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1. BERSIH 2.

0 bukan sebuah pertubuhan sebagaimana yang didakwa oleh pihak UMNO dan BN kononnya BERSIH adalah sebuah pertubuhan haram yang tidak berdaftar dengan R.O.S, sebaliknya BERSIH 2.0 adalah satu kempen yang digerakkan oleh sekurang - kurangnya 62 Ngo yang bergabung untuk menuntut pemulihan sistem demokrasi dan pengurusan pilihanraya yang adil dan telus . 2. 8. BERSIH 2.0 tidak digerakkan untuk menjatuhkan kerajaan UMNO dan BN dengan kekerasan sebagaimana apa yang mereka lakukan oleh mereka ke atas rakyat. BERSIH 2.0 tidak digembeleng untuk meruntuhkan kerajaan UMNO dan BN dengan rampasan kuasa secara undemocratic sebagaimana apa yang mereka lakukan oleh mereka ke atas kerajaan Pakatan Rakyat di Perak. BERSIH 2.0 tidak dicetuskan untuk mengguling kerajaan UMNO dan BN dengan menimbulkan huru hara dan kacau bilau yang menggugat keamanan serta ketenteraman awam sebagaimana apa yang dilakukan oleh mereka ke atas peserta himpunan BERSIH 2.0 pada 9 Julai 2011 tempohari. 3. 9. BERSIH 2.0 hanya menuntut pemulihan sistem demokrasi dan pengurusan pilihanraya yang bersih. Kita bersedia untuk bersaing dengan UMNO dan BN dalam sistem yang adil, telus dan saksama. Tiada lagi penafian hak bersuara dengan memastikan akses media yang adil dan bebas serta tiada lagi pelanggaran hak memilih dengan mereformasikan undi pos. 4. 10. Jika UMNO dan BN mengapong diri dengan kempen 1 Malaysia, Pakatan Rakyat memobilisasi rakyat dengan BERSIH 2.0 yang akan terus kekal momentumnya biarpun berdepan dengan pelbagai tindakan yang tidak bertamadun dan undemocratic. Kini rakyat berani. Bukan sekadar berani melepasi sekatan FRU dan bedilan gas pemedih mata, tetapi apa yang paling bermakna ialah rakyat kini berani membuang sikap berdiam diri untuk bangkit menunjukkan perasaan mereka yang diselubungi derita sejak sekian lama angkara demokrasi ala Barisan Nasional. Saya sokong orang berani dan saya sokong BERSIH 2.0

an inilah antara perkembangan yang terjadi antara jangkamasa Bersih 2.0 iaitu 9 Julai 2011 dan Bersih 3.0 yang bakal diadakan pada 28 April 2012. Kerajaan telah menubuhkan Jawatankuasa Pilihan Parlimen yang dianggotai oleh wakil kerajaan dan pembangkang, serta bebas untuk mengkaji mengenai penambahbaikan sistem pilihanraya. Berdasarkan apa yang dicadangkan oleh jawatankuasa tersebut dengan merujuk kepada tuntutan Bersih, berikut adalah apa yang diumumkan oleh SPR pada 19 April lalu: Bersihkan senarai undi - SPR juga bersetuju untuk menguakuatkuasakan undangundang sedia ada mengenai mereka yang memberi maklumat palsu ketika mendaftar sebagai pengundi. SPR setuju untuk membersihkan senarai undi dan menyelidik berkenaan kes di mana terdapat begitu ramai pengundi di alamat yang sama. Reformasikan Undi Pos - Rakyat Malaysia yang berada di luar negara juga boleh mengundi melalui pos Walaubagaimanapun, SPR tidak akan menubuhkan stesyen mengundi di negara-negara luar kerana ia amat sukar dilakukan. Ini kerana setiap pengundi pos dari luar negara ini perlu berdaftar mengikut kawasan mengundi yang berlainan mengikut alamat mereka ketika di sini. Gunakan Dakwat Kekal kekal Awal tahun ini, SPR telah meluluskan penggunaan dakwat

Akses Media yang Bebas dan Adil - SPR juga bersetuju mengambil langkah memberi akses media secara adil kepada semua parti politik dan calon-calon bertanding. Semua media perlu berdaftar dengan pegawai di kawasan undian masing-masing dan permohonan mereka perlu diluluskan oleh organisasi media yang mereka wakili. Tempoh Kempen Minima 21 Hari - Suruhanjaya Pilihanraya (SPR) telah bersetuju menambah tempoh kempen pilihanraya daripada 7 hari kepada 10 hari.

5 dari tuntutan nyata Bersih telah pun diberi perhatian


Jelas, Tuntutan Segera Perhimpunan BERSIH 2.0 1. Bersihkan senarai undi Senarai undi harus dibersihkan dengan segera untuk menyingkirkan pengundi hantu seperti orang yang telah meninggal. Pendaftaran pengundi automatik yang diselarikan dengan senarai Jabatan Pendaftaran Negara boleh menyelesaikan masalah pengundi hantu dalam jangka masa panjang. 2. Mereformasikan undi pos SEMUA pengundi seharusnya dibenarkan untuk mengundi melalui undi pos atau mengundi lebih awal sekiranya seseorang individu itu tidak dapat berada di kawasan pengundian semasa hari mengundi. Anggota polis dan tentera yang tidak bertugas harus mengundi seperti biasa pada hari mengundi. Undi pos mesti dijalankan dengan telus! Agen parti politik harus dibenarkan untuk memantau proses undi pos.

KUALA LUMPUR, March 19 A polls reform group wants the Election Commission (EC) to set up safeguards as postal voting's synonymous with fraud and unfair balloting. For too long, postal voting in Malaysia has not operated as the law intended, said Andrew Yong, international coordinator for MyOverseasVote, in a statement today. Instead of being sent directly to servicemen and women, armed forces postal ballot papers have been sent via the military chain of command, allowing them to be intercepted and fraudulently misused.

Armed forces postal voters have had to mark their ballot papers in front of their military superiors, thereby putting them in fear that votes would not be secret. Last December, MyOverseasVote proposed to the Parliamentary Select Committe (PSC) that each political candidate be allowed to appoint overseas election agents to monitor the postal voting process. They further suggested that all postal ballot papers be sent by diplomatic pouch to the embassy/consulate and then forwarded to postal voters in the presence of election agents. The voters should return the ballots to the same embassy/consulate by post, courier or in person, where the ballots will be placed in one out of 27 sealed ballot boxes signed by the election agents. MyOverseasVote further said that the ballots must be counted in the presence of the election agents before the deadline for the return of the overseas postal ballots, which should be two days before polling day in Malaysia. As postal ballot papers are sealed in envelopes, the postal ballot papers can be sorted by individual constituency after each box is opened. The results for each box can then be tabulated in spreadsheet form and returned to the EC in Malaysia by fax. Last week, The Malaysian Insider reported that there are currently an estimated 2,000 registered Malaysian voters living overseas. On March 14, PSC chairman Datuk Seri Dr Maximus Ongkili told reporters after a closeddoor meeting with the EC that it might not be possible for the EC to implement any form of overseas voting if national polls were held in the near future. Another PSC member, Anthony Loke, told reporters that the committee has yet to decide whether to accept the ECs proposal on overseas voting. There have been reservations from some of the committee members, but nothing has been decided yet. We will meet next Tuesday to finalise, the DAP Rasah MP told reporters. The PSCs final report is expected to be tabled in Parliament on April 2. Malaysians living abroad will only be able vote in the next general election if they use the postal voting system, the Election Commission (EC) said.

Salmiyah Harun KUALA LUMPUR, 5 Nov (Hrkh) - Menghapuskan undi pos adalah salah satu tuntutan rakyat bagi mewujudkan sistem pilihan raya negara adil dan telus bagaimanapun apa yang

mengejutkan prosedur undi pos itu sendiri boleh menimbulkan keraguan terhadap kerahsiaan undi. Sila layari www.englishsection.com untuk Laman Utama English Section atau www.harakahdaily.net/wap/ untuk melayari HarakahDaily.Net menggunakan telefon bimbit GPRS (General Packet Radio Service) anda. ImageDalam satu perbincangan bersama Suruhanjaya Pilihan Raya (SPR) di Putrajaya hari ini, Presiden PAS, Tuan Guru Dato Seri Abdul Hadi Awang agak terkejut apabila prosedur undi pos yang dikemukakan oleh Setiausaha Agung SPR Dato Kamruzzaman Mohd Nor boleh berlaku ketidakrahsiaan. Turut sama dalam perbincangan hampir tiga jam iaitu, Naib Presiden PAS, Muhammad Sabu; Setiausaha Agung PAS, Dato Kamarudin Jaffar; Ketua Pengarah Pilihan Raya PAS, Dato Mustafa Ali; Ketua Penerangan PAS, Mahfuz Omar; Ketua Penyelidikan PAS Pusat, Dr Dzulkifli Ahmad; Ketua Dewan Muslimat, Nuridah Salleh dan Timbalannya Wan Hasrina Wan Hasan, AJK PAS Pusat, Dato Abdul Halim Abdul Rahman; Dato Tuan Ibrahim Tuan Man dan Hanipa Maidin; Dr Lo Lo Ghazali dan Dr Mariah Mahmud. SPR pula dibarisi sendiri oleh Pengerusinya Tan Sri Abdul Rashid Abdul Rahman, Timbalannya Wan Ahmad Wan Omar dan beberapa orang lagi pegawai mereka. Di samping mengemukakan supaya undi pos dilakukan secara telus, Abdul Hadi berkata prosedur undi pos berkemungkinan memudahkan pihak tertentu mengetahui pengundi mengundi siapa. ImageKatanya, setiap pengundi undi pos wajib mengisi borang pengesahan mengundi terlebih dahulu sebelum membuang undi. Apa yang meragukan borang itu kemudian diisi dalam sampul surat yang sama dengan kertas undi dan diposkan kepada SPR, ini boleh menimbulkan keraguan yang mana macam-macam bolah berlaku selepas itu, katanya. Jelasnya, apabila kerajaan membuat prosedur sedemikian,maka ia boleh menakutkan pasukan keselamatan untuk mengundi parti pembangkang kerana indentiti mereka akan terdedah. Tegasnya, cara itu tidak perlu kerana pihak SPR boleh mengesahkan pengundi membuang undi melalui kad pengenalan mereka di meja daftar pemilih. PAS turut menghantar memorandum kepada SPR berasaskan kepada beberapa kenyataan Pengerusi SPR dan Setiausahanya yang menegaskan secara terbuka mengenai beberapa kelemahan pilihan raya di Malaysia khususnya yang berkait dengan daftar pemilih dan pemindahan daftar pemilih. Katanya, menurut SPR kira-kira 5 juta pengundi yang meninggal dunia dan masih berada dalam daftar pemilih dan inilah satu angka yang sukar untuk dihapuskan. ImageJusteru, PAS mendesak SPR bersama-sama dengan rakyat mendesak supaya mengadakan perubahan reformasi sistem pilihan raya di Malaysia ini.

Demokrasi bukan sahaja mengundi tetapi termasuklah juga media, supaya rakyat boleh membuat satu keputusan memilih kerajaan dalam pilihan raya, katanya kepada media sebaik selepas perbincangan. Katanya, Kamaruzzaman menegaskan beliau baru mengugurkan sejumlah 22,000 pengundi yang tidak layak mengundi dari daftar pemilih di samping 180 ribu lagi yang meninggal dunia tetapi masih ada dalam daftar pemilih. Kenyataan beliau itu sangat meragukan kita, katanya. Ketika disoal tentang respons SPR atas kehadiran PAS hari ini, Abdul Hadi berkata mereka memberi respon yang baik tetapi PAS tahu SPR di bawah kuasa Jabatan Perdana Menteri dan sedia maklum mereka tidak mempunyai kebebasan dan ketelusan dalam mengendalikan pilihan raya yang adil. ImageJika memorandum itu tidak dipanjangkan kepada pihak kerajaan, Abdul Hadi menegaskan PAS akan panjangkan perkara ini di luar SPR pada 10 November ini yang mana mereka akan mendesak pihak lebih tinggi untuk melaksanakan demokrasi yang adil. Jika SPR tidak respons memo kita pada hari ini, kita tunggu pula respons kerajaan dalam perhimpunan nanti, ujarnya yang merujuk kepada perhimpunan rakyat yang akan diadakan pada 10 November kelak. Ketika disoal apakah jaminan SPR kepada reformasi sistem pilihan raya negara ini, Abdul Hadi dengan segera menegaskan SPR tidak mampu memberi jaminan kepada rakyat bahkan tidak boleh dipercayai. Dalam perbicangan itu, beberapa AJK PAS Pusat mencuba dakwat kekal yang akan digunakan pada pilihan raya nanti. Sementara itu, di kesempatan menyapu dakwat di kuku beberapa AJK PAS Pusat, menurut Kamaruzzaman, dakwat itu akan disapu di kuku jari telunjuk kiri pengundi sebelum membuang undi. ImageMenurut salah seorang AJK PAS pusat pada awalnya dakwat yang disapu di kuku bewarna biru nila kemudian selepas kira-kira empat jam dakwat tersebut bertukar menjadi warna kemerah-merahan. Setakat ini jika dikikis dakwat tersebut boleh hilang, dakwa mereka yang mencuba dakwat tersebut. Abdul Hadi ketika ditanya tentang penggunaan dakwat itu, bagaimanapun beliau belum boleh memberi apa-apa komen kerana perkara itu masih baru dan terlalu awal untuk membuat kenyataan. Kita perlu lihat secara terperinci dulu tentang dakwat ini, tetapi pada dasarnya kita menerima penggunaan dakwat kekal, katanya. mks.

3. Gunakan dakwat kekal Penggunaan dakwat kekal boleh mengelakkan seseorang (atau pengundi hantu) daripada mengundi beberapa kali. 4. Masa kempen minima 21 hari Masa yang lebih panjang diperlukan untuk calon menyebarkan maklumat, terutamanya di kawasan luar bandar dan pedalaman. Contohnya, pilihanraya negeri Sarawak baru-baru ini diberi masa kempen 10 hari sahaja. Pada 1955, ketika era pemerintahan penjajah, pilihanraya mempunyai masa kempen sepanjang 42 hari. Manakala semasa Pilihanraya Umum ke-12 pada 2008, masa kempen 8 hari sahaja. 5. Akses media yang bebas dan adil RTM dan Bernama adalah agensi media yang dibiayai oleh kerajaan. Mereka sepatutnya memberi liputan yang seimbang dan adil untuk semua parti yang bertanding. Parti politik harus dibenarkan untuk membuat pengiklanan tanpa sebarang diskriminasi dan penapisan. Ini adalah mengenai keadilan! Semua media perlu memberikan hak untuk semua parti membalas kepada tuduhan-tuduhan negatif terhadap mereka. 6. Kukuhkan institusi awam Institusi awam dan kakitangan kerajaan harus tidak berat sebelah dan menegakkan undangundang dan demokrasi. Institusi awam harus direformasikan supaya bertindak secara bebas, menegakkan undang-undang dan melindungi hak asasi manusia. Contohnya : Suruhanjaya Pilihanraya (SPR) hendaklah memastikan pilihanraya yang bebas dan adil. Badan Kehakiman harus memelihara kebebasannya dan menegakkan kedaulatan undangundang tanpa gentar atau memihak. Peguam Negara perlu bertindak secara tidak berat sebelah dan mengutamakan kepentingan rakyat. Suruhanjaya Pencegahan Rasuah Malaysia harus bertindak dengan adil dan menghentikan pendakwaan selektif dan penyalahgunaan kuasa. Polis Di Raja Malaysia perlu bertindak secara profesional dalam melaksanakan tugas dan menegakkan kedaulatan undang-undang. 7. Hentikan rasuah

Rasuah adalah kegiatan mencuri dari rakyat untuk kepentingan peribadi. Rasuah menyebabkan orang kaya bertambah kaya dan golongan miskin semakin miskin. Pembelian undi harus dihentikan! Akta Kesalahan Pilihanraya 1954 mesti dikuatkuasakan. 8. Hentikan politik kotor BERSIH 2.0 menuntut SEMUA parti politik untuk menghentikan politik kotor.

1. Clean the electoral roll, which is marred with irregularities such as deceased persons and multiple persons registered under a single address or non-existent addresses. In the longer term, BERSIH 2.0 also calls for the EC to implement an automated voter registration system upon eligibility to reduce irregularities.

An April survey by Merdeka Center last showed that 92% of voters in Peninsular Malaysia want the electoral roll cleaned before the general election that must be called within the year. Pakatan Rakyat claimed that at least 120,000 doubtful voters are on the roll while independent political consultant Ong Kian Ming has said his Malaysian Electoral Roll Analysis Project (MERAP) pointed to over 400,000 doubtful names, enough to decide 35 federal seats. The issue became one of the major reasons behind two mass rallies organised by opposition-backed poll reform coalition Bersih where both ended in a violent crackdown that saw Prime Minister Najib Tun Razaks popularity take a beating.

2. Reform postal ballot, to ensure that all citizens of Malaysia, residing in or out of the country, are able to exercise their right to vote. 3. Use of indelible ink to reduce voter fraud. 4. Minimum 21 days campaign period to allow voters more time to gather information and deliberate on their choices. The first national elections in 1955 under the British Colonial Government had a campaign period of 42 days but the campaign period for 12th GE in 2008 was a mere 8 days. 5. Free and fair access to media, where all media agencies, especially state-funded media agencies such as Radio and Television Malaysia (RTM) and Bernama allocate proportionate and objective coverage for all political parties.

6. Strengthen public institutions to act independently and impartially in upholding the rule of law and democracy. Public institutions such as the Judiciary, Attorney-General, Malaysian Anti-Corruption Agency (MACC), Police and the EC must be reformed to uphold laws and protect human rights. 7. Stop corruption, and take serious action against ALL allegations of corruption, including vote buying. 8. Stop dirty politics, as citizens and voters are not interested in gutter politics; we are interested in policies that affect the nation.

Demands
Ambiga has summed up the main issues raised by the organisation she leads as "unhappiness... in the Sarawak [election], unhappiness about corruption, [and] unhappiness about the independence of our institutions."[30] She said demands made during the first rally in 2007 have not been addressed, hence the follow-up rally.[25] The communiqu issued by Bersih issued in 2007 called for reforms to Malaysia's first-pastthe-post electoral system, ensuring the independence of the Election Commission (EC), eliminating electoral practices deemed unfair to opposition candidates, eliminating corrupt campaign practices, equal access to the media for all political parties, and instituting a caretaker government during election periods, among others in the long term.[31] The 2011 rally's immediate demands were:[32][33] 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Clean the electoral roll Reform postal voting Use of indelible ink A minimum campaign period of 21 days Free and fair access to mainstream media Strengthen public institutions Stop corruption Stop dirty politics

After agreeing to abandon plans for a street demonstration, Bersih also called for a Royal Commission into election practices.[34]

Plans
The rally's original plan was to have protestors gather at the KL Sogo shopping center, Kuala Lumpur City Hall building, and the Kampung Baru Mosque before marching to the Istana Negara to deliver a memorandum to the Yang di-Pertuan Agong.[33] After consultations with

the King, Bersih decided to hold the rally in a stadium instead.[35][36] However, their request to use Merdeka Stadium was rejected by police.[37] Bersih accused the government of reneging on a previous offer to let them rally in a stadium instead of the streets.[38] Bersih insisted on gathering at Merdeka Stadium, despite preventative measures taken by police.[38] Abroad Simultaneous rallies in support of Bersih were planned by Malaysian citizens in more than 30 cities in New Zealand, Australia, Japan, South Korea, the Philippines, Taiwan, Hong Kong, Singapore, Thailand, Indonesia, Egypt, Switzerland, Sweden, Austria, France, Great Britain, Ireland, Canada, the United States and Cambodia.[39][40][41]

Lead-up to the rally


Announcement
After frustration at by being shut out of observing the April 2011 Sarawak election, Bersih announced in a press release on 26 May that it had decided to organise a gathering on 9 July to press for electoral reform.[42]

Counter-rallies
Perkasa Malay nationalist movement Perkasa spoke out strongly against the rally.[43] On 15 June, Perkasa announced that it had secured the support of over 30 non-governmental organisations and challenged Bersih organisers over who could stage a bigger rally on 9 July.[44] It called on Bersih to cancel its rally, warning that clashes might occur.[45] Perkasa president Ibrahim Ali warned "[If they proceed] there will be a clash. If that happens, it is for the better."[46] On 19 June, Perkasa held a gathering to protest the Bersih rally and to launch an opposing coalition of NGOs known as Gerak Aman.[47] During the gathering, images of Ambiga described by flyers as "a dangerous Hindu woman"were burned, while Ibrahim warned the Chinese community not to participate in the Bersih rally.[48] On 8 July, Perkasa announced the cancellation of its counter-rally due to its inability to secure a venue and a police permit.[49][50] UMNO Youth UMNO Youth leader Khairy Jamaluddin announced that UMNO Youth will hold another rally on the same day (known as the "Patriot Rally" or Himpunan Patriot)[51] to "strengthen the democratic system" and show that "the voice of the people does not belong only to the opposition."[52][53] He added that they had "a right to assembly guaranteed by the constitution."[54]

Khairy and Ibrahim became involved in a war of words over the latter's comments on regarding the Chinese community, with each side calling for the other to be investigated under the Sedition Act.[55][56][57] Ibrahim later backtracked from his comments.[58] UMNO Youth's plan was to gather at Bukit Bintang and possibly march towards Merdeka Stadium.[59]

Election Commission reaction


Bersih's demands were repeatedly dismissed by the Election Commission (EC), who sought to tie the organisation to the opposition's agenda.[60] EC deputy chairman Wan Ahmad Wan Omar claimed Bersih was working with Pakatan Rakyat to "overthrow the government."[60] In turn, Ambiga criticised the EC's conduct, asking them to remain independent from politics.[61] On 20 June, the EC extended an offer to Bersih to meet and discuss its demands, on the condition that the rally be called off. He claimed that during a previous meeting with Bersih in 2010, it had agreed that its demands were met.[62] Bersih rejected the EC's offer.[63] Speaking to reporters while observing the Thai general election in July, Abdul Aziz said the EC was considering allowing international observers to monitor the next Malaysian general election.[64]

Government reaction
Prime minister Najib Razak warned that Bersih would be responsible if chaos ensued from the rally.[65] Home Minister Hishamuddin Hussein warned against the rally, fearing the chaos that might ensue.[25] He affirmed on 7 June that the rally was "illegal," and urged the organisers to call it off.[66] He promised to clamp down on demonstrators if they threatened national security.[67][68][69] On 22 June, he confirmed that none of the three rallies would receive police permits to hold gatherings on 9 July.[70] The government also outlawed the wearing and distribution of Bersih's yellow shirts and declared Bersih an illegal organisation under Section 5 of the Societies Act 1966.[71][72] Bersih countered that as a coalition of groups it need not be registered.[73] Najib initially offered Bersih the opportunity of holding the rally in a stadium instead of the streets.[74] The government later rejected Bersih's request to hold the rally at Merdeka Stadium, and asked them to use a stadium in Selangor instead.[75] However, the Sultan of Selangor had previously condemned demonstrations.[76]

Opposition reaction
PAS deputy president Mohamad Sabu gave the rally his party's full backing.[30][77] Calling the event the "Walk for Democracy," he asked for 300,000 PAS members to attend the gathering.[7] PAS president Abdul Hadi Awang ordered all of its members (numbering one million) to join the rally.[78] The Leader of the Opposition, Anwar Ibrahim, will also take part in the rally.[79] The DAP also pledged support for the rally.[9] On 19 June, Anwar reportedly told members of his Parti Keadilan Rakyat (PKR) that he would ask Ambiga to cancel the rally if the government met Bersih's demands.[80] His

statement was rebuffed by Ambiga the following day.[81] Anwar later claimed he was misquoted.[80] This incident was criticised by ruling coalition parties, who have argued that the rally is in fact an opposition tool to gain support.[82][83]

Non-governmental organisations
The Bersih rally was backed by the Human Rights Commission of Malaysia (Suhakam),[84] Transparency International Malaysia (TI-M),[85] and the Malaysian Consultative Council of Buddhism, Christianity, Hinduism, Sikhism and Taoism (MCCBCHST).[86] The MCCBCHST also backed Perkasa and UMNO Youth's right to hold their rallies.[86] Amnesty International called on the government to end the "mass repression" of Bersih activists.[87][88] Human Rights Watch urged the government to release all detained activists, return confiscated material, and permit the rally to proceed.[89] Deputy Asia director Phil Robertson said "Governments that elected Malaysia to a second term on the UN Human Rights Council might feel duped."[89] The Asia-Europe Peoples' Forum (AEPF), consisting of 120 international NGOs, condemned the Malaysian government for the crackdown on activists.[90]

International response
On 5 July, the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights voiced concern about the restriction of freedom of expression in Malaysia and urged the government to release detained Bersih activists.[91]

Threats of violence
On 23 June, Ambiga received a death threat via text message.[92] She remained defiant, saying "nothing has changed" and the rally will go on.[93] The grandmaster of the Malaysian Silat Lincah Organisation (PSSLM) reportedly threatened to "wage war" against Bersih activists.[94] Najib subsequently endorsed silat groups, including PSSLM.[95]

Yang di-Pertuan Agong's intervention


Malaysia's head of state, the Yang di-Pertuan Agong, Tuanku Mizan Zainal Abidin, issued a statement on 3 July urging moderation by all parties. He said "street demonstrations bring more bad than good although the original intention is good," and called for Bersih to resolve its differences with the government peacefully. He also expressed confidence in Prime Minister Najib Razak's administration.[96] Following an audience with the King, Ambiga announced that Bersih accepted the government's offer to hold the rally in a stadium instead of the streets.[35][97] Despite Bersih's meeting with the King, the government maintained its stance that Bersih is illegal.[98]

Police reports and reaction

At least 2,136[99] police reports, from business operators, travel agencies, and UMNO Youth, were filed against Bersih since the rally's announcement.[45][100] On 15 June, the police announced that permits would not be issued for any rally, saying that the rallies would "disturb the peace" and "cause traffic chaos."[45] Bersih remained defiant despite not receiving the permit, and promised to cooperate with police during the gathering.[33] Police also investigated allegations that Ambiga received funds from foreign NGOs "to cause chaos in Malaysia."[101] Police recorded statements from Ambiga, Ibrahim, and opposition politicians ahead of the rally.[102][103] On 1 July, the police ceased discussions with Bersih, Perkasa and UMNO Youth and promised to prevent any street rallies from taking place.[99][104] Pre-rally arrests and raids

The police enforced road blocks throughout the city to discourage turnout. More than 150 people were arrested before 9 July for Bersih-related activities, including distributing leaflets.[105][106] Most were released after several hours of questioning.[105] 30 members of Parti Sosialis Malaysia (PSM) were arrested in Penang on 26 June on suspicion of spreading communism and conspiring to overthrow the government.[17][107] Six members, including MP Michael Jeyakumar Devaraj, remain held under the Emergency Ordinance 1969, which allows indefinite detention without trial.[108] Police also raided Bersih's office in Petaling Jaya on 30 June.[109] One day before the planned rally, police released a list of 91 individuals, including Ambiga, Khairy and Ibrahim, barred from entering Kuala Lumpur's central business district on 9 July.[106][110]

Lockdown Police began imposing roadblocks in the Klang Valley on Wednesday, 6 July, which led to massive traffic congestion and complaints from the public.[111] They described it as a "preventive" move to stop undesirable elements from "smuggling" weapons into Kuala Lumpur.[112] On 8 July, police sealed off Merdeka Square and rolled in water cannon and riot police trucks.[113] At midnight on 9 July, major roads in the city was shut and public transportation suspended.[75][106]