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GENERATION OF BASIC SIGNALS

Expt.No.1

Date:

AIM
To write a MATLAB program to generate various type of
signals.

ALGORITHM
1. Start the program.

2. Clear the command window using ‘clc’ function.

3. Create the array of time sequence by assigning values of‘t’.

4. Get the input value using the ‘input’ function for generating
various sequences.

5. Provide matrix values by giving zero and ones values in


‘y’.

6. Using ‘subplot’ function plot the graph and use ‘stem’ to


obtain discrete sequence.

7. Label in the X and Y axis using ‘label’ function.

8. End the program.

1
PROGRAM

clc;
clear all;
close all;

%Generation of cosine sequence


t1=0:.01:pi;
y1=cos(2*pi*t1);
figure(1);
subplot(3,2,1);
plot(t1,y1);
ylabel('Amplitude---->');
xlabel('(a)n---->');

%Generation of sine sequence


y2=sin(2*pi*t1);
subplot(3,2,2);
plot(t1,y2);
ylabel('Amplitude---->');
xlabel('(b)n---->');

%Generation of exponential sequence


n2=input('Enter the length of exponential sequence: ');
t3=0:n2;
a=input('Enter the value: ');
y3=exp(a*t3);
subplot(3,2,3);
stem(t3,y3);
ylabel('Amplitude---->');
xlabel('(c)n---->');

2
%Generation of unit impulse signal
t4=-2:1:2;
y4=[zeros(1,2),ones(1,1),zeros(1,2)];
subplot(3,2,4);
stem(t4,y4);
ylabel('Amplitude---->');
xlabel('(d)n---->');

%Generation of unit step sequence


n5=input('Enter the N value for unit step sequence: ');
t5=0:1:n5-1;
y5=ones(1,n5);
subplot(3,2,5);
stem(t5,y5);
ylabel('Amplitude---->');
xlabel('(e)n---->');

%Generation of unit ramp sequence


n6=input('Enter the length of ramp sequence: ');
t6=0:n6;
subplot(3,2,6);
stem(t6,t6);
ylabel('Amplitude---->');
xlabel('(f)n---->');

3
OUTPUT
Enter the length of exponential sequence: 4
Enter the value: 4
Enter the N value for unit step sequence: 6
Enter the length of ramp sequence: 5

4
RESULT
Thus the MATLAB program for generation of various types
of signals was written and the waveforms were obtained.

5
LINEAR CONVOLUTION OF TWO GIVEN SEQUENCES

Expt No.2

Date:

AIM
To write a MATLAB program to perform linear convolution.

ALGORITHM

1. Start the program.


2. Clear the command window using ‘clc’ function.
3. Get the two signals x(n) and h(n) using ‘input’ function.
4. The signal is convolved using ‘conv’ function and is denoted
as y(n), given by the formula
y(n) = x(n) * h(n).

5. Plot them using ‘stem’ function.


6. End the program.

6
PROGRAM
%linear convolution of two sequences
clc;
clear all;
close all;
x=input('Enter the first sequence : ');
h=input('Enter the second sequence : ');
y=conv(x,h);
figure;
subplot(3,2,1);
stem(x);
ylabel('Amplitude---->');
xlabel('(a)n---->');
subplot(3,2,2);
stem(h);
ylabel('Amplitude---->');
xlabel('(b)n---->');
subplot(3,2,3);
stem(y);
ylabel('Amplitude---->');
xlabel('(c)n---->');
disp('The resultant signal is:');y

7
OUTPUT
Enter the first sequence : [1 2 3 4 5]
Enter the second sequence : [1 1 -2]
The resultant signal is:

y=

1 3 3 3 3 -3 -10

8
RESULT
Thus the matlab program to perform linear convolution was
written and the output was obtained.

9
CIRCULAR CONVOLUTION OF TWO GIVEN SEQUENCES

Expt No.3

Date:

AIM
To write a MATLAB program to perform circular convolution.

ALGORITHM

1. Start the program.


2. Clear the command window using ‘clc’ function.
3. Get the two signals x(n) and h(n) using ‘input’ function.
4. The convoluted signal is denoted as y(n) and given by the
formula:

y(n) = x(n) N h(n)

5. Plot them using ‘stem’ function.


6.End the program.

10
PROGRAM
%circular convolution of two sequences
clc; clear all; close all;
g=input('Enter the first sequence: ');
h=input('Enter the second sequence: ');
N1=length(g);
N2=length(h);
N=max(N1,N2);
N3=N1-N2;
%loop for generating equal length
if(N3>=0)
h=[h,zeros(1,N3)];
else
g=[g,zeros(1,-N3)];
end
%computation of circular convolution
for n=1:N
y(n)=0;
for i=1:N
j=n-i+1;
if(j<=0)
j=N+j;
end
y(n)=y(n)+g(i)*h(j);
end
end
subplot(3,2,1);
stem(g);
ylabel('Amplitude---->');
xlabel('(a)n---->');
subplot(3,2,2);
stem(h);
ylabel('Amplitude---->');
xlabel('(b)n---->');
subplot(3,2,3);
stem(y);
ylabel('Amplitude---->');
xlabel('(c)n---->');
disp('The resultant signal is; ');y

11
OUTPUT
Enter the first sequence: [1 2 3 4 5]
Enter the second sequence: [5 4 3 2 1]
The resultant signal is;
y=
45 40 40 45 55

Enter the first sequence: [1 2]


Enter the second sequence: [2 3 4]
The resultant signal is:
y=
10 7 10

12
RESULT
Thus the matlab program to perform circular convolution was
written and the output was obtained.

13
DFT OF A GIVEN SEQUENCE USING FFT

Expt No.4

Date:

AIM
To write a matlab program to perform DFT of a given
sequence using FFT.

ALGORITHM

1. Start the program.


2. Clear the command window using ‘clc’ function.
3. Get the two signals x(n) and length of DFT to be performed
using ‘input’ function.
4. Calculate the DFT using given formula
y=fft(x,n).
5. Plot them using ‘stem’ function.
6. End the program.

14
PROGRAM
%fft of two sequences
clc;
clear all;
close all;
x=input('Enter the sequence : ');
n=input('Enter the n value : ');
y=fft(x,n);
figure;
subplot(3,2,1);
stem(x);
ylabel('Amplitude---->');
xlabel('(a)n---->');
subplot(3,2,2);
stem(real(y));
ylabel('Amplitude---->');
xlabel('(b)n---->');
subplot(3,2,3);
stem(imag(y));
ylabel('Amplitude---->');
xlabel('(c)n---->');
disp('The resultant signal is:');y

15
OUTPUT
Enter the sequence : [.5 0 .5 0 .5 0 .5 0]
Enter the n value : 8
The resultant signal is:
y=
2 0 0 0 2 0 0 0

Enter the sequence : [1 2 3 4 4 3 2 1]


Enter the n value : 8
The resultant signal is:
y=
Columns 1 through 6
20.0000 -5.8284 - 2.4142i 0 -0.1716 - 0.4142i 0
-0.1716 + 0.4142i
Columns 7 through 8
0 -5.8284 + 2.4142i

16
RESULT
Thus the matlab program to perform DFT of a given
sequence using FFT was written and the output was
obtained.

17
IDFT OF A GIVEN SEQUENCE USING IFFT

Expt No.5

Date:

AIM
To write a matlab program to perform IDFT of a given
sequence using IFFT.

ALGORITHM

1. Start the program.


2. Clear the command window using ‘clc’ function.
3. Get the two signals x(n) and length of IDFT to be performed
using ‘input’ function.
4. Calculate the IDFT using given formula
y=ifft(x,n).
5. Plot them using ‘stem’ function.
6. End the program.

18
PROGRAM
%ifft of two sequences
clc; clear all; close all;
x=input('Enter the sequence : ');
n=input('Enter the n value : ');
y=ifft(x,n);
figure;
subplot(3,2,1);
stem(real(x));
ylabel('Amplitude---->');
xlabel('(a)n---->');
subplot(3,2,2);
stem(imag(x));
ylabel('Amplitude---->');
xlabel('(b)n---->');
subplot(3,2,3);
stem(y);
ylabel('Amplitude---->');
xlabel('(c)n---->');
disp('The resultant signal is:');y

19
OUTPUT
Enter the sequence : [20 -5.8284-2.4142j 0 -.1716-.4142j 0 -.1716+.4142j 0
-5.8284+2.4142j]
Enter the n value : 8
The resultant signal is:
y=
1.0000 2.0000 3.0000 4.0000 4.0000 3.0000 2.0000 1.0000

Enter the sequence : [2 0 0 0 2 0 0 0]


Enter the n value : 8
The resultant signal is:
y=
0.5000 0 0.5000 0 0.5000 0 0.5000 0

20
RESULT
Thus the matlab program to perform IDFT of a given
sequence using IFFT was written and the output was
obtained.

DESIGN OF BUTTERWORTH LOW PASS IIR


FILTER

21
Expt No.6

Date:

AIM
To write a matlab program to design a Butterworth lowpass
filter and to verify the output.

ALGORITHM

1. Start the program.


2. Clear the command window using ‘clc’ function.
3. Get the pass band and stop band ripples.
4. Get the pass band and stop band frequencies.
5. Get the sampling frequency.
6. Calculate the order of filter.
7. Calculate the transfer function of the filter using the co-
efficients.
8. Plot magnitude and phase responses.
9. End the program.

PROGRAM
clc;
close all;

22
clear all;
wp=input('Enter the passband frequency: ');
ws=input('Enter the stopband frequency: ');
rp=input('Enter the passband ripple : ');
rs=input('Enter the passband ripple : ');
fs=input('Enter the sampling frequency: ');
w1=2*wp/fs;
w2=2*ws/fs;
[N,wn]=buttord(w1,w2,rp,rs);
[b,a]=butter(N,wn);
w=0:.01:pi;
[h,omega]=freqz(b,a,w);
gain=20*log10(abs(h));
subplot(2,2,1);
plot(omega/pi,gain);
grid;
xlabel('\omega/pi,gain');
ylabel('Gain in db---->');
title('IIR Butterworth LPF: gain');
subplot(2,2,2);
an=angle(h);
plot(omega/pi,an);
grid;
xlabel('\omega/pi,gain');
ylabel('Phase in radians---->');
title('IIR Butterworth LPF: phase');
disp('Order of the filter is: ');N

OUTPUT
Enter the passband frequency: 20

23
Enter the stopband frequency: 30
Enter the passband ripple : 2
Enter the passband ripple : 10
Enter the sampling frequency: 100
Order of the filter is:

N=

24
RESULT
Thus the matlab program to design a Butterworth lowpass
filter was written and the output was obtained.

DESIGN OF BUTTERWORTH HIGH PASS IIR


FILTER

25
Expt No.7

Date:

AIM
To write a matlab program to design a Butterworth highpass
filter and to verify the output.

ALGORITHM

1. Start the program.


2. Clear the command window using ‘clc’ function.
3. Get the pass band and stop band ripples.
4. Get the pass band and stop band frequencies.
5. Get the sampling frequency.
6. Calculate the order of filter.
7. Calculate the transfer function of the filter using the co-
efficients.
8. Plot magnitude and phase responses.
9. End the program.

PROGRAM
clc;
close all;
clear all;

26
wp=input('Enter the passband frequency: ');
ws=input('Enter the stopband frequency: ');
rp=input('Enter the passband ripple : ');
rs=input('Enter the passband ripple : ');
fs=input('Enter the sampling frequency: ');
w1=2*wp/fs;
w2=2*ws/fs;
[N,wn]=buttord(w1,w2,rp,rs);
[b,a]=butter(N,wn,'high');
w=0:.01:pi;
[h,omega]=freqz(b,a,w);
gain=20*log10(abs(h));
subplot(2,2,1);
plot(omega/pi,gain);
grid;
xlabel('\omega/pi,gain');
ylabel('Gain in db---->');
title('IIR Butterworth HPF: gain');
subplot(2,2,2);
an=angle(h);
plot(omega/pi,an);
grid;
xlabel('\omega/pi,gain');
ylabel('Phase in radians---->');
title('IIR Butterworth HPF: phase');
disp('Order of the filter is: ');N

OUTPUT
Enter the passband frequency: 30
Enter the stopband frequency: 20
27
Enter the passband ripple : 2
Enter the passband ripple : 10
Enter the sampling frequency: 100
Order of the filter is:

N=

28
RESULT
Thus the matlab program to design a Butterworth highpass
filter was written and the output was obtained.

DESIGN OF BUTTERWORTH BAND PASS IIR


FILTER

Expt No.8

29
Date:

AIM
To write a matlab program to design a Butterworth bandpass
filter and to verify the output.

ALGORITHM

1. Start the program.


2. Clear the command window using ‘clc’ function.
3. Get the pass band and stop band ripples.
4. Get the pass band and stop band frequencies.
5. Get the sampling frequency.
6. Calculate the order of filter.
7. Calculate the transfer function of the filter using the co-
efficients.
8. Plot magnitude and phase responses.
9. End the program.

PROGRAM
clc;
close all;
clear all;
wp=input('Enter the passband frequency: ');

30
ws=input('Enter the stopband frequency: ');
rp=input('Enter the passband ripple : ');
rs=input('Enter the passband ripple : ');
fs=input('Enter the sampling frequency: ');
w1=2*wp/fs;
w2=2*ws/fs;
[N,wn]=buttord(w1,w2,rp,rs);
[b,a]=butter(N,wn);
w=0:.01:pi;
[h,omega]=freqz(b,a,w);
gain=20*log10(abs(h));
subplot(2,2,1);
plot(omega/pi,gain);
grid;
xlabel('\omega/pi,gain');
ylabel('Gain in db---->');
title('IIR Butterworth BPF: gain');
subplot(2,2,2);
an=angle(h);
plot(omega/pi,an);
grid;
xlabel('\omega/pi,gain');
ylabel('Phase in radians---->');
title('IIR Butterworth BPF: phase');
disp('Order of the filter is: ');N

OUTPUT
Enter the passband frequency: [40 65]
Enter the stopband frequency: [30 75]
Enter the passband ripple : 1
Enter the passband ripple : 40
31
Enter the sampling frequency: 200
Order of the filter is:

N=

32
RESULT
Thus the matlab program to design a Butterworth bandpass
filter was written and the output was obtained.

DESIGN OF BUTTERWORTH BAND STOP IIR


FILTER

Expt No.9

33
Date:

AIM
To write a matlab program to design a Butterworth bandstop
filter and to verify the output.

ALGORITHM

1. Start the program.


2. Clear the command window using ‘clc’ function.
3. Get the pass band and stop band ripples.
4. Get the pass band and stop band frequencies.
5. Get the sampling frequency.
6. Calculate the order of filter.
7. Calculate the transfer function of the filter using the co-
efficients.
8. Plot magnitude and phase responses.
9. End the program.

PROGRAM
clc;
close all;
clear all;
wp=input('Enter the passband frequency: ');
ws=input('Enter the stopband frequency: ');

34
rp=input('Enter the passband ripple : ');
rs=input('Enter the passband ripple : ');
fs=input('Enter the sampling frequency: ');
w1=2*wp/fs;
w2=2*ws/fs;
[N,wn]=buttord(w1,w2,rp,rs);
[b,a]=butter(N,wn,'stop');
w=0:.01:pi;
[h,omega]=freqz(b,a,w);
gain=20*log10(abs(h));
subplot(2,2,1);
plot(omega/pi,gain);
grid;
xlabel('\omega/pi,gain');
ylabel('Gain in db---->');
title('IIR Butterworth BSF: gain');
subplot(2,2,2);
an=angle(h);
plot(omega/pi,an);
grid;
xlabel('\omega/pi,gain');
ylabel('Phase in radians---->');
title('IIR Butterworth BSF: phase');
disp('Order of the filter is: ');N

OUTPUT
Enter the passband frequency: [30 75]
Enter the stopband frequency: [45 65]
Enter the passband ripple : 1
Enter the passband ripple : 40
35
Enter the sampling frequency: 200
Order of the filter is:

N=

36
RESULT
Thus the matlab program to design a Butterworth bandstop
filter was written and the output was obtained.

DESIGN OF CHEBYSHEV-I LOW PASS IIR FILTER

Expt No.10

37
Date:

AIM
To write a matlab program to design a chebyshev-I lowpass
filter and to verify the output.

ALGORITHM

1. Start the program.


2. Clear the command window using ‘clc’ function.
3. Get the pass band and stop band ripples.
4. Get the pass band and stop band frequencies.
5. Get the sampling frequency.
6. Calculate the order of filter.
7. Calculate the transfer function of the filter using the co-
efficients.
8. Plot magnitude and phase responses.
9. End the program.

PROGRAM
clc;
close all;
clear all;
wp=input('Enter the passband frequency: ');
38
ws=input('Enter the stopband frequency: ');
rp=input('Enter the passband ripple : ');
rs=input('Enter the stopband ripple : ');
fs=input('Enter the sampling frequency: ');
w1=2*wp/fs;
w2=2*ws/fs;
[N,wn]=cheb1ord(w1,w2,rp,rs);
[b,a]=cheby1(N,rp,wn);
w=0:.01:pi;
[h,omega]=freqz(b,a,w);
gain=20*log10(abs(h));
subplot(2,2,1);
plot(omega/pi,gain);
grid;
xlabel('\omega/pi,gain');
ylabel('Gain in db---->');
title('IIR Chebyshev-I LPF: gain');
subplot(2,2,2);
an=angle(h);
plot(omega/pi,an);
grid;
xlabel('\omega/pi,gain');
ylabel('Phase in radians---->');
title('IIR Chebyshev LPF: phase');
disp('Order of the filter is: ');N

OUTPUT
Enter the passband frequency: 30
Enter the stopband frequency: 80
Enter the passband ripple : 20
Enter the stopband ripple : 300
Enter the sampling frequency: 200
Order of the filter is:
39
N=

14

40
RESULT
Thus the matlab program to design a chbyshev-I lowpass
filter was written and the output was obtained.

DESIGN OF CHEBYSHEV-II LOW PASS IIR FILTER

Expt No.11

41
Date:

AIM
To write a matlab program to design a chebyshev-II lowpass
filter and to verify the output.

ALGORITHM

1. Start the program.


2. Clear the command window using ‘clc’ function.
3. Get the pass band and stop band ripples.
4. Get the pass band and stop band frequencies.
5. Get the sampling frequency.
6. Calculate the order of filter.
7. Calculate the transfer function of the filter using the co-
efficients.
8. Plot magnitude and phase responses.
9. End the program.

PROGRAM
clc;
close all;
clear all;
wp=input('Enter the passband frequency: ');
ws=input('Enter the stopband frequency: ');

42
rp=input('Enter the passband ripple : ');
rs=input('Enter the stopband ripple : ');
fs=input('Enter the sampling frequency: ');
w1=2*wp/fs;
w2=2*ws/fs;
[N,wn]=cheb2ord(w1,w2,rp,rs);
[b,a]=cheby2(N,rp,wn);
w=0:.01:pi;
[h,omega]=freqz(b,a,w);
gain=20*log10(abs(h));
subplot(2,2,1);
plot(omega/pi,gain);
grid;
xlabel('\omega/pi,gain');
ylabel('Gain in db---->');
title('IIR Chebyshev LPF: gain');
subplot(2,2,2);
an=angle(h);
plot(omega/pi,an);
grid;
xlabel('\omega/pi,gain');
ylabel('Phase in radians---->');
title('IIR Chebyshev LPF: phase');
disp('Order of the filter is: ');N

OUTPUT
Enter the passband frequency: 90
Enter the stopband frequency: 60
Enter the passband ripple : 100
Enter the passband ripple : 250
Enter the sampling frequency: 200
Order of the filter is:
43
N=

44
RESULT
Thus the matlab program to design a chebyshev-II lowpass
filter was written and the output was obtained.

DESIGN OF FIR FILTER USING RECTANGULAR


WINDOW

Expt No. 12

Date:

45
AIM
To write a matlab program to design a FIR filter using
rectangular window and to verify the output.

ALGORITHM

1. Start the program.


2. Clear the command window using ‘clc’ function.
3. Get the pass band and stop band ripples.
4. Get the pass band and stop band frequencies.
5. Get the sampling frequency.
6. Calculate the order of filter.
7. Calculate the transfer function of the filter using the co-
efficients.
8. Plot magnitude and phase responses.
9. End the program.

PROGRAM

%rectangular window computation


clc;
close all;
clear all;
rp=input('Enter the passband ripple: ');
46
rs=input('Enter the stopband ripple: ');
fp=input('Enter the passband frequency: ');
fs=input('Enter the stopband frequency: ');
f=input('Enter the sampling frequency: ');
wp=2*fp/f;
ws=2*fs/f;
num=-20*log10(sqrt(rp*rs))-13;
dem=14.6*(fs-fp)/f;
n=ceil(num/dem);
n1=n+1;
if(rem(n,2)~=0)
n1=n;
n=n-1;
end
disp('The order is:');n
y=rectwin(n1);

%lowpass filter
b=fir1(n,wp,y);
[h,om]=freqz(b,1,256);
m=20*log10(abs(h));
subplot(2,2,1);
plot(om/pi,m);
ylabel('Gain in dB---->');
xlabel('Frequency in rad/sec---->');

%highpass filter
b=fir1(n,wp,'high',y);
[h,om]=freqz(b,1,256);
m=20*log10(abs(h));
subplot(2,2,2);
plot(om/pi,m);
ylabel('Gain in dB---->');
xlabel('Frequency in rad/sec---->');
%bandpass filter
wn=[wp ws];
b=fir1(n,wn,y);
[h,om]=freqz(b,1,256);
m=20*log10(abs(h));
subplot(2,2,3);
plot(om/pi,m);
ylabel('Gain in dB---->');
47
xlabel('Frequency in rad/sec---->');

%bandstop filter
b=fir1(n,wn,'stop',y);
[h,om]=freqz(b,1,256);
m=20*log10(abs(h));
subplot(2,2,4);
plot(om/pi,m);
ylabel('Gain in dB---->');
xlabel('Frequency in rad/sec---->');

OUTPUT
Enter the passband ripple: .05
Enter the stopband ripple: .03
Enter the passband frequency: 1300
Enter the stopband frequency: 1600
Enter the sampling frequency: 7400
The order is:

48
n=

26

49
RESULT
Thus the matlab program to design a FIR filter using
rectangular window was written and the output was verified.

DESIGN OF FIR FILTER USING HAMMING


WINDOW

Expt No. 13

Date:
50
AIM
To write a matlab program to design a FIR filter using
hamming window and to verify the output.

ALGORITHM

1. Start the program.


2. Clear the command window using ‘clc’ function.
3. Get the pass band and stop band ripples.
4. Get the pass band and stop band frequencies.
5. Get the sampling frequency.
6. Calculate the order of filter.
7. Calculate the transfer function of the filter using the co-
efficients.
8. Plot magnitude and phase responses.
9. End the program.

PROGRAM

%hamming window computation


clc;
close all;
clear all;
rp=input('Enter the passband ripple: ');
51
rs=input('Enter the stopband ripple: ');
fp=input('Enter the passband frequency: ');
fs=input('Enter the stopband frequency: ');
f=input('Enter the sampling frequency: ');
wp=2*fp/f;
ws=2*fs/f;
num=-20*log10(sqrt(rp*rs))-13;
dem=14.6*(fs-fp)/f;
n=ceil(num/dem);
n1=n+1;
if(rem(n,2)~=0)
n1=n;
n=n-1;
end
disp('The order is:');n
y=hamming(n1);

%lowpass filter
b=fir1(n,wp,y);
[h,om]=freqz(b,1,256);
m=20*log10(abs(h));
subplot(2,2,1);
plot(om/pi,m);
ylabel('Gain in dB---->');
xlabel('Frequency in rad/sec---->');

%highpass filter
b=fir1(n,wp,'high',y);
[h,om]=freqz(b,1,256);
m=20*log10(abs(h));
subplot(2,2,2);
plot(om/pi,m);
ylabel('Gain in dB---->');
xlabel('Frequency in rad/sec---->');
%bandpass filter
wn=[wp ws];
b=fir1(n,wn,y);
[h,om]=freqz(b,1,256);
m=20*log10(abs(h));
subplot(2,2,3);
plot(om/pi,m);
ylabel('Gain in dB---->');
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xlabel('Frequency in rad/sec---->');

%bandstop filter
b=fir1(n,wn,'stop',y);
[h,om]=freqz(b,1,256);
m=20*log10(abs(h));
subplot(2,2,4);
plot(om/pi,m);
ylabel('Gain in dB---->');
xlabel('Frequency in rad/sec---->');

OUTPUT
Enter the passband ripple: .05
Enter the stopband ripple: .03
Enter the passband frequency: 1300
Enter the stopband frequency: 1600
Enter the sampling frequency: 7400
The order is:

53
n=

26

54
RESULT
Thus the matlab program to design a FIR filter using
hamming window was written and the output was verified.

DESIGN OF FIR FILTER USING KAISER WINDOW

Expt No. 14

Date:

55
AIM
To write a matlab program to design a FIR filter using
Kaiser window and to verify the output.

ALGORITHM

1. Start the program.


2. Clear the command window using ‘clc’ function.
3. Get the pass band and stop band ripples.
4. Get the pass band and stop band frequencies.
5. Get the sampling frequency.
6. Calculate the order of filter.
7. Calculate the transfer function of the filter using the co-
efficients.
8. Plot magnitude and phase responses.
9. End the program.

PROGRAM

%kaiser window computation

clc;
close all;
clear all;
rp=input('Enter the passband ripple: ');
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rs=input('Enter the stopband ripple: ');
fp=input('Enter the passband frequency: ');
fs=input('Enter the stopband frequency: ');
f=input('Enter the sampling frequency: ');
beta=input('Enter the beta value: ');
wp=2*fp/f;
ws=2*fs/f;
num=-20*log10(sqrt(rp*rs))-13;
dem=14.6*(fs-fp)/f;
n=ceil(num/dem);
n1=n+1;
if(rem(n,2)~=0)
n1=n;
n=n-1;
end
disp('The order is:');n
y=kaiser(n1,beta);

%lowpass filter
b=fir1(n,wp,y);
[h,om]=freqz(b,1,256);
m=20*log10(abs(h));
subplot(2,2,1);
plot(om/pi,m);
ylabel('Gain in dB---->');
xlabel('Frequency in rad/sec---->');

%highpass filter
b=fir1(n,wp,'high',y);
[h,om]=freqz(b,1,256);
m=20*log10(abs(h));
subplot(2,2,2);
plot(om/pi,m);

ylabel('Gain in dB---->');
xlabel('Frequency in rad/sec---->');

%bandpass filter
wn=[wp ws];
b=fir1(n,wn,y);
[h,om]=freqz(b,1,256);
m=20*log10(abs(h));
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subplot(2,2,3);
plot(om/pi,m);
ylabel('Gain in dB---->');
xlabel('Frequency in rad/sec---->');

%bandstop filter
b=fir1(n,wn,'stop',y);
[h,om]=freqz(b,1,256);
m=20*log10(abs(h));
subplot(2,2,4);
plot(om/pi,m);
ylabel('Gain in dB---->');
xlabel('Frequency in rad/sec---->');

OUTPUT
Enter the passband ripple: .05
Enter the stopband ripple: .03
Enter the passband frequency: 1300
Enter the stopband frequency: 1600
Enter the sampling frequency: 7400
Enter the beta value: 7
The order is:
58
n=

26

59
RESULT
Thus the matlab program to design a FIR filter using Kaiser
window was written and the output was verified.

DESIGN OF IIR FILTER USING BILINEAR


TRANSFORMATION

Expt No. 15

Date:

60
AIM
To write a matlab program to design an IIR filter using
bilinear transformation technique and to verify the output.

ALGORITHM

1. Start the program.


2. Clear the command window using ‘clc’ function.
3. Get the input values of input poles and zeroes.
4. Get the input value of sampling interval.
5. Compute the [z,p] values using bilinear transformation
technique.
6. Print the output.
7. End the program.

PROGRAM

%bilinear transform
clc;
close all;
clear all;

61
pin=input('Enter the poles: ');
zin=input('Enter the zeros: ');
t=input('Enter the sampling interval:');
[z,p]=bilinear(zin,pin,1/t)

OUTPUT

Enter the poles: [1 3 2]


Enter the zeros: 2
Enter the sampling interval:1

62
z=

0.1667 0.3333 0.1667

p=

1.0000 -0.3333 0.0000

RESULT
Thus the matlab program for design of IIR filter using bilinear
transformation was written and the output was verified.

DESIGN OF IIR FILTER USING IMPULSE


INVARIANCE

Expt No. 16

63
Date:

AIM
To write a matlab program to design an IIR filter using
impulse invariance technique and to verify the output.

ALGORITHM

1. Start the program.


2. Clear the command window using ‘clc’ function.
3. Get the input values of input poles and zeroes.
4. Get the input value of sampling interval.
5. Compute the [z,p] values using impulse invariance
technique.
6. Print the output.
7. End the program.

PROGRAM

64
%impulse invariance
clc;
close all;
clear all;
pin=input('Enter the poles: ');
zin=input('Enter the zeros: ');
t=input('Enter the sampling interval:');
[z,p]=impinvar(zin,pin,1/t)

OUTPUT

Enter the poles: [1 3 2]


Enter the zeros: 2

65
Enter the sampling interval:1

z=

0 0.4651

p=

1.0000 -0.5032 0.0498

RESULT
Thus the matlab program for design of IIR filter using impulse
invariance was written and the output was verified.

66