when the patient attends the doctor for investigation of one of the symptoms of high

blood sugar e.g. an excessive thirst or urination, a resistant skin or urinary infection or failing eyesight. The second causative factor is that diabetes is stress related. The stress and frustrations of modern sedentary man largely manifest on the mental and emotional planes, unlike our ancestors who had to wage a physical battle for survival. Nevertheless, the adrenal glands are in a constant state of activation, spilling the stress hormone adrenaline into the blood stream. This is a potent stimulus to the body to mobilize glucose into the blood. In this way a constant heavy burden of worries and an anxieties imposes a constant demand for insulin secretion, which can ultimately precipitates especially in conjunction with a sugar. 124

The most marked symptoms are polyuria and polydipsia. The patient may pass lot of urine in 24 hours. The urine is clear and of low specific gravity (1002-2004) and osmolatity. The osmotic effect of increased levels of blood glucose causes more thirst and hunger. These classified symptoms, however, are not the normal presentation. Sometimes the patient suffers a frozen shoulder and this can be a manifestation of diabetes. Lethargy, weight loss and easy susceptibility to infections, particularly of the skin (like a simple boil or fungal infection) excessive hunger, craving for sweets and sweating are some of the other symptoms. Normally, the fasting level of blood glucose is less than 90 mg/dl and the post prandial (2 hours) level is less than 120 mg/dl. If the post- prandial sugar level is between 150 and 200 mg, the condition is labeled as an impaired tolerance, and if above 200. It is frank diabetes.

Yogic Management of Diabetes

Yogasana is ideally suited for both types of Diabetes Mellitus. In Insulin Dependent diabetes Mellitus, asanas help to prevent an increase in insulin required over the years. In NIDDM, asanas help to normalize blood sugar due to the high intensity 125 workout. Yogic exercises can either be of high or low intensity, depending on the clinical condition. Young active diabetics can be made to practice very intense asanas in a dynamic manner, which will increase the cellular activity of the muscle, which needs more sugar. The advanced asanas require a lot of energy and this helps normalize blood sugar but, if the person is obese, asana practice is difficult and it is easier to reduce weight by other means and then take up Yoga. The single advantage of the asana system is that the internal organs, which are directly affected by the geometric shape of the asana itself. Even an elderly diabetic can practice it without any danger. The force of arterial flow can be increased and directed to any organ, which is of immense use in the diabetic state. In standing poses, the skeletal muscles increase their uptake of sugar. Hence, the tissues retain insulin sensitivity. Capillary changes are

easily prevented by Yoga as the action is on the vessel wall. Yoga is microcellular in its action. At the internal organs are massaged, sensitivity to insulin and uptake of sugar are enhanced. Twisting poses squeeze the intestines and massage them. Hence, stagnation of colonic contents due to autonomic dysfunction cannot occur. Asanas also pressurize the pancreas in an effort to improve the secretary status. The massage of the pancreas by forward bends and twisting helps to release more insulin in response to food. 126 Backward bends, being very strenuous, help to reduce blood sugar. Backbends improve blood supply to all abdominal and pelvic organs. This ensures healthy cellular integrity and due to the massage no deposit are formed. Forward bends increase the gastric fire and help healthy digestion of food. This prevents fluctuations of sugar levels in a diabetic. Burning up of excess sugar is promoted by the stimulation of gastric fire. Pranayama definitely increase the natural immunity of body and vital capacity of lungs. Pranayama is highly valuable for improving oxygen perfusion to tissues. As it also removes stress on the system, progression of blockage is arrested. Oxygen delivery to the tissue is systematic and sure. Tissue hypoxia never occurs. Sympathetic and parasympathetic stabilization prevent autonomic dysfunction. It is very useful for all complication of the diabetic state particularly cardiac autonomic dysfunction, retinopathy and peripheral arterial occlusive conditions.

Simplified Yogic Practice Chart For Diabetic Patient

Asanas Pranayama Meditation Diet
Ardha matsyendrasana Trikonasana Vibhaga Nadishodhan Bhramari Silent Meditation for 15-20 Avoid starchy Food, eat more Fibers and 127 Vakrasana Bhujangasana Dhanurasana Matsyasana Savasana minutes. Protein content. Food restrictions should be,


From the above facts it is clear that Diabetes is life style disease. It decreases the auto Immune system of human body and produces lot of complication in life. But yogic life style, specific Asanas, Pranayamas will be stimulating auto healing systems of body as a result of that remove the complications of the diabetic state. Diabetes is one of the most common disease in human being. It is a metabolic disease in which primary problem is the defective utilization of sugar by the body. Pancreas gland produces the hormone insulin, which controls the bodys ability to store and utilize sugar. In sufficient production of insulin result in the inability of the body of use indigestion sugar, causing excessive amounts to be released in to the blood and also passed out with the urine. This dangerous and wide spread disease is known as diabetes. Specific Yogasana and Pranayanama should be done daily. Life style is very useful for all complication of the diabetic state. 128

1. Meeraj, Nagandra, Madhumeha laelaj nahi, Nirogi Dunia Publication, Rajasthan. 2. Malshe, Prakash, Yoga book for Docters, Antar Parkash Publication. 3. Verma, Vinod, Ayurveds for life. 4. Sri Anand, The Complete book of Yoga, Orient paper back Publication, New Delhi. 129


Yogic management of Hypertensive Patient

Hypertension or high blood pressure is the most common disease affecting the heart and blood vessels There is an agreement at large that blood pressure of 120/80 is normal in a healthy adult. Borderline high blood pressure is defined as diastolic pressure between 85 and 90 mild high blood pressure is diastolic pressure between 91 and 104 and moderate high blood pressure is diastolic pressure between 105 and 115 severe high blood pressure is diastolic pressure of 116 or higher. Isolated systolic hypertension is systolic pressure greater than 160 in those whose diastolic pressure is less than 90. Hypertension could be caused by an increase in cardiac output or in total peripheral resistance or both. In reality however the major abnormality in most cases of well-established hypertension is increased total peripheral resistance caused by abnormally reduced arteriolar lumen for more than 95 percent of the persons with hypertension. The cause of hypertension is known and in that condition it is called essential hypertension. The remaining percentage is secondary hypertension which has an

130 identifiable underlying cause such as kidney diseases, adrenal hyper secretion etc. Psychological, physiological and environmental factors are only three of the many factors that lead to high blood pressure. A common misconception is that ageing causes hypertension. It doesnt always though the universal average for the onset of hypertension in the late thirties. Overweight people and those who are tense and excitable are especially susceptible to hypertension; emotional conflicts are also a cause. The cells of the kidneys secrete the hormone rennin which is influenced by sympathetic stress, the stress faced by the body and the mind. Hence rennin secretion may well be under mental influences. Rennin reacts with a chemical known as angiotensinogen and this sets off a series of chemical changes producing an end product known as angiotenson which causes vaso-constriction and elevated blood pressure. This situation is also influenced by the hormone aldosterone which retains salt and water through the kidneys aggravating the condition. The normal blood pressure under resting conditions should be 120/80mm of mercury. Both the systolic and diastolic pressure can be affected. Both have to be made normal with treatment. The level at which the systolic pressure should be treated is 140mm and the diastolic 90mm. Pressure of 130 to 135mm systolic and 85 to88 diastolic are labeled as high normal Systolic pressure is the measurement made when the heart is contracting and the muscle 131 pushes out blood from the ventricles and in the process presses on the coronary arteries reducing its own blood supply. Hence if the diastolic pressure remains above 90mm coronary artery filling will be jeopardized. This sympathetic stress is reduced the diastolic pressure is reduced and coronary filling is normalized. High blood pressure is a serious condition and requires prompt attention because it is an underlying factor that brings about other cardiovascular and renal disorders like stroke heart disease, kidney trouble and hardening of the arteries. The pressure can remain stable or fluctuate. The latter is a dangerous can produce a stroke high blood pressure works insidiously. It affects the heart and blood vessels and then indirectly other organs. When blood vessels get constricted, the heart must work harder and a time comes when its own coronary arteries can no longer nourish the heart then heart disease develops. Similarly hypertension affects the brain and kidneys resulting in stroke and uraemia both fatal conditions. Yoga is an excellent means of treating high blood pressure. As hypertension begins in the mind Yoga is of prime value. However weight loss is essential for yogic management to be of use and only dynamic exercises can reduce weight. Yoga can be practiced side by side with weight-reducing exercises as Yoga alone can prevent vascular complications due to its massaging effect on the arteries Asanas make the arteries and capillaries 132

elastic and allow more blood to flow into various areas resulting in better relaxation of those tissues. The sympathetic nervous system is always set on higher level of charge in hypertensive. By the practice of Yoga the tone of sympathetic discharge is brought down Shavasana relaxation is like sleep. It is conscious sleep. In sleep the nervous system recoups itself the same happens in Yoga. There is yet another difference. In sleep the subconscious mind is still active and the nerves are still tense. In Yoga every part of the nervous system is kept passive and the relaxation of the nerves is far better. The state of nerves in a hypertensive is one of overuse and decreased excitability. Excitabilites means the ability to transmit an impulse. In a hypertensive the nerves are exhausted and overstrained. As the excitability of the nerve is inversely proportional to the degree of activity, Yoga restores the elasticity of the nervous system. A proper sleep pattern is essential for all particularity for a hypertension patient. The delicate biorhythm in the body which influences the neuro-endocrine circuit should never be upset. Forward bends are the linchpin of yogic management without which the pressure never normalizes. Fluctuations of blood pressure are controlled by these poses. When these posses are practiced the thoracic cage is brought parallel to the ground and the heart slows down as there is no strain to push the blood against gravity to the brain. With the heart rate slowing the cardiac output 133 also slows. These poses increase in the tone and the excess sympathetic tone is reduced. There is then a decrease in the tone of the vasomotor centre in the brain (which controls the tone of the arteries) and blood pressure drops. Setu bandha, sarvangasana rests the brain and again the cortical centers are rested and the mind is kept at its root. The lift of the diaphragm and lungs and the emotional centre on the heart which occurs in this asana stabilizes the blood pressure. Savasana with normal inhalation and prolonged exhalation stabilizes the sympathetic nervous system. The longer exhalation relaxes the sympathetic nerves and the BP is controlled Pranayama greatly influences the circularly system. With each inhalation and exhalation the output of blood flow to the body varies. This changes the blood pressure. In prolonged inhalation (never done by normal people) the right ventricular (RV)output increases and left ventricular (LV) output falls. In exhalation the reverse occurs. Due to the increase in duration of inhalation and exhalation significant pressure changes can occurs. The emphasis on inhalation or exhalation depends on blood pressure being high or low. The overdrive of the sympathetic nervous system is most amenable to reduction by the practice of pranayama. The elasticity of the aorta and major blood vessels is well maintained. The steady rhythmic breathing helps control the autonomic system. As the breathing rate reduces the stress on the body is 134 reduced. The hibernative state removes the accumulated stress all

this happens over a period of time

Useful Yoga Practices

Asanas Pranayama
1.Ardhakati chakrasana 1. Sectional breathing 2.Garudasana 2.Nadishodhan pranayama 3Adrhamatsyendrasana 3.Brahmari 4.Bhujangasana 5.Usthrasana 6.Savasana

Consume less salt and fat Eat leafy vegetables more.

1. Bakhru, H.K, A Hand book of Nature Cure. 2. Neeraj Nagendra, Rogon Ki Sahi Chikitsha. 3. Jussawala, J.M, Natural Therapeutics. 4. Modi, V.D. Rogon Ki Saral Chikitsha. 5. Louis Kuhne, Rogon Ki Nayi Chikitsha. 6. Park, J.E, Text book of Preventive and Social Medicine. 7. Paul Benjamin, Health, Culture and Community. 135


obesity, Causes, Complications and Yogic Management

Obesity is spreading like an epidemic not only in the developed countries but also in the developing countries, all are facing this problem a like. Why there is this sudden increase in the incidence of obesity? There are several theories to explain this However given the facts that obesity leads to several complications it must be considered the condition to be treated with utmost priority. While there are several facts to the problem of obesity. It is clear that obesity is associated with shortening of life span and complications which make life difficult for the individual. It is also commonly believed that obesity often result from endocrine disturbances but in fact that is exceedingly rare apart from hyper insulinism. Crushing disease and occasionally myxoedema, frotlichs syndrome is due to hypothalamic and not due to pituitary dysfunction. The obesity which so commonly starts after the pregnancy or the menopause has probably little or no endocrine connection. 136

(i) Psychogenic Obesity
Studies of obese patients show that a large proportion of obesity results from psychogenic factors. Perhaps the most common psychogenic factor contributing to obesity is the prevalent idea that healthy eating habits requires three meals a day and that each meal must be filing. Many children are forced into this habit by over solicitous parents and the children continue to practice it

throughout life.

(ii) Genetic Factors in Obesity

The genes can direct the degree of feeding in several different ways including (i) a genetic abnormality of feeding centre that sets the level of nutrient storage high or low, and (ii) abnormal hereditary psychic factors that either watch the appetite or causes the person to eat as a release mechanism.

(iii) Genetics-Leptin
It is widely accepted that leptin a naturally occurring hormone that controls the appetite-may be one of the causes of obesity. When full fat cells release the hormone leptin, it curbs appetite. If leptin production is hindered, the fat cells are unable to signal that they are full, and weight gain occurs. Research into leptin is only just beginning although the leptinobesity link appears to have been disproved by some initial studies. 137

(iv) Genes-Hormones
A small minority of cases of obesity can be explained by glandular or hormonal problems. One such problem is clinical hypothyroidism, where there is not enough thyroid hormone to control normal rates of metabolism. In Crushings syndrome also where the production of the corticosteroid hormones is abnormal sex hormones can also affect obesity. In woman, the balance of female sex hormones determines body fat level during adolescence, pregnancy and the menopause. Changes in energy intake desire for food and specific cravings occur at various stages of the menstrual cycle. Some woman appear to be more susceptibly than others to hormonal changes and many overweight woman cite pregnancy as the time when their problem started.

(v) Illness and /or Drugs

Some illness can lead to obesity or a tendency to gain weight. So far we have dealt with an excess of energy /calories, in but lack of calories out is also one of the major causes of weight gain and obesity. Lack of physical activity caused by watching too much TV, or playing too many computer games is strongly associated with obesity levels especially in young people.

(vi) Childhood over nutrition

The number of fat cells in the adult body is determined almost entirely by the amount of fat stored in the body during early life. The rate of formation of new fat cells is especially rapid in 138 obese infants and it continues at a lesser rate in obese children until adolescence thereafter the number of fat cells remains almost constant throughout the life. Thus it is believed that overfeeding children, especially in infancy and to a lesser extent during the older years of childhood, can lead to lifetime obesity.

Complication of obesity
(i) Osteoarthritis of knees
In almost any obese individual some degree of osteoarthritis of the knees is inevitable so that they develop pain in knees by the age of 50 and walk with a wadding gait.

(ii) Varicose veins

Torturous veins in the legs result from damage to their directly related with obesity and it has been documented that a weight reduction brings the blood pressure down without the use of drugs.

(iii) Hiatus hernia

A large accumulation of fat in the abdominal cavity pushes the uppermost part of stomach into the thorax through the diaphragmatic aperture. This can lead to symptoms such as heartburn and sour regurgitation.

(iv) Breathlessness
An average obese individual is all time carrying an extra load of fat of about 15-20 kg. For this reason alone one can 139 become breathless while climbing up stairs. However, this is not all. The extra fat has its own blood supply and in this way puts some demand on the heart. There is an associated increase in blood pressure. All these factors may lead to a mild heart failure; which also may contribute to the breathlessness experienced by obese individuals. Weight reduction may reduce the symptoms.

(v) Sleep Apnea

A grossly obese individual who has about 20 kg extra fat in the body has about 300-400 gms. extra fat in the tissues of the throat and back of tongue. Snoring is a common problem. In these individuals; when they sleep, the tongue falls back and closes the throat. A chocking sensation results which awakes the patient from sleep. There are almost 20-50 awakenings per night with the result of that the individual becomes sleep-deprived and feels drowsy in the daytime. Of late CPAP therapy has been developed for such sufferers. It is given using a machine which delivers positives pressure breathing a tube fitted in the mouth. The person has to sleep with the gadget put on with the tube in his mouth and tied securely to the head.

(vi) Coronary heart Disease

Both sudden death and clinically documented heart attacks are more common in obese people especially males while females suffer from coronary heart disease. 140

(vii) Diabetes-(NIDDM)
It is not unusual to see an obese person becoming a diabetic. In fact obesity is always associated with insulin resistance lack of affectiveness of insulin-the blood sugar lowering hormone

(viii) Back Problems

Since the enlarges protuberant abdomen changes the way a person stands it deforms the backbone and leads to what is known as spondylolisthesis. Once acquired the wrong posture cannot be corrected unless the excess of body fat is got rid of.

Management of Obesity
(i) Diet management
This is probably the only way available to reduce body weight in obese persons If we take into account the daily calorie

consumption as around 2200-2400 cals and the fact that IG of fat produces 9 Cals then it can be calculated that a totally fasting individual will lose around 50G of fat per day. When the obvious weight loss is much more then this it is due to the loss of water and electrolytes and which is soon regain once normal diet is resumed.

(ii) Yogic management

In Yoga thereby we practice asanas not only for the sake of burning extra calories, but also to develop body awareness to understand the language of our body the way it works and what suits it best. From this understanding we can modify or adjust our 141 diet and lifestyle to suit the needs of our body and mind. Even though the aim of Yoga is not just reduction of weight this is bound to happen as an outcome of our increased self-awareness. Surya Namaskar (salutation to the sun )is most important for the treatment of obesity. Surya Namaskar is a complete practice itself because it is a combination of asana, pranayama, mantra and meditation. This practice has a unique influence on the endocrine and nervous system helping to correct metabolic imbalance that cause and perpetuate obesity. Being a dynamic practice it is also an excellent exercise equated to cycling jogging or swimming. The best asanas for obesity are the Pawanamuktasana. Series for the digestive system which help to remove extra fat from the abdomen hips and thighs and activate the energy in the lower pranic centers. These practices are very good for strengthening the abdominal muscles which are usually very flaccid in the obese patient. It also helps to burn the extra fat tissue of the momentum which is fold of peritoneum in the abdomen very rich in fat tissue. The practices from the shakthi bandha series are also effective in reducing obesity Kriyas like jaladhauti, shankha, prakshalana etc. and asanas like halasana, paschimottansana, dhaurasana, sarvangasana, matsyasana, padhastasana, Yogamudra massage the abdominal organ and to release the power of the manipurak chakra the source of willpower and self-assertiveness (which is often weak in the obese patient) and that governs all our metabolic processes. 142 The pranayama practices recommended for obesity are also the more dynamic forms which stimulate the metabolism they include bhastrika, kapalabhati and suryabhedi which are performed along with balancing practices like nadi shodhan, ujjayi, sheetali and sheetkari are relaxing cooling practices which influence different hypothalamic centers which give control over thirst and the feeling of satisfaction with healthy quantities and qualities of food.

Useful practices
(i) Suryanamaskar (ii) Asanas
Parivart, Trikonasana, Paschimotanasana, Usthrasana, Arthamatsyendrasa, Yoga, Mudra, Dhanurasana, Navasana, Halasana, Sarvanagasana, Matsyana.

(iii) Pranayama
Suryabhedi, Ujjayi, Nadisodhan.

(iv) Kriya
Bhastrika, Kalpalabhati.

(v) Meditation
Silent meditation 15-20 minutes. 143

From the above facts it is clear that obesity is life style disease. It decreases the auto lmmune system of human body and produce lot of complication in life. But yogic life style, specific asanas, pranayamas will stimulate auto human system of body as a result of that reduce the complication of obesity state and their complications because although yogic practices has been more of a protective techniques for obesity.

1. Stanley Alstead, Text book of medical treatment. 2. Malshe prakash, Yoga book for doctors. 3. Gupta surendra nath, Sabhyata ke Rog . 4. Singh R G, Current status of Yoga therapy. 5. K.D.T, Pharmacology. 6. Gala D.R, Nature cure for common diseases. 7. Niraj nagendra, Rogo ki sahi chikitsa. 8. Souvenir, Symposium on Yoga and health current trends, Indian Academy of Yoga, BHU. 9. Das gupta S.N, Yoga philosophy. 10. Verma Vinod, Ayurveda for life. 144


The Spirtual and Scientific aspect of Surya Namaskar

Surya Namaskar is a well known vital method within the yogic practices. Its versatility and application make it one of the most useful methods to induce a healthy, vigorous and active life and at the same time prepare for spiritual awakening and the resultant expansion of awareness. In recent years more and more people have moved away from mere ritual and are turning to Yogasana method for exploring and improving their inner lives. Through the need for techniques to enhance physical, mental and spiritual evolution has been recognized. The fast pace of modern living makes it difficult for even the most determined individual to implement Yoga practice. And it is practice, which is the most important and fundamental issue in terms of our betterment. Surya Namaskar is an integral part of the yogic approach and can be easily integrated into our daily lives for it requires only 15 to 25 minutes of practice daily to obtain remarkably fast and beneficial results. Surya Namaskar is a practice whose origins date far back to the earliest epochs of history, when man first become

aware of a spiritual power within himself, reflected in the material 145 universe. The awareness is the foundation of Yoga. Surya Namaskar, meaning salutation to the sun, can be seen as a form of worship of the sun, amend all that it represents on the micro and macrocosmic levels. In yogic terms this indicates that the practice of Surya Namaskar awakens the solar aspects of mans nature and releases this virtual energy for the development of higher awareness. This can be realized by the practice of Surya Namaskar each morning as well as being fine way to pay tribute to the source of creation and life. Surya Namaskar is a series of twelve phyiscal postures. These alternating backward and forward bending asanas flex and stretch the spinal column and limbs through their maximum range. The series gives such a profound stretch to the whole of the body few other forms of exercise can be compared with it. Synchronizing the breathing principle followed is inhalation during backward bending postures, due to expansion of the chest, and exhalation with forward bending postures, due to compression of the chest and abdomen. The ideal time to practice Surya Namaskar is at sunrise, the most peaceful time of the day, when the atmosphere is full of the suns ultraviolet rays, so important for the body. Make a habit of rising early, answering the call of nature, taking a bath, and practicing Surya Namaskar. Whenever possible, practice in the open air, wearing light and loose clothing to allow the skin to breathe and to absorb the suns energy. 146

Sun rays and its Effect

Sun rays affect human body by following methods:Photo Chemical Reaction. Thermal or Heating Effect. Photo Synthesis. The following reactions take place in the human body when ultraviolet energy strikes it:(i) Calcium metabolism is profoundly improved by increased blood content. (ii) Bacteria in the body are killed by the direct action of the UV rays and indirectly by increased local and systemic resistance. (iii) Toxins in the body are rendered inert. (iv) Normal Chemical balances in the body are restored. (v) Cellular imbalance in the blood is corrected if UV is administered in suitable doses. (vi) Fat element in the blood that was altered in character by disease are restored to normal size through Brownian movement. (Brownian movement is the random movement of small particles suspended in a fluid caused by the statistical pressure fluctuations over the practical.) (vii) Oxygen absorption is increased following UV radiation of auto transfused blood. 147

Techniques of Surya Namaskar

Each round of Suryanamaskar is done, after the utterance of Omkar with the appropriate Bija Mantra, along with the corresponding name of Sun God in the following step. Each stage of Suryanamaskar is accompanied by regulation of breath. The 12 steps of the suryanamaskar are as follows:

Steps 1
Stand erect with the legs together and palms together. Take the hands above the head and bend the trunk backwards. Here, inhale fully.

Steps 2
Bend the body to the front and touch the knees by the forehead. Keep the palms on the floor on either side of the legs. Exhale fully.

Steps 3
In the stage, kick the right leg back, take the left knee forward, look up and inhale,press the buttock close to the heel.

Steps 4
In the next step, take the left leg also back resting only on palms and toes; keep the body straight from head to toes inclined to the ground at about 30 degree. Here exhale completely.

Step 5
Now, bend at the knee and rest the knees on the floor without altering the positions of the palms and toes. Rest the 148 forehead on the ground. In this position inhale while moving backwards and then exhale completely. Do not stretch the ankles.

Step 6
Without moving the hands and toes, come forward on the chest and rest the forehead. in this position sastanga Namaskar, forehead, chest, palms, knees and feet are the eight organs that will be touching the ground. The buttocks will be raised up. Stay in Breath-out condition. (Bahya Kumbhaka).

Step 7
Inhale; raise the head and trunk making the spine concave upwards without changing the position of the hands and feet. Keep the knee off the ground.

Step 8
Exhale, raise the buttocks, push the head down and have a complete each with the heels touching the ground and palms on the floor

Step 9
Same as 5th step. Inhale and exhale. 149

Step 10
Inhale back bring the right leg in between the two hands and in line with them. Arch the back concave upwards as in step 3

Step 11
Exhale and bring the foot forward next to the right foot and touch the knee with forehead as in 2.

Step 12
Inhale. comp up, stand erect with hands along the body


Effect of Surya Namaskar on different system of body

Surya Namaskar practice interacts with the physical organs of the body directly, by applying pressure, massaging, stretching and generally toning up and supporting internal tissue structures. This aids the eliminative functions as well as stimulating nervous energy. It enhances our wellbeing.

Respiratory System
In Surya Namaskar a deep rhythmic breathing process is synchronized with each movement, which completely empties the lungs of all, traces of stale gas and refills them with fresh, clean, oxygenated air. All the pockets of the lungs are expanded stimulated and then cleaned. The oxygen content of the blood is 150 increased, which improves the overall vitality and oxygenation of the cells and tissue of the body and brain. Sluggishness and lethargy are rapidly overcome. This practice is also good for the prevention of diseases such as tuberculosis, which develop in the little used, stagnant regions of the lungs.

Circulatory System
The regular practice of Surya Namaskar improves flow of blood, to speeds up the elimination of morbid matter and introduces fresh oxygen and nutrient of all the cells, and general circulation is improved. The cardiac muscles are strengthened. Microcirculation to the heart is increased and reducing the chances of heart attack. Sluggish circulation, cold hands and feet, blood vessel diseases and general fatigue can also be eliminated. The circulation of lymph, which is prime importance in fluid balance and in combating infections, is toned, the body gains an increased resistance to infections, and a better ability to heal .

Digestive System
The alternate stretching and compressing movements of Surya Namaskar tone the whole digestive system by thoroughly massaging all the abdominal viscera. This not only enhances elimination but also increases the digestive fire, promoting a healthy appetite, and complete and rapid assimilation of food. 151

The skin is the important and Largest body organ and apart from holding the body together serves to regulate body temperature, as well as excreting waste matter through perspiration. When there is an excess of poisonous matter in the blood, it comes out through the skin in the form of boils, rashes and pimples. As Surya Namaskar produces perspiration, speeds up circulation and enhances the elimination of wastes through the digestive and urinary systems, it cleanses and endows the practitioner with a clean, glowing complexion, which is an important sign of health. Many skin disease caused by subcutaneous toxin deposits, such as pimples and eczema, can be removed. Bad odours from the body are eliminated, and the overall

circulation of blood to the skin is improved. When Surya Namaskar is practiced in the early morning hours while facing the rising sun, ultraviolet light rays are absorbed through the skin. At sunrise, these rays are at their greatest intensity and are thought to be very beneficial for healthy as well as being responsible for vitamin D production.

Nervous System
In the twelve movements of Surya Namaskar, the spinal column is systematically stretched and compressed to the 152 maximum extent, stimulating circulation in the whole spinal cord, and all nerve plexuses. Surya Namaskar tones nerve flows by stimulating internal organs. It stretches organs. It stretches nerves, work on the spine and enhances prans, which activates brain centers. The whole nervous system is activated and seems to wake up.

The Endocrine System

The endocrine glands are the most vital and mysterious of all systems of the body. They play an overall role in the coordination and integration of all physiological process and yet very little are actually known about them. The main function of the endocrine glands is the production and secretion of hormones, chemical substances are released into the bloodstream and carried throughout the body to act upon particular organs.

Pituitary Gland
The pituitary gland is master gland of human body. It has many hormonal secretions ,which control the bodys growth and development. By increasing the flow of blood to the head and through its effects on the nervous system. Surya Namaskar stimulate the hypothalamus, which regulates the pituitary action. The practice of Surya Namaskar thereby has a direct and beneficial effect on this vital centre and the whole body. 153

Pineal Gland
The pineal gland is a situated in the brain. Yogic Science states that it has a vital function and acts as connecting link between the different levels of awareness above and beyond the physical plane. Surya Namaskar plays an ideal role in the maintenance of this important gland.

The Pancreas is located behind the stomach at the level of the solar plexus. Parts of this important gland produce the hormone insulin, which controls the bodys ability to store and utilize sugar. Surya Namaskar compresses the abdominal organs, which press onto the pancreas especially during backward bending in bhujangasana.

From the above facts it is clear that Surya Namaskar is an ancient knowledge of this country which provides physical and spiritual health by affecting different activities of human body

based on body, mind and breath concept. 154

1. Sampuranand, Yogas philosophy. 2. Singh Surendra, Introduction of Yogs. 3. Gupta Rameshwardas, Yogs Rashmian. 4. Lisbeth Andrewvar Yoga self thought. 5. Swami Kavalayanand, Asanas. 6. Swamiram, Yoga Psychology. 155


Special Situation in modern life in relation to problems of infusing of Yogic practices in day to day life
Man has entered the 21st century with a lot of problems. In this modern age of advanced technology, communication, electronic gadgets, the level of facilities available for our convenience has increased but it has some how also lead to an increase in our problems related to health, life and emotions. Human life today is more stressful and problem nature now a day. It is a universally known and accepted fact that Yoga has a solution to all problems of man be it mental, physical or spiritual but one does not have time to incorporate Yoga in present day lifestyle. One does not have time for self or may be there is lack of time management and self management. Materialistic achievements are more important for their physical and spiritual gains. There is lack of will power and mental peace. Power of concentration is diminishing amongst all states of life. Our food and living habits are fast becoming westernized from traditional. Man is the most precious and enlightened creation of nature. There is great similarity between the constitution of man and nature so it 156 becomes necessary that human life style should be in accordance with nature.1 However in present modern life style, man is drifting away from nature. Western culture has invaded our life style in a drastic manner. Our language, culture, tradition, education, food habits, life style, psyche all are seen to be influenced by western culture.2 Man is running blindly after material pleasures and is ready to pay any price for it. One is so engrossed in attaining success in life that he is ready to take any path even if it is immoral and against principles. In this world of cut throat competition man does not even have time for himself, One does not have time to think about his own identity as a human being and life has become totally mechanized. Discarding the need of his own body and emotions, man is just engaged in making more and more money. In this life of blind race love, tolerance, peace, happiness are of the greatest need, but these feelings have become meaningless despite their

importance in human life.3 Modern life style has become a means of attaining material gains and pleasures. Such circumstances have given rise to physical, mental, social and spiritual deformities. Due to lack of self management, one is limited to a narrow spectrum and becomes self centered due to which Yogic practices cannot be infused in day today life.4 157 The level of health in general is decreasing in the society. It is these situations that discourage Yogic practices from becoming a part of our day today life.

Factors that limit Yogic Practice in day to day modern life

On viewing modern life on a higher perspective, we can see that it is a mere medium to attain material and physical gains. Health and peace do not find priority in modern life. Money is the prime need of most people. To actually prove utility and meaning of life one has to remain healthy and happy. Only a healthy body with a healthy mind can make use of physical and material pleasures provided to him and he can find the true meaning of life. Certain factors that inhibit Yogic practices in modern life can be enumerated5

(i) Peace
One cannot include Yoga in day to day life till he is internally and externally at peace with himself. 6 The structure of modern life is such that there will always be lack of peace. In todays life ambitions are unlimited and when the percentage of ambitions is high, percentage of peace will always be low because ambitions are achieved by giving away peace of mind. When there is no peace there is no concentration and hence no inclination towards Yoga.7 158

(ii) Time Management

To be successful in life, one has to learn to manage time because it is the most important requirement of success. A person who has learnt to manage his time is more successful than others in all spheres of life. Unfortunately in this rat race, very few people realize the value of time and its proper management. Time management has great importance in Yoga. If there is lack of time, Yoga cannot be practiced properly and correctly. 8 Yam Niyam, should be followed along with time management and lead to Yogic asanas. In absence of above ingredients, asanas are reduced to mere physical exercise and this practice is gaining more popularity these days. Asanas should be done at sunrise starting with sukshma kriyas to warm up the body. If one begins the day at sunrise with Yogic asanas, he feels fresh, energetic and happy throughout the day. But in modern practice, people stay awake till late night and get up late in the morning only to start a busy day. In this case, due to lack of time management, Yoga has no meaning in life. 9

(iii) Lacking or fulfillment in Life

A person may either live a life that is always lacking in something or a life that is fulfilled. A person whose life is lacking, always needs something or the other. Once he gets something, he wants something else and is never satisfied. A person who lives a fulfilled life is content and happy with whatever he has his life is 159 content and happy with whatever he has. This life is consistent which is important for a meaningful and worthy life. Present life is mostly unfulfilled for many. There is always a constant need for something or the other and is always running after something or others to fulfill his needs. All the efforts are vasted to attain material pleasures and one is left with no will power to do any other thing.10

(iv) Physical capacity

To attain physical and material things, a person works very hard and wasting all of his time and effort on this. It is strange that people are lost in the material world and running directionless. Life has become artificial and mechanized and full of external show off. This is definitely affecting the physical and mental capacity of a person. A person has no time to think about the needs of body and mind. He can work 12-18 hrs. for the sake of money but cannot invest even an hour for the well-being of his body. A person who over burdens his body with stressful work from the age of 2040, his body becomes exhausted and old age is painful due to infestation of many diseases. Continuous labour makes the body internally weak and hollow and after crossing 40, immunity becomes low. At this time diseases start affecting the body. Unhealthy body cannot get relief even by Yoga. If at this stage, Yogic asanas are performed forcefully, it does more harm than any benefit to the body. 11 160

(v) Irregular diet

Diet is the basic epicenter of life. Diet is the main pre requisite of Yoga and healthy living. In Yogic philosophy, food is mainly of three types (Satvik, Rajasik, Tamasik). There is a great relationship between food and Yogic life. The type of food we eat reflects in our habits and personality. Food has a great import on body and mind. Modern day foods have high quantity of chemicals and products which cause irritation, high blood pressure, acidity etc. They are not properly cooked and lay more stress on taste of tongue rather than whole body. Due to this a person becomes irritable, and there is emotional imbalance. Thus in this state there is lack of concentration and will power and a person cannot take interest in Yoga.12

(vi) Environmental Factors

In present day life, luxury and advancement create an environment which is not appropriate for Yogic practices. Tolerance, politeness, idealism, truthfulness, honesty friendship, compassion, brotherhood all these qualities are on a decline in society. People have lost faith in these qualities. Present day environment of the world is becoming negative with degeneration of moral and social values which is promoting wrong things and

ideologies to prosper. These things prevent people from accepting Yogic practices as part of their daily life. 13

(vii) Lack of Yogic education

161 Presently there is lack of Yogic education. People are not aware of the benefits of Yogic philosophy and asanas. Some people associate Yoga to be a part of a particular religion or caste which is not true. Yoga is a way of life, meant for all people. It is above the boundaries of caste or religion. It is important to educate people with the physical, mental, spiritual benefits of Yoga. Due to lack of proper knowledge many people keep Yoga out of their daily life 19

(viii) Harmful effects of Yoga

Many people try to perform Yoga by watching T.V. or reading books. It is not correct to perform Yogic practices in absence of a trained instructor. People think that all diseases can be cured by just doing asanas without understanding the true philosophy of Yoga, which leads to harmful effects on body. Such practices should be discouraged altogether. 15 162

In the light of above facts it is clear that modern life gives more stress on luxury and material pleasures and these become priority for most people leading to an imbalanced life, full of deformities. Peace, time management, proper food, behavior, health are lacking in life distracting a person from walking on a path of Yogic principles and one is not able to incorporate Yoga in day to day life.

1. Neeraj Nagendra, Prakratik Chikitsa Avam Yoga, Nirogi duniya Publication, Jaipur, 2002, p. 23. 2. Verma, Vinod, Ayurveda for life, S.B. Prakashan Indore, 1998, p. 58. 3. Muni Dharmesh, Self managemt, Jain Vishava Bharati University Publication, Raj, 2006 p. 110. 4. Bhagwandas, The Science of Self, Kashi Vidyapith Publication, Varanasi, 1966 p. 106. 5. S. Vishavnathan, Principles of Yoga Theropy, Annamalai University Publication, 2004, p. 201. 6. Maurya T.R, Peace, Manu Publication, Surat, 1965, p. 10. 7. Das Gupta S.N, Yoga Philosophy, Motilal Banarsidas Publication, Delhi, 1996 p. 11. 8. Sri. Anand, The Complete book of Yoga, orient paper 163 backs Publication, New Delhi, 1993, p. 16. 9. Muni Dharmesh Science of living Preksha meditation and Yoga, Jain Vishav Bharati Publication, Raj, 2006, p 98. 10. Sharma J.N, Yogasana, Aur Pranayama, Maruti Publication Meerut, 2002, p. 21. 11. Singh Surendra, Yoga. An Introduction, Bharat Book Company Lucknow, 1999 p. 52.

12. K.Kuruvila, Psychiatry, N.R. Brother Publication Indore, 2003, p. 50. 13. S. Swami Nathan, Food and Nutrition, N.R. Brother Publication, Indore p. 26 14. Jindal, Rakesh, Prakratik Ayurvigyan, Arogya Sewa Prakashan, U.P 2002, p. 202 15. Suresh, Yoga and mental health, New Bharatiya Book Corporation, Delhi, 2002, p. 56 16. Gupta, Shankar, Science of Yoga, Health publication, Kolkata, 2001, p. 23 164


Importance of Yogic lifestyle for School children

This saying very aptly reflects the importance of children in our lives. Upbringing of children therefore has to be very disciplined and proper to make them good human beings to that they prove to be productive for the society. If a plant is rooted firmly to the ground it will branch out into a tree that gives shelter to many living beings. Similarly if a child is brought up with discipline, culture and values he will grow up into a good, mentally, physically, socially and healthy human being. In modern society with increase in stress, violence, disasters, Yoga comes out as the best remedy and tool to discipline ones life. Yoga teaches the way of life in all aspects like, eating, habits, cleanliness, self management etc. In a student life it is very important that he develops good habits. 165

Role of Yoga in good food habits

According to Yoga food is of following three types Satvik, Rajsik and Tamsik.

(i) Satvik
Satvik food is positive, non-irritant, pure, agreeable, nourishing and easily digestible. It promotes purity of mind and inner strength and is conducive to higher thinking and intelligence. Keeps body healthy and mind at peace.

(ii) Rajsik
Rajsik food is negative and irritant. It comprises of heavy proteins, fats that are difficult to digest and assimilate. This type of food excites emotions, causes disease, obesity and restricts the soul to material achievements.

(iii) Tamsik
Tamsik food is devitalising and stale. It comprises mostly of processed and tinned foods. Food if reheated several times looses its qualities and harms the systems. Yoga prescribes a balanced diet that comprises of pure, light and nutritious food. It should have cereals like wheat, pulses- like moong, green leafy vegetables cooked in mustard or groundnut oil. Milk and dairy products like curd, mattha, paneer should also be

included in diet. More stress should be laid on consuming coloured vegetables and fruits which are a good source of vitamins e.g. brinjal, apples, citrus fruits, banana etc. 166 Children can also have dry fruits like almonds and walnuts. Spices should be avoided as they irritate the system and cause anger and anxiety. Tea and coffee are acidic and their consumption should be restricted to minimum. Children should refrain from eating junk food like pizzas, burgers, noodles, cold drinks, confectionary items as these are harmful for the system as well as for teeth, bones etc. These foods use refined products which if used excessively results is obesity and diabetes later in life. The child gradually loses interest in positive activities and becomes irritable "A Healthy body houses a healthy mind". So one has to be physically fit to compete and excel in life.

Role of Physical Exercise

It is important for children going to school to involve in some kind of physical activity, so that they can grow. Certain Yogic asanas can be very good for children. Pranayam purifies the system by supplying fresh air and oxygen. Anulom Viloma helps in strengthening memory and also improves eye sight, Tadasan helps in increase of height, Dhanurasan helps in general fitness and Surya Namaskar promotes overall well being of the body and mind. If started from young age, Yogasan can help children to stay fit and keep away from many diseases like- blood pressure, diabetes, spondilytis in the future when they grow up. 167

Role of meditation
To keep the mind free from stress and enhance connection, meditation can prove to be very beneficial for students. It is not necessary for one to try very hard for hours. Just a few minutes devoted daily by chanting some or imaging something can help in meditation. Even looking at the night sky or watching birds quietly can relieve stress from the students mind, after which he feels fresh and full of positive thoughts and energy.

Role of Hygienic Practices

Personal hygiene is very important for a positive approach in life for everyone. Especially students getting up early in the morning, cleaning teeth, practicing good toilet habits, bathing daily, cutting nails, keeping hair neatly, going to school timely and neatly dressed, keeping ones belongings carefully, eating meals in time etc are all part of good behaviour. A child who follow yogic principles is able to easily discipline his life and make a positive impact in the life of others also. 168

Impact of Yogic life style on the mind and soul of children

Yogic philosophy not only lays stress on physical wellbeing but also on mental and spiritual fitness. In modern times many things like violence, corruption, abuse, etc. have a negative

impact in the delicate minds of children. The various films, television programmes, cartoon shows etc, depict a lot of violence which makes the child aggressive there after grows up into an impulsive and violent individual. By adopting Yoga in life young children can control their minds, and keep themselves relaxed. Yoga gives inner power and strength to discard the evils of society and not get affected by negative things like- violence, corruption, drugs abuse, anger, stress etc.

In modern life, it is very important to guide the children at a young age, to grow up into mentally, physically, spiritually healthy human being who are useful to the society. Yoga serves as a important tool to groom the personality of an individual by showing the way to a healthy and prosperous life. Young minds are like clay- they can be molded into any shape and form. So it is important to guide them through yogic asanas philosophy and meditation towards a bright and successful future which will 169 brighter the future of this country as youth are the foundation pillars of a growing nation. Despite the utility of Yoga in all fields of life one thing should be clearly kept in mind, that is, Yoga should be practiced under proper guidance of a trained instructor. Over doing it or doing it incorrectly can lead to a lot of problems. The after effects are drastic and the instructor should know the need of the students. Able guidance is a must for proper development of mind and body. All asanas are not meat for all people. Different age groups need to practice different asanas. Also the physical and mental status of the people has to be considered. Person suffering from any kind of mental or physical illness should be treated accordingly. At student level, certain philosophy of Yoga cannot be taught like samadhi etc. as they are not meant for young and tender minds. Students have to be dealt with differently. They have to be taught morals like truth, duty dedication, love, sympathy, brotherhood etc. A healthy mind and body will make a healthy individual and many such individual make a healthy nation. Children are the future of the nation. So it is very important to take care of their upbringing, nutrition and development. Incorporating Yoga in daily life of school children can help to develop then into physically, mentally, emotionally and spiritually strong individuals. 170

1. Garde, R.V., Principles and Practice of Yoga therapy, Publication Taraporevala Bombay, 1972. 2. Bernard, T .H. Theos, Hatha Yoga, Publication Columbia University Press, New York 1944. 3. Brena, S.F., Yoga and Medicine, Publication Julian Press, New York, 1972. 4. Ray, S. Dutta, Yogic Exercises, Publication Jaypee Brothers, New Delhi, 1998. 5. Kumar. N, Prakritic Chikitsa Lvam Yoga, Publication

Nirogi Duniya, Jaipur, 2002. 6. Hewitt James, The Complete Yoga Book, Publication Random House, 1983. 7. Pandiamani, B.K., Principles of Yoga therapy, social skills and living value based education, Annamalai University Publication, 2004. 8. Vishvanathan S., Science of Yoga, Annamalai University Publication, Tamilnadu, 2004. 171


Importance of Yoga in the development of Ideal Life Style: with Special reference of University Student
Human body is one of the miraculous creation of the nature. The human body is not merely a bundle of bones and flesh but it has a wonderful collection of knowledge. The various systems of our body should have essential. Those who are having good functioning of all the activities like respiration, digestion, excretion and nutrition, then it is very helpful for the development of an ideal life style and the possibility of the end of disease from our life. Finally there is the attainment of a healthy life and the person becomes the owner of a healthy and an attractive life. All the above qualities are essential for a student life because it is a stage in which the base of the development of life is made. If the above sited qualities are there in a student life and if his life is balanced and controlled then the possibility of a good and a real meaningful life gets increased. In today's time of the good behaviour, thoughts, values are practiced- If various pranayama and asanas are done correctly then an ideal life style 172 can be developed in student life because of which students personal life, family health, social and national health, will be on the way to progress and student life will be safe from various diseases like obesity, high B.P., diabetes, pressure, absence of sleep, depression, diseases of joints etc.

The 21 Century and the Lifestyle

In this century man is touching the great heights of development. Every day there are various new discoveries and inventions. Man has measured the depth of the sea and the heights of the moon but the man is slowly getting far away from his real self. We neither tried nor are trying to know ourselves. We have wasted all our energy for the attainment of materialistic needs. We are so much engrossed in attaining these worldly materialistic things that we have no time for ourselves, resulting to which our life is getting trapped into stress and worries. By practising the unnatural life style we are slowly spoiling our health. We are inviting, various diseases. This unnatural environment is greatly influencing the society, our family members and also it is having a very bad effect on our student's lives. Young

power is being mocked. It is very essential for one to have peace in one's life, home and family and also society, for attaining knowledge and learning, because during the student life are sowed the seed of their future life's development. 173

Disturbed daily life routines

Students life should be balanced and controlled so that in his life, the four viewpoint samta, mamta, namrata and dakshta should be created habits. Due to the given wrong habits, instead of development of life, the value of life and health of the student is being mocked at.

a) Diet
Western life style has attacked our life's various and nearly every areas. Language, education, health, religion, thoughts, thinking and eating habits nearly everything is completely engrossed in western effects. Resulting to this, younger generation has got swayed away from their real and main aim. If we take diet, as an example, which is the basic need, throughout which our whole life revolves. Lord Krishna also said 'vUukfn Hkoafr Hkwfru' meaning-the existence of all living organism is due to diet. Due to diet our behaviour and thoughts are greatly influenced and changed. It is recreated. To be called well mannered, well cultured, modern, developed, the so called fast foods are destroying our national health. This is quite thought provoking. Modern scientist also follow that if internal microbiological environment is strong and healthy then our vital capacity gets stronger resulting that we remain healthy. Our internal microbiological environment gets polluted due to the wrong food 174 habits. The unnutritional fast food plays important role in polluting the environment of the stomach. The highly enjoyed and lip smacking fast food is poisoning our whole society also giving birth to various diseases. Fast food like- burger, hot dog, noodles, candy, pastry, pizza, toffee, cold drink etc are used. All these are intensely attractive, intoxicating and tasteful poisons. In order to lead a well balanced and controlled life it is very necessary for the students to abandon the fast foods and increase the intake of living food.

b) Wrong sitting & standing posture

In modern lifestyle there are some mistake that have accumulated due to which students are getting away from an ideal lifestyle and disease are accumulating in the body. Due to wrong posture the muscles and the shape of our body gets badly affected. Wrong posture further affects our various body systems making a place and a suitable environment for the birth of disease in the body. All the parts of our body are connected with back area or the back bone and due to wrong posture the back bone cannot remain the way it should be due to which various diseases related to back begin to develop and affect the health. 175

c) Disturbed sleep

Sleep is one of the important part of our life, but in the modern 21 century, there is no rule for sleep, regardless of how important sleep is for the body. Due to deep sleep, the brain develops an alpha state of mind. During sleep the filtration of waste material from our kidneys are enhanced. During sleep the excess heat of our body is emitted out and the blood pressure and the body temperature are controlled and balanced. Sleep is a biggest remedy for gaining back our wasted energy level i.e. rejuvenation of the body and gaining the vital capacity.

d) Unbalanced water intake

Our body is made up of 2/3 of water, males have 65%-75% water in the body. Blood has 83% of water, bones have 22%, brain and muscles have 75% of water. A normal person has 33 to 55% of water in his body. From the total amount of water in take in our body, 98% of water is used for excretion of waste and harmful materials from the body. 40% in the urine, 35% is emitted out through sweat, 20% through faces, saliva and salts are emitted out of the body 2% of water is used for correct functioning of blood and other parts. So we must take the water in abundant quantity.

e) Neck throat competition

Students without realising their ability, are constantly running in the blind race of achieving success. This instead brings 176 failure and gives birth to mental tension and disorders and thereby increasing the possibility of mental diseases. f) Pessimistic view of thinking Optimistic thinking of the student, encourage him towards his aim. In order to achieve success one has to be successful in himself and not by running or chasing for success. The feeling of jealousy, anger, selfishness, ruins the student's life. Thus in order to achieve ones aim we have to leave the wrong and pessimistic thinking and acquire the balanced, safe lifestyle and thereby try to achieve the aim.

g) Intake of Intoxicating substances

The whole human race knows that alcohol is very harmful for ones health. By use of alcohol our mind and liver are very adversely affected. This causes the most dangerous disease of liver called liver cirrhosis and result of this disease is death. Besides all this, using alcohol causes physical and mental disease called Carra Copus syndrome, acute shortage of vitamin B and thymene, memory loss, the shrinking of mind etc. Cigarette has 100 types of poison which include- Nicotine, Pyrodin, Pycholine, cholidine, Marshgas, Cynogin, Perforate, Amonia, Carbolic Acid, Uric Acid, Carbon Monoxide, A-Choline, Ayoline are the main. There are 19 types of harmful substances like Perforal and Polyneum which are emitted out, which harm the sensory parts of the brain. 177 Pyrodin causes dryness, anemia and Cancer. It also affects adversely like causing cough, asthma, skin disease, acidity, paralysis, hysteria, sleep disorder, bad eyesight, cataract and other respiratory disorder, heart disease etc. 'Bidi' is more harmful for body than cigarette. Tobacco gives birth to mouth cancer. All these

things are making a place in the lifestyle of the students which are harmful for their personal and social lifestyle.

h) Biological clock and human body

The biological clock affects the emotional and mental state of the person but the imbalanced life style affects the biological clock and also the health. Disturbed and uncontrolled life style like being awake till late night, watching late night T.V. working at night, awake at the time of sleep and sleeping at the time of working time, staying in the bed after being awake due to laziness, not taking food when hungry, being in the haste and worry, all these disturb body clock. But we can make our life controlled, balanced and well maintained and can move towards development. But for this it is necessary that we go according to our body clock or the biological clock without disturbing it.

i) Modern Life Style diseases

Due to the modern life style person's health is decreasing day by day. Physical and mental disorders are increasing and a 178 large population in being affected by modern life style inviting various diseases. Present day life style disease include high B.P., sleep disorder, diabetes, joint diseases, asthama, obesity, tension, depression, anxiety are the main and there are not much methods of cure for it. The society and the students have been affected by these diseases. Then by correct diet and life style , practising Yoga, pranayam and meditation in our life, we can cure as well as we can be safe from all these diseases. By developing the concept of Yoga and disease free lifestyle, we can develop the concept of over all health and development in students life. By which students can achieve their aim and can be the owner of a successful life.

Human life is miraculous. Those who are healthy with healthy thoughts can only lead an ideal life style. For all the above qualities, student life is one of the basic pillars. Nature has its certain universal laws and living according to these natural laws is called an ideal lifestyle. The various parts of Yoga play a very important role in presenting an ideal lifestyle. For leading Yogic lifestyle Yama, Niyam, Aasana, Pranayam, Pratyahar, Dharna, Dhyan, Samadhi and yogic diet are the main components. 179

1. Garde, R.V., Principles and Practice of Yoga therapyPublication, Taraporeval Bombay, 1972. 2. Bernard, T .H. Theos, Hatha Yoga, Publication- Columbia University Press, New York, 1944. 3. Brena, S.F., Yoga and Medicine, Publication- Julian Press, New York, 1972. 4. Ray, S. Dutta, Yogic Exercises, Publication- Jaypee Brothers, New Delhi, 1998.

5. Kumar. N, Prakratic Chikitsa vam Yoga, PublicationNirogi Duniya, Jaipur, 2002. 6. Hewitt James, The Complete Yoga Book- Publication, Random House, 1983. 7. Pandiamani, B.K., Principles of Yoga therapy, social skills and living value based education, Annamalai University Publication, 2004. 8. Vishvanathan S., Science of Yoga, Annamalai University Publication, Tamilnadu, 2004. 9. Gupta, S.P., Sabhyata Ke Rog, Surabhi Publication, Lucknow. 10. Singh, S.P. Life Style & Disease, H.N. Publication, Lucknow. 180


Management of dietary fats for healthy living

Fats are the most concentrated form of energy and one of the important component of our diet i.e. calories, amino acids, fatty acids, minerals and vitamins. Its energy value is 9 K. cal/gram, which is more than twice of Carbohydrates and proteins which is only 4 K cal/gram. The dietary fats that we consume may be saturated, unsaturated or trans fats. Saturated and trans fats are the most harmful type of fats, as they get deposited in the body causing various ailments including heart attack and Cancer. Unsaturated fats are both monounsaturated and Polyunsaturated. Both of these are needed for proper functioning of our body. However, polyunsaturated fats are needed in our body to maintain cell membrane, for making prostaglandins, which regulate processes including blood clotting and inflammation. It is also needed to enable fat soluble vitamins A, D, E and K to be absorbed from food and for regulating body cholesterol metabolism. These fats are the parent source for essential fatty acids. 181

Essential Fatty Acids (EFAs)

From fats eaten down to stomach we synthesize our own fat, cholesterol and various phospholipids. In addition, humans can synthesize saturated and monounsaturated fats from other sources in the diet, therefore, they are not necessary to be added in the diet. However, following fatty acids can not be synthesized by our body from any other fatty acids or carbohydrate and must be incorporated directly into the diet. Hence these are called Essential fatty acids. These are:(i) Omega-6 fatty acids (ii) Omega-3 fatty acids All these EFA are unsaturated; that is, have double bonds. Balanced proportion of EFAs in the body actually help burn excess calories instead of depositing them as fatty tissues and also act as solvents to help the body dissolve and remove hard fats deposited by long-term bad dietary habits.

Although the body needs both omega-3s omega-6s to thrive. Most people consume far more Omega 6s than Omega 3s. Hardly a day goes by, however, without reports of another health benefit associated with omega-3s. For this reason, many experts recommend consuming a better balance of these two EFAs. 182

Types of Omega-3 EFAs

Key Omega-3 fatty acids include eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexanoic acid (DHA), both found primarily in oily cold-water fish such as tuna, salmon and mackerel. Aside from fresh seaweed, a staple of many cultures, plant foods rarely contain EPA or DHA. However, a third Omega-3, called alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), is found primarily in dark green leafy vegetables hemp and basil oils, and certain vegetable oils. Although ALA has different effects on the body than EPA and DHA do, the body has enzymes that can convert ALA to EPA. All three are important to human health.

Characteristics of Essential Fatty acids (EFAs)

Omega-3, EFAs
Help in prevention of:i. Coronary heart diseases ii. Sudden death from heart arrhythmias iii. Cancer iv. Rheumatoid arthritis v. Slow down postmenopausal bone loss vi. Modulation of chronic diseases vii. Normal functioning during growth and development viii. Hypertension 183 ix. Type-2 diabetes x. Renal disease xi. Reduces hypercholesterolemia atherosclerosis xii. Ischemic heart disease xiii. Hyper lipidemia xiv. Increases elasticity of arterial system xv. Improves arterial function

Omega-6 EFAs
High intake of W-6 fatty acids shifts the physiologic state to one that is characterized by increases in:i. Blood viscosity ii. Vasospasm iii. Vasoconstriction iv. Decreases in bleeding time v. Plus numerous other scourges of modern times trapping one in a spiral of disease vi. Inflammatory condition vii. Depression viii. Eczematous and other skin derangements ix. Obesity x. Acne

xi. Chronic viral fatigue xii. Arthritis and other inflammatory conditions 184 xiii. Heart and circulatory derangements xiv. Immune system breakdown xv. Cancer

Sources of EFAs
Marine sources
Atlantic salmon and other fatty marine sources preferably cold-water fish, including herring (both Atlantic and Pacific), sardines, Atlantic halibut, bluefish, tuna and Atlantic mackerel. The American Heart Association recommends that people can eat tuna or salmon at least twice a week. As a reasonable substitute (or even an occasional alternative) for fresh fish, commercial fish oil capsules are available containing omega-3s such as DHA and EPA.

Wild game
Surprisingly, venison and buffalo are both good sources of omega-3s and make a healthy choice for people craving for meat.

Plant Sources
Canola oil, hemp seed oil, walnuts, and leafy green vegetables such as purslance are all good sources of the plantbased omega-3 fatty acids. 185

1. Simopoulos AP. Omega-3 fatty acids in health and disease and in growth and development, Am J clin Nutr 54:438463, 1991. 2. Salem N, Simopoulos AP, Galli C, Lagarde M, Knapp HR, eds. Fatty acids and lipids from cell biology to human disease. 31(suppl), S1-S326, 1996. 3. de lorgeril M, Renaud S, Mamelle N, et al. Effect of a Mediterranean type of diet on the rate of cardiovascular complications in patients with coronary artery disease. Insights into the effects of certain nutriments. J Am Coll Cardiol 28:1103-8, 1996. 4. Simopoulos P. Essential Fatty Acids in Health and Chronic Disease. Presentation, The Third International Congress on Vegetarian Nutrition, March, 1997. 5. Fanaian M, Szilasi J, Storlien L, et al. The effectof a modified fat diet on insulin resistance and metabolic parameters in type II diabetes. Diabetologia 39(1), A7, 1996. 6. Freese R, Mutanen M. Alpha-Linolenic acid and marine long-chain fatty acids differ only slightly in their effects on hemostatic factorsin health subjects, Am J Clin Nutr 66:591-8, 1997. 186 7. Uauy R, Peirano P, Hofman D, et al. Role of essential fatty acids in the function of the developing nervous system. Lipids 31(S): 167-76, 1996.



Effect of Yoga nidra on hypertensive patients

As we have entered the era of fast pace, we encounter a number of challenges and obstacles in our daily walks of life. At times we have faced unbearable pressure and we cannot keep up to unusual demands of our peers. We should try to stay determined and alert every moment for everyday task that we do and this has caused the stress causes grow up high. A stress cause is mostly psychological and often has a number of physiological causes behind it. At times we are upset to that extent that we completely lose control of our personal balance. What matters most are factors like emotional equilibrium and it mostly evokes a defensive response. A number of symptoms can be noted as the probable stress causes. We note a number of symptoms like and palpitation or our heart beats pounding faster and our muscles stretching and gasping heavily at every sight or sound that we perceive. We can also perceive other psychological and physical treats, in which the tension possibly has its roots. A number of events can be rated as probable stress causes. The usual causes are remaining stuck for long hours in the traffic 188 congestion and may be attending phone calls from near ones or some striking news. What affects us in a round about manner are factors like- rise in the level of stress hormones and increased heart beat rate and higher levels of blood pressure unexpectedly. Hypertension or high blood pressure may be of unknown cause (essential hypertension), or it may occur in association with some other condition, such as kidney disease (secondary or symptomatic hypertension). It is controlled with a low-salt diet and drugs. Hypertension is one of the major public health problems especially because it has no symptoms. Many people have hypertension without knowing it. In the United States, about 50 million people of all ages and sex have high blood pressure. Hypertension is more common in men than women and in people over the age of 65 have hypertension. It also is more common in African-Americans than in white Americans. Hypertension is serious because people with the condition have a higher risk for heart disease and other medical problems than people with normal blood pressure. Serious complications can be avoided by getting regular blood pressure checks and treating hypertension. 189

Sign and Symptoms

In the early stages, majority of hypertensive have no signs and symptoms except elevated BP. Often high BP is detected on routine medical check up. The symptoms depend upon: i. Level of BP.

ii. Hypertensive Vascular Disease. iii. Target organ involved iv. Underlying disease in case of Secondary Hypertension. Symptoms due to elevated BP itself are headache, lightheadedness, giddiness, irritability and fatigue. Headache is generally localized to the occipital region is present when the patient awakens in the morning and subsides in a few hours. Hypertensive vascular disease results in thickening of the main arteries which are hard or palpation. There may be bleeding from nose or urinary tract. Involvement of coronary arteries causes angina pain. Other sign and symptoms of cardiac involvement are palpitation, breathlessness in lying posture, night urination, fatigability and oedema of dependent part.

Medical Cause
Hypertension has several specific causes. It appears that a combination of these is responsible for the increased incidence in high blood pressure over the last decade, some causes are given below:190

(i) Heredity
If both parents have hypertension the chances of children also becoming hypertensive are forty-five percent higher than normal. If one parent was hypertensive the chances are thirty percent higher than normal. Thus the influence of heredity does play a part in the causation of hypertension by laying down the basic characteristics which will be modified by the environment and learned patterns of behaviour.

(ii) Age
The peak incidence of hypertension falls in the forty to sixty years age group, though the number of young people with hypertension is on the increase. Ageing and subsequent deterioration of the physical body facilitates the disease process. At the same time, build-up of toxins, stress hormones and tension results in adults and very rarely in children. With advancing age, there is also a greater chance of hardening of the arteries with its accompanying increased blood pressure.

(iii) Smoking
There is now incontrovertable evidence that smoking is harmful to the health. It is known that as well as the increased chance of lung cancer, lung disease in general, smoking contributes to hardening of blood vessels of the heart; deterioration of the peripheral vessel leading to greater peripheral resistance; and to inflammation of the optic nerve. 191

(iv) Cholesterol and High fat diet

Cholesterol and increased blood fats have been correlated with an increased incidence of blood vessel disorder. When vessels are diseased there is a greater chance of developing high blood pressure. High blood pressure plus excessive dietary fat is thought to hasten the process of deposition of fat on the vessel walls and speeds hardening of the arteries.

(v) Sedentary Lifestyle

The mechanization of civilization and emphasis on city life has led to a decrease in the proportion of people who take vigorous exercise. The proportion of sedentary workers and business executives, who are most prone to hypertension, has increased. This has been paralleled by a massive increase in the number of people with high blood pressure. Statistics and experiments have proved that inadequate physical exercise weakens the body, leaving it prone to high blood pressure, especially when it is associated with mental stress.

(vi) Personality, Stress and Emotions

The classical viewpoint held by many psychologists and psychiatrists of the role of personality in essential hypertension is one associated with a picture of external friendliness and self control beneath which there are strong aggressions and anxiety. Anxiety is intensified by the patients fears of expressing his aggression, and a constant conflict ensures. 192

Mental Cause
Every person has some neurotic tendencies or mental problems which cause periods of unhappiness, tension, depression, anxiety to one degree or another. These tensions filter into the physical via the pranic structure. They first gain access via the brain, which is the gateway between mind and body. The brain is part of the physical body though it is intimately linked with the mental body. The brain is the crossroads between the inner and outer world, the junction of each individually, enabling us to communicate our inner individual experiences to the outside enviornment. It is our controlling instrument for external communication and self-expression. The brain controls the autonomic nervous system which regulates the blood pressure. When it is imbalanced due to higher and more subtle disturbances, we get hypertension through excessive sympathetic stimulation.

Yogic Cause
Prana and chitta are circulated through a network of flow ways called Nadi. There are 72, 000 nadis or energy channels in the body. They are organized in much the same pattern as the blood vessels, for they have three main channels of flow: Ida (the mental channel), Pingala (the vital channel) and Sushumna (the 193 spiritual channel). These branches are subdivided into finer and finer channels permeating every atom of the body. The nadis compose an energizing infrastructure within every cell, tissue and organ of the physical body. Any blockage or impurity in the nadis leads to disease. Blockages are due to chaotic thought pattern or stressful lifestyle. On the physical level, the arteries which are the active dynamic component of the circulatory system reflect pingala nadi, whereas the veins, which are the passive receptive nadi component, reflect Ida nadi, Sushumna nadi, which lays in the

centre of the spinal cord, is mirrored in the vast capillary network which extends throughout the whole body. Hypertension is the result of an imbalance in the nadis in which pingala becomes predominant. Pingala is associated with heat, the colour red, extroversion and dynamism. Hypertension is linked to the pingala nadi because the arterial tree which branches out from the heart is most dynamic. The blood it carries is red because of its high oxygen content.

Classification of Hypertension
Like fever, hypertension is a sign of some underlying disorder. As pointed out above, hypertension can be produced by a variety of causes. Increase in sympathetic activity and vasoconstrictor chemicals can produce spasm of blood vessels 194 resulting in increase in peripheral resistance and BP. Peripheral resistance is also increased by thickening of blood vessels and increase in blood viscosity. Increase in cardiac output also leads to increase in BP. Cardiac output is increased by a number of factors like stimulation of heart by neural and chemical influences and increase in blood volume. In more than 90% of adult hypertensive, the cause of elevated BP can not be pin pointed. These patients are said to have primary, essential or idiopathic hypertension. In rest of the patients, a specific cause can be identified which is generally renal or humeral. These patients have secondary hypertension of known ctiology. Thus, secondary hypertension is due to a specific organ defect while primary hypertension is associated with functional abnormalities.

Complications of Hypertension
Hypertension decreases life by 10-12 years and the patients die prematurely due to heart disease, stroke or kidney failure. Complications depend upon the level of BP, target organ involved, the underlying disease in case of secondary hypertension and the presence of risk factors. Hypertension is a progressive disease leading to severe complications and ultimate death. Being asymptomatic in the beginning it usually remains undiagnosed till the disease has 195 progressed, since it is a very common disorder. There is need to regularly monitor BP of middle aged persons. Thus, treatment can be initiated as soon as the condition is detected. Adoption of yogic life style will go a long way in preventing the development of hypertension in such individuals.

Prevalence rate of hypertension

According to National Center for Biotechnology Information, USA prevalence of hypertension varied around the world, with the lowest prevalence in rural subjects of Haryana in India (3.4% in men and 6.8% in women) and the highest prevalence in Poland (68.9% in men and 72.5% in women). In India, the prevalence is highest in Mumbai (27% male and 28% female) and lowest prevalence in rural area of Haryana (3.4% and

6.8% in women). While according to National Cardiovascular Disease Database the prevalence of hypertension in North India is highest in Delhi i.e. 45% and lowest in rural area of Haryana i.e. 4.5%.

There is no specific treatment for essential hypertension because medical science has found no specific cause for this disorder. The aim of therapy is to lower the blood pressure using rest, diet, avoidance of stress and drugs. 196

General Medical Advice

Counselling on how to live a healthy life includes diet management to reduce the intake of fats and salts in order to lower the pressure and reduce the chance of hardening the arteries. Obesity is reduced by diet. Smoking is stopped and emotional stress avoided. Exercise within the range of tolerance is recommended. In general to control the essential hypertension doctors prescribe antihypertensive drugs. In most cases drugs lower the blood pressure without undue side effects. However, the patient must continue medication even when the symptoms are ameliorated and, the surface, hypertension is cured. If he stops drug therapy he risks his blood pressure shooting up to its original level or higher, with unpleasant effects. This is known as the rebound phenomenon. It occurs because drugs do not remove the root cause of hypertension, but only suppress it. Drugs can also cause unpleasant side effects, only Yoga gets to the root cause of the disease in a safe, efficient manner. However, drugs can effectively reduce a dangerously high blood pressure as a prelude to more long range yogic therapy and can then be withdrawn. 197

Role of Yoga Nidra for Hypertensive patients

The practice of Yoga nidra has a number of benefits for hypertensive patients. Important among them are as follows:-

Minimizes tension
In the modern world the international problem is not poverty, drugs or fear of war; it is tension and only tension. A high percentage of people remain in a state of tension and frustration. This continuous level of tension in the body, mind and emotions predisposes the individual towards psychological and psychosomatic disorders. Modern psychology as well as yogic philosophy believes in three kinds of tension muscular tensions, emotional tensions and mental tensions which can be progressively released through the systematic and regular practice of Yoga nidra. Muscular tension results from nervous and endocrinal imbalances. It manifests in the form of stiffness and rigidity in the physical body, In the practice of Yoga nidra the body is progressively relaxed, which in turn releases the accumulated muscular tensions. In day to day life individuals fail to express their emotions freely and openly. As a result, the emotions are repressed and

manifest in the form of emotional tension. In the practice of Yoga nidra, the practitioner slowly moves towards the deeper realms of the mind where he or she confronts the deep-rooted emotional tensions. When the practitioner recognizes these emotional 198 tensions with full awareness and a witnessing attitude, then repressed emotions are released and the practitioner becomes calm and tranquil. Due to excessive activity on the mental plane, the mind always remains in a state of arousal, which results in mental tension. Throughout life the mind is fed with negative data. In the practice of Yoga nidra, especially in rotation of consciousness and breath awareness, the mind is relaxed, thereby releasing the mental tensions. In this way, through the regular and sincere practice of Yoga nidra, tensions at the physical, emotional and mental level can be minimized.

Trains the mind

The sankalpa taken in each session of Yoga nidra is perhaps the most effective technique for training the mind. Swami Satyananda (1998) says, anything in life can fail you, but not the sankalpa made during Yoga nidra. The sankalpa is taken and sowed in the subconscious mind when it is relaxed and receptive. The subconscious mind is very obedient and hence carries out the orders immediately. In Yoga nidra, the sankalpa trains the subconscious mind and then the ordinary mind follows the path automatically. The sankalpa helps in training the mind because it is planted when the mind is relaxed and ready to absorb and accept. The essential thing is that the resolve should be planted with strong 199 willpower and feeling. Many people make conscious resolves guided by intellect, which rarely brings results.

Relaxes the mind

The brain is the linking mediator between the mind, body and emotions. In Yoga nidra intensifying the awareness of the body stimulates the brain. When the awareness is rotated on the different body parts, it not only induces physical relaxation but also clears the nerve pathways to the brain. Each of the body parts has an existing centre in the cerebral white matter, named by reseachers as motor homunculus or little man. The sequence of rotation of awareness in Yoga nidra is in accordance with the map in the cerebral white matter of the brain. When the awareness is rotated in the same sequence again and again, it includes a flow of pranic energy within the neuronal circuit of the motor homunculus of the brain. This pranic flow brings in a subjective experience of relaxation in the brain. In one of the stages of Yoga nidra a pair of opposite feelings or sensations is intensified again and again in the practitioner. This continuous invocation of opposite feelings or sensations is in accordance with the electrophysiological operating principles of the brain. When a neuron fires it produces a nerve impulse which is relayed and registered in the brain. But if the same neuron keeps on firing again and again, then its relayed

impulse is no longer registered by the brain. Researchers have 200 called this phenomenon habituation. When the brain becomes accustomed to the stimulus, then gradually it becomes relaxed. The state where the brain is completely relaxed results in mental relaxation.

Clears up the unconscious

From early childhood, we tend to repress many wishes, desires and conflicts. Whenever a situation threatens the ego, the defence mechanisms are called upon and the conflicting situation is repressed or suppressed to the unconscious. All the traumatic experiences, unfulfilled desires and threatening situations are suppressed by the ego to the subconscious and unconscious realms of the mind. In the deeper realms of the mind this conflicting and frustrating matter does not die but remains alive and later manifests in the form of various pathological symptoms. The repressed desires, wishes and situations remain in the form of symbols in the unconscious mind. During the practice of Yoga nidra, the instructor asks the practitioner to visualize certain symbols and images with a witnessing attitude. If the symbols and images are selected properly, then they are in accordance with the symbols of the unconscious. An abstract association is created between the guided imagery and the associated repressed experiences of the unconscious. For example, if the teacher instructs the practitioner to visualize a dog, this may bring out a post traumatic childhood 201 experience in which the practitioner was bitten by a dog. The practitioner observes this associated painful experience with a witnessing attitude, which helps in cutting off the personal identification with the experience. When the personal identification ceases to be cut off, the painful experience associated with the dog is repressed again. In this way, the practice of visualization brings the unconscious repressed desires, experiences, conflicts and frustrations to the conscious level and then cut off the personal identification with those experiences. As a result, the unconscious is cleared up.

Counteracts stress
Stress is a cognitive or emotional response made by the individual towards any situation, which demands adjustment. When the demands of the situations exceed the ability of the individual then distress results, which may manifest in mental and physical symptoms of abnormality. The practice of Yoga nidra helps in building up the coping ability. The practitioner of Yoga nidra slowly becomes aware of the inherent dormant potentialities and thus prevents himself from becoming a victim of distress. Udupa (1977) suggests that stress-related disorders evolve gradually through four stages. In the first stage, psychological symptoms like anxiety and irritability arise due to over activation of the sympathetic nervous system. The second stage is characterized by related physical symptoms like high blood 202

pressure, increased heart rate etc. In the third stage, the abnormalities manifest clinically in the organ systems. In the last stage, severe symptoms in particular organs result which need long-term medical management. In Yoga nidra an attempt is made to activate the parasympathetic system, and slowly a balance between the sympathetic and parasympathetic systems is achieved by inducing complete physical, emotional and mental relaxation. In this way the practice of Yoga nidra counteracts stress. Carrington et al (1980) concluded that Yoga nidra has its most widespread application as a preventive measure to be practiced by healthy, active people as a means of relieving accumulated tensions, increasing stress resistance and overall efficiency, and preventing the development of stress-related diseases.

Material and Methods

20 people in the age group of 40-60 years, suffer from hypertension were selected from a naturopathic hospital of Lucknow. Most of them were belong to business class or sales or housewives. They were not taking any antihypertensive medicine to reduce their BP. They want to reduce their BP naturally. All these patients were selected by random sampling. An 8 week yogic program in which 30 minutes of Yoga nidra practice daily take place was designed for these patients. 203 There systolic and diastolic blood pressure was measured before starting the program. All the 20 patients were belonging to the essential class of hypertension. It was to make sure by taking there medical history. There BP was recorded every week. The whole program took place under the supervision of trained Yoga Instructors.

Information from the clinical data and narration by the patients shows that all the participants felt energetic, lively, fresh and relaxed. There is remarkable improvement in the associated symptoms like anxiety, tension, bowel disorders, insomnia, pains and aches, fatigue, etc. one other important result reported by all the participants was the whole some feeling of well being and goodness. Our observation shows that the result of Yoga Nidra varies patient to patient. Some patients were getting a quick relief and showing remarkable changes, some patients showed average change and some remain unchanged. Out of 20 patients, the BP of 2 patients remains unchanged and there were remarkable changes that were visible in the blood pressure of 18 patients. 204 Yoga nidra is helpful in reducing the blood pressure of the patients because it helps to reduce the intensity of the thoughts which cause the mental illness for the man.


Observation from the study led us to conclusion that after practice of Yoga nidra is a Superbly effective system of meditation. It rejuvenates the nervous system and helps in overcoming with psychosomatic diseases. Except it, the study also shows that Yoga nidra helps in reduction of systolic blood pressure relatively more than in the diastolic blood pressure. The reduced BP can be maintained only if the Yoga nidra is continued on regular practice.

Table for the observation of the Blood Pressure of the patients

Before After S.No. Name of Patient Sex Age Systolic Diastolic Systolic Diastolic Remarks Improved 1. S. Kumar M 47 124 84 120 80 + 2. Khurshida F 52 145 95 131 87 + 3. N. Joshi M 45 157 97 137 93 + 4. M. Trivedi M 58 160 92 142 86 + 205 5. A. Khare M 46 150 86 128 80 + 6. P. Agarwal M 55 120 86 120 86 No Change 7. Meenakshi F 42 150 100 136 92 + 8. Shikha F 49 120 88 120 88 No Change 9. D. Awasthi M 51 140 88 136 80 + 10. I. Ali M 60 144 90 130 88 + 11. B. Pal M 43 140 90 140 98 + 12. A. Chaturvedi M 59 138 90 134 84 + 13. Suneeta F 41 140 94 122 86 + 14. D. Khan M 54 150 92 140 85 + 15. Nuzhat F 53 134 88 116 80 + 16. V. Asthana M 48 145 87 135 80 + 17. S. Srivastava M 43 135 91 125 81 + 18. Y. Nigam M 57 115 85 111 82 + 19. Shaziya F 48 140 88 130 85 + 20 A. Ahmad M 56 126 85 120 80 +

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