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Final Feasibility and Preliminary Design report for Mekelle City Integrated Solid Waste Management

Table of Contents Abbreviations .................................................................................................................................. 3 Executive Summary ........................................................................................................................ 4 Introduction ..................................................................................................................................... 5 1 Project Background ................................................................................................................. 6 2 Objectives of the Consultancy Service ................................................................................... 7 3 General .................................................................................................................................... 8 3.1 Physical characteristics ................................................................................................... 8 3.1.1 Location .................................................................................................................. 8 3.1.2 Spatial coverage of the City .................................................................................... 8 3.1.3 Topographic Features ............................................................................................. 8 3.1.1.1 Terrain .................................................................................................................... 8 3.1.4 Climate .................................................................................................................... 8 3.2 Historical Development of solid waste management...................................................... 9 4 Evaluation of the Existing Solid Waste Management System.............................................. 11 4.1 Current Situation Review and Findings .................................................................................. 11 4.1.1 Generation and characteristics ......................................................................................... 11 4.1.2. Handling and primary storage ......................................................................................... 11 4.1.3. Primary collection ........................................................................................................... 11 i. Municipal Tractor-trailer .............................................................................................. 12 4.1.4 Secondary collection and Transportation......................................................................... 16 4.1.5 Existing Disposal Facility ......................................................................................... 17 4.1.6. Waste Reduction, Recycling and Reuse (3R's) ............................................................... 20 4.1.8. Special and hazardous wastes ......................................................................................... 21 4.2. Organization of the existing system and role of Stakeholders .............................................. 21 Available Resources.................................................................................................................. 21 4.3. Financial aspects ................................................................................................................ 27 4.4. Institutional Structure and Responsibilities ....................................................................... 30 5 Data Collection, Projection of Solid waste generation and composition.............................. 34 5.2.1 Population projection ....................................................................................................... 39 5.2.1.1 Base Data .................................................................................................................. 39 5.2.1.2 Methodology ......................................................................................................... 40 5.3 Results of the survey ..................................................................................................... 42 6 System Analysis, Design and Recommendations ................................................................. 49 6.1 General design approach ............................................................................................... 49 6.3 Secondary Collection Route scenarios.......................................................................... 50 6.4 Design ........................................................................................................................... 51 6.5 MATERIAL RECOVERY FACILITY (MRF) ............................................................ 53 6.5.1 Site selection for MRF .......................................................................................... 53 6.5.2 Engineering aspects of material recovery facility (MRF)..................................... 55 6.5.3 Scope of MRF ....................................................................................................... 55 6.5.4 Lay out and design of physical facilities............................................................... 56 6.6 Proposed landfill ........................................................................................................... 57 6.6.1 Initial Site Selection .............................................................................................. 57

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Final Feasibility and Preliminary Design report for Mekelle City Integrated Solid Waste Management

6.6.2 Preliminary design ................................................................................................ 58 6.6.3 Proposed layout ..................................................................................................... 59 6.6.4 Design considerations ........................................................................................... 60 6.7 Access road ................................................................................................................... 63 7 Environmental Impact Assessment ............................................................................... 64 8. Socio-Economic Impact Assessment .................................................................................... 65 9 Recommendations ................................................................................................................. 70 9.2 Proposal on the improvement of household handling and primary collection facility ........... 70 9.3 Recommendation for Financing SWM ............................................................................... 72 Options to recover the solid waste service costs /bill collection .......................................... 72 Willingness To Pay Of The Users ................................................................................................ 75 Model one ................................................................................................................................. 76 Model two ................................................................................................................................. 76 Proposed Sold Waste Management Services In this Model ................................................. 77 1. Street sweeping ..................................................................................................................... 77 3. Collecting and Transfer......................................................................................................... 78 9.6 Legislative recommendation ............................................................................................. 84 10. Implementation Schedule.................................................................................................... 92 11. Annexes................................................................................................................................... 94 Annex A: Summary of Observation on Primary Collection Services ...................................... 97 Annex B: Analysis of Tractor-Trailer for Primary Collection................................................ 100 Annex C: Assessment of Secondary Storage and Collection Services ................................... 108 i. Annex D: Survey Methodology .......................................................................................... 112 D.1. Solid waste generation .................................................................................................... 112 Solid waste Source Category .................................................................................................. 118 Field Sampling ........................................................................................................................ 119 ANNEX-E: Rates of generation from Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) Sources (City-wise) . 129 ANNEX-F: City-wise Types of composition of Solid Wastes from Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) Sources ....................................................................................................................... 130 Annex-H: Observations on collection at Land fill site ........................................................... 138 ANNEX-I: INSTITUTION AND LEGISLATION RELATED TO SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT .................................................................................................................... 140 ANNEX-L: MANUALLY LOADED AND MECHANICALLY UNLOADED REAR LOADING COMPACTORS WITH LOADING CAPACITY OF 15.30 CU.M ................... 153 Annex M: Summary of demand projection, component sizing, Operation and Maintenance Analysis (for achieving 100% collection efficiency in 2020) ................................................ 156 Annex N: Summary of demand projection, component sizing, Operation and Maintenance Analysis ( for achieving 100% collection efficiency in 2010) ............................................... 157 Annex N: Environmental Impact Assessment ........................................................................ 158 12. REFERENCE ........................................................................................................................ 160

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Final Feasibility and Preliminary Design report for Mekelle City Integrated Solid Waste Management

Abbreviations PLC = Privately Owned Limited Company ISWM=Integrated Solid Waste Management EIA= Environmental Impact Assessment SW=Solid waste ICHUD=International Course on Housing and Urban Development NGO=Non Governmental Organization ICHUD=International Course on Housing and Urban Development MSEs=Micro and Small Enterprises SSs=Sanitation Services CSW=commingled solid waste 3Rs= Reduction, Recycling and Reuse or Reclamation WMBs=waste material brokers NSS=non specific sources SS=specific sources AHWs=acutely hazardous wastes NAHW=non-acutely hazardous wastes LHWs=listed hazardous wastes CHWs=characteristics hazardous wastes MHWs=mixture of hazardous and non-hazardous RHWs=residues hazardous wastes SSD=Social Service Department MSAs=municipal service areas EPA= Environmental Protection Authority TNRS=Tigrai National Regional State MSW=municipal solid waste ISW= Industrial solid waste ASW=Agricultural solid waste MRF=Material Recovery Facility MCPPP= Mekelle city plan preparation project

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Final Feasibility and Preliminary Design report for Mekelle City Integrated Solid Waste Management

Executive Summary

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Final Feasibility and Preliminary Design report for Mekelle City Integrated Solid Waste Management

Introduction In general this report is prepared with the intention of describing the overall assessment, findings and recommendations made in the study and design of solid waste management system of Mekelle. This report has tried to identify the problems in the existing solid waste management and respond accordingly to alleviate the posed threats on the environment and also obviously the inhabitants of Mekelle city. The whole document is structured in such a way that the existing system is assessed, alternative approaches are referenced and finally recommendations are forwarded. Moreover, the report has included the findings of the inception report. Section one tries to discuss the service delivery targets of the city administration as well as its relation to the Millennium Development Goals. Sections two and three briefly describe the objectives of the consultancy service and the general physical characteristics of the city including the historical development of solid waste management, respectively. Evaluation of the existing solid waste management system which is dealt under section four as a function of its components which include generation and characteristics of solid waste, handling and primary storage, primary collection, secondary collection and transportation, disposal facilities as well as waste reduction, recycling and reuse and financial and institutional issues is the initial step to undertake the overall study and design. It is worth mentioning that in the inception report proposed method of data gap filling and according to the adopted data filling methods, information that are thought to be indispensable for the intended output are collected and manipulated. Briefing of the data filling method, survey organization and the result of the survey are summarized under section five. On the basis of the outputs of the preceding sections (four and five), system analysis and design criteria are set to conduct the design of various components of the system. Secondary collection route scenario analysis and design, material recovery facility site selection and design as well as design of facilities layout are among the design details described under section six of the this report. Sections eight and nine briefly discuss the environmental and socio-economic impact assessment of the proposed project. The needed technical, financial, economical and institutional recommendations needed for the improvement of the system are discussed exhaustively under section ten. Finally, the implementation schedule for the realization of the project ranging from tendering to final acceptance is outlined under section eleven. The main body of the report primarily discusses on the assessment, findings and recommendations briefly the details of which are attached in the annexes.

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Final Feasibility and Preliminary Design report for Mekelle City Integrated Solid Waste Management

Project Background

The sanitary condition of Mekele is not in a good situation at present .There is no adequate solid waste facility with properly prepared dumping site which is causing health problems such as diarrhea, intestinal parasites, malaria etc. The poor sanitation conditions are caused by poor waste management system, lack of adequate sanitation facilities and low level of community awareness and participation. With the existing facilities the City Administration can only collect 34% of the solid waste. The Ethiopian Government has agreed on and works towards achieving the eight Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) by the target date of 2015 which among other issues include:

Reduce by half the proportion of people living on less than a dollar a day Halt and begin to reverse the incidence of malaria and other major diseases Integrate the principles of sustainable development into country policies and programmes; reverse loss of environmental resources Halt and begin to reverse the incidence of malaria and other major diseases Achieve significant improvement in lives of at least 100 million slum dwellers, by 2020

Cognizant of the multifaceted problems caused by poor sanitation service and as part of achieving the MDG, Mekelle City Administration has given emphasis for the improvement of sanitation aspect of the city and secured the UDF finance for this purpose targeting at the following principal objectives: improving the solid waste management facility of the city reducing health and environment problems caused by the poor sanitation and keep the aesthetic value of the city Address the environmental problems caused by the existing disposal site. contribute to the strategic objectives of increasing disposing capacity of solid waste as indicated hereunder

Year Collection efficiency in %

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

2013

2014

2015

2016

2017

2018

2019

2020

34%

37%

39%

42%

45%

49%

52%

56%

60%

65%

70%

75%

81%

87%

93%

100%

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Final Feasibility and Preliminary Design report for Mekelle City Integrated Solid Waste Management

Objectives of the Consultancy Service

Mekelle City Administration identified the need for improved SWM system which addresses each components of ISWM, i.e., reduction, storage, transportation, recovery and disposal in a cost effective, environmental friendly and sustainable manner. To this effect Mekelle city Administration in collaboration with Kfw procured this consultancy service of which specific objectives are: To prepare an integrated solid waste management system plan To carry out an environment impact assessment (EIA) and analysis of sensitive components of the existing and designed facilities, comprising of at least land- filling disposal sites, transfer stations, and communal storages sites. To prepare detail design and plan of selected facilities as the most efficient interventions and environmental solutions for solid waste management To prepare design and contract cost estimates for the project works and actions To prepare standard Tender Documents To examine the financial and economic feasibility of the proposed solutions, establish the costs of the service charges to the broad public with a view to cost recovery and to review and develop waste regulations and rules To undertake Construction Supervision The service is expected to develop a solid waste master plan that gives a solution to problems related to Solid Waste services. The consultancy contract is also expected to assist the City Administration in building its capacity to implement the improved SWM system.

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Final Feasibility and Preliminary Design report for Mekelle City Integrated Solid Waste Management

General

3.1 Physical characteristics

3.1.1 Location Mekelle City, seat of Tigray National Regional State, is located at about 783 km from the nations capital, Addis Ababa. It is situated at 13032 North Latitude and 39028 East Longitude. The city is accessible through air and highway. 3.1.2 Spatial coverage of the City The land demand increase as the population size of the city raise from time to time. Mekelle had a built up area coverage of 16 KM 2 in 1984 after ten years, in 1994 the size of built up area reached 23.04 KM 2 adopting a continuous increase with the rise of population size and job opportunity the city administration has expanded its land holding to 100KM 2in 2004 by engulfing the vast agricultural lands of neighboring villages and towns. 3.1.3 Topographic Features 3.1.1.1 Terrain Proper Mekelle is bounded by Endayesus and Choma Mountain to the east side and Mesebo Mountain to the north. Most of the area with in Mekelle is classified under flat to rolling formation. 3.1.1.2 Altitude The altitude of Mekelle varies from 2150 m.a.s.l to 2270 m.a.s.l .This elevation puts the city under the category of Weinadega type of Agro climatic zone. 3.1.1.3 Drainage Mekelle city is part of Tekeze river basin. Eilala River which ends up in river Giba is the main stream flow along with Kalamino river of Aynalem. However, there are many tributaries that feed both rivers with substantial amount of water during rainy season. These streams are seasonal where the peak discharge is attained during summer. 3.1.4 Climate Mekelle Experiences mild climatic condition with annual average maximum temperature of 24.10C and annual average minimum temperature 11.110C. June is the hottest month with a monthly mean maximum temperature of 27.10C and monthly mean minimum temperature of 13.030C. December is the coldest month with a mean monthly maximum temperature of 21.90C and monthly mean minimum temperature of 8.510C.

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Final Feasibility and Preliminary Design report for Mekelle City Integrated Solid Waste Management

3.1.4.1 Temperature Mekelle Experiences mild climatic condition with annual average maximum temperature of 24.10C and annual average minimum temperature 11.110C. June is the hottest month with a monthly mean maximum temperature of 27.10C and monthly mean minimum temperature of 13.030C. December is the coldest month with a mean monthly maximum temperature of 21.90C and monthly mean minimum temperature of 8.510C. 3.1.4.2 Rainfall There is one short rainy season, which starts on June and lasts on August. The rainy season is characterized by erratic, unreliable and uneven distribution. The city has annual average rainfall of 618.3mm/Year of which the substantial amount falls on July and August. The highest monthly rainfall occurs on August with a monthly rainfall of 229mm (37% of the annual) and July is the second largest rainy month with a monthly rainfall of 207.7mm (33.5% of the annual).

3.1.4.3 Wind The prevailing wind direction from the month of September to June is angled at 1100-1630 i.e., in the east west direction, while on July and August the direction of the wind is from 2100 to 2500 i.e., west-east. 3.2 Historical Development of solid waste management Emperor Yohannes IV founded Mekelle in 1872 and the Municipality was established in 1934 E.C. A study was conducted on water supply and sanitation of Mekelle city in August 1993 under the joint venture project between Devecon Engineers and Architects and Metaferia Consulting Engineers PLC. In those days, garbage was collected by one municipal ordinary truck and disposed off at an uncontrolled and non-engineered open dumping site out of the city particularly 5km from the center on the old airport road and then burnt in uncontrolled manner. Even if the rate of solid waste generation in the city was not very high at that time about 18% of the generated SW materials were expected to be disposed off in open garbage pits and more than 60% of SW generated was disposed at open fields. The garbage pits and open fields were considered as good options of disposal inside the city. The currently operating system of solid waste collection, transportation and disposal started by the year 2000.The system was commenced with 20 communal containers each with a capacity of 8m3 and two skip loaders. The existing solid waste disposal site at Messobo also started its function on the same year. The currently operating system was implemented based on the recommendations of the 1993s study on Water Supply and Sanitation of Ethiopian Towns by Devecon Engineers and Architects and Metaferia Consulting Engineers PLC.

Responsibility of SWM used to transfer from one governmental organization to another. In the 1990s the then Works and Urban Development Department of the city, which actually was the provider of municipal services, was responsible for the citys solid waste management. By the
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Final Feasibility and Preliminary Design report for Mekelle City Integrated Solid Waste Management

year 2000 the citys Health Department took the responsibility of the waste management service from the Works and Urban Development Department and run the activity for three years. The then Works and Urban Development Department was restructured and a new organizational structure of the municipality was developed based on the city proclamation No.65/2002. The new organizational structure decentralized the municipal functions closer to the residents by organizing municipal service desks in each Tabia that are made accountable to their respective municipal service area managers. The solid waste service was shifted from the city Health Department to the Social Service Department of the newly reorganized municipality. Since August 2003 this department has been providing the service at Tabia, municipal service area and at its head quarter.

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Final Feasibility and Preliminary Design report for Mekelle City Integrated Solid Waste Management

4 Evaluation of the Existing Solid Waste Management System

4.1 Current Situation Review and Findings 4.1.1 Generation and characteristics There is no comprehensive study conducted in Mekelle city to investigate the rates of generation and characteristics of solid waste from different urban activities and sources. Even the sources and solid waste category are not clearly identified in the existing municipal solid waste (MSW) management service. 4.1.2. Handling and primary storage House holds and different solid waste generating units in the city prepare themselves different types of receptacles such as sacks, plastic bags, metal vessels, card boxes, and so on. Most of the residents (63.56%), regardless of their income, use sacks for primary storage, followed by plastic bag (16.73%), metal vessels (13.37%), and card boxes (6.35%). Almost all the receptacles used by the residents for primary storage are out of the standard set by the Regional State in the hygiene regulation 1 which states that the waste storage facilities should be water proof, washable, and insect proof covered with a lid and it can be made up of sheet of iron or plastic. As far as regulation is concerned except service providing institutions like cafeterias, restaurants, hotels, and the like which are some times inspected by health department of the city, others (house holds, educational institutions, offices, and the like) are not regulated whether the primary storage receptacles they use and the way they handle it are as to the required standard set in the regulation or not. In relation to solid waste handling at municipal levels, there are waste bins and communal storages made available by the service provider, i.e..the municipality, in key places in the city. 4.1.3. Primary collection Primary collection operation enables transfer of solid waste materials handled and stored at the sources of generation to the communal storage and secondary collection facilities.

The identified operational modes of primary collection in Mekelle city are: Gojo Hand carts system, Private Sector Saba Hand carts system(Trolley),Private sector Manual Adult Labor system , Own forces and Hired labors Manual Child labor ,Own forces and Hired labors Tractor-trailer system , Municipal Street sweeping wheel barrow system, Municipal Horse cart system, Private sector
1

Proclamation number 4/1997

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Final Feasibility and Preliminary Design report for Mekelle City Integrated Solid Waste Management

Neither women nor youth cooperatives are currently engaged in primary collection activities. Stationary containers or block collection system with compactors and other garbage lorry systems do not exist in service areas except the tractor-trailer systems. The operation of primary collection services in services areas has been investigated at container sites. The current modes of primary collection, their frequency and distribution in the city and their various service areas have been identified. . (For the detail, refer to Annex A) The following observations have been drawn on the activities of each mode of primary collection. i. Municipal Tractor-trailer Tractor-trailer system operates in areas where the residents do not have access to communal storage. The residents wake up & get mobilized for operation when the municipal block collection workers blow alarms during collection events. The tractors empty the collected waste to the nearest communal container available. In this collection system households who are not present in their home during collection hours are urged to wait for a week or more to be served on the next operation. And due to this some of them are obliged to dump their solid waste on illegal sites. The current primary collection service with tractor-trailer system involves four tractor-trailers with a capacity of 4m3each in block-collection of solid wastes mainly from residential sources. The tractor-trailers are manually loaded and unloaded with mechanical and manual operations. They work the whole week including Saturday, Sunday and holidays (Mekelle municipalitySSD). However, this system of primary collection practice of the city does not have well designed fleet route and fixed program set based on studies the drawback of which is reflected on our survey. 76.79% of the sample House holds testified that the service is not rendered on a regular basis instead the operation quality is based on the interest of the drivers as a result some residents are believed to be better served than others for instance some residents indicated that local beer, tella vendors are favored. According to the result of sample survey, 17.57% of the sample households are visited once or twice a week while the remaining customers of this service are provided with the service once in two weeks or in a less frequency. As can be seen under annex B, the tractors have worked for an average of 300 days, and they have collected 13,790m3 of solid waste annually in 2004/2005 (1997 E.C) and average daily likelihood availability of a tractor trailer is 82% this indirectly demonstrates of tractor-trailer primary collection efficiency. In addition these can be noted: the total frequency of collection with tractor-trailer system was 26 times in the stated period and the average coverage of each trailers was 6.5 in the stated period; the trailers used the HC locations 2.89 times on average; The poor collection capacity of the current service could be managed either doubling the holding capacity of all the locations or doubling the number of tractors in the current primary collection services. These scenarios do not seem economical because of the inefficiency in primary collection with tractor-trailers as observed in the current municipal service. The other technical problem is that the holding of generated wastes for a period of two weeks time in households

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Final Feasibility and Preliminary Design report for Mekelle City Integrated Solid Waste Management

does not seem technically feasible and it is also hardly possible to mobilize the house holds in voluntary waste handling practices. For detailed analysis, refer to Annex B. ii. Gojo Private Service Gojo plastic and sanitation Services gives door-to door waste collection services for 200 residential and 55 institutions like hotels, restaurants and bars. It also gives janitorial services for some insurance and banking institutions. It has three wheel carts and one truck with a capacity of holding 15m3 wastes. The organization collects the solid waste from its clients and performs waste separation/segregation. It recycle organic fraction of the solid waste and apply to its own farm land .The service disposes the remaining collected solid waste fraction into the communal containers. The Gojo private service was restricted to the locations: Gotera, Axum Hotel, Kebelle 15, Enda Mariam Near Wewekema , and Mehiret Bani. The observed frequency of collection was 20 times ,which means on average 4 times to each container site during observation time. iii. Saba Private Service Saba Sanitation is the second privately owned sanitation agent established to render door-to-door sanitary services in the city. The group currently renders services in 20 commercial units like hotels, bars, restaurants and other units in the city. The services are mainly concentrated on the streets and squares of the city such as Godena Guna and Selam, Romanat and Bazar Squares. Its services also cover 328 residential houses in different Tabias of the city some of which are Adihawsi, Adishunduhun, Mayduba, Aider, Sewhinigus and Hadnet among others. The workers of the private group disposed off the wastes into the nearby communal collection containers after collecting from the different sources in the services areas. iv. PC by Street sweepers with Hand Carts &Wheel Barrows The municipality provides street sweeping services daily for a total of 23.3Km (10km in the north and the rest in the south municipal service areas). (Mekelle Municipality -SSD). The whole service is done manually; the sanitation workers sweep the streets using tools like straw brooms, Wheel barrow and shovel. On average 30 sanitation workers are engaged in the street cleaning service out of which 21 are permanent employees and the rest employed on a contractual basis. Wheel barrow is used for primary collection of wastes from street sweeping. The collected waste from street sweeping delivered to containers located at: Kebelle 19, Kebelle 20, Adis Alem Bus Station, Kebelle 15, and WEWEKMA. The observed frequency of collection to the five containers location was 38 times and the stated locations were used 7.6 times on average by street sweepers.

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Final Feasibility and Preliminary Design report for Mekelle City Integrated Solid Waste Management

The other handling method that gets primary collection service by street sweepers is street side posted public garbage bins. Currently there are 10 public garbage bins posted on the main streets of the city, namely Hakfen, Alula, and Selam streets that are located at the center of the city. The street users and pedestrians are expected to put their solid wastes in the public garbage bins when they are out of their homes and business offices. The number of the public garbage bins is inadequate and most of the streets and public places inside the city do not have public garbage collection bins at all for the public use. The public has already adapted habit of dropping solid wastes, especially paper and plastic products (festal), on streets even on these with public garbage bins. For these reasons all the streets and public places of the city including these with public garbage bins are remained to be untidy and dirty. v. Private Horse cart The Horse cart primary collection private service users in the city used the containers located at Edaga Finjal, Enkodo, and Muslim Cemetery. The observed frequency of collection to the three containers location was 10 times and the stated locations were used 3.33 times on average by Private Horse Cart. vi. Adult manual labor (Hired or own force) The sample survey conducted by Promise has proved that 10.96% of the sample house holds fully, and 7.62% sometimes/partially dump their garbage onto illegal sites. (Promise sample survey) Adult manual labor primary collection users in the city used the containers located at 13 locations:Enkodo, Mesfin Industry, Denbosco, Kebelle 19, Kebelle 20, Business Taxi Terminal, Adihawsi Endatsaba, Axum Hotel, Adis Alem Bus Station, Kebelle 15, Near WEWEKMA, Near Enda Mehiret Bani,and Abreha Castle. The observed frequency of collection to the thirteen containers locations was 77 times and the stated locations were used 5.9 times on average by Adult manual labor. vii. Child manual labor (Hired or own force) The child manual labor primary collection users in the city used the containers located at 3 locations: Kebelle 15, Kebelle 19, and Kebelle 20. The observed frequency of collection to the three containers locations was 17 times and the stated locations were used 5.67 times on average by child manual labor.

Table 4.1 Quantity of waste loads delivered from the stated modes of primary collection to different hauled container locations during observation time

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Final Feasibility and Preliminary Design report for Mekelle City Integrated Solid Waste Management

SN

Modes of Primary Collection

Collection Frequency

Locations used

Average Frequency (per location)

Waste* Quantity (cu.m/trip)

Estimated MSW Quantity (cu.m)

Average Primary collection Capacity (cu.m/d) 10.40 1.60 0.95 1.50 0.241

Tractortrailer 26 9 2.89 4.00 104.00 2 Gojo 20 5 4 0.80 16.00 3 Street sweepers 38 5 7.6 0.50 19.00 4 Horse cart 10 3 3.33 1.50 15.00 5 Matured manual 77 13 5.9 0.031 2.41 labors 6 Child manual 17 3 5.67 0.031 0.53 labors 7 Saba 0 0 0 0.80 0.00 * represent the holding capacity of the containers of each modes of primary collection;

0.053 0.00

Consequences of the poor primary collection As a result of poor primary collection service, residents in some localities are urged to dump their primary collected garbage into illegal sites indiscriminately. The streets and open fields in those areas are covered and filled with commingled solid waste and storm water drains are blocked by the garbage primarily collected by the residents. The occurrence of the illegal dumping sites is attributed to the low level municipal service coverage in the localities and negligence of some residents who perform primary collection of their own garbage for storage in the containers.

(a) River side (b) Fence and skip sides Figure 4.1 illegal solid waste dumping sites

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Preliminary design report for Mekelle City Integrated Solid Waste Management

4.1.4 Secondary collection and Transportation Communal storage of primarily collected solid waste allows the safe retention of the solid waste materials for a sufficient period of time expected between primary collection from the different sources and secondary collection and disposal of the materials. In the present context of solid waste management in the city, the municipality is the only institution that provides communal storages and performs secondary collection of garbage to disposal sites. The municipality performs the storage task with a total of 64 communal containers, which can be easily mounted on skip loaders for transport and disposal in land filling sites. The solid wastes collected through the primary collection activities are taken to communal containers. 58 of the containers, having a capacity of 8 m3 each, are placed in different parts of the city, 5 in Quiha and one in Aynalem. The solid wastes collected by the primary collection systems are delivered to near by communal containers that are provided by the Municipality on vacant plots and road sides. The containers are pickedup periodically by the three municipalitys skip-loaders and transported to the land fill sites located 15 kms away northeast of the city on the left side of the Mekelle Wukro highway and Quiha land fill site. Due to the topography of the city and lack of proper road network some parts of the city, especially those on the foot of Chomea and Endaeyesus mountains and the new settlements established in the peripheries of the city are devoid of the service. However, they are obliged to pay sanitation service fees for the services that they are not provided. And some of the residents who are said to have access to the communal containers in the service areas have been obliged to travel a long distance before reaching at the containers. Because of lack of access to the service and the long travel distances to skip sites, the residents commit unauthorized dumping of garbage during night times.

The following observations have been drawn from investigation of existing secondary collection system. (For the details, refer to Annex C) The average weekly coverage in the existing collection service=69% Low service coverage observed at Hadnet and Adi Haki (southern sub-city) Population to communal container is on average 4981 One communal container position serves an average area of 54Ha. Weekly Total frequency of collection=44 The highest frequency (4) observed at the location Near WEWEKMA; The locations which did not get weekly collection service were Abune Aregawie Church, Red cross, Luis Eye clinic, Edaga Faham, Enda Mehiret Bani, Arekie Factory,Mekaneyesus church, Trans Ethiopia, May Degene, Kebelle 18 Taxi Terminal, and Adihawsi Taxi Terminal; a total of 11 locations; this may indicate: - Inefficient service coverage in a week time;

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Preliminary design report for Mekelle City Integrated Solid Waste Management Longer period of collection cycle (more than a week time) due to low rate of solid waste generation at the locations; - Longer service distance and inconveniency in the use of storage services; The data generally show very poor collection coverage and The effective working hours in collection days are less than 8 hours and The off-route factor in the existing collection service is high, which indicate high wastage of resources in the collection routes. -

In relation to illegal dumping sites the residents have their own arguments. A few proportions of the residents (26.66%) believe that the municipality is the responsible body for the prevailing problems for they do not have access to the service and the only alternative they have is to dump their wastes illegally. While a large proportion of them (50.79%) believe that the municipality and the residents are equally responsible for the prevailing problems, and the rest 22.55% stresses on the residents themselves (promise sample survey).

4.1.5

Existing Disposal Facility

The other major element in the citys solid waste service is the disposal service. There are two land fill sites outside the administrative boundary of the city. One of these sites is situated at the top of the Messobo escarpment on the left side of the Mekelle-Wukro road (having an area of 2.67 ha. (MCPPP,2005) and the other one exists 4 km north of Quiha sub-city.

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Final Feasibility and Preliminary Design report for Mekelle City Integrated Solid Waste Management

(a) Fence side

(b) Uncovered solid waste slope

(c) Farm land Figure 4.2 Messobo Disposal site

(d) Surrounding quarry and bush sites

The method of land filling at Messobo is excavated pit type of land filling and its standard exists between the Uncontrolled Non-Engineered dump land fill type and the engineered landfill type. The term land filling simply refers to the process by which the residual solid waste is placed in landfill. In todays solid waste management practices, some land fill sites satisfy the criteria of sanitary land fill, which means the sites are provided with an engineered facility for the disposal of MSW designed and operated to minimize the public health and environmental impacts. The land fill sites serving Mekelle city do not fully satisfy these criteria of a sanitary landfill disposal sites. The land fill at Messobo was constructed with a protection impervious clay membrane to protect the underground aquifer material from chemical pollution and with a rip rap to protect the scouring and slide of the impervious material on the side slopes during rainy season and movements of equipments on the land fill.

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The other problem with the land fill at Messobo was the insufficient capacity it initially got as a disposal site for Mekelle city. A land fill with inadequate capacity was implemented, which could not serve for a period of five and ten years, due to the then budget constraint in the City Council and opposition from the local farmers to undertake subsequent years expansion work.. This created land scarcity in the site and the then proposed capacity was reduced by about 50%. Around 200 m long excavated pit was proposed and only 100 m was designed and constructed. The excavated pit method of land filling was proposed and implemented with the intention that the use of trench and area method would be highly risky in the absence of efficient and proper land fill management system. In case of poorly managed land filling sites, the risks on local environment is relatively low in case of excavated pit method of land filling constructed with protection layers than the other two methods. It is clear that the problems and risks in the Messobo site would have been worst than what we heard today with the excavated pit method, if the trench and area method of land filling were used in the site. Actually, a second option of excavated pit land filling method was possible. The same method of land filling could have been used providing embankment fills on the lower side of the present land fill areas to form the pit. But the embankment method requires borrow materials for the construction of the embankment, which is costly than pit excavation for longer hauling distances. The use of embankment walls on the lower side also need extra cost for compaction and both faces of the earthen embankment require protection from sliding and scouring. The excavated pit is a cheaper option than earthen embankment method of land filling at Messobo. The trench and area method of land filling would have been the best and cheaper methods of land filling provided that efficient system of land fill operation is laid at the City Administration or private institutions level. The other problem with the land fill at Messobo was absence of impermeable cover materials for the daily fills. The fills were exposed to nuisance animals, scavengers, wind effects, and direct precipitation of rainfall during rainy seasons. Because of the openness of the daily land fill, the site was not environmentally safe and threatened the daily living of the local farmers and animals. It can be said that the local environment was not fully protected except the underground aquifer material. Nonetheless, there is no any protection measure taken in the Quhia site, therefore, it can be said as open dumping site. The existing land fill sites are operating in uncontrolled manner and became reason for local oppositions from farmers and administrative bodies especially with the Messobo site. It is also reported that the same opposition existed when the Messobo land fill site was first proposed to serve as the disposal site for Mekelle city. The local farmers and administrators argue that the site was promised to be temporary and the city Administrators entered a promise to relocate the land fill site. They also promised to promote waste reuse, recycling, and transformation technologies and to make the local farmers around the land fill site beneficiaries of the waste collected from the city. According to municipal reports and recent conditions, all the promises have been broken

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to date. In general, problems encountered by the local community living around the land fill sites can be summarized as Improper construction and operation of the land fill sites, Absence of working operation and control guideline for the sites with the view of protecting the public health and the environment, Litter of wind suspended plastic materials covered the surrounding farmlands, The cattle population in the area is affected by the ingesting the plastic materials and significant death toll of cattle population have been recorded in connection with ingesting the materials, Land pollution in relation to plastic and other wind suspended solid waste materials, The dumping sites attract huge number of hyena, which is the main scavenger during night time, and threatened the security of the farmers, their family and cattle during the night time, the local Children easily enter into the land fill sites as "innocent human scavengers" and get endangered, the flies bred on the land fill sites has imposed serious public health threats on The local community and The offensive odor from the land fills also caused nuisance in the community and threatened the community health.

Since there are no permanent equipments provided for the land fill operation, covering and compaction operations were not regularly executed in the sites. The institutional capacity in terms of expenditures for operation and maintenance (OM) did not allow the regular execution of the operations at the City Administration level in the sites. 4.1.6. Waste Reduction, Recycling and Reuse (3R's) The modern approach in solid waste management involves waste reduction at the sources, diversion of waste materials or recycling and reuse of diverted materials. The solid waste in developing countries and our society mostly contains high proportion of organic matters, which make the solid waste ideal for recycling through waste transformation technologies such as vermo-, aerobic- and anaerobic composting, and methane production. There are also waste materials that could be recycled in manufacturing processes. From the observation of the consultant the following 3Rs practices are customarily used in the city. Reclaiming paper from households, offices, schools, universities, etc. for packing. Bartering of recovered waste materials for manufactured products involving Waste materials brokers (WMBs). Recovery of metal scraps centering small scale manufacturing business.

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4.1.7. Waste transformation (WT) An integrated solid waste management (ISWM) system involves waste transformation technologies. This technology employ physical, chemical and biological conversion process, namely physical compaction, chemical combustion, and biological oxidation and digestion of the waste materials. These technical options may be applied to different fractions of the solid wastes in different categories. The consultant understood the non existence of any technical data on the current WT practices, technologies and waste transformation centers (WTCs) in Mekelle city. 4.1.8. Special and hazardous wastes These categories of solid wastes require special attention in the whole management process for the fact that the wastes mostly cause potential hazards on the environment and local community and also require special techniques for their management. Special wastes are mainly discharged from residential, commercial, industrial, automobile servicing facilities and institutional activities in the city. The special wastes include bulky items, consumer electronics, white goods, oil, grease, batteries, tires, and separately collected yard wastes in the house hold and other urban establishments. The hazardous wastes mainly arise from institutional and industrial activities. The possible sources of hazardous wastes in Mekelle city are Mekelle hospital and the public and private health clinics.

4.2. Organization of the existing system and role of Stakeholders 4.2.1. City Administration / Municipality The municipality nearly takes the full responsibility of waste management activities. Available Resources The environmental sanitation and hygiene team in the social services department of the municipality handles the solid waste management of the city. This team is responsible to conduct the day-to-day solid waste collection, transportation and disposal activities of the city and has 94 workers (table 4.2).

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Table 4.2 Workers employed on Sanitation and Hygiene team of the Municipality SN Specific job title Number of employees Remark Male Female Total 1 Sanitarians 3 3 2 Drivers 7 7 3 Co-drivers 7 7 4 Street Sweepers * * 44 * No data on M&F 5 Public toilet and 30 30 Container guards 6 Supervisor 3 3 7 47 94 TOTAL Source: Mekelle Municipality Social Services Department, 2004 a. Manpower engaged in SWM activities Table 4.3 Manpower of the Social Services Department engaged in SWM activities Required & existing manpower based on approved structure No Municipal Category head office MSAS Tabias Total R E R E R E R E G 1 Department head 1 1 1 1 0 2 Team leader 1 0 1 0 -1 3 Experts professionals 1 0 1 0 -1 4 Section head 3 3 3 3 0 5 Sanitarian (semi-professional) 1 1 1 1 0 6 Sanitation team workers 17 17 21 21 38 38 0 7 Minuchipe (municipal police) 1 14 14 14 15 +1 8 Administration staff 1 1 1 1 0 Total 22 21 24 24 14 14 60 59 R= required E=Existing G=Gap/difference

Source: Mekelle Municipality (Compiled from raw data) According to the report obtained from Mekelle City Administration [2005], the approved manpower in the fiscal year for all sectors of the Social Service Department (SSD) is consisting of a total of 60 job positions out of which 22 are in the municipal head office, 24 in the municipal service areas (MSAs) and 14 in the Tabias of the city (table 4.3). Observations Out of the 58 of available manpower engaged in SWM activities, only four (4) are professional with some years of work experience

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The environmental sanitation team workers, who are directly responsible for the overall sanitation activities in the city, don't have team leader and this job position is still vacant.

b. Equipments Table 4.4: available municipal equipments engaged in SWM SN Equipment Existing Quantity 1 Skip loaders 3 2 Tractor trailer 4 3 Containers 64 Given the rapid city expansion and increased rate of waste generation, these equipments are not sufficient enough. Moreover, the vehicles spent considerable time in garages for maintenance purposes. As a result, some neighborhoods do not get service coverage and some communal containers are not picked on time when they get full. 4.2.2. Private actors There are two private operators working on primary collection of solid wastes in the city namely, Gojo and Saba Sanitation Services. The scope of these organizations is limited to collection and disposing of the wastes into the communal containers and to privately owned farm site for composting purpose. Gojo Sanitation Service Gojo plastic and sanitation Services was established on October 18, 1995 E.C. The organization has six contact workers, one female and five male. It gives door-to door waste collection services for residential and institutions like hotels, restaurants and bars. It also gives janitorial services for some insurance and banking institutions. It has three wheel carts and one truck with a capacity of holding 15m3 wastes. The organization collects the solid waste from its clients and performs waste separation/segregation. It recycle organic fraction of the solid waste and apply to its own farm land .The service disposes the remaining collected solid waste fraction into the communal containers. Gojo has 55 institutional and 200 residential clients respectively (2004). The service group recently got an urban land area of 2,200m2 free of lease to undertake composting and horticultural activities. Segregation of the organic and inorganic wastes was assumed to be done in the allotted urban land. The service group is also introducing a new technique of solid waste separation to be undertaken at the source of waste generation by providing the clients with separate plastic bags for the same purpose. The private solid waste service group Gojo has raised the following problems in relation to their private business.

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Final Feasibility and Preliminary Design report for Mekelle City Integrated Solid Waste Management

The absence of strict regulations and strong enforcement mechanisms has encouraged polluters to dispose off the waste anywhere. The absence of regular service charges in the municipality solid waste management service has motivated their clients to seek service from the municipality only. The municipality has problems with the use of external resources like the private actors in some of the waste management services currently run by the municipal They have faced financial problems associated with loans in their business. They believe that less attention has been given to private actors as compared to cooperatives in the present SW service.

The consultant has observed some interesting initiatives on the side of Gojo private sanitation service. The service group has claimed the liability of its own clients and sued a file charge against them for polluting the environment, The group issue solid waste holding and collecting plastic bags to their clients free of charge and They also educate the public about environment and city sanitation through pamphlets and other Medias.

Saba Sanitation Services Saba Sanitation is the second privately owned sanitation agent established to render doorto-door sanitary services in the city. The group currently renders services in 20 commercial units like hotels, bars, restaurants and other units in the city. The services are mainly concentrated on the streets and squares of the city such as Godena Guna and Selam, Romanat and Bazar Squares. Its services also cover 328 residential houses in different Tabias of the city some of which are Adihawsi, Adishunduhun, Mayduba, Aider, Sewhinigus and Hadnet among others. The workers of the private group disposed off the wastes into the nearby communal collection containers after collecting from the different sources in the services areas.

4.2.3. NGOs and Civil Societies Though NGOs and civil societies have multi-dimensional role in development, their participation in Mekelle is limited specially in sanitation. The initiative of some of the civic societies such as Tsebqueley Mekelle, which is a local non-profitable community organization, is the most appreciable. However, there has been low advocacy work undertaken to mobilize the stakeholders in solid waste management issues so far. 4.2.4. Micro and small enterprises There are about 3 micro and small enterprises (MSE) operating in the present SW service in the city: Dilet Tseret, Fire Kalise and Martha sanitation services. These enterprises negotiate the waste collection fee directly with the beneficiaries and the fees are collected by the enterprises themselves

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Final Feasibility and Preliminary Design report for Mekelle City Integrated Solid Waste Management

The service fee varies from place to place. For instance, the fees range from 2 to 5 Birr per month around Ayder in the low income group. The service charges in the city center ranges from 10 to 20 Birr per month. In general, the service providers charge 10 to 15 Birr per household per month on average. Dilet Tseret and Fire Kalise are engaged in primary collection of wastes from households to the municipal containers. In addition to this, the former one is involved in occasional cleaning services during festivals and the later is engaged in the collection of by products from the municipal slaughter house. The Current situation within the cooperatives can be characterized as: Lack of well-coordinated effort with in the cooperatives members. The communal containers are mostly found full to their capacity during service hours and the cooperative workers are hence forced to transport the collected waste over long service distances to find emptied ones. Their business is dependent more on the ability and willingness to pay by the households. Therefore, they tend to concentrate on areas where the households can afford the service charges. The Martha sanitation service is engaged in the collection of wastes from households for Bio-farm development. The idea behind this initiative is to train about 100 poor women on practices of bio-farm technology and make them immediately productive. The municipality has already allotted 2 hectares of urban land for the project to be used as a vegetable farm. Moreover, the municipality has prepared a pilot area where the women would collect organic solid wastes from the city and take it to the pilot bio-farm supposed to produce biogas and at the same time horticultural products using the bio-gas slurry (by product) as a fertilizer. The municipality expected that if this pilot project is proven to be successful, other similar projects will be replicated throughout the city. The city administration has already allocated budget for this purpose. If the project becomes successful, it is expected to offer two sets of benefits. On one hand, a significant amount of solid waste will be recycled and on the other hand a number of poor women will get employment. The municipality has supported the bio-farm initiative without undertaking the necessary feasibility study and compromising the low economic capacity of the poor women. Because of these failures on the side of the promoter of bio-farm technology, which is in this case the municipality, the cooperative of the poor women has failed to work as expected. The lack of cooperative capacity in undertaking proper waste collection and as the task was found to be tiresome for the weak poor members, who are inactive to travel long distances in search of the solid wastes, made the number of the members to reduce to 87. Besides this, the municipality has not developed any mechanism for regulating and monitoring the performance of the enterprises and their relationship with the beneficiaries.

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Final Feasibility and Preliminary Design report for Mekelle City Integrated Solid Waste Management

This failure on the side of the city Administration has also become one factor that made cooperative members desperate. 4.2.5. Informal sector Though difficult to differentiate which is formal and informal in solid waste collection systems of the city, this assessment takes the itinerant buyers, which are locally know as Quorales, receivers/dealers/ and wholesalers into consideration. These are people who collect different types of valuable waste materials for different purposes. There are more than 100 itinerant waste buyers in the city. The itinerant waste buyers wander through out the city and buy the waste materials from households and sell them to their clients and dealers. There are five agents legally registered for retail sell business, who receive the waste materials from the itinerant waste collectors or waste material brokers (WMBs). From the focus group discussions held with the waste retailers, a single agent could receive about 50kg plastic shoes, 40kg of plastics and 50 pieces of different bottles per day on average. The dealers or merchants sort out the recovered waste materials and sell to the wholesalers. The itinerant buyers, dealers, and merchants are not well organized and have financial problems to enhance their business. They simply sell recovered waste materials to the wholesalers and wholesale brokers, who have direct contact with the recycling enterprises. Sometimes there might be direct contact of itinerants and retailers with the recycling enterprises by passing wholesalers. The flow of recovered solid waste materials can be easily illustrated as follows.

Itinerant waste buyers

Dealers/merchants Wholesalers

Recycling Enterprises

According to the information obtained from the workers operating in the informal sector, most recovered materials are plastics, bottles, Shoes, and crop residues locally known as Hasernifay. These waste materials are distributed to different recycling enterprises such as plastic and beverage factories, and fattening and dairy institutions. 4.2.6 Role of the community So far no appropriate mechanism was employed to enhance the participation of the general public effectively in solid waste management at city level. However, communities are mobilized to clean their surroundings in the form of campaigns during some public and local holidays and special occasions irregularly. Even so very scant proportion of the public participates on such occasions. Such collective actions and campaigns also lack continuity.

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Final Feasibility and Preliminary Design report for Mekelle City Integrated Solid Waste Management

Limitations in community participation are also experienced not only from the point of view of free labour contribution in cleaning campaign, but also in paying the service charges levied by the municipality and other actors in the service. Only small part of the city residents pay sanitation service charges when they pay off visits to the municipality to make some businesses like paying property taxes, buying or selling properties and requesting construction permits. 4.2.7 Job opportunities created in Primary collection Table 4.5 Job opportunities through the collection of solid waste SN Name institution Dilet Tseret MSE/ Members 13 Average Family size 2.5

Total 32.5

2 3

Fire Kalise 15 Martha sanitation service 100 Gojo Sanitation Service Saba Sanitation Service Total 128

2.5 3.5

37.5 350

Remark No report is available on the existing statues of these cooperatives >> Now the members are reduced to 87

420

Source: MSE Cooperative Office and Respective institutions 4.3. Financial aspects The gap between what the public pays for the sanitation service and the actual cost of collection and disposal is one of the crucial problems in the solid waste management in Mekelle. First of all, the revenue level collected by the city is very low and as a result the budget allocated to the solid waste service is minimal. Secondly, the service fee paid by the residents is very low and most people are not accustomed to paying waste service fees. 4.3.1 Allocated Budget The average annual quantity of collected and disposed off solid waste between the period 2002 and 2004 was 14255.33m3 and the annual collected sanitation fee was Birr 230,400.00. This means what the public pays for the collection and disposal was about Birr 16.16 per unit m3 of solid wastes. But it is estimated that the average annual allocated budget for collecting and disposing off of solid waste was about 690,812.00 Birr. In other words, the actual rate of solid waste collection and disposal was 48.46 Birr

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Final Feasibility and Preliminary Design report for Mekelle City Integrated Solid Waste Management

per1m3, i.e. the public pays only one third of the expenditure on solid waste collection service rendered by the municipal. A comparison of what the public pays for the municipality and to the private for the solid waste collection services rendered is indicated in the table below (Table 4.6) .The data on services charges clearly indicate that the service rates in municipal services is quite lower than that of the private sectors (Saba and Gojo ). This is one reason that the public prefer to use municipal services than private services. The private service providers charge higher rates for primary collection services, which exclude cost of public solid waste storage, secondary collection, transportation and disposal to landfill sites. Table 4.6 Comparison of service charges in municipal and private services Monthly Service charges (Birr) Sr. Name of enterprise Remark Residence Institution No. and institution 1 Saba Sanitation 2 to 5 per month 10 to 100 per month Primary Collection 2 Gojo Sanitation 10 per month 15 to 100 per month Primary Collection 3 Municipal 2 to 26 per annum * 2 to 26 per annum* Collection and disposal * indicate the annual sanitation fee at Mekelle, which is first rank city, in 7th and 1st grade urban lands and the figure indicate ranges of sanitation fee rates; Source: Respective enterprises The average daily estimated solid waste generated in the city was about 60.52m 3 and the actual cost of collection and disposal was 48.46 Birr per unit m3 of solid waste. Hence, the average annual budget required to collect and dispose off was amounting around 1,070,497.55 Birr. But the amount actually allocated was 690,812.00 Birr, which is 64.53 % of the actual budget required on average to fully collect and dispose off the solid waste generated between 2002 and 2004. This indicates that availability of budget for solid waste collection and disposal was among the main constraint in the period between 2002 and 2004. 4.3.2. Collected service fee versus needed budget The average annual collected sanitation fee was Birr 230,400.00 and the average annual budget required to collect and dispose off solid waste generated in the city in three years period was about Birr 1,070,497.55. Hence, the collected sanitation fee covers only 21.52 % of the total budget required to fully collect and disposed off the generated solid waste in the three years time (2202 to 2004 G.C.). .

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4.3.3. Modes of service payment Municipal service: The charge paid by the residents for waste collection service to the municipal is very nominal, and the criteria used for determining the fee are also vague both to the payers and the payees. The residents are made to pay the waste collection fee together with the land rent or land lease fee on the basis of number of rooms owned by the payer and the rank of the city as categorized in the annual sanitation fee rates in different cities of Ethiopia. The regulation on the annual sanitation fee considered four ranks of cities and Mekelle belongs to the first rank city category. The fees supposed to be settled by sanitation service users in different grades of land are indicate under the four classes of cities for comparison (table 4.7). But direct charging of sanitation fees has become difficult to be implemented when communal system of waste collection is used.

Table 4.7 Annual sanitation fee based on number of rooms and rank of the city Urban Land Grade Annual sanitation fee (Birr) st Ranking 1 rank city 2nd rank city 3rd rank city 4th rank city 1st 26 20 15 10 nd 2 24 15 10 6 3rd 18 9 7 4 th 4 12 6 4 3 th 5 6 3 2 1.5 6th 3 2 1.5 1 th 7 2 1.5 1.25 .75 Source: Mekelle Municipality The sanitation fee regulation declares that the annual sanitation fee in first rank cities ranges from 2 to 26 Birr per annum. These rates are to be effected in urban land grades from 7th grade up to 1st grade lands. The sanitation fee increases with the grade of land, the highest in first grade and the least in seventh grade urban. As the various land uses in the city exist in different grades of land, it is not possible to determine here the rates of sanitation fees for municipal services separately for the various sources of solid wastes in the city. But the minimum and maximum rates are between 2 to 26 Birr per annum. Private services: The service fee paid for primary waste collection by private services is based on negotiation. Gojo sanitation Service:
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The average service rates are 10, 15, 40, and 100 Birr per month for residential houses, cafeterias, restaurants and hotels respectively. Saba Sanitation Service: Solid Wastes are collected once in a week time from residential houses and daily from the hotels, restaurants and bars. The agent collects three sacks of waste on the average from hotels, restaurants and bars per day. The monthly service rates range from two to five Birr for residential houses and ten to hundred Birr for institutions. Micro and small enterprises (MSEs): The micro and small enterprises negotiate the waste collection fee directly with the beneficiaries. The service fee is collected by the enterprises themselves and it varies from place to place in the city. For instance, the fee ranges from 2 to 5 Birr per month around Ayder in low income groups and range from 10 to 20 Birr per month in the city center. Generally, the MSEs charge 10 to 15 Birr per household per month on average. 4.4. Institutional Structure and Responsibilities 4.4.1 Institutional structure

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Fig. 4.3 Existing Municipality Structure CITY MANAGER Administration Support services Internal Audit

Water Supply Service Legal Service Planning and Information Service

Deputy City Manager

Town Planning & Land Adm. Dept


Town planning & Urban Design team Building Design & Const. Permit team Dept Land admin. & registration team

Economic Services Department


Municipal Enterprises team Dept Housing & Public utilities team Community self-help programs

Revenue & Expenditure Department


Revenue Collection team Revenue study and assessment team Dept Budget & Accounts team

Social Services Department


Environmental Sanitation team

Construction & Contract Admin. Dept


Construction & maintenance team

Public parks & Greening team Public Protective Services

Contract Admin. & Supervision Team

Municipal Service Areas 31

Machinery & Equipment Admin. team

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Final Feasibility and Preliminary design report for Mekelle City Integrated Solid Waste Management

4.4.2. Institutional responsibilities 4.4.2.1 City Administration: The three areas of responsibility of the City Administration in relation to waste management are given below. Since July 2003, the Municipality of Mekelle has taken the responsibility for SWM of the city from the health department of the city; The Social Service Department (SSD)of the municipality is in charge of the provision of environmental services; The city's health department is responsible to under take the regulatory activities of waste management;

Functions of the Social Service Department (SSD) of the Municipality with regard to solid waste management are the following. Develops systems, performance indicators, norms, standards and procedures to execute its tasks and implement same upon approval; Assures the provision of waste disposal city services to the required standard; Ensure the cleanliness & attractiveness of the city; Coordinate the activities of micro & small-scale enterprises, cooperatives and NGOs operating on SWM; Collect and compile data for research; Develop and administer landfills and transfer stations; Promote the implementation of waste minimization and reduction in the city; Promote the development of recycling; Prepare the city's solid waste management status report; Review and monitor the implementation of Municipality service Areas (MSAs) SWM; Provide solid waste collection and disposal activities;

4.4.2.2 Municipal Service Areas (MSAs): The Municipality has three Municipal service Areas that provide services to the residents. The main aim of the MSAs is to provide technical and social municipal services as service Branches of the city Municipal services with no administrative organ attached to them. The functions of the MSAs with regard to SWM are: Provide information to residents about the municipal services within the area of jurisdiction; Assure proper implementation of sanitation and greenery activities within its area of operations; Ensure the protection of illegal activities in the area of limit, which includes illegal waste disposal practices; PROMISE CONSULTING ARCHITECTS AND ENGINEERS 32

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4.4.2.3 Tabia2 Level: There are Municipal Service Desks (MSDs), which area established to provide Municipal services much nearer to the residents. Some of the main functions of the municipal services delivery desks with regard to SWM are: Mobilize and ensure the participation of residents in safeguarding environmental hygiene and sanitary activities. Control of illegal solid waste disposal activities;

The awareness created so far among the users on legislative issues, the institutional capacity to implement the policies and regulations and the impact of the policies from the point of view of improving environmental quality in the city and protecting the public health and the environment need to be the main focus of our study in relation to environmental policies and regulations. (for details, refer to Annex I)

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Data Collection, Projection of Solid waste generation and composition

5.1 Data Collection on Existing Solid Waste Generation and Practice Rationale Information available on existing SW rate of generation, composition and source of Mekelle City is deemed to be scant and the consultant has identified that there is a need to conduct further investigation on the current situation. Because of these limitations execution of recent and new projects demands the filling up of missing technical data. Promise consult discovered that basic technical information do not exist in relation to existing SW rate of generation, composition and source, which is required to undertake comprehensive study on Integrated Solid Waste Management (ISWM) and good planning and design of solid waste management infrastructure for improved SW service. It is with the intent of filling up the missing data that Promise Consult conducted survey on the existing solid waste generation, composition, source and practices. The intention of the survey in general is to find out: Sources of solid waste in the entire city Percentage composition of solid waste from the various SW category and sources Proportion of expected solid waste constituents in the SW categories Per capita rate of generation in liter/capita/day and kg/capita/day Properties of SW such as unit weigh(loose, as-discarded, as-disposed, as-compacted from various sources of generation Generation of hazardous and special wastes

Approach, methodology and organization of survey employed (for detail, refer Annex D.) Step 1: Before proceeding to fresh data collection, an attempt was made to collect all the available data by consulting all the relevant stakeholders and secondary sources. Step 2: After identifying the data gaps, various checklists, question forms, tabular forms and questionnaires are prepared to fill the data gap with regard to the following broader issues Solid waste generation Primary Handling and Storage Primary Collection (PC) Communal storage Secondary Collection and disposal Disposal in land fills: 3Rs and Waste transformation (WT)

Step 3: distribute the questionnaires to relevant stakeholders and simultaneously conduct field investigation to fill the data gap Step 3.1: definition of solid waste category
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The solid waste categories has been identified for the city examining the existing socioeconomic and investment activities, the status of solid waste management within the service area and land use information. Step 3.2: identification of sources of solid waste Step 3.3: determination of type, composition and properties of the SW for each sources of generation a. Residential Sources (01MSW) All the ten Tabias currently existing in the cities of Mekelle are considered as observation sites for Residential SW sources taking a total sample size of 3% of the total house holds (i.e. 1162HHs on the basis of the year 2004 population) in each Tabia. The survey investigates the total and per capita rates of solid waste generations, proportion of various solid waste materials in household SW samples, and properties of the Residential SW in four household socio-economic groups. The SW from Residential sources are characterized based on a total sample households of 1162 collected from all socioeconomic groups in the Tabias. Selection of sampling households is made in each Tabia in consultation with the Tabia Administration offices one week ahead of sampling. Table 5.1 Distribution of sample household sizes in Residential establishments Number of sample households for each income group (Monthly average Sample income in Birr) HHs 0500-1000 1000-2000 >2000 500* A B C D 149 68 36 27 18 153 72 36 27 18 157 71 38 29 19 40 38 28 26 18 10 10 280 35 30 29 21 20 14 8 8 213 20 19 14 13 9 5 5 140

SN

Locality

Inhabitants (2004)

Estimated Households

1 2 3 4

Aider 24300 4959 Hawelti 25125 5128 Adi Haki 25650 5235 Kedamay Weyane 27157 5542 166 76 5 Hadenet 26106 5328 160 74 6 Sewhi Niguse 19000 3878 116 53 7 Adise Alem 18000 3673 110 51 8 Industry 11766 2401 72 31 11 Adishumduhun 6376 1301 39 16 12 Ellala 6515 1330 40 17 Total 189995 38775 1162 529 * City Wide proportion of low income group is more than 70%;
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Final Feasibility and Preliminary design report for Mekelle City Integrated Solid Waste Management

Source: MCPPP Then standard plastic bags of 1m2 minimum area is issued to each sample house holds and are advised to store their household garbage honestly and carefully for a minimum generation time of one week. As the measurement of observations house-to-house is a cumbersome task, convenient and centralized observation sites are located within the proximity and boundary of the sample households. The Enumerators collect household samples on each observation sites and take all the necessary measurements using the standard forms for recording observations of generation rate, proportion of constituent and properties of SW. b. Other SW sources Efforts have been made to take into account all the available information on the urban activities as collected, compiled and analyzed by the socio-economic and demographic team of the City Master Plan Development project. The socio-economic and service data clearly indicate that the manufacturing, construction, transportation and service sectors have leading share in the urbanization of Mekelle City. The construction sector mainly represents the housing and industrial development activities in the City. These activities are expected to generate significant SW quantities in different parts of the City, which is not known at the moment. Therefore, field observations need to be conducted in selected sample urban activities and services. Table 5.2 Urban activities in Mekelle city SN 1 Activities/Socio-economic Aspects Investment shares ranking Industrial (Manufacturing, construction, and transport)=88.08% Institutional(Social services and real state)=4.93 % Commercial(hotel & trade) =3.85 % Agriculture=3.13% Job opportunity ranking Manufacturing Construction sector Transport Social service Hotel Agriculture Trade Real state Services coverage Government Health services(year 2002): Hospital=1 Health centers=3 36

3 3.1

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Final Feasibility and Preliminary design report for Mekelle City Integrated Solid Waste Management

Clinics=3 Referral hospital=1 very soon 3.2 Educational facilities Governmental institutions: Kindergarten=1 Primary school=20 Secondary school=4 Institutions=3 Public university=1 (Main campus + Adi Haki Campus) Private institutions: Kindergarten=13 Primary school= 5 Secondary school=1 Institutions=6 No University NGOs: Kindergarten=4 Primary school=9 Secondary school=4 No institutions ,colleges and universities 3.3 Digital Telephone(May 2004): Residential areas=7029 in numbers Government, NGOs, Institutions, and Enterprises=1211 Commercial centers=2677 Others=36 3.4 Water service(July 2004): Distribution pipe=46.5 km Availability: House tape users= 43.9 % Public tape users=7.9 % Neighborhood & traditional source users=48.4% Contd 3.5 Market places: Edaga kedamay woyane Edaga Adi-haki Edaga Enda-sellassie Enda Sewhi-Nigus(Edaga Kedam) Edaga Aider Edaga Industry (May Duba) Edaga Adi-Hawsi Edaga Adi-Shumduhun Edaga Quiha Edaga Aynalem Livestock market (13903m2 fenced area) 3.6 Enkodo Abattoir:60-70 cattles/day design capacity & actual=33 3.7 16-Orthodox churches: Inside Mekelle,Quiha,& Aynalem 3.8 3- Mosques: Inside Mekelle
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Source: MCPPP Table 5.3: Sample Size SN Source type 1 Commercial (02MSW) Sources

Sample size

Industrial sources (01ISW):

Construction demolition (02ISW):

and

Agriculture (01ASW):

Wastes

Total number Remark of samples 10% of the total 463 195 and 268 samples from commercial sources inside and outside the main market 2 from each 30 categories of Standard Industrial Classification two samples 18 from each construction category A minimum 10 sample of ten activities will be considered

Institutional sources (03MSW): Table 5.4 Distribution of Samples in institutional sources Sr. No 1 Institutional activities Total units No. of Sampl e 2 1 2 1 2 1 1 2 1 1 percentage sample size 16.67 50 100 100 100 50 50 38

Administration Tabia offices Wereda offices Zonal departments City Council Regional Bureaus Regional Government Security office Private and public services Consulting firms Telecommunication service Electric service

12 2 1 1 1 2 2

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4 4.1

4.2

4.3

Water service Health facilities : Hospital Health centers Clinics Educational offices: Governmental Kindergarten Primary school Secondary school Institutions Public university Private Kindergarten Primary school Secondary school Institutions NGOs: Kindergarten Primary school Secondary school Total institutional samples

1 1 3 3

1 1 1 1

100 100 33.33 33.33

1 20 4 3 2 13 5 1 6 4 9 4

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 30

100 5 25 33.33 50 7.70 20 100 16.67 25 11.11 25

Communal container and disposal sites Field survey is carried out in the existing 64 communal containers site to investigate the impacts of secondary storage and collection services in the city and collect adequate technical data for the future improvement of the service. One field enumerator and observer working under the principal investigator (supervisor) moved in all the containers and collect the desired information. A second enumerator is assigned for the observations to be taken at the disposal sites and the contents of the survey are also different for the investigation at the disposal sites. 5.2 Projection of Solid Waste Generation and Composition 5.2.1 Population projection 5.2.1.1 Base Data According to the recent administrative set-up, the city of Mekelle consists of municipal areas with respective population as indicated in table 5.4.

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Final Feasibility and Preliminary design report for Mekelle City Integrated Solid Waste Management

Table 5.4: Population Size (as of July 2004) SN Municipal area Population Size 1 Main Mekelle 154,698 2 Quiha 15,672 3 Aynalem 4,008 4 Small villages 32,930 Total Population of Mekelle City as of 2004 207,308

Source CSA,2003 CSA,2003 CSA,2003 Mekelle Municipality

Growth trend and average family size The total average family size for city of Mekelle is 4.9 persons.( Finance and Economic Development Office, October 2003) 5.2.1.2 Methodology Table 5.5: Population Trend SN Year Growth rate 1 1965-1970 4.6% 2 1970-1978 5.1% 3 1978-1984 6.3% 4 1994-2004 4.4% 5 2004+ 4.4% Source: Finance and Economic Development Office (October 2003) Assuming that the existing population growth rate would remain the same for the planning period seems unjustifiable as it is difficult to control and dictate the population policy, the economic growth rate, cultural attitude, security etc. Therefore to minimize the risk of over and under estimation of population size, it has been professionally expedient to assume the medium growth variant which is 5.4 in our case for future population projections. Population forecasting scenario Geometric method: The kinetics: dP P dt K g Population: Ln Pt = Ln P1 + Kg (Tt - T1) Growth rate:

Ln Pt Ln P1

T T
t

Where Kg is population growth rate


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Final Feasibility and Preliminary design report for Mekelle City Integrated Solid Waste Management

Pt is projected population size at time Tt P1 is base year population (i.e. at time T1)

Table 5.6: Projected Population size of Mekelle from Medium Variant (5.4%) Year 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021 2022 2023 2024 2025 2026 2027 2028 2029 2030 Population size 207308 218810 230951 243765 257290 271566 286634 302538 319324 337042 355743 375481 396314 418303 441512 466009 491865 519156 547961 578364 610454 644325 680075 717809 757636 799673 844043

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Final Feasibility and Preliminary design report for Mekelle City Integrated Solid Waste Management

5.3

Results of the survey

Table 5.7 Generation rate of residential establishments Tabia wise SN Tabias Per capita per Per capita per day volume day weight (l/c/d) (Kg/c/d) 1 Addis Alem 0.989 0.322 2 Industry 0.641 0.271 3 Sewhi Negus 0.713 0.171 4 AddishumDhun 1.276 0.275 5 Kedamy Weyane 0.936 0.279 6 Aider 1.115 0.352 7 Hadnet 1.133 0.325 8 Hawltie 0.560 0.148 9 Adi Hakie 0.948 0.267 10 Mekelle City 0.924 0.268
Residential Per Capita Rate of Generation(Volume)
Per capita generation(liter/day)

Per capita per day unit weight (Kg/cu.m) 434.27 573.63 272.98 242.91 456.76 362.20 286.12 373.62 337.70 371.13

1.400 1.200 1.000 0.800 0.600 0.400 0.200 0.000


0.989

1.276 1.115 0.936 0.713 0.641 Addis Alem 1.133 0.948 0.924 0.560 Industry Sewhi Negus Addishum Dahan Kedamy Weyane Aider Hadnet Hawltie Adi Hakie

Tabias

Mekelle City

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Final Feasibility and Preliminary design report for Mekelle City Integrated Solid Waste Management

Residential Per Capita Rate of Generation(Weight)


0.400 0.352 0.275 0.279 0.325 0.267 0.268

Per capita generation(Kg/day)

0.350 0.322 0.300 0.250 0.200 0.150 0.100 0.050 0.000 0.171 0.271

Addis Alem Industry Sewhi Negus Addishum Dahan


0.148

Kedamy Weyane Aider Hadnet Hawltie Adi Hakie Mekelle City

Tabias

Unit Weight of Residential Source


700.00 600.00 573.63 434.27 456.76 373.62 362.20 337.70 272.98 242.91 286.12 371.13

Addis Alem Industry Sewhi Negus Addishum Daha Kedamy Weyane Aider Hadnet Hawltie Adi Hakie Mekelle City Tabias

Unit Weight(Kg/cu.m)

500.00 400.00 300.00 200.00 100.00 0.00

The rate of generation is known to be changed through out the service life time of the project. Among other factors economic status of residents is the main reason. However due to the difficulty of predicting the dynamics of economic change and lack of previous records to be used for trend analysis the rate of generation is forecasted using probabilistic model. Model Equations for forecasting the rate of generation per capita rate of generation (l/c/d) per capita rate of generation (kg/c/d) unit weight(kg/cu.m) Y=0.3215Ln(X)+1.2371 where X is frequency factor Y=0.0913Ln(X)+0.3568 PlanningYe ar X PlanningYe ar 1 Y=127.61Ln(X)+495.62 43

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Final Feasibility and Preliminary design report for Mekelle City Integrated Solid Waste Management

Table 5.8 Forecasted rate of generation Year 2004 2005 2006 Planning year Frequency factor(X) Rate of generation (Y) 0 1 0.500 0.924 0.924 2

2007 3

2008 4

2009 5 0.833 1.165

2010 6 0.857

.... ..

0.667 0.750 0.800 1.014 1.107 1.145

1.178

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Final Feasibility and Preliminary design report for Mekelle City Integrated Solid Waste Management

Table 5.9 Constituents of solid waste generated from residential sources Proportion 2005 Constituents of MSW from Residential Sources Grass>50mm Grass<50mm Food wastes Broken glass Non-broken Rubber Ceramics Leather Garment & Textiles Paper Tin cans Catha Edulis Ash Ferrous Fruits & vegetables Bones Special Wastes Yard Waste % by Volume 5.15 7.24 2.87 0.02 0 1.86 0.61 0.97 3.05 9.06 0.09 0.66 20.7 1.01 8.21 0.67 0.31 8.32 % by Weight 2.47 3.56 3.5 0.54 1.72 1.37 3.98 1.26 5.4 5.06 0.62 0.94 30.92 0.88 7.02 0.43 15.27 6.07 (cu.m) 3800.49 5342.82 2117.94 14.7592 0 1372.6 450.155 715.82 2250.77 6685.9 66.4163 487.053 15275.7 745.338 6058.64 494.432 228.767 6139.82 Yearly volume 2010 (cu.m) 6357.8429 8938.016 3543.1086 24.690652 0 2296.2306 753.06489 1197.4966 3765.3244 11184.865 111.10793 814.79152 25554.825 1246.8779 10135.513 827.13684 382.70511 10271.311 Yearly weight 2010 (ton) 878.6106 1266.338 1244.995 192.0849 611.826 487.3265 1415.737 448.1981 1920.849 1799.907 220.5419 334.37 10998.64 313.0273 2497.104 152.9565 5431.734 2159.177

2015 (cu.m)

2005 (ton) 532.624 767.669 754.731 116.444 370.896 295.423 858.236 271.703 1164.44 1091.12 133.695 202.699 6667.51 189.761 1513.77 92.724 3292.78 1308.92

2015 (ton) 1184.8 1707.65 1678.87 259.026 825.044 657.157 1909.11 604.393 2590.26 2427.17 297.4 450.896 14831.6 422.116 3367.33 206.261 7324.67 2911.64

8540.306 12006.18 4759.355 33.16624 0 3084.46 1011.57 1608.562 5057.851 15024.3 149.2481 1094.486 34327.05 1674.895 13614.74 1111.069 514.0767 13797.15

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Final Feasibility and Preliminary design report for Mekelle City Integrated Solid Waste Management

Contd Bulky items Consumer electronics Plastics Hazardous wastes Other wastes & fines Total 0 0 12.8 2.57 13.83 100 0 0 5.91 1.75 7.31 105.98 0 0 9445.87 1896.55 10206 73795.86 0 0 15802.017 3172.7488 17073.586 123453.26 0 0 21226.39 4261.861 22934.45 165831.18 0 0 1274.42 377.365 1576.31 21563.73 0 0 2102.263 622.4974 2600.261 35571.28 0 0 2834.89 839.435 3506.44 47967.70

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Final Feasibility and Preliminary design report for Mekelle City Integrated Solid Waste Management

Summaries of rate of generation and composition are presented on table 6.10 and 6.11 respectively. Table 5.10 Summary of Rate of Generation from Commercial sources Rates & Quantities of solid waste 2005 2010 2015 Average rate of generation(l/unit/d) 5.52 5.52 5.52 Average rate of generation(kg/unit/d) 1.15 1.15 1.15 Total number of commercial units 2677.00 3265.94 3984.4468 Average annual quantity of (cu.m/yr) 5393.62 6580.22 8027.86 Average annual quantity (kg/yr) 1123670.75 1370878.32 1672471.54 Average monthly quantity cu.m/m) 449.47 548.35 668.99 Average monthly quantity kg/m) 93639.23 114239.86 139372.63 Average weekly quantity (cu.m/wk) 103.72 126.54 154.38 Average weekly quantity (kg/wk) 21609.05 26363.04 32162.91 Average daily quantity (cu.m/d) 14.82 18.08 22.05 Average daily quantity (kg/d) 3087.01 3766.15 4594.70 Table 5.11 Constituents of MSW from commercial sources Yearly volume 2005 2010 Proportion (% by volume) (cu.m) (cu.m) Grass>50mm 0.00 0.00 0.00 Grass<50mm 5.17 277.82 340.47 Food wastes 0.64 34.12 41.82 Broken glass 0.00 0.00 0.00 Non-broken 0.00 0.00 0.00 Rubber 1.00 53.69 65.80 Ceramics 0.00 0.00 0.00 Leather 1.66 89.16 109.27 Garment & Textiles 6.50 349.24 427.99 Paper 7.80 418.65 513.06 Tin cans 0.07 3.55 4.35 Catha Edulis 2.54 136.56 167.35 Ash 0.88 47.49 58.20 Ferrous 6.83 366.82 449.54 Fruits & vegetables 13.52 726.15 889.89 Bones 0.00 0.00 0.00 Special Wastes 0.00 0.00 0.00 Yard Waste 7.47 401.19 491.66 Bulky items 1.17 62.88 77.06 Consumer electronics 0.00 0.00 0.00 Plastics 12.64 678.53 831.54 PROMISE CONSULTING ARCHITECTS AND ENGINEERS

2015 (cu.m) 0.00 415.37 51.02 0.00 0.00 80.28 0.00 133.31 522.15 625.93 5.30 204.17 71.01 548.44 1085.67 0.00 0.00 599.83 94.02 0.00 1014.47 47

Final Feasibility and Preliminary design report for Mekelle City Integrated Solid Waste Management

Hazardous wastes Other wastes & fines Total % Error

2.33 29.69 99.92 0.08

125.20 1594.02 5365.09

153.43 1953.47 6574.89

187.18 2383.23 8021.36

Table 5.12 Summary of Rate of Generation for Institutional Sources Rates & Quantities of solid waste 2005 2010 2015 Average rate of generation(l/unit/d) 10.76 10.76 10.76 Total number of Institutional units 233.00 298.00 375.00 Average Total annual quantity 20903.45 30419.92 36142.06 Average monthly quantity of MSW(cu.m/m) 1741.95 2534.99 3011.84 Average weekly quantity of MSW(cu.m/wk) 401.99 585.00 695.04 Average daily quantity of MSW(cu.m/d) 57.43 83.57 99.29 Table 5.13 Constituents of MSW from institutional Sources Proportion (% by volume) 20.43 36.36 43.21 100.00 2005 (cu.m) 4270.04 7600.31 9033.10 20903.45 Yearly volume 2010 2015 (cu.m) (cu.m) 4270.04 4270.04 7600.31 7600.31 9033.10 9033.10 20903.45 20903.45

Mixed MSW(more of organic matters) MSW paper BMW Total

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Final Feasibility and Preliminary design report for Mekelle City Integrated Solid Waste Management

6 System Analysis, Design and Recommendations 6.1 General design approach Sources : 01MSW 02MSW 03MSW Collection (Hauled-container or Stationery-container System) Receiving area (Material Recovery Facility, MRF) Manual Waste sorting Rejects to land fill site Recyclables to local market & processing Ferrous Materials to local market Ash to make blocks & bricks

01MSW

Organic waste materials (Including paper) Shredding, grinding or Crushing Manure or cow dung from ASW Saw dust from Woodworks (01ISW) Urea from Human and Animals waste or synthetic Sewage sludge from liquid waste collection & treatment; from sludge drying bed;

Storage & Pilling

First Phase Aerobic Composting (Thermophilic) Second Phase Aerobic Composting (Mesophilic Maturing Phase) Manual Screening Packing Qualified Compost Mass

Water to adjust moisture content & control evaporation losses

Watering to adjust Moisture Content Figure 5.1 General design approaches

Sell to local market

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Final Feasibility and Preliminary design report for Mekelle City Integrated Solid Waste Management

6.2 Technical Issues in primary collection services Important technical issues that need to be addressed in the primary collection service are listed hereunder. Prevailing strong-wind of Mekelle and its consequence of blowing light solid waste materials during primary collection; Primary collection in low-income group; Affordable primary collection service charges; Balanced service charges in private and municipal services; Efficient primary collection in all service areas; Collection in alleys ,streets and outskirts; Improved primary collection in residential , commercial, and institutional units; Improved communal storage facility for convenient uses in labor as well as equipment based primary collections; Waste brokery in primary collection services; Waste separation in primary collection operation and Waste separation ,storage and recycling at drop-off and buy-back centers; Illegal use of child labors in primary collection; Monitoring of functions and performance of primary collectors; Data records in primary collection activities; 6.3 Secondary Collection Route scenarios Route Scenario-I: Hauled Collection System (HCS) from HC locations to MRF In this scenario hauled containers will be transported to Material Recovery Facility for wasted separation, processing and other scopes of MRF stated under section 5.5.3. In this scenario average Unit cost of operation for an average round trip, i.e., 9.7Km, as derived from existing performance cost is 4.30 birr. Taking the year 2004 as a base year for every data, existing system performance, equipment and unit cost of operation when adopting the proposed systems are presented hereunder. Route Scenario-II: Hauled Collection System (HCS) from MRF locations to Landfill Site In this scenario the rejects from the MRF will be transported to landfill site. The Average Unit cost of disposal as obtained from valuation of existing collection systems is used to estimate operational cost of MRF-Landfill transportation round distance of the operation in concern is 14.6 Km and operational distance and cost are 14.6Km and 6.30 birr respectively.

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Final Feasibility and Preliminary design report for Mekelle City Integrated Solid Waste Management

6.4 Design Under the general design approach two options are considered. In the first approach 100% efficiency of collection is targeted to be achieved on 2020 while in the second option 100% efficiency is intended to be reached on 2010. The two options are forwarded to give opportunity for the city administration choices, compare them with its financial capability and decide on the implementation. In order not to compromise the sanitation situation of the city different mechanisms are proposed to divert waste at source before getting far from the generators.

Option 1: N.B. Proposed soft and hard components of the ISWM SCHEME for years beyond 2015 should be taken cautiously; since socio-economic, political and technological dynamics are difficult to predict for more than 10 years. Furthermore data used on demographic, economic and spatial aspects are adopted from Mekelle plan preparation project whose planning period is 10years. Key Assumptions Existing coverage of SW collection is 34% Target set is to increase the efficiency to 100% on 2020 Intensive waste reduction scheme has to be followed till maximum service improvement is attained. It is Intended to divert waste at source through waste reduction and transformation practices at low income inhabitants (75% of total) * Organic components * Other recyclables (plastics, rubber, paper, tin, ferrous materials, etc.) * 100% diversion is set to be attained on 2010 * This scheme launches at 25% efficiency on 2006 * Role of waste material brokers (WMB), material drop-off and buy back centers is vital * Awareness creation and assistance to introduce the system and encourage WMB's * Secondary collection of waste for high income group (25% of total) * 100% collection by private sector on 2010 * Launches on 2006 with 25% capacity * Design life of loaders is 10 years; for existing 3 loaders 5 years is assumed PROMISE CONSULTING ARCHITECTS AND ENGINEERS 51

Final Feasibility and Preliminary design report for Mekelle City Integrated Solid Waste Management

Option 2 Key Assumptions: Meeting set coverage, 34% to 100% in a period of 2005-2010, at the same time keeping the environment clean * Existing coverage of SW collection is 34% *Target set is to increase the efficiency to 100% on 2010 * Intensive waste reduction scheme has to be followed till maximum service improvement is attended. * It is Intended to diverted waste at source through waste reduction and transformation practices at low income inhabitants (75% of total) constituents considered are: * Organic components * Other recyclables (plastics, rubber, paper, tin, ferrous materials, etc.) * 100% diversion of each item is set to be attained on 2010 * This scheme launches at 25% efficiency on 2006 * Role of waste material brokers (WMB), material drop-off and buy back centers is vital * Awareness creation and assistance to introduce the system and encourage WMB's * Collection of waste for high income group (25% of total) * 100% collection by private sector on 2010 * Launches on 2006 with 25% capacity * Design life of loaders is 10 years; for existing 3 loaders 5 years is assumed

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Final Feasibility and Preliminary design report for Mekelle City Integrated Solid Waste Management

6.5 MATERIAL RECOVERY FACILITY (MRF) Labor intensive material recovery facility (LIMRF) is proposed to provide waste separation for commingled MSW and materials escaping source separation at recovered and recycling materials drop-off and buy-back centers located in the city. The MRF will also serve as decentralized composting facility. 6.5.1 Site selection for MRF For optimum location of material recovery facility Mekelle City Development Plan, which is now on the verge of finalization, is consulted (Figure 6.1) The site for such facility is located in the industry zone as shown on figure 6.1. This site is ideally suitable for the facility because of the following reasons: According to the national urban planning manual description of compatibility of land uses, the proposed facility can be sited on the selected area. The facility is located adjacent to proposed sewage treatment plant hence this condition presents opportunity of using the sludge from the treatment plant to be used in compost preparation as one component. The whole area is shielded from other land uses using green buffer. As can be witnessed even at recent time, establishment of plastic factories; factories which have recycling capacity can likely be established in the coming future in the industry zone. These factories can be potential customers of the MRF. According to the twenty years development plan, in a reasonable distance from the MRF location a considerable area is allocated for urban agriculture. Urban agriculturalists practicing in the area can easily be involved in compost manufacturing process and they will also be potential users of the out put.

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Final Feasibility and Preliminary design report for Mekelle City Integrated Solid Waste Management

Figure 6.1 Structural map (Source: Mekelle city plan preparation project) PROMISE CONSULTING ARCHITECTS AND ENGINEERS 54

Final Feasibility and Preliminary design report for Mekelle City Integrated Solid Waste Management

6.5.2

Engineering aspects of material recovery facility (MRF)

The various Engineering considerations used in preliminary design of the MRF for commingled MSW are discussed in this section. Material recovery facility will have the following functions: Separation of all kind of recoverable waste materials from commingled MSW collected from Residential, commercial and institutional sources; Diversion of waste from land fill sites; Production of quality marketable compost from biodegradable organic fraction and pack the product at the MRF site; To transfer recyclable materials other than organic waste to desired processing locations; To transport non diverted waste to land fill site ; 6.5.3 Scope of MRF

Selection of materials to be separated at the MRF sites; Scenario-I: Materials Recovery from Commingled MSW and ISW with maximum organic fraction The separation and recovery of the following solid waste materials will be considered at the MRF site. (a) Organic waste fraction from MSW sources; (b) HDPE and LDPE plastic materials from MSW sources; (c) House hold battery from 01MSW & 02MSW; (d) Granular materials and wood from construction wastes; (e) Woody materials from MSW; (f)Glass from MSW; (g)Rubber from MSW; (h) Ferrous materials from MSW; (i)Tin cans (j) Bulky items Scenario-II: Materials Recovery from Source separated MSW and ISW with maximum organic fraction The separation and recovery of various waste materials such as glass, rubber, plastic materials, tin cans and ferrous materials could possibly be done at drop-off centers and buy-back centers. Primary collection and curb side collection systems could be introduced in waste separation and recovery of recyclable waste materials. In this scenario, the MRF site could be used for separation and recovery of organic fractions and construction wastes.

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Final Feasibility and Preliminary design report for Mekelle City Integrated Solid Waste Management

Scenario-III: Materials Recovery from Source separated MSW and ISW with minimum organic fraction In this scenario, the majority of the organic fraction MSW will be recovered in low income house holds and only the organic waste from other economic group, commercial and institutional units reach the MRF site. The MRF also separate and recover construction wastes. 6.5.4 Lay out and design of physical facilities

6.5.4.1 Components of the MRF Unloading areas for commingled MSW Unloading area for source separated MSW materials Sizing area for presorted and on-site sorted materials where undersized and oversized organic wastes are removed Unit operations (conveyors, shredders, and screens);magnetic separators will not be incorporated; conveyors, screens and shredders should be simple and locally manufactured equipments; Use of manual labor instead of conveyors, shredders and screens shall be considered ; labor intensive unit operations are cheaper than the use of equipments; Sizing of storage areas and out loading area for recovered materials; Sizing of parking areas and traffic flow patters in and out of the MRF; Sizing of Stage-I and Stage-II Composting units; Sizing of packing and storage area for matured compost;

6.5.4.2 Composting unit design The selected composting units are open windrow as these units require least resources in composting practices. The possible materials and geometry of the reactor are: Rectangular steel tank Rectangular wooden tank Triangular steel tank Triangular wooden tank Triangular wire mesh tank Rectangular wire mesh tank Triangular reactors require more space in terms of plan area than rectangular reactors and the rectangular ones are suitable in areas where there is space limitation. As there is space limitation in urban areas, the use of rectangular reactors is highly commendable. Thermophilic composting unit In this unit Shredding, blending and seeding of appropriate proportion of MSW with digested sludge, raw sludge ,cow dung, poultry manure, biogas slurry and sawdust, and water is considered and the optimum mix proportion of each fractions required for optimum performance of windrow aerobic composting units are determined. Labour intensive mixing and turning for a period of 25 to 27 days while maintaining the required temperature is important. Mesophilic composting unit PROMISE CONSULTING ARCHITECTS AND ENGINEERS 56

Final Feasibility and Preliminary design report for Mekelle City Integrated Solid Waste Management

At this stage, which take 24-26 days maturing, screening and packing will be done. Space requirement (ha.) Year Termophilic unit Mesophilic unit Total area(1&2)*1.5 (1) (2) 2005 0.171 0.17 0.51 2010 0.278 0.27 0.825 2015 0.336 0.32 0.99 Detail design and specification is presented at Annex-x. Estimated Cost of capital (excluding land value) The cost of material high-end MRF with feed stock derived from processing of commingled wastes; with enclosed building with concrete floors, MRF equipments with unit operations (shredding, screening and conveying system, and in-vessel composting; enclosed building for curing of compost product is between 25,000 to 50,000 birr per ton per day. This is equipment and capita intensive facility and 25 to 50 % cost reduction could be achieved in labor-intensive windrow composting facility Estimated cost of MRF (2005-2010): Capital-intensive MRF: 843375 to 1686750 Eth.Birr Labor intensive MRF: 421688 to 843375 Eth.Birr 6.6 Proposed landfill 6.6.1 Initial Site Selection

The site selection and proposal was undertaken by Ad hoc committee consisting of multidisciplinary professionals. The committee adopted the following initial criteria in selecting two land fill sites west of Mekelle city at Adi Kolomay. Geological conditions Climate Accessibility and proximity Land use and ownership Safety Public acceptance

The details of the initial site selection criteria can be referred in Annex-Q. The committee also submitted site investigation report on the proposed land fill locations at ST-1, figure 5.2. The technical data included in the initial investigation report has been considered in the preliminary design of the land fill site. The information of the proposed site has also been used in the assessment of the potential impacts of the land fill project decision.

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Quiha, one of the Tabias of the city is located at a distance of 10Km from the center of proper Mekelle with a population of 18000, is being served by an open damp which is situated at 4 Km distance from Quiha. The other fact that needs attention is the existence of Alula Abanega Airport at that Tabia. Consultation with Mekelle City Plan Preparation Project revealed that in order to respect the aviation zone, landfill can not be considered with in 6Km radius. Taking in to account the issues raised above for a Tabia with a population of 18,000 the feasibility of establishing another disposal site is unlikely. In the proposed system Quiha is intended to be served by the disposal facility to be located at Adi Kolomay. Landfill site investigation report on the geology of the area reveled that the geological setting of the project area is thick sedimentary sequence exposed by shale with very thin layer of limestone intercalations. The area exhibit very thick, horizontally bedded, light yellow, fine grained and highly weathered shale. The dominant geological structure in the area is bedding structure; the bedding plane is tight. Though the site selection was conducted before the awarding of the contract, Promise consult has verified and accepted the recommendation of the ad hoc committee. Moreover, for detail investigation of the site four test-pits, three at opposite sides of the periphery and one at the center are dug to a depth of 3m in order to identify the lateral as well as vertical continuity of the formation. Supporting the geological investigation, in all the test pits shale-limestone sequence with shale being dominant is observed. Extent of shale dominance is near to100%. It is also worth mentioning that shale exhibits a property of water tightness and workability. 6.6.2 Preliminary design

Three different types of land fill can be considered depending on the operation and engineering aspects of the dump sites. These are Uncontrolled Non-engineered Open dump landfill, engineered land fill and Highly Engineered Sanitary land fill site. Here the term land fill simply refer to the placing of solid waste materials into a land disposal site without prior treatment and preparation. The term land fill also refer to the physical facilities used for the disposal of solid wastes in the surface soils of the earth. The method of land filling could be area method, trench method/excavated pit method, embankment and canyon /depression methods depending up on the suitability of the land area considered for disposal. Uncontrolled Non-Engineered dump landfill is the oldest and widely used in most developing countries. In this type of land fill, provisions are not mostly made for the control of loss of chemical pollutants mainly leachate into the underground environment. The Non-Engineered dump landfill does not protect the local environment and not recommended especially for hazardous solid waste materials. In case of engineered land fill site, the local environment and the underground aquifers are protected from risks of pollution and nuisances. The Engineered land fill site has some features to protect the underground aquifer from risks of chemical pollution due to hazardous chemicals, leachate, and methane. PROMISE CONSULTING ARCHITECTS AND ENGINEERS 58

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There are also some other accepted categories of land fill sites. These include conventional type for commingled MSW, landfills for milled or shredded solid wastes and monofills for designated or specialized wastes .The monofills type can be used for individual or mixed hazardous wastes. Land fills can also be designed for special purpose. These include landfills designed for maximum methane production and land fills designed for integrated treatment units.

The proposed sanitary land fill sites will serve as final disposal sites for directly transported hazardous wastes and for non-hazardous materials rejected at material recovery sites. The proposed land fill sites will provide waste filling areas during dry and wet seasons. The dry season filling sites serve from October to May for a total of eight months in any year. The wet season filling sites will be used between June to September, which are the rainy seasons in the city, for a period of four months in any service year. 6.6.3 Proposed layout

The proposed sanitary land fill sites will have the following components. Temporary All-weather Access Road within the site (7-10 m) Permanent paved or weather Access Road to the land fill site(7-10m) Equipment Shelter equipments:1-Tractor and 1-bulldozer and a compactor Employees Shelter(operators and Guard) Holding area for Special and hazardous wastes Storm water drainage ditch & flow direction Wet Weather active filling area Dry weather active filling area Future fill area: wet and dry weather Permanent property fence area Movable fence to separate completed and active filling sites; Fence Gas collection and exhaust line; Leachate collection system and evaporation pond for its treatment Stock pile area for earthen cover material Green area and plants Gas monitoring wells Entrance Gate Weighing bridge Movable screen walls fixed on metal frames to retain blowing waste Materials;

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These above components are conceptually arranged to form the land fill sites. The property lines delineate the land fill sites. 6.6.4 Design considerations

The following design factors are considered to produce the preliminary design of the proposed sanitary land fill site. (i) Landfill areas The areas used for filling daily waste loads that will be received at the land fill sites are computed separately for hazardous and special wastes (HW) and non-hazardous wastes (NHW).The future filling area requirements are also determined. The desired land filling areas are determined for each years till the year 2030 and can be seen on the spread sheet demand projection attached in annex-A. (ii) Land filling methods All type of land fill methods are considered in feasibility study. These are area method, excavated pit method, canyon method, trench method, and depression method. The most feasible option is chosen considering terrain characteristics and the availability of covering material at the land fill site. The possible methods of land filling at the two land fill locations are area Method and Excavated pit method. Even though the terrain West and South of ST-2 site allows the use of depression and canyon methods of land filling, these two methods are not considered as the mountain slope is protected and conserved terrain. The other three methods of land fill are proposed at the top of the mountain terrain (Site ST-2).The use of steeped type or terraced type of land filling will also be considered. (iii) Intermediate cover material: The shale materials identified at the sites could be used as covering earthen materials during the operation of the land fill sites. The typical waste-to-cover ratio ranges from 5:1 to 10:1 and an average waste-to-cover ratio of 7.5:1 is considered in preliminary design work. (iv)Surface drainage Peripheral paved ditches are proposed to divert upland runoff and runoff occurring within the land fills areas. The finished grade of the ditch shall be 3 to 6%. The discharge from storm water ditches will be stored in open ponds and considered for reuse at the land fill sites. At least the water requirements for the compaction of covering earthen materials will be satisfied from the storage pond. PROMISE CONSULTING ARCHITECTS AND ENGINEERS 60

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(v) Landfill liner Economical land fill liner materials shall be considered such as single layer clay materials preferably available on the site and the shale material identified at the land fill site could be considered as a liner material as well. The site investigation report suggested that leaching waste materials are not easily infiltrating the shale to contaminate subsurface flows. The bed liner material will be constructed to have finished Cross slope 1 to5 % and average 3% Maximum flow distance in any direction = 30 m Slope of drainage channels =0.5 to 1%

(vi) Leachate collection and treatment Perforated leachate collection pipes will be provided at the bottom of the land fill site and the collected lechate will be treated with simple evaporation pond. The preliminary specifications for the perforated collection pipe are the following. -Slope of lechate collection pipe ranges from 1 to 2% -Size of perforated leachate collection pipe shall be 100 to150 mm - the pipe material shall be either UPVC or PVC -the pipe spacing shall be 6.00 m center to center The depth of evaporation ponds or soil bed is typically 0.60 to 0.90 m with organic lechate loading rates of about 1.60 to 4.00 kg/m3 soil. The evaporation pond should be covered during rainfall seasons (June, July, August and September months) and uncovered in dry seasons when the solar radiation is sufficient for evaporation. Thin-film black plastic materials like geo-membranes could be used as covering materials. The soil beds should also be provided with liner material to control percolation of organic leachate into sub-surface environment. Clay liners could be considered as cost-effective methods than geo-membranes. The percolation rates through clay liners and existing geological material expected at the land fill bed grade can be calculated from the water balance for a soil material given by SLC=P-R-ET-PERSW Where, SLC= change in amount of water held in storage in a unit volume of geological or liner or cover material, mm; P=amount of precipitation per unit land fill area, mm; R=amount of runoff per unit land fill area, mm; ET=amount of water lost through evapoPROMISE CONSULTING ARCHITECTS AND ENGINEERS 61

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transpiration per unit land fill area, mm; PERSW = amount of water percolating through unit area of soil bed into compacted or natural geological stratum, mm Appropriate values of runoff coefficient and bed slope used to calculate runoff from monthly values of rainfall at the land fill site. Energy methods like Pen-man and values of climatic variables of the land fill site will be applied to account for evapotranspiration. The computed annual percolation rate at the soil beds will be compared with the coefficient of permeability of clay liners to check for the potential of leachate and other contaminants percolation through sub-surface geological materials. Liners will be provided for excess percolation rates above the values observed in natural clay materials. Analytical computation for the determination of breakthrough time of leachate to penetrate a clay liner is attached in annex-y. (vii) Gas management Minimum gas generation is expected from paper and textile wastes as most of the organic fraction will be recovered in decentralized material recovery facility (MRF) or decentralized biogas units (DBU). The land fill site is designed for land filling of rejected materials at recovery facilities and there will be no recovery of energy in the form of methane at the proposed land fill sites. Generated methane will be collected and exhausted to the open atmosphere. Collection well and pipes; Condensate to trap water vapor; Vacuum suction pump with 3.00 m water head(operating pressure); Gas Exhaust line ;

There will be no energy recovery facility at the proposed land fill site. (viii) Ground water protection The direction of ground water flow is identified from the topography map and diversion of ground water flow to the land fill site is considered with use of perimeter drains or other control methods; the two sites exist at highest elevations (2080 m amsl and 2097 m amsl) than the surrounding location and interception of ground water flow is not expected at these to locations. The clay liner provides protection for the contamination of ground water flow. (ix) Fire protection Water shall be stored on the site for the following uses. - protect fire - for land fill crews - for compaction

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Water for land fill crews and equipments shall be provided with storage tanks and shall be supplied from the city. The other water demands could be satisfied from storage pond. (x)Environmental requirements Continuous monitoring of lechate and gas developments from the site shall be implemented. The periodic inspection could be made with mobile experts from the city. (xi) Cell design The fill cells will be provided for the filling of both hazardous and non-hazardous wastes delivered to the land fill sites. The specifications for the land fill cells are given here. -cells provided for daily waste materials and covered with 15.00 cm clay or shale material; -Height of lift including cover material ranges from 3.00 to 4.30 m; A maximum height of lift of 4.30 m is considered to minimize land area requirement at the proposed landfill locations. See the Annex-M for details.

Fig 4.2 Landfill layout:

6.7 Access road Access road for the landfill is considered to be for two design phases. In the first phase existing dry weather road will be up-graded to RR-50 road; the design and survey data are incorporated in the attached map. In the second phase, when the master plan road network plan is realized the outer most ring proposed by the master plan is realized, it will be taken as access for the site.

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7 Environmental Impact Assessment The Leopold matrix method has been used to assess the impacts of project activities and project decisions proposed on the waste management facilities such as primary collection and communal storages, sanitary land fill, access road, waste separation at material recovery facility and drop-off centers, windrow composting reactors, anaerobic digestion reactors. All actions and activities that are part of the proposed projects are identified and located across the top of the matrix. The possible impacts of project activities and project decision in relation to various environments and conditions such as agricultural lands, energy and mineral resources, aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems, wet lands, cultural and religious values, recreational and tourism scenes, endangered species, noise conditions, surface and ground water resources, socio-economic environments, and employment situations are also identified and located down wards at the left side of the matrix. The Leopold matrix has been filled for proposed improvement projects and the existing land fill site at Messobo indicating the magnitude of the impacts of project activities and project decision with numbers from 1 to 10 on the left side box. A magnitude of 10 represents the greatest magnitude of impact and 1 the least. Zero indicates no impact situation. Positive sign before each number has been indicated to represent beneficial impacts and negative signs undesirable impacts. Similarly the importance of the impacts has also been indicated on the right-side box considering local, regional and national importance. Greatest importance is represented with 10 and least importance 1. Zero values have been used to indicate no importance situations. The magnitude of impacts and their importance are indicated in Annex-N. The results of Leopold matrix indicated that adverse effects and undesirable impacts in relation to project activities and waste management practices will be minimized and the proposed projects will be beneficial to the community. The project decisions will also enable to minimize and control the prevalent adverse impacts, which have been happening on the surrounding environments in relation to unimproved waste management practices, poor collection of solid wastes and unsanitary land filling methods. For details, refer Annex-N.

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8. Socio-Economic Impact Assessment One of the issues that make environmental management as a challenge is the complex relationship of the various impacts posed by human activities on the environment. Rapid growth of urbanization compounded by the inability of local governments to provide basic urban services has led to various diseases having complex interrelationship with the environment. The widespread urban environmental problems in urban areas of Ethiopia as in many towns of developing countries have grave consequences on the health and life of society. Environmental problems are particularly serious where there is rapid growth of population and urban settlements with little or no consideration for the environment.

Absence of a total integrated and sustainable solid waste management approach and the non-compatibility of its various components have resulted in the accumulation of various levels of waste at various places and localities of the city. These areas become liable to various vectors (rodents and insects) and foci for environmental pollution, bad smells and appearance. The situation in turn contributes to the negative health and environmental impacts in the city as evidenced by Table 8.1, which indicates that nearly 59.13% of the ten top diseases in the city are associated with poor environmental quality of the city.

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Table 8.1: Ten top diseases in Mekelle City SN 1 Diagnosis Observation with out need of further care/ no abnormality detected 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Acute upper respiratory infection Hypertrophy of tonsillitis and adenoids Infections of skin and sub coetaneous tissue Helminthes, other Gastritis, duodentis Dysentery, other unspecified Gastroenteritis, colitis; age 4 weeks to 2 years Eye inflammatory / except trachoma/ ameobiasis/ excluding symptom less carriers/ Total top ten diseases Total all causes of diseases 10,508 6,846 6,205 3,896 3,633 3,120 2,741 2,738 2,731 54,470 92,116 11.41 7.43 6.74 4.23 3.94 3.39 2,98 2.97 2.96 59.13 100 No of cases 12,052 % 13.08

Source: report compiled from three governmental health centers and clinics, 2004, Mekelle zone health office

Moreover, as per the survey conducted by Mekelle city plan preparation project office to assess the prior issues of the city, city sanitation and environmental issue was taken as the fourth prioritized issue. [Survey result on the prioritized issues of Mekelle; MCPPPO, 2005.]

Since nearly all of the ten top diseases which account 59.13% of the total morbidity [table 8.1] in Mekelle city are associated with poor environmental quality and given the gravity of the problem as evidenced by the survey result of MCPPPO, the implementation of integrated solid waste management could have a positive spillover effect on the reduction PROMISE CONSULTING ARCHITECTS AND ENGINEERS 66

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of morbidity and mortality rates caused by poor sanitation as well as build the confidence of the public on the city administration. Besides improving human health and environmental degradation, proper waste management has advantages in wealth accumulation. These days waste is considered as wealth. Proper management to utilize waste can really accumulate wealth and this can be achieved through creation of job opportunity and introducing reusing and recycling of wastes into valuable resources. In some cities, properly managed wastes are becoming sources of energy and natural fertilizers. Due to its holistic nature, practices in some places of Addis Ababa and cities in other developing countries make it evident that Integrated Solid Waste Management System brings about a sustainable solution to address sanitation problems because it eventually enables the community take over the responsibility to keep their surrounding neat.

Moreover, illegal dumping will be drastically reduced which as a result enhance the quality of water bodies, appearance of the city and new jobs will be created as a result of the scheme. The implementation of this project improves solid waste management system of the city which in turn improve drainage services as the likely of garbage blocking the drains will appreciably minimize, clean up the environment thereby open fields and streets will be neat as well as the prevalence of offensive smell reduced.

Mekelle City, both as transit and destination spots, is rich in tourist attracting sites. The historical buildings, battlefields and cemeteries, the palaces and monuments, the cultural and traditional traits are among those that have great potentiality for tourism development in the city. The magnificent palace, which is believed to be the best of its alike palaces in the country, is the main tourist-attracting site in the city. Hawelti Semaetat is also the contemporary modern tourist-attracting landmark of the city. The modern meeting halls are potentials for the development of conference tourism in the near future. The Italian cemeteries at Endayesus, the battlefields and the May Anishti, an area where Empress Taitu fought against the Italians, have historic importance and are good tourism potential

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sites. Dejat Abrahas palaces in Mekelle and Felegdaero have also great tourism importance. Besides the sites within the city, other nearby religious and historic sites are assumed to have an important contribution for the development of Mekelle City. These include the Geraelta, Tsaeda emba and Atsbi rock hewn churches which are with in a days j ourney from Mekelle. These rock-hewn churches have marvellous architectural and natural panorama, which makes them worth visiting sites in the northern part of the country. Silassie Chelekot is 17km south of the city. It is an 18thc religious site where a splendid architectural design and unique religious heritages are found. It is believed that Empress Tiru Work, the wife of the late Emperor Tewodros, was buried here. The birthplace of Raesi Alula Abanega and traditional buildings sited at Menewe has also tourism significance. The first seat of Yohannes IV at Agulae, the Negash Mosque and the rockhewn churches around Wukro are within a days visit from the city. Mekelle has also a good opportunity to be used as a dispatch centre for voyages to the Dallol depressions. The camel caravan from Berahle, a place where the Amole salt is traditionally extracted is also an amazing phenomenon. Moreover, the Alula Abanega international airport makes these tourism journeys to the city and its surroundings more easy and comfortable in the northern part of the country. In this respect, the implementation of the project plays a significant role in maintaining attractive environment which is the one among other factors needed for tapping the huge tourism potential of the city. It is obvious that tourists like to visit places which are natural, clean and safe. The project is therefore expected to increase the number of tourists stay in the city thereby the service sector can benefit maximum out of it, opens market for cultural commodities and articrafts and flourishes conference tourism.

It is therefore evident that the sanitation and environmental situations in Mekelle City will drastically improve provided the recommended measures are fully attended to including adequate financing; proper organization of the responsible bodies; encouraging and promoting of efforts of the other stakeholders that are helpful in alleviation the PROMISE CONSULTING ARCHITECTS AND ENGINEERS 68

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problems; arming the municipality with qualified professionals and appropriate machineries and equipments, among others.

Conclusion It is believed that the project will provide modern solid waste management system to the city with new disposal site, leachate collection and treatment evaporation pond. The primary beneficiaries are city residents mainly the poor urban dwellers living in slums, which are poorly served. In addition the project benefits rural residents affected by the existing open waste disposal, the private sector and community-based entrepreneurs. Improved sanitation in the city has direct implication to the health and working situation of the residents. In general, the project will remarkably improve the livelihood of the city residents and has the following socio-economic benefits: Reduce environmental pollution and health hazard as well as improve living condition in the city Create job opportunity for additional people, both permanent employs and temporary during the construction as well as implementation phases The tourist attraction capacity of the city will improve Reduce mortality rate caused by poor sanitation Improve service delivery

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9.

Recommendations

9.1 Proposal on the improvement of household handling and primary collection facility The current primary collection service requires immediate and short term service improvement. There is a need to improve the services of operational private sectors and introduce new modes of primary collection. The use of child labor in primary collection activities violate international labor rights and should be avoided. The existing tractor-trailers primary collection service is not appropriate technology for solid waste collection in the city. Spillage is one of the difficulties with the tractor-trailers system. The persistent high-wind effect in the city has also been observed to disturb the block collection activities and unloading of collected solid wastes at the containers site. Inefficiency in primary collection is the other major problem with the tractor-trailer system. It is advisable to move one of the tractor-trailers to the upcoming sanitary land fill site as a tipper and exploit the rest in local routine and periodic road maintenance activities. Various technological options can be considered for primary collection operations in addition to the already introduced ones with the exception of the tractor-trailer system. Stationery Collection System with compactors and other garbage collection lorries could be employed in primary collection operations involving various stakeholders such as private sectors, women and youth cooperatives, municipal services, households and other polluters. The technologies that could be used in primary collection operations in the various parts of thee city are b. Satellite Vehicles (Three Wheel drives) equipped with containers 1.50 cu.m capacity; PROMISE CONSULTING ARCHITECTS AND ENGINEERS of

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The Satellite Vehicles can be locally modified and has been recently introduced as one mode of public transport in the city. The vehicles are suitable for primary collection in alleys with narrow local roads and also in service areas with flat and moderately flat terrains. The satellite vehicles are also suitable for primary collection from street sweeping and small size curb-side stationery-containers provided only for street uses. The vehicles can be used in dry as well as rainy seasons. There is only a need to load the vehicles with containers of maximum 1.50 cu.m holding capacity in a single trip. c. Manually loaded and mechanically unloaded rear loading compactors with loading capacity of 15.30 cu.m The compactors are suitable for primary collection from blocks and curb-side stationarycontainers in all kind of terrains and roads with the exception of alleys. The compactors can also be used in all seasons. d. Manually loaded and mechanically unloaded side loading compactors with loading capacity of 28.30 cu.m;

e. The Trolley system with improved container These are suitable for very short service distances in flat terrains and all kind of roads. High number of collectors are required than the satellite vehicles and hand cart systems. The hand cart system can be used only during the dry season and not applicable for use in rainy seasons. f. The Horse cart system with improved container and cart The major problem with the prevailing horse cart system is the heaviness of the cart for most horses engaged in animal labor businesses. The cart is very difficult to be pulled forward, whether the horse are muscular or weak .Healthier or sick. The weight of the cart is not appropriate for efficient transport with the horse cart system. This horse system can be used in primary collection tasks with improved lighter carts designed for efficient waste collection from areas with local streets and flat and moderately flat terrains. The carts also require improved containers and seats for the horse cart riders. The improved carts can be used in all seasons out side major and minor arterial roads, areas in which high incidence of traffic congestions and high volume of traffic flow are expected. g. Voluntary House hold services in primary collection with own matured labor and hired labors PROMISE CONSULTING ARCHITECTS AND ENGINEERS

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9.2 Recommendation for Financing SWM The City Administration shall allocate realistic and rationalized budget and create an enabling environment for community and private participation in SWM service delivery as well as for efficient and effective utilization of limited resources. Cognizant of the fact that SWM is by far a municipal public sector-led service, it would be, according to different experiences, keep up to 50 percent of the service and privatize the remaining 50 percent, keeping an eye on the private sector lest they would overcharge the residents. Appropriate funding mechanisms for sustainable service delivery will be developed with attention to effective and efficient utilization of resources. Options to recover the solid waste service costs /bill collection Instituting or enhancing garbage taxes, Collecting tipping fees Adding a surcharge to electricity Adding a surcharge to water supply Adding a surcharge to telephone bill Relaying on other general revenues (including property tax and business licensees) Through community motivators

Selection criteria revenues are adequate and easily collected the polluter pays for the damage inflicted, political acceptability, and Payment of the revenue can be enforced. Analysis of available options a. Adding a surcharge to water supply or telephone bill In general given the garbage taxes, introducing a bill collection through adding a surcharge to telephone bill is not feasible as the coverage of water supply services at household level is low. b. Relaying on other general revenues Property tax PROMISE CONSULTING ARCHITECTS AND ENGINEERS 72

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Relaying on the property tax such as land or housing tax (off course if it is introduced) is also inconvenient as the collection is done annually .i.e. collecting the solid waste on annual base would be in feasible for the user to pay In addition there are a number of polluter/households/who are not required to pay the taxes. Business licensees Similarly the business tax focuses only to the house holds involved in business activities c. Adding a surcharge to electricity With the exception of the newly built area the electricity services is almost available at every household in the city. But the problem is there are a number of households that are dependent on one /single Electric meter. Charging for electricity service depends on the available electric meter so it would be difficult to add surcharge to the households with no Electric meter. So the number of house holds that are dependent on a single electric meter has to be identified. This can be easily handled at kebelle level as they are nearer to the community. It is estimated that there are about 20,000 private electric meter/customers There for as the owner of the electric meter is responsible to collect for the electricity bill still it is going to be responsible to collect the surcharge. But the cooperation of the electric power corporation in this aspect is doubtful as it is a federal institution and the city administration has to seek ways for the facilitation of bill collection in this manner d. Through community motivators This option presupposes the establishment of solid waste team at kebele level which is responsible to collect the monthly payment directly from the users. e. Most Feasible Mechanism: Adding a surcharge to unit rate of water In most cases, there is a direct relationship between the rate of water consumption and the living standard which indirectly describes the rate of waste generation. As the water supply service is under the municipality, it would be feasible to add a surcharge to a unit rate of water and collect the fees in two months time as the water bill is collected once every two weeks. COST RECOVERY Methodology
A Ao K

Where A=Annual payment that must be made to repay the capital costs AO=initial capital investment PROMISE CONSULTING ARCHITECTS AND ENGINEERS 73

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K = (1+I) n 1/I (1+I) In order to determine the solid waste service charge the following points are considered Identifying the full costs of solid waste service provision even though a policy decision is required what portion of the cost recovered through service users, it is assumed to recover 50% of the cost and subsidize or cross subsidize the remaining Scenario 1: assuming equipment rental Annual Operating and maintenance cost expense: Birr 872,000.00 (2006GC) initial capital cost : Birr 9,895,000.00 Total (Capital +O-M)= 10,766,000.00 Annual cost to be recovered: Birr 1,076,600.00

Scenario 2: assuming equipments (bulldozer and compactor) purchase annual operating and maintenance cost: 788,000.00 initial capital cost : Birr 12,334,000.00 Total (Capital +O-M)= 13,122,000.00 Annual cost to be recovered: Birr 1,312,200.00 Annual Cost to be Recovered (%) 0.00% Proportion Sources of Waste (%age) Residential 81.00% commercial 6.00% institutional 10.00% Street sweeping 3.00% Total 100.00% Total No. of Households Scenario1 Scenario 2 872046.00 1062882.00 64596.00 78732.00 107660.00 131220.00 32298.00 39366.00 1076600.00 1312200.00 50.00% Scenario Scenario1 2 436023.00 531441.00 32298.00 39366.00 53830.00 65610.00 16149.00 19683.00 538300.00 656100.00

44521.00 Annual payment of Household (Birr/year) 19.59 PROMISE CONSULTING ARCHITECTS AND ENGINEERS 23.87 74 9.79 11.94

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Monthly payment of Household(Birr/month) 1.63 1.99 0.82 0.99

Willingness To Pay Of The Users Willingness to pay (WTP) needs to be established in relation to different levels and type of service amongst different types of household and business. Once the existing WTP is known, willingness may be modified by targeted promotion activities. Willingness can also be assessed by the existence of private operators and the rates they command. Maintaining willingness to pay involves maintaining the quality or value added of the service for which customers are paying. In the context of SWM in Mekelle willingness to pay must also be informed by a better understanding of ability to pay amongst poor households. Models public private partnership There are different ways of partnership arrangement in the Solid Waste Management. a. Open competition: Private Firms compete for customers in an area but with limitation on the number of competitors; b. Franchising: Local government grants a private firm exclusive rights to serve an area with or without price regulation; c. Concessions: A private firm finances and owns the service delivery system for a definite period sufficient enough to depreciate investments; and d. Contracts: made between local government and private firms for a definite period of time. Applicable models for solid waste management in Mekelle Franchise Evidences taken from working paper: Building Municipal Capacity For Private Sector Participation indicates that it is difficult for the private sector to collect fees from the public directly for solid waste services, particularly when there is low willingness to pay and limited appreciation that solid waste collection and disposal is an important municipal function. Low cost recovery and small numbers of customers threaten the viability of private sector participation when this form of revenue collection is pursued. This function may be better placed with the municipality as they have the authority for more meaningful sanctions and thus the capacity to enhance the levels of revenue collection.

Contracting PROMISE CONSULTING ARCHITECTS AND ENGINEERS 75

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Reports on Urban development workshop held in Mekele, Ethiopia (October 2000) indicates that the most common forms of private/public partnership in Africa is for urban authorities to contract out solid waste collection and disposal. There are also an increasing number of instances where informal sector groups of garbage collectors have been contracted to collect and disposed of solid waste. This mode of privatisation is considered to be more politically acceptable, as notion of selling public asset is not popular among African politicians

Two models are proposed Model one Micro-enterprises provided services to the local communities, with residents supervising the process. Residents pay the local authorities for the service, which in turn contracts out and pays the private enterprise. Limitation: this model may not applicable in practice because payments from the community to the municipality may lag behind, nor did the municipality pay the micro-enterprises irregularly. In the end the micro-enterprises would collapse because of lack of income. Model two The second model is based on a closer relation between local community and microenterprises. The community who receives the service not only supervises and contracts out to the micro-enterprises, but also pays them directly when the waste is collected. The municipality retains responsibility only concerning the legislative framework of the private enterprise. These micro-enterprises have been able to survive by the direct relation with the beneficiaries and by charging the inhabitants affordable fees. Local Authority Legislative Framework Private Sector Fees Supervision Contract Community Technical & Financial assistance
NGO S Research oriented Organization Mass media

This alliance would significant contributions to socio-economic goals. This model would result in a real improvement of the co-ordination of the SWM services even though it was based on complicated linkages. The direct relation between micro-enterprises and community and the financial and organizational support from the NGO, The Mass Media for raising awareness of the inhabitants with regard to Solid Waste Management and PROMISE CONSULTING ARCHITECTS AND ENGINEERS 76

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Research-oriented organizations In order to find means and ways to create environmentally friendly mechanism of disposing especially hazardous solid waste and better legislation by local authorities resulted in the improvement of the co-ordination of the service.

Proposed Sold Waste Management Services In this Model 1. Street sweeping


Option one. Contracting the service and investing on the vehicles and equipments It should be initiated for the following reasons

Firstly the street sweeping contract enables private enterprise, through direct contact with customers to encourage households to join the household collection scheme. Secondly, by assuming responsibility for street sweeping in the core city area and providing a more effective service, it could cut down the incidence of households dumping waste on city streets. This would, in turn, provide a greater incentive to households to make use of the household collection service improving their customer base. But while contracting for the core area street sweeping to the private sector The municipal street sweepers should seconded to the private sector on the same terms and conditions (wages, leaves or social benefits) as they had when employed directly by the municipality.
Option two. Contracting the service and leasing the municipal carts and equipments

This kind of contract can be initiated through the SSE by organizing women from lowincome settlements. This kind of arrangement became fruitful in developing countries such Nepal .It has resulted in marked improvements to the cleanliness of the streets, has led to an increased awareness amongst the public of solid waste issues, increased acceptance of a private sector role in solid waste services, public acknowledgement that the private sector are more successful and consequently, improvements in willingness to pay for household collection. In some areas the numbers of households and shops signing up for private collection services has doubled since the private sector began the street sweeping service and that shopkeepers became more willing to pay for the service rendered. 2. Door-To-Door Collection Contracting the service and Investment by the private sector on the vehicles and equipments The contract should initiate in the core areas and the commercial unit where more waste is generated.

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Contracting the different social focal points including the Eddir, Mahiber and similar Community based organizations need to be encouraged to be engaged in SWM processes and help improve the situation in their locality Contracting to the small enterprises in affluent areas because Contracting to the small enterprises areas where the municipality providing inadequate service and in areas inaccessible to trucks and less accessible sectors of the city to which the bigger firms would not be very much attracted. MUNICIPALITY Municipality would give service to the lower income households 3. Collecting and Transfer
Contracting the service and Investment by the private sector on the vehicles and equipments

The large scale private sector, which, because of its access to financial resources and its potential ability to operate efficiently, can play a role in transferring the solid waste to the The contract should initiate in the core areas and the commercial unit where more waste is generated. 4. Disposal The existing practice indicates dumping of waste is free of charge. But if the disposal costs has to be introduced. There fore the solid waste operations within the town will require significantly more subsidies or a different financial arrangement for the partnership to continue once disposal costs are introduced. 5. Recycling facilities MRF (Material Recover factory) Municipality Privatization Private sector enterprises, mixed enterprises Contracting out Cooperatives of recyclers Manual labour Assistance

NGOs

Length of contract The length of contract is also important because it should be long enough to enable the private firm to depreciate capital expenditures for appropriate technology and equipment. PROMISE CONSULTING ARCHITECTS AND ENGINEERS

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OTHER FINANCIAL ISSUES AND RECOMMENDATIONS Primary Collection by MSEs The micro and small enterprises /MSE/ can possibly engage in primary collection of wastes from households to the municipal containers and collect waste using door-todoor method The collection of waste through MSEs provides job opportunities for many jobless youth. Owing to the probable willingness to pay, the majority operates in the middle and high-income residential houses and pay an average of 12 Birr (10 20 Birr) per month per household. The experience of Addis gives a good lesson that given the all rounded support to the MSEs, they would commence collecting and ultimately transporting solid waste from households to MRF sites. MRF site At MRF site, those institutions who bring the waste with their own vehicles are charged 4.30 birr/m3 Landfill At Landfill site, those institutions who bring the waste (special waste) with their own vehicles are charged 6.30 birr/m3

9.3 Recommendations on awareness raising and public participation 1 Actions for increased awareness and change of attitudes/ behavior Strengthening environmental awareness through mass media, community leaders, religious institutions, various organizations and associations. The community expects the municipal to keep the city clean but often fail to understand how they can contribute to this objective. The main areas where they can contribute are; Not to drop the litter in the streets. If there is not a garbage container for them to use, then the message must be take it home with you, To understand that there will, in future be regular waste collection service and to be patient and use it. They must not dump their rubbish on open land, Make the public aware and understand the garbage problems and how they affect the environment, Get support to control illegal dumping, Get the public involved in waste reduction, recovery, reuse, recycling and composting, In school students inculcate the principles and practice of waste minimization, recovery, segregation at source, recycling and composting, and initiate school hygiene promotion activity to educate students because of the fact that hygiene behavior is learned during childhood and youth time. PROMISE CONSULTING ARCHITECTS AND ENGINEERS 79

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2 Kebele activation and support Sanitation is not one time activity, but a continuous process, if we want to see change, there is a need to develop a system in community, which is communitybased waste management. It is generally more efficient to work community based waste management at kebele level for several reasons: Promotion of sorting at source, recycling and community composting are easier to undertake It is more efficient to work with the community for cleaning the streets, drains, rivers and grass cutting, It will be easier to work on public awareness at local level It is important to strengthen Kebele Sanitation Committees so that they will be able to do: Environmental control with regard to sanitation, Waste sorting Waste pre- collection Recycling Composting Environmental cleansing (cleaning of collection points and illegal dump spots)

9.4 Recommendation on institutional arrangement Cognizant of the fact that Solid Waste Managements cannot and should not be considered to be easily privatized and that it is by far a municipal/public sector-led service rendered to citizens, it would be worthwhile to put the municipality in the forefront in this venture, to start with. On the other hand, the Municipality needs to have collaborators with whom it can perform duties and take steps to curb the Solid Waste Management problems. Hence, in Mekelles case different possible and relevant collaborators have to be identified to make things clearer and systems more transparent and effective. The following offices and organization are among the very important collaborators and actors in the Solid Waste Managements working system; I. Municipal Structure (with regard to SWM)

Proposed Functions of Social and Environmental Services Division (with regard to SWM) At city level the division act as a regulatory and legislation formulation, set up standards and procedures, coordination among Kebeles and deal with cross cutting issues, PROMISE CONSULTING ARCHITECTS AND ENGINEERS 80

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delivering appropriate technical support, capacity building, administration of landfill and undertaking public a awareness programme, advocacy and research. Functions of the Division (with regard to SWM): Prepare directives and systems for effective implementation of SWM; Prepare standards criteria, guidelines and manuals on SWM; Prepare city-level solid waste management framework; Review and monitor the implementation of Kebele waste management plans; Deal with cross cutting issues of Kebeles; Coordinate the activities of various sectoral agencies and NGOs operating on SWM; Develop and prescribe procedures of appropriate permits and licenses for the private sector; Review the incentive scheme for effective solid waste management; Formulate and implement the necessary educational efforts and activities, promote awareness creation and information campaign strategies, and develop IEC materials on SWM; In collaboration with concerned bodies, propose fair, equitable and reasonable tariffs for SWM service delivery, Collect and compile data for research; Encourage and assist the participation of private sector and micro enterprises in solid waste collection, transportation and disposal, Propose and adopt regulations requiring the source separation and post separation collection, segregated collection, processing, marketing and sale of organic and designated recyclable material generated in the city; Ensure that SWM programmes conducted by various bodies comply with SWM rules and regulations; Establish multi-sectoral technical committees and special task forces as required to assist in the effective implementation of integrated SWM programmes; Establish effective working relationships with international agencies and donors; Develop and administer landfill and materials recovery facilities, Facilitate training and education on integrated solid waste management; Establish and manage solid waste management information base and institute a sound information exchange system; Promote the development of recycling; Promote the implementation of waste minimization and reduction in kebeles; Prepare annual city solid waste management status report; Recommend measures to generate resources, funding and implementation of projects and activities. deal with the day-to-day operation activities including solid waste collection, transportation, street and urban cleansing; cleanse illegal dumping sites, conduct sanitation campaign undertake composting and recycling. PROMISE CONSULTING ARCHITECTS AND ENGINEERS 81

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Functions of Kebelle Solid Waste Management Committee Raise awareness of Kebele residents regarding Solid Waste management Programming and Collaborating with Stakeholders to make SWM successful Monitoring of waste collection, in collaboration with the SWM Division supervisors, and make the operation follow rules and regulations Carry out (nominal) fee collection activity to cover SWM expenses Conduct, from time to time, as felt necessary, campaigns to clean the Kebeles different portions Penalize dwellers who trespass and pollute the area against rules and regulations Present Progress Report to Kebele Administration Office (KAO) and City Solid Waste Operation Team every month. Make effort to establish a Sanitation Fund in collaboration with residents Social focal points such as Eddir, Mahiber etc. and other stabke holders.

Proposed Organizational Chart Public Services Department


CITY MANAGER

FINANCE & ADMINSTRATION SERVICES

D/ CITY MANAGER

PUBLIC SERVICES DEPARTMENT

ECONOMIC SERVICES DIVISION

SOCIAL & ENVIRONMENTAL SERVICES DIVISION

CODE ENFORCEMENT DIVISION

MUNICIPAL ENTERPRISES TEAM

SOLID WASTE OPERATION TEAM

KEBELE SANITATION SERVICES

II. Promote inter-sectoral collaboration Implementation of SWM in the city will be undertaken in collaboration with a number of organs under the over all management and coordination of Deputy City Manager, PROMISE CONSULTING ARCHITECTS AND ENGINEERS 82

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Establish Sanitation Councils at all levels comprising different representation of the community government bodies MSEs, NGOs, CBOs, etc , Work jointly with concerned stakeholders: Code Enforcement Service: to control cleansing and illegal dumping. Landuse and Environmental Protection Authority: working together for improvement and conservation of the environment. Mekelle Zone Education Office: introduce sanitation in school curricula, expand hygiene promotion in schools, establish sanitation clubs in schools, mobilize students in sanitation programmes, Mekelle Zone Culture and Information Office: Expand IEC in the media (electronics and print), ensure adequate media coverage on successful SWM, Mekelle Zone Health Office: Strengthen SWM content in health education programmes.

Urban Planning and Land Administration Department: give proper emphasis of SWM in urban development, Mekelle Zone Agriculture Office: integrate solid waste composting with urban agriculture and promote hygiene and environmental awareness through agricultural agents. Mekelle Zone Trade, Industry and MSEs Office: organizing MSEs for primary waste collection. Mekelle Zone Finance and Economic Development Office: ensure allocation of budget, control of financial matter, ensure project development with donors, III. Decentralization Empower Kebeles with full responsibilities and authorities with regard to SWM as prposed above . IV. Incentives Rewards for private sector, NGOs, and CBOs for outstanding achievements and innovative projects, technologies, processes and techniques V. CBOs and NGOs Encourage NGOs and CBOs for planning, implementation and management of SWM programme and projects, Strong partnership should be developed for multi-sectoral action with CBOs and NGOs, It is important to form networking with CBOs and NGOs in the areas of waste sorting, recycling, composting and disposal methods at household and community /neighborhood level/. VI. Strengthening primary collection by micro and small enterprises /MSEs/ Encourage small and micro enterprises to participate in primary waste collection. Establish appropriate incentives for involvement of MSEs in primary collection , Establish MSE licensing and operational procedure PROMISE CONSULTING ARCHITECTS AND ENGINEERS 83

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VII. Private sector involvement It is anticipated that waste collection, transportation and disposal services will be improved with the privatization of SWM service as privatization relieves the financial and administrative burden of the government besides facilitating economic growth with private sector participation, The private sector will be involved in one of the following ways: Contracting out solid waste management, through franchise, competitive contracting, commercialization or public/private competition, Development of the essential technologies for SWM, Maintenance of truck, equipment and materials of SWM, Involved in composting, recycling and materials recovery Appropriate incentives for private sector involvement in SWM shall be devised.

Human Resource Implement the civil service reform programme focusing on the creation of committed and motivated workers. A critical mass of development oriented and forward looking workforce is crucial, Bring about an appropriate mix of skill, raise standards, establish acceptable pay and incentive system. Supervision and monitoring system will be instituted to improve workers motivation and performance. 1. Capacity Building and Training Provide education and training for all levels of workers so as to create teams of SWM workers who will be responsible for implementing and managing solid waste service. Training of community resource people such as religious leaders, school teachers and students, sanitation committee, CBOs, NGOs, etc 9.5 Legislative recommendation Develop different kinds of directives, guidelines, operational manuals, code of practices, which includes but not limited to : Dust bin standards Hazardous waste storage, collection and disposal directive Source reduction and recycling directive Awareness raising manual Guideline for MSEs in solid waste collection and transportation Landfill service delivery manual Landfill operational manual Moreover, the city has to establish Code Enforcement Service having code enforcing agents at grass-root levels. It is envisaged that this institution will ensure strict compliance of violations according to the existing rules and regulations. PROMISE CONSULTING ARCHITECTS AND ENGINEERS 84

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9.6 General recommendations with regard to materials recovery (a) Recycling Encourage small-scale entrepreneurs to venture into plastic waste recycling. Promote community based plastic recycling schemes, Organizing and support of the development of the following informal sectors: Korales recyclable materials collectors Craftsmen: recyclers of metal, wood, rubber, tire, clay, etc Vehicle recycler: dealers of those vehicles that are scraped Landfill scavengers: to reduce waste disposed in landfill Promotion of Reducing the use of festal in shopping, Use of bags and baskets made out of environmental friendly and locally available materials, Avoid dumping of festal with other wastes, but sort it and keep it in one place for recycling and recovery, Re-use of plastic bottles and containers, Re-manufacture of glass, Re-use of tyres for shoe making, Plastic bags washed, cut in strips, and knitted into purses and bags, Re-use of beverage bottle, Discarded vehicle recycling by selling its parts, this requires participation of the private sector Levying tax on plastic bag producers and importers, Setting up of recycling centers close to shopping areas especially by organizing waste pickers and korales, Formation of recyclers network to coordinate and enhance the recycling activities. (b) Composting Encourage individual composting in which the individual makes his own compost out of his organic waste and use it locally. Encourage small scale composting by organizing income generation and sale the product to farmers, Encourage medium scale composting facilities with simple mechanical equipment (wheeled loader and portable trammel screen). Encourage communities and private sector in composting through various incentive mechanisms. Addis experience has shown that at household level, especially in the more crowded areas, there may not be enough space to make compost or only a small amount of household waste is available /and no garden waste/. In such cases, a local NGO has promoted basket gardening which uses only a little space.

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9.7 Steps required to be taken to improve the solid waste management of Mekelle 1. Reorganization and Strengthening of the Public Services Department Presently the Social Services Department of the municipality, is in charge of Solid Waste Management (SWM) . With regard to professionals working in the Department, there is lack of sufficient well qualified experts in the field to do this crucial job of the city. It is hence desirable to increase the number of professionals who hold first-degrees and above to about 4 in the years 2006-2010. It would be more feasible and dependable to make contract workers permanent employees based on a job-evaluation scenario since it would increase efficiency. The annual budget also is inadequate when observed from the point of view of the solid waste management of the city and hence has to be considerably improve. The Social service department should be reorganized in such a way that it acts in an autonomous way but to be supervised by the Municipality depending on the institutional arrangement put into effect. This would make its engagements faster and more effective. There is also dire need to provide appropriate incentives for workers in the Solid Waste Management team to ensure their efficient services and to attract others to the job. Professionals have thus far not been attracted to the sector due to low salary scales and this has to be reconsidered because such services are exceptionally favored with regard to budgetary allowances/per diems etc. even in other similar developing country cities. On the other hand, there are some basic motivation options to achieve better performance of workers and to attain high quality standards of work, i.e. Giving periodic awards (6 monthly or annually) in the form of money, gifts/prizes, certificates or a combination of these; Bonus payments for diligent, punctual and cooperative workers; Promotion in status and access to training programs for workers with high performance. Provided the Social and Environmental Services Division is equipped with the appropriate facilities and personnel, the citys future with regard to overcoming the existing solid waste management will be bright. The overall evaluation and recommendation-bearing assumptions for future reorganization and strengthening of the SWMD is shown in the attached documents (tables) The recommendations given could enable the SWMD enhance its full capacity to improve the frequency of collection and transport system and benefit the inhabitants to a better level thus ameliorating the existing problems of skips staying full for days. With regard to the available trucks, the problem of maintenance deserves adequate attention. It would be advisable to make the agency self-sufficient by establishing a garage on the same compound. Such a garage would do an efficient job and would have a capacity for tyre change, air pumps and washing facilities. PROMISE CONSULTING ARCHITECTS AND ENGINEERS 86

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2. Reduction of Generated Waste at Source through Composting The household waste generated could well be reduced if the family members cooperate to sort waste at that level and use the organic and bio-degradable items for composting purposes to be applied to their gardens. This requires, in the first place, awareness raising and finding means to also collect the organic and biodegradable materials to be transported to composting stations which should be established in the citys strategic sites It would also bar imperative for hotels, tea rooms, bars, restaurants etc to sort their generated waste and place them in different containers so that it would be easy to different containers so that it would be easy to differentiate between the compostable, recyclable and that part of waste that has to be disposed on to skips and later on to disposal sites/sanitary landfills. Waste materials recycling takes a number of forms: - Sorting the recyclable items out of domestic and commercial waste collection; - Converting waste into compost to be used as natural fertilizer; - Generating heat and energy by burring waste; and. - Producing bio-gas (methane) from disposed of waste at landfill or at household level by creating a mini-project to enable this The Koryalew and Liwatch seekers travel from door-to-door and collect reusable items (tins, plastics, old garments and shoes etc) and this can be considered as a means to reduce solid waste generated both at household level and the city level at large. It would hence be helpful to recognize such recyclers and formalize their activities as legal. There is also need to provide them space/a piece of land (drop centers) to carry out their recycling activities As in developed countries, the industries (existing/up comings) in Mekelle also may reuse the recovered materials such as paper. Plastic, iron and steel rod and pieces tinetc. to make new ones. Hence, agreements could be made with such industries to enable the collectors to sell their items at reasonable prices. 3. Empower the Kebeles and Decentralize Solid Waste Management (SWM) to that Level 4. Set up a well Organized Base Data on Solid Waste Establish a Research and Information Center within the division in order to document the collected (in sorted forms), transported and disposed SW on daily, monthly and annual basis; Record and document typed and amounts of recycled and composted materials by different actors/stakeholders. Ensure the availability of a well organized base data on SWM for all interested researchers and practitioners whenever needed. 5. Put in Place Solid Waste Management Regulations This is a vital step to streamlining the SWM system of the City in general. Hence, there is need to equip the Municipality with appropriate Rules, Regulations, Laws and By-Laws so that meaningful results may be achieved. PROMISE CONSULTING ARCHITECTS AND ENGINEERS 87

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6. Privatization Effort and Participation Methods/Models In Mekelles case, collection and progressively transportation could be privatized simultaneously, depending on the area conditions. collection should be continued as usual with effort to provide more containers to the Kebeles. This could work in low income Keblees where small scale business enterprises may not be interested in getting involved in collection activities. g. Monitoring and Evaluation

With regard to contract specification and overall supervision, the private sector is accountable to the City Administration. The day-to-day and week-to-week performance of the private firm should be monitored, evaluated and recorded by the office to be established by the City Administration. The contractors need to be selected based on a fair and sincere system of bid competition so that they could show a better performance than either the public monopolies or other private participation methods. The ideal arrangement and approach to private contracting at first may be a hybrid of public and private service i.e. contracting, for instance, for the collection of solid waste from some areas of the city, while retaining public service to the remaining parts. Monitoring by the City Adminstration ensures quality of service provided by private hands. On the other hand, the cost accountability that private contractors would deliver a lower cost than that of public service cannot be attained without a proper monitoring, articulated contract performance measures and enforceable contract sanctions. Clear definitions of measurable output of service required of the contract, as it enables performance monitoring, should be stated. Besides, the local government should be in a position to get rid of a contractor whose fees are too high and/or service quality is so low at the end of the contract period. Evaluation of the private firms service provision based on concrete data collected with regard to collected, transported and disposed solid waste from time to time is essential to make decisions regarding continuation or termination of contract with private firms.

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SUMMARY OF FINANCIAL AND INSTITUTIONAL RECOMMENDATIONS The Way Forward: key areas Following are some of the major key areas to reach at the desired results: Decentralization of full responsibilities and authorities of SWM to Kebeles and build their capacity. Give support in terms of training and developing critical systems, Improving the collection and transportation: optimizing rotations, container sitting, collection point facility, improving truck maintenance, and routing system, Implement the civil service reform programme focusing on the creation of committed and motivated SWM workers, Encourage a greater participation in primary waste collection by micro and small enterprises as well as the participation of NGOs and CBOs, maintain a strong public- private-community participation, Encourage involvement of private investors on SWM, Promote environmental awareness pertaining to SWM, develop a communication strategy and work vigorously for the behavioral change of the wider public, Promote waste segregation at source, waste minimization, recycling, reuse, recovery, and composting Institutionalize public participation in the implementation of SWM. Promote networking, information sharing and cooperation with a number of stakeholders and collaborators and establish city level Sanitation and Beautification division, as well as Kebele Sanitation Teams at grass-root levels, Promote cost recovery and prioritize in public finance, Establish Code Enforcement Division of which among other duties and responsibilities include enforcement of strict compliance of existing rules and regulations on control of illegal dumping and littering the environment. Short Term Plans The following are some of immediate improvements and interventions needed Solid Waste Operation Team shall be established at central level with multi-disciplinary man power , Solid waste management teams shall be established in all Kebeles, Sufficient number of SWM workers /professionals, truck drivers, assistants, logistic officers, street sweepers, foremen, container attendants, auto mechanics/ shall be assigned and commence their tasks. Undertake emergency clean up programmes to remove heaps of refuse in the city, Introduce two shift working hour system. The first shift works from 4:00 am to 11:00 am and second shift works from 11:00 am to 6:00 pm. In one truck two drivers work through shifting, Because the first shift start at 4:00 pm contractual agreement shall be made for buses or taxis for transportation of workers as early as possible,

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Intensive promotional activities and public education shall be undertaken to raise public awareness on policies and regulations, waste reduction, recovery, reuse, recycling and composting, Introduce improved system of control and supervision of workers for productive and efficient fleet management, Introduce waste collection route scheduling and daily work schedule for all garbage vehicles per week, Improve fuel filling, tire and vehicles maintenance system to enhance collection rate from 21.9% to 34.2%. by doing this and add twenty four more containers with double shift system can enhance the collection rate from 34.2 to 45% Improve the competence and discipline of drivers through training and close supervision, Improve sitting of communal containers with established criteria and construction of collection point facilities with platform, Improve street cleaning and close control through effective implementation programme and schedule, Orientation of workers at different levels on the improved service delivery, Development and use of various operational guidelines and manuals Increase the number of MSEs, encourage as a strategic pre-collectors and support through training and any assistance required, Expand community based recycling and composting in kebeles, Reduce the scatter of garbage by setting dust bins along foot paths for passers by and pedestrians, Organizing human scavengers in the dumpsite and deploy them in well organized recycling and composting activity for their livelihood and improved waste reduction programme, Integrating composting scheme with urban agriculture in conjunction with concerned bodies,

Service delivery improvements : 1. In some kebeles, containers shall be re-located from streets and put within the community as per the established criteria, 2. identify institutional users and collect service charges with shortened procedure; 3. outsource maintenance of trucks and make contractual agreement with companies and improve ways of repairing tyres and filling fuel ; 4. give code number for communal containers for proper identification of containers; 5. purchase new containers and repair damaged ones, 6. give measured streets to teams of sweepers to monitor their performance; 7. prepare schedules for clean-up campaigns; 8. identify sites for construction of communal collection facilities with platform and design the facilities; 9. make preparation for awareness raising events

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Street sweeping Improve street cleaning by sweeping the whole street including drains, wall, pole, etc, The sweepers will be accountable for a given (measured) streets, Sweepers shall start work before 6:00 am,

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10. Implementation Schedule

Description of Activities January06 2 3 4 Finalization and submission of consultancy completion report Invitation for tender Evaluation and award of contract Mobilization Construction work Provisional acceptance Commencement of operation Final Acceptance February06 1 2 3 4

Duration in months/weeks March06 April06 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4

May06 2 3

June06 2 3

July06 1

July07 1

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11. Annexes

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Annex A: Summary of Observation on Primary Collection Services The container sites observation was taken in the period from 11-02-1998 to 20-02-1998 E.C. The current modes of primary collection, their frequency and distribution in the city and their various service areas have been identified. Summary of the observations are indicated in the table hereunder.

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Table: Waste Load Frequency (%) of primary collection service providers (11-02-1997 to 20-02-1997) Modes of primary collection Adult Child Street Horse SN Container Location Saba Gojo labor labor sweeping Tractor cart 1 Alpha KG 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 2 Edaga Finjal 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 7.69 30.00 3 Enkodo 0.00 0.00 9.09 0.00 0.00 7.69 10.00 4 Muslim Cemetery 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 60.00 5 Ayder Livestock market 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 6 Mesfin Industry 0.00 0.00 3.90 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 7 Denbosco 0.00 0.00 3.90 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 8 Gotera 0.00 10.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 9 Agricultural office 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 10 Mayduba 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 11.54 0.00 11 Red Cross (Moved to L12 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 12 Kebelle 19 0.00 0.00 9.09 41.18 18.42 0.00 0.00 13 Kebelle 20 0.00 0.00 9.09 41.18 18.42 0.00 0.00 14 Luis eye clinic 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 15 Debredamo hotel 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 16 Abune Aregawi Church 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 17 Business Taxi Terminal 0.00 0.00 9.09 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 18 Adihawsi Endatsaba 0.00 0.00 9.09 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 Edaga Bieray(17-livestock 19 market) 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 20 Edaga Faham 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 15.38 0.00 21 Axum Hotel 0.00 35.00 2.60 0.00 0.00 3.85 0.00 22 Adis Alem Bus Station 0.00 0.00 9.09 0.00 18.42 0.00 0.00 23 Kebelle 15 0.00 15.00 9.09 17.65 18.42 0.00 0.00 24 Gebriel church 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00

Total 0.00 37.69 26.78 60.00 0.00 3.90 3.90 10.00 0.00 11.54 0.00 68.69 68.69 0.00 0.00 0.00 9.09 9.09 0.00 15.38 41.44 27.51 60.16 0.00

%age 0.00 6.28 4.46 10.00 0.00 0.65 0.65 1.67 0.00 1.92 0.00 11.45 11.45 0.00 0.00 0.00 1.52 1.52 0.00 2.56 6.91 4.59 10.03 0.00

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27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48

Near WEWEKMA Near EELPA At sewhi Nigus Near Enda Mehiret Bani Semein Health center Ayder low cost houses Areki factory Enda Cherkos AdishumDuhun Dejen Hawlti Edaga AdiHaki Mekaneyesus church Abreha Castle Trans Ethiopia May Degene Kebelle 18 Taxi Terminal Adihawsi Taxi Terminal Total

0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00

35.00 12.99 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 5.00 3.90 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 9.09 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 100.00 100.00

0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 100.00

26.32 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 100.00

0.00 0.00 7.69 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 26.92 0.00 11.54 7.69 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 100.00 MIN MAX MEAN

0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 100.00 coverage coverage coverage

74.30 0.00 7.69 8.90 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 26.92 0.00 11.54 7.69 9.09 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 600.00

12.38 0.00 1.28 1.48 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 4.49 0.00 1.92 1.28 1.52 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 100.00 0.00 12.38 2.38

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Annex B: Analysis of Tractor-Trailer for Primary Collection The following container locations were getting primary collection services with Municipal tractor-trailer:- Edaga Finjal, Enkodo, Mayduba, Edaga Faham,Axum Hotel, Sewhi Nigus, Dejen, Edaga AdiHaki,and Mekaneyesus church Table Average distance covered & Time consumed by the municipal tractors in solid waste collection Time consumed (minutes) Container Container to Total Unloading to Blocks Dispatch time 105 15 200 80 20 45 10 75 560 95 10 30 95 65 625 80 10 35 70 335 710 40 90 1720 Total distance traveled (Km) 10.2

Day Day-1 Day-2

No. of Trips 1 3

Dispatch to Blocks 5 10 20

Loading 50 95 45 90 60 85 50 70 55

Blocks to container 25 30 10 30 70 10 25 10

22.4

Day-3

20 10

24.5

Day-4

22.2 79.3

Total

70

600

210

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Average unit value (single trip) Time consumed out of total (%)

1.00

7.78

66.67

23.33

78.89

4.44

10.00

191.11

8.81

4.07%

34.88%

12.21%

41.28%

2.33%

5.23%

100.00%

Most of the time is spent on unloading

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Table: Tractor-trailer collection frequency and amount collected 2004/2005 (1997 E.C.)
SN Vehicles plate no. Daily likely (%) volume(m3) 3451 3476 3539 82 81 87 3324 1379 0 1200 78 Meskerem Yearly Total Volume (m3) Days(no.) Megabit Puagme Days(no.) Tahisas Myazia Yekatit Nehase Volume (m3) Days(no.) Ginbot Tikimt Hamle Volume (m3) Days(no.)

Hidar

Volume (m )

Volume (m3)

Volume (m3)

Volume (m3)

Volume (m )

Days(no.)

Days(no.)

Days(no.)

Days(no.)

Days(no.)

Days(no.)

Days(no.)

Days(no.)

Days(no.)

Days(no.)

Sene

Tir

Volume(m3)

Volume(m )

Volume(m3)

Volume(m3)

1 2 3

Ft 0625 Ft 6017 Nathreth 80 Ft 0612 Total volume Total days

19 216 NA NA 22 264 21 256 28 19 208 NA NA 30 392 14 168 28 19 188 21 224 22 240 20 236 28

320 316 312

30 30 29

348 364 320

30 30 30

360 360 348

30 30 30

360 360 360

29 29 29

344 340 344

30 30 30

340 328 316

25 26 26

292 304 296

30 30 30

Volume(m3)

336 336 340

5 NA 5

15 NA 15

299 296 319

4 5

19 236 NA NA 21 236 23 272 28 848 224 1132 932

304 1252

24

272 1304

30

356 1424

30

360 1440

29

332 1360

26

300 1284

26

276 1168

30

380 1392

NA

NA 30

286

76

21

95

78

112

113

120

120

116

116

103

120

10

Source: Mekelle municipal social services department

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Daily likely (%)

Final Feasibility and Preliminary design report for Mekelle City Integrated Solid Waste Management

Technical Analysis of Tractor-trailer services: The current primary collection service with tractor-trailer system involves four tractors in block-collection of solid wastes mainly from residential sources. The tractor-trailers are manually loaded and unloaded with mechanical and manual operations. The resource requirements of the stationary-containers manually loaded collection (SCSML) are estimated below. (a) Time required per day The time requirement in fixed trip system with known number of trips is given by the length of day work H= [(t1+t2) + NT (Tscs)]/ (1-0.15) t1=service time between dispatch station and first serviced blocks (hrs); t2=service time between location of last serviced block and dispatch location (hrs); The unloading, total pick up, and the service times between the dispatch locations and First and last serviced locations are taken from reported analysis on estimation of operation and maintenance costs submitted by the Consultant, Promise. These time values are given for different trips covered by the tractors in primary block collection operations in the city. The values are given below for single, double and triple trips. NT=1, Tscs= 200min, uc=105 min, Total Phcs= 155 min, t1=5min, t2=25 min; NT=3, Tscs= 360min, uc=100 min, Total Phcs= 76.67 min, t1=15min, t2=35 min; NT=2, Tscs= 335min, uc=75 min, Total Phcs= 62.5min, t1=5min, t2=10 min; The estimated lengths of days for the three fixed trips are H= 4.51 Hours or 270.59 minutes for single trip; H=13.43 Hours or 805.88 minutes for double trips; H=22.16 Hours or 1329.41 minutes for triple trips; The length of day for single fixed trip is less than 8 hours, which is the normal official working hour in the municipality office. The double and triple fixed trip services require daily working hours above the indicated office hours. (b) Average travel speed The average pick up time in the three fixed trip primary collection operations was 70.60 minutes or 1.176 hours. The total time per trip in stationary-containers manually loaded collection system is different from the hauled-containers collection system. It includes PROMISE CONSULT: CONSULTING ARCHITECTS AND ENGINEERS 103

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average driving time between stationery containers location. The total travel time is given by Tscs = Phcs + s+ a + bX The average at-site time s=at-site time is estimated to be 0.115 hrs and the estimated hauled times for the three fixed trips become h= 1.58 Hours or 94.89 minutes for NT=1; h=4.54 Hours or 272.39 minutes for NT=2; h=4.72Hours or 283.22 minutes for NT=3; Then the average travel speeds of the tractors for the three fixed trips as estimated from the haul times and total distances covered in primary collection become V= 3.06 km/h for X= 10.2 km and h= 1.58 Hours in single round trip; V= 2.19km/h for X= 12.2 km and h=4.54 Hours in double round trips; V= 2.03km/h for X= 12.2 km and h=4.72Hours in triple round trips; The observed average speed was 2.427 km/h for an average round trip distance of 11.53 km and average double round trips The observed average speeds in primary collection service were very low and is one reason for the prevalent inefficiency in primary collection. The low speed problem together with the problem of spillage of waste materials at the hauled-containers sites observed during primary collection operation make the municipal tractor-trailer services inappropriate for primary collection. (c) Number of pick up locations or blocks The number of pick up locations per trip is calculated from NP=Phcs n/tp Where, Phcs =pick up time per trip (h/trip); n=number of collectors (2); tp=pick up time per pick up locations The pick up time per pick locations in SCS can be expressed in three units. Either in collectors-h/location or collectors-h/block or collectors-h/stationery container.

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Table Labor requirements for manual curbside collection using one-person crew Average number of Stationery containers and/or boxes Pickup time, Per pick up locations Collector -min/location 1 or 2 0.50 -0.60 3 or more , or Unlimited service 0.92 The average speed for the average pick time of Phcs =1.176 hours observed in the current tractors service was V=5.77 km /h. The estimated number of pick up locations for number of collectors of n=2 and pick up time tp=0.92 and considering unlimited service from the SC and/or boxes per pick up locations become NP= 1.176 * 60*2/ 0.92 = 153.39 pick up locations per trip (d) Volume of solid waste The number of pick up locations in service area with solid waste collection capacity of Vp are given by NP = (Vsw *r)/ Vp Where, Vsw =volume of collection vehicle (tractor-trailer), cu.m/trip Vp =volume of solid waste collected per pick up locations, cu.m/location r =compaction ratio, 2 to 2.5 for manual loading collection method; The estimated volume of solid waste collected per pick up locations considering a reported tractor collection capacity in a round of Vsw = 4.00 cu.m/trip becomes Vp = 4.00*2.25/153.39 =0.059 cu.m/location OR =59 liter/location This means only single standard stationary-container with holding capacity of 61 liter was picked from single location in tractor-trailer collection trips. The commonly used standard size of containers ranges from 60 to 160 liter. The quantity of solid waste generated in 2005 from single family in residential sources is 4.508 liter/d. The number of house holds covered in the current primary collection service is estimated to be 13 house holds per location, which means nearly half of a standard block containing 20 house holds.

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(d) Desired number of locations per trip The average rate of waste generation in residential sources in 2005 is 0.92 liter/c/d and the average numbers of households (NHH) served at a location are NNH=13 house holds per location (Considering average household size of 4.9 in the city) The desired number of locations in a daily one trip to cover 44255.1 households (2005) in the city, The number of locations in primary collection services that would be required in tractorcollection services to cover a total of 44255 households in residential areas in 2005 in whole city (NP) desired = 44255house holds/ 13 house hold units/ location = 3405 locations (Each with 59 liter garbage collection capacity) The required number of trips in a working day to cover all residential households with a collection capacity of 153.39 pick up locations per trip in 2005 would be = 3405 locations / 153.39 pick up locations per trip = 23 trips per day The available numbers of tractors are four and the average trips per tractor per day would be 5.75 trips per day. This means the required time per working day for a single tractor would be H= [(0.0694 + 0.194) + 5.75 * 2. 49)/ (1-0.15) = (0.2634 + 14.32)/ 0.85 = 17.154 hours for single tractor-trailer The official working hours in a day work are only 8 hours and the remaining 9.154 working hours could not be actually serviced by the tractors. The wastes generated in at the collection locations in the stated hours without primary collection services could not be collected. The primary collection service would be late by 9.154 hours behind waste generation and primary collection operations would be insufficient in all the 3405 estimated locations in the city. This condition would result in accumulation of waste above the holding capacity of the stationary containers (SC) that would be located at the locations or above the holding capacity of household containers. The poor collection capacity of the current service could be managed either doubling the holding capacity of all the locations or doubling the number of tractors in the current primary collection services. These scenarios do not seem economical because of the inefficiency in primary collection with tractor-trailers as observed in the current PROMISE CONSULT: CONSULTING ARCHITECTS AND ENGINEERS 106

Final Feasibility and Preliminary design report for Mekelle City Integrated Solid Waste Management

municipal service. The other technical problem is that the holding of generated wastes for a period of two weeks time in households does not seem technically feasible and it is also hardly possible to mobilize the house holds in voluntary waste handling practices.

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Annex C: Assessment of Secondary Storage and Collection Services Field survey is carried out on the existing communal containers site to investigate the impacts of secondary storage and collection services in the city and collect adequate technical data for the future improvement of the service. One field enumerator and observer works under the principal investigator (supervisor) moved in all the containers and collect the desired information. The enumerators handle 29 in Southern sub-city and 23 in Northern sub-city in seven days time. The field enumerator works closely with the municipality service workers to facilitate the field observation. Similar observation was taken from 27/02/1998 to 02/03/1998 at the two disposal sites currently used by the municipality. A second enumerator was allotted for the observations to be taken at the disposal sites and the contents of the survey are also different for the investigation at the disposal sites. The result of field observation is summarized and displayed on table 3.8.

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Container position and Influence area of single container position

41 40

42 N

33

34 4

35

36 37

5 13 12

38 10

25

14

2 15

7 1

39

18

22 26

19

17 23

24

20

21

29

27 28 32 30 31

Influence area of one container position

Container position Administrative boundary

Tabia administration Addis Alem Adihausi Ayder Hadnet Haulti Inustry Kedamay W eyane Sewhi Negus

FigureExisting communal container locations, spatial coverage of each container position and Recent Tabia administration PROMISE CONSULT: CONSULTING ARCHITECTS AND ENGINEERS 109

Final Feasibility and Preliminary design report for Mekelle City Integrated Solid Waste Management

Table: Assessment existing secondary collection system


Assuming Regular weekly collection Determination of Storage Capacity and number of HCs for Residential sources (01MSW in 2005) 2005 SN Tabia No. Container s 8 6 8 6 10 6 3 6 5 5 1 Weekly Frequency 4 4 6 4 8 3 2 4 6 3 0 Size of Container (cu.m) 7.2 7.2 7.2 7.2 7.2 7.2 7.2 7.2 7.2 7.2 7.2 Weekly Storage Capacity(cu. m) 57.60 43.20 57.60 43.20 72.00 43.20 21.60 43.20 36.00 36.00 7.20 460.80 2005 Weekly Collected Waste(cu.m) 28.8 28.8 43.2 28.8 57.6 21.6 14.4 28.8 43.2 21.6 3.6 320.4 Weekly Mean Generated Waste(cu. m) 168.24 181.85 118.24 171.76 174.81 120.53 42.70 162.72 127.23 120.53 22.47 1411.0782 8 Average existing storage capacity =34.2% Existing storage(cont ainer) capaciy (%) 34.24% 23.76% 48.71% 25.15% 41.19% 35.84% 50.59% 26.55% 28.29% 29.87% 32.04% Storage (Container) Requirement indicator (m3) 110.64 138.65 60.64 128.56 102.81 77.33 21.10 119.52 91.23 84.53 15.27 Required container no.(for 100%effic iency) 15 19 8 18 14 11 3 17 13 12 2 132 Required container no.(for 70%effici ency) 11 13 6 12 10 8 2 12 9 8 1 92 Require d containe r no.(for 50%effi ciency) 8 10 4 9 7 5 1 8 6 6 1 66

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11

Hawltie Kedamay Weyane Industry Adi Haki Hadnet Addis Alem Adishum Dahan Ayder Sewhi Negus Quiha Aynalem

Total 64 44 Average existing collection frequency storage capacity =68.75%

Problem of transportation
Problem of Transportation

Attainable collection efficiency if only frequency of collection equals no. of containers 110

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i. Annex D: Survey Methodology It is believed that most SWM practices in Developing countries suffer from absence of the desired technical information regarding the capacity, operation, management, and maintenance of public facilities and services. Available information could also be insufficient for comprehensive studies and may not exist at the desired level of technical details. Because of these limitations in public services, the execution of recent and new projects demands the filling up of missing technical data. The information available on existing SWM services and practices of Mekelle City is deemed to be scant and the consultant have identified that there is a need to conduct further investigation on the current situation of solid waste management(SWM) in the city . Promise consult discovered that the necessary technical information do not exist in relation to existing SWM practices ,which are considered important to undertake comprehensive study on Integrated Solid Waste Management (ISWM) of the city and good planning and design of solid waste management infrastructure for improved SW service. The data gap discovered within the current situation of the SW system in all the sub-cities (Northern, Southern, Quiha, and Aynalem) are summarized and briefly citied in the subsequent sections. Some of the data gaps and the issues of solid waste monitoring are presented in checklist and question forms and various forms and questionnaires are prepared to fill the data gap [annex A]. The summary is cited below. D.1. Solid waste generation Sources of solid waste in the entire city Percentage composition of solid waste from the various SW category and sources Proportion of expected solid waste constituents in the SW categories Per capita rate of generation in liter/capita/day and kg/capita/day Properties of SW such as unit weigh(loose, as-discarded, as-disposed, as-compacted), moisture content, particle size, etc from various sources of generation Generation of hazardous and special wastes

D.2. Primary Handling and Storage Current methods of SW handling and primary storage at the source of generation SW separation and sorting out at the sources of generation Methods of SW separation (manual or mechanical) Assess the level of awareness and readiness on part of the residents regarding waste processing at the sources Data on current solid waste processing at the sources Data on solid waste handling at municipal level and in the streets Availability of street and public solid waste bins in the city and their adequacy Management of street SW cleaning, storage and collection services

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Do the public use the bins? How is the appropriateness of the bin technology (size, height, material, and comfort in the use of the bins)? Where the bins are provided? How they are cleaned? Are they protected from vandalism and theft? How is the sense of ownership of the public? Impacts of the bins on street cleaning and the public user; D.3. Primary Collection (PC) Methods of primary collection and primary transfer of SW from the sources of generation How the other sources of SW such as commercial, institutional, industrial, construction and demolition, and agricultural activities in the city transfer their SW to the municipal system except the residential sources (01MSW)? Primary block collection (PBC) or house-to-house collection with tractor-trailers: their capacity, coverage, and operation; size of the trailers, operation and maintenance(OM) cost, collection routes, operation plan and fleet management, man power , weekly area coverage or coverage of households , efficiency of the PBC service , service charges and rates in relation to PBC , capital cost of the existing tractor-trailers PBC service;

Saba Sanitation and Gojo Sanitation Services (SSs): Institutional data of the MSEs; the kind of problems they encountered in their services; how they are rendering service to the public; how they are working with the public and the City Administration; their plan in the future in relation to SWM; their know-how and knowledge on SWM practices;

Performance of micro and small enterprises (MSEs) in primary collection activities: the MSEs coverage in terms of service areas, land uses and SW quantity, their daily, weekly, and yearly performances; the technologies the MSEs adopt in primary collection of SW;whether the technologies are appropriate in relation to PC services and the topography of the city; Fees the MSEs charge the users for providing PC service; Whether the MSEs were registered and given permit; their know-how on SWM practices; the sustainability of their current business;

Guidelines for regulating the performance of MSEs: Whether there are guidelines at the municipality or other official level to regulate their performance, implementation of the guideline (if it exists) Whether the necessary regulatory frame work is laid at City Administration, State or Federal Level;

Illegal dumping sites created due to PC How illegal dumping sites are created in relation to PC, location of the sites in the city, and whether there are any containers near to the sites, distance of the containers from 113

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Final Feasibility and Preliminary design report for Mekelle City Integrated Solid Waste Management

the dumping sites, the dominant land use around the sites, the possible reasons for emergency of the illegal dumping sites ,complete absence of communal containers, inadequate number of containers, intentional unawareness on the side of the users, real unawareness regarding the use of the container service, negligence in the use of the containers, inefficiency in municipal collection services, inconvenience around the containers, long travel distance to the services or unaffordable service charges; inefficient regulatory works to implement laws, regulations, proclamation, and policies issued on waste management; D.4. Communal storage Functionality and efficiency in the use of the skips Are the skips convenient to be used by the four modes of PCs (handcarts, horse carts, tractor-trailor, and manual labor PCs)? Are stands provided for the containers? Are steps provided for manual labor PCs? Are the containers secured from vandalism? Are they protected from unauthorized access? Are the skips protected from scavengers? Are they fenced? Does litter exist around the storage sites? What is the dominant material in the litter? Is the facility protected from wind effect? How is the orientation of the skips relative to other land uses and in relation to wind effect? Do any nuisance animals exist around and inside the container? Are the skip sites odorous? What are the activities around the containers? Residents? Commercial activities? Open field? Open market? Play grounds? Shops? Green areas? What urban activities are currently disrupted around the containers? What about municipal services? How many households complained about flies? About scavengers? About offensive odor (OO)? How much households actually are affected with vector borne communicable diseases? Are there any waste workers (WWs) working on the sites? In what activities are they engaged? Are they protected from the impacts imposed by the container service?

Geographical coordinates (X, Y, and Z) of the containers and installation history: When was the containers provided for service? Who manufactured the containers? How the containers are initially located? Who located the containers? What was the estimated spatial coverage of single skip in each location? Was uniform spatial coverage considered in each land uses and for any number of skips? How are rates of generation, capacity of skip loaders and location of disposal sites taken in to account while locating the skips? How is the number of the containers estimated? Are the containers labeled? Are the skips painted and marked? Are the containers currently accessible from any side of the service areas? How is the road infrastructure surrounding the containers?

Collection capacity of the containers and SW composition: How much waste loads the containers currently receiving? (daily, weekly, monthly and yearly) What type of SW materials reach to the containers? What materials are delivered from the different urban activities served with the containers? Which land uses actively use the containers? How much is the proportion of SW delivery to the containers from the various SW sources? The percentage proportion of Special, Hazardous, Residential, Commercial, Institutional, Industrial, Construction and 114

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Demolition and Agricultural solid wastes (daily, weekly, monthly, and yearly) received by each container in different service areas; Are the containers currently receiving special and hazardous wastes? From which sources? Which is the dominant special waste contributor to the containers? Hazardous waste contributor? What are the special and hazardous waste materials received from different sources? How much is the proportion of the materials? D.5. Secondary Collection and disposal Collection and transportation: The Hauled-Containers Collection system: Is the hauled container collection system conventional mode or exchange container mode? Is there any formal route of collection? How much total time the skip loaders spend in each route? How much are pickup time, loading time, and redeposition time in the same station in each route for conventional mode of collection? How much is pickup time and the redeposition time in next station in each route for exchange container mode of collection? How much is the total time per trip in each route for the hauled container collection system , which is the sum of pickup time, at-site time and haul time? How much is the off-route time wasted in each trip and routes? How much is the working hours in a day? How much is the average speed of the skip loaders in each route? How many number of skip loaders serve each of the four sub-cities (Northern, Southern, Quiha, and Aynalem sub-cities) in the service? How frequent is the skip loaders ere available in the service? How efficient are the skip loaders utilized?; How much was the daily, weekly, monthly, and yearly frequency of collection of each loaders in each sub-cities; How much quantity of solid waste (volume and weight) collected and transported from each collection site in all the four sub-cities (daily,weekly,monthly,and yearly)?

Road infrastructure in collection routes: How is the condition of the roads in the formal and informal collection and transportation routes?

Performance of the skip loaders: Is the number of skip loaders adequate in the current collection and disposal service? Are the existing three loaders efficiently utilized? Are the loaders available every day in the service? Are they serving regularly? How old are the loaders? What kind of service maintenance the loaders were getting? Is there any permanently established maintenance center? Where is its location? How is the institutional capacity of the center? Is it public or private institute? How much mechanics exist in the center? Are there any spare part stocks in the center? How is the fuel supply in the service? How efficiently it undertake service during breakdown of the loaders? In which hours of the day the maintenance services are commonly done? At what days and time of the week? How much is the daily, weekly, monthly, and yearly operation and maintenance costs (OM) of the service (manpower, fuel, spare parts, maintenance charges to private firms, overheads, etc)? How much is the OM cost per each loader and per each collection and transportation in each route? How much was the initial cost of investment on the loaders? What was the source of finance? How much is the collection and transportation service charge? How was the tariff fixed? Is it affordable in the service? Was there any service subside scheme in the past? 115

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Private sector involvement: How was the involvement of private sectors in secondary collection and transportation service? What was the major obstacle? Was there any request for permit from private sector to undertake private solid waste secondary collection and disposal? How much service charges were proposed in the service areas by the private applicants?

Disposal in land fills: The quantity of solid waste (volume and weight) received at the Messobo landfill site so far different locations in the service area? In which operation periods? How much is the weight and volume of solid waste mounted on skip loaders as it reached at the land fill site? How was the efficiency in the performance of the land fill sites? Are the conditions one reason for the inconsistent collection, transportation and disposal efficiency? How the site was operated after construction? Was the designed method of land filling suitable for the site? Is there any other best method of land filling? Are there any maintenance operations undertaken on the site? How much was the cost the OM on the disposal site? How much the opposition from local community disrupted the land filling process at the site? Is there any possibility to improve and expanded the land fill site? What was the actual impact on the local community and the environment? How much area is covered with suspended litter materials? What is the actual location of the site in relation to settlement sites, farm lands, and other activities? What is the present condition of the site? Is there any closure plan developed for the land fill site?

The other land fill site (north of Quiha): Is there any technical data on the second site? What was its initial design capacity? How is the current status of the site? Are there similar environmental and social problems in the second site like the Messobo (the big site) site? In addition investigate all the ideas raised under the Messobo land fill site;

Prospective land fill sites: The proposed land fills sites by the Municipality require field investigation and Initial Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA).One of the sites is proposed around a village called Adi Kolomay. The second site is near the existing dump site at Messobo. It is vital to undertake EIA on the proposed and existing sites before designing and implementing the land fill sites. D.6. 3Rs and Waste transformation (WT) Composition and proportion of materials: How much of the MSW, ISW, and ASW materials could be considered for the 3R'S solution? What is the composition of the SW sources in relation to waste reduction, 116

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recycling and reuse? What are the waste diversion and reuse opportunities? Are the recyclable materials exist in the city? Are there any specifications of buyers of recovered materials for all type of potential materials in waste streams? Are there any formally registered drop-off and buy-back centers in the city? How are the recyclable items collected? Are there any street side collection facilities for the items in the city? Informal and waste Materials Brokers (WMB's) businesses: How is the performance of the informal sectors in the 3R's practices? What are the lists of materials recovered, recycled and reused through the informal business? How much was the annual quantity of the materials? In which sources of SW in the city the informal sectors actively engaged in the 3R practices? How the informal businesses earn benefits? Where do they take the recovered materials in the city and else where? How much is the cost of recovered items in the informal sector?

Local technologies in the 3R practices: What are the local technologies introduced for the processing and manufacturing of recovered and recycled waste materials? Who own, promoted and transferred the technologies? Are there any private companies, cooperatives, and investors involving in waste recycling business? Is vermo-composting introduced in the city? Is biogas technology applied in SW management?

Recovery and reuse within households: What materials were considered for these purposes in the households? What is the proportion and quantity of the materials? What benefits the households got from the practices?

Micro and small enterprises (MSEs): How much land allotted to MSEs for waste processing? Where is the exact location of the allotted land? Is it near to Agricultural Land uses? How was the land requirement estimated? How the proposal of the MSEs got approval? Is there feasibility study on WT technologies? Is the participation of MSEs in waste recovery, reuse and transformation business sustainable? Are they going to be product suppliers? Is market availability for the MSEs products? Are the MSEs to be engaged in agricultural activities and use the processed waste products in their own business and sell the agricultural products? Are there any guidelines for regulating MSEs performance and products? Will they face the threats in urban agriculture and solid waste management together? Will they undertake integrated business? Will the MSEs and other stakeholders synchronize in the both urban agriculture and urban solid waste management?

What aspects of institution in relation to SW services need to be investigated? What methodology is adopted for this purpose? How these improved institutional aspects contribute to the realization of improved SW services? PART II: METHODOLOGY PROMISE CONSULT: CONSULTING ARCHITECTS AND ENGINEERS 117

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This section mainly discusses on methodology to fill the data gap and conduct feasibility study. METHODOLOGY OF FIELD INVESTIGATION TO FILL THE GAP This Methodology briefly outline the approaches and techniques to be followed in fulfilling the missing but necessary solid waste (SW) data as part of the feasibility study of the project. The major activity considered here is the filling of technical data gap discovered in the initial situation analysis. Solid waste Source Category The identification of the sources of solid waste in the City is the first engineering task in solid waste characterization. The type, composition and properties of the SW in Mekelle City then are determined for each sources of generation. The existing land use data has been used to identify the urban activities in the city. The most commonly used solid waste category for urban areas and in municipal solid waste management services considers three broad classes, namely municipal solid waste (MSW), Industrial solid waste (ISW) and Agricultural solid waste (ASW). The solid waste categories has been identified for the City examining the existing socio-economic and investment activities, the status of solid waste management within the service area and land use information. The list of the SW sources and category are summarized in table 1.1. The source identification covers eleven solid waste sources. Two more sources are included, i.e. Water and waste water treatment facilities (01WWT & 02WWT), considering the need for liquid waste and sludge treatment, and provision of safe water from reservoir for Mekelle City in the coming decades.

Table: Solid waste categories for the City of Mekelle Project Solid waste SW generating Urban activities Code Category 01MSW Residential Dwellings 02MSW Commercial Medium & Small scale enterprises (MSEs) ,private commercial activities(PCAs) and market places 03MSW Institutional Public services mainly educational and health services 04MSW Municipal Mainly street sweeping, landscaping and recreational services 05MSW Municipal special Residential, commercial, and Institutional activities 06MSW Municipal Commercial and Institutional(hospital) activities Hazardous 01ISW Industrial Construction ,manufacturing, demolition, and MSEs 02ISW Construction Municipal, private, cooperatives and institutional building and demolition construction and maintenance, municipal and institutional PROMISE CONSULT: CONSULTING ARCHITECTS AND ENGINEERS 118

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03ISW

Industrial special

04ISW

Industrial Hazardous

01ASW

Agriculture

02ASW

Agricultural hazardous 01WWT Waste water & Sludge Unit operations and processes Treatment facility 01WWT Water treatment Unit operations and processes facility Field Sampling Residential Sources (01MSW)

road construction and maintenance, civil engineering construction contracts, and city infrastructure offices(mainly telecommunication and water service installations) manufacturing and assembling, metal and wood furniture, food and kindred products (slaughter house oil, and bones ; food processing and packing factories), lumber and wood products (bulky items),printing and publishing, and electrical manufacturing, Printing and Publishing (printing chemical and inks),Rubber and miscellaneous plastic products(plastics forming organic chemicals and dyes) and chemicals and related products(alcohol factory) Urban agricultural practices such as planting and harvesting of row, field, and vine crops; production of milk; rearing of animals for slaughter;fattening schemes; poultry and other animals farm; operation of feedlots Dumps of chemical fertilizers and pesticides

All the ten Tabias currently existing in the two sub-cities of Mekelle are to be considered as observation sites for Residential SW sources. The total sample sizes for sampling will be 3% of the total house holds (HHs) in each Tabia. The survey will investigate the total and per capita rates of solid waste generations, proportion of various solid waste materials in household SW samples, and properties of the Residential SW in four household socioeconomic groups. The total number of sample households and classification of socioeconomic groups to be considered for the field investigation in each Tabia are given in table 1.2 below. The number of sample households is calculated based on the year 2004 population of the twelve sampling locations collected from the Mekelle City Master Plan Development project. The SW from Residential sources will be characterized based on a total sample households of 1162 collected from all socio-economic groups in the Tabias. Promise consult will select sample households in each Tabia in consultation with the City and Tabia Administration offices one week ahead of sampling. Table: Distribution of sample household sizes in Residential establishments Number of sample households for each income group (Monthly average income in Birr) 119

Sr.

Locality

Inhabitants

estimated Households

Sample

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No.

(2004)

HHs

1 2 3 4

Aider 24300 4959 149 36 27 18 Hawelti 25125 5128 153 36 27 18 Adi Haki 25650 5235 157 38 29 19 Kedamay Weyane 27157 5542 166 76 40 30 20 5 Hadenet 26106 5328 160 74 38 29 19 6 Sewhi Niguse 19000 3878 116 53 28 21 14 7 Adise Alem 18000 3673 110 51 26 20 13 8 Industry 11766 2401 72 31 18 14 9 11 Adishumduhun 6376 1301 39 16 10 8 5 12 Ellala 6515 1330 40 17 10 8 5 Total 189995 38775 1162 529 280 213 140 * City Wide proportion of low income group is more than 70%; Source: MCPPP Then standard plastic bags of 1m2 minimum area will be issued to each sample house holds and will be advised to store their household garbage honestly and carefully for a minimum generation time of one week. The sample house holds may alternatively use their own storing bags or barrel. The measurement of observations house-to-house will be a cumbersome task. Instead convenient and centralized observation sites will be located within the proximity and boundary of the sample households. The Enumerators collect household samples on each observation sites and take all the necessary measurements. The standard forms for recording observations of generation rate, proportion of constituent and properties of SW are attached in Annex A. Other SW sources There is scant technical and socio-economic information on the commercial, institutional, industrial, municipal and agricultural activities of the project city. There is no list of operational industrial, agro-industrial and commercial activities. Efforts have been made to take into account all the available information on the urban activities as collected, compiled and analyzed by the socio-economic and demographic team of the City Master Plan Development project. The data on the urban activities is summarized in Table 1.3 below The socio-economic and service data clearly cite that the manufacturing, construction, transportation and service sectors have leading share in the urbanization of Mekelle City. The construction sector mainly represents the housing and industrial development activities in the City. These activities are expected to generate significant SW quantities in different parts of the City, which is not known at the moment. Therefore, field observations need to be conducted in selected sample urban activities and services. PROMISE CONSULT: CONSULTING ARCHITECTS AND ENGINEERS 120

0500* A 68 72 71

500-1000 B

1000-2000 >2000 C D

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Commercial Sources (02MSW) There around 2677 commercial units inside the city. These services include hotels, restaurants, pastry, super markets, shops, bars, night club (Abyssinia), electronic shops, spare part shops, tire suppliers, tailors, boutiques, drug shops, fruit vendors, glass workshops, flour mill, crop selling stores, red pepper shops, Kat vendors, cereals and spice shops, barberry, open bed markets (Medebe),etc. Table: Urban activities in Mekelle city Sr. No. 1 Activities/Socio-economic Aspects Investment shares ranking Industrial (Manufacturing, construction, and transport)=88.08% Institutional(Social services and real state)=4.93 % Commercial(hotel & trade) =3.85 % Agriculture=3.13% Job opportunity ranking Manufacturing Construction sector Transport Social service Hotel Agriculture Trade Real state Services coverage Government Health services(year 2002): Hospital=1 Health centers=3 Clinics=3 Referral hospital=1 very soon Educational facilities Governmental institutions: Kindergarten=1 Primary school=20 Secondary school=4 Institutions=3 Public university=1 (Main campus + Adi Haki Campus) Private institutions: Kindergarten=13 Primary school= 5 Secondary school=1 Institutions=6 No University NGOs: Kindergarten=4 Primary school=9 Secondary school=4 121

3 3.1

3.2

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No institutions ,colleges and universities 3.3 Digital Telephone(May 2004): Residential areas=7029 in numbers Government, NGOs, Institutions, and Enterprises=1211 Commercial centers=2677 Others=36 3.4 Water service(July 2004): Distribution pipe=46.5 km Availability: House tape users= 43.9 % Public tape users=7.9 % Neighborhood & traditional source users=48.4% Contd 3.5 Market places: Edaga kedamay woyane Edaga Adi-haki Edaga Enda-sellassie Enda Sewhi-Nigus(Edaga Kedam) Edaga Aider Edaga Industry (May Duba) Edaga Adi-Hawsi Edaga Adi-Shumduhun Edaga Quiha Edaga Aynalem Livestock market (13903m2 fenced area) 3.6 Enkodo Abattoir:60-70 cattles/day design capacity & actual=33 3.7 16-Orthodox churches: Inside Mekelle,Quiha,& Aynalem 3.8 3- Mosques: Inside Mekelle Source: MCPPP Sample size of 10%, i.e.268 commercial units, will be considered to investigate the characteristics of solid waste from the commercial group. Most of the commercial services exist at the center or near the centre of the city and more number of samples will be taken from the center. But this sample size does not include the observation sites within the eleven market places. Separate samples and observations will be taken in all the market places inside and outside Mekelle city. The market places lack information regarding the various commercial specialties and activities and the number of commercial units contained in each places. Because of this, samples will be collected from the most common commercial activities and the minimum sample size in the market places of Mekelle except the Livestock market will be 20.The distribution of sample sizes in commercial SW sources is indicated in table 1.4. The field investigation in commercial sources will consider total of 195 samples all the market places and a total of 269 samples in the commercial activities in all the four sub-cities (Northern, Southern, Quiha, & Aynalem).The distribution of samples in each observation sites is given in table 1.4. And the field sampling forms are attached in Annex A. Table: Distribution of sample in commercial sources Sr. Commercial units Commercial units 122

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No.

Tabia /Place

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 11 12 13 14 15 16

Aider Hawelti(Adi-Hawsi) Adi Haki Kedamay Weyane Hadenet Sewhi Niguse Adise Alem Industry Addi shumduhun Ellala Enda selassie Samre road livestock Quiha Aynalem Total

inside markets No. of No.of markets Samples 1 20 1 20 1 20 1 30 1 20 1 20 1 20 1 20 1 5 1 15 1 5 195

outside markets 3% Samples 10% Samples (80) (268) 9 31 10 32 10 33 11 34 10 33 7 24 7 23 5 15 3 8 3 8 7 23 3 5 85 269

The field investigation for institutional sources will be conducted in existing health, education and administration services in Mekelle, Quiha and Aynalem. The samples distribution of institutional sources is given in Table 1.5. Institutional sources (03MSW): The available data on institutional activities is also little similar to the commercial and industrial activities. The information obtained from the City Master Plan group covers education and health services. The number and occupation of the various offices and administration centers in the city are not included in the available data. The administration institutes include Tabia, Wereda, Zonal, and Regional Administration offices, Departments, and Bureaus, private consulting offices, post office, utility offices such as telecommunication, water, electric service offices, security office (Mekael Guaro), etc. The total samples to be taken in institutional activities will be 30 out of ten samples in Administration offices, five samples in private and public services, three in health facilities, five in government, four in private and three NGOs educational facilities, Mekelle hospital will be one of the observation sites of heath facilities and Mekelle University (Adi Haki Campus) will be one observation site of educational facilities. The field sampling forms are attached in Annex A. The biomedical wastes and their management will be the main focus of the filed investigation and waste monitoring task in medical and institutional facilities. Table: Distribution of Samples in institutional sources Sr. No 1 Institutional activities Total units No. of Sampl e percentage sample size

Administration 123

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4 4.1

4.2

4.3

Tabia offices Wereda offices Zonal departments City Council Regional Bureaus Regional Government Security office Private and public services Consulting firms Telecommunication service Electric service Water service Health facilities : Hospital Health centers Clinics Educational offices: Governmental Kindergarten Primary school Secondary school Institutions Public university Private Kindergarten Primary school Secondary school Institutions NGOs: Kindergarten Primary school Secondary school Total institutional samples

12 2 1 1 1 2 2 1 1 3 3

2 1 2 1 2 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1

16.67 50 100 100 100 50 50 100 100 33.33 33.33

1 20 4 3 2 13 5 1 6 4 9 4

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 30

100 5 25 33.33 50 7.70 20 100 16.67 25 11.11 25

Industrial sources (01ISW): The industrial activities are complex and diversified like the commercial activities. This will make the field investigation tire some. The other challenge in relation to these two main urban activities is the absence of complete official registration list and standard local category of the activities. The third challenge here is that there is no clear distinction between most commercial and industrial urban activities. Most industrial activities are locally registered as commercial activities especially small scale industrial activities and micro and small enterprises engaged in small scale urban industrial activities. Efforts will be envisaged to outline category for industrial activities and to group the existing activities in the city related to industry accordingly. The registered permits on the commercial and urban activities will be collected from local finance and trade offices. Then the registered urban activities will be group according to their industrial specializations.

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The investigation in industrial sources will be undertaken on samples to be taken from the following fifteen categories of Standard Industrial Classification (SIC), which most are believed to exist currently in the city. Food and kindred products(SIC-20): processing, packaging, and shipping; example the slaughter house service at Enkodo River; Textile mill products(SIC-22 ) :mainly weaving (local weavers); Apparel and other finished products(SIC-23): cutting, sewing, sizing, pressing cloth, fibers, metals, and rubber; Example local tailors and metal work shops; Wood Furniture(SIC-25a): manufacture of household and office furniture, partitions, office and store fixtures, mattresses, plus cloth and padding residues), Example wood works shops Metal furniture(SIC-25b) :manufacture of household and office furniture, lockers, bedsprings, frames; Example metal workshops Printing and Publishing(SIC-27): Newspaper publishing, printing, lithography, engraving and bookbinding ; Chemicals and related products(SIC-28):: manufacture and preparation of inorganic chemicals ranging from drugs and soaps to paints and varnishes, and explosives, alcohols, organic and inorganic chemicals), Rubber and miscellaneous plastic products (SIC-30): manufacture of fabricated rubber and plastic products; Cement Stone, clay, and glass products(SIC-32) :Manufacture of flat glass, fabrication and forming of glass; manufacture of concrete, cement, gypsum, and plaster products; Forming and processing of stone and stone products, abrasive, asbestos, and miscellaneous non-mineral products; Example Messobo Cement factory and glass work shops; Primary metal industries(SIC-33):Melting, casting, forging, drawing, rolling, forming, extruding operations; Example MIE & Argegawie Korkoro; Fabricated metals products(SIC-34): Manufacture of metal cans, hand tools, general hardware, non electric heating apparatus, plumbing fixtures, fabricated structural products, wire, farm, machinery and equipment, coating and engraving of metal; Machinery except electrical(SIC-35): Manufacture of equipment for construction, mining, elevators, moving stairways, conveyors, industrial trucks, trailers, stackers, machine tools, etc; Example MIE; Electrical(SIC-36):Manufacture of electric equipment, appliances, and communication apparatus; machining, drawing, forming, welding, stamping, winding, painting, planting, baking, firing, operations; Example electric appliances producers like stoves, baking plates(Mitad), boilers, etc. Transportation equipment (SIC-37): Manufacture of motor vehicles, truck and bus bodies, motor vehicle, parts and accessories, aircraft and parts, ship and boat building and repairing, motorcycles and bicycles and parts, etc. Example. MIE and private bicycle and motorcycles repair shops; Miscellaneous manufacturers(SIC-39): Manufacture of jewelery, silverware, plated ware, toys, amusement, sporting and athletic goods, costume nobilities, buttons, brushes, signs, and advertising displays; Example jewelery shops;

The consultant will consider the use of local industrial classification, if it exists at all, instead of SIC. But for the time being, the SIC listed above will be adopted and rectification may be considered in later works during the analysis of the filed investigation data. PROMISE CONSULT: CONSULTING ARCHITECTS AND ENGINEERS 125

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Minimum of two samples will be collected from each industrial category and the large scale factories in the city such as Messobo Cement factory and Mesfin Industrial Engineering (MIE) will be taken as sample observation sites under their respective SIC categories. A total of around 30 samples on industrial activities will be observed in the project city. Construction and demolition (02ISW): The most vibrant industrial activity in the city of Mekelle is the private building construction activities. There are significant numbers of construction projects in various categories, which have been undertaken in the last five years. The most common categories of construction and demolition activities under the two major projects, namely buildings and roads construction and maintenance are private ordinary and storied buildings, government ordinary and storied buildings, cooperative housing, municipal paved roads construction and maintenance, unpaved roads construction and maintenances. These nine categories of construction and demolition sources will be considered for the filed investigation. The actual figures on the private and municipal construction projects and activities are not available at the moment. The field investigation will focus on sampling of live construction projects. A minimum of two samples from each construction category will be investigated in the project city. This means a total of around eighty (18) samples will be considered in the survey.

Special and hazardous wastes: These two categories will be investigated under all the other categories discussed in the previous sections. Agriculture Wastes (01ASW): The consultant believes that there are some formal and informal UA activities inside and within the outskirt of the city. The most common practices are milk production, poultry, animals rearing and fattening, horticulture and fruit farms, and others. These practices may release significant SW materials into the MSW system. Most SW system in urban places receives high loads of manure and other animals waste from urban agricultural activities. The field investigation will cover this category of SW in the project city. A minimum sample of ten activities will be considered and single observation will be made in ten urban activities. Communal container and disposal sites Field survey will be carried out in the existing 58 communal containers site to investigate the impacts of secondary storage and collection services in the city and collect adequate technical data for the future improvement of the service. One field enumerator and observer working under the principal investigator (supervisor) will move in all the containers and collect the desired information. The enumerators handle 29 in PROMISE CONSULT: CONSULTING ARCHITECTS AND ENGINEERS

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Southern sub-city and 23 in Northern sub-city in seven days time. The field enumerator works closely with the municipality service workers to facilitate the filed observation. Similar observation will be taken from the two disposal sites currently used by the municipality. A second enumerator will be allotted for the observations to be taken at the disposal sites and the contents of the survey are also different for the investigation at the disposal sites.

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ANNEX-E: Rates of generation from Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) Sources (City-wise) Summery of Rate of Generation for MSW sources Years Master plan population Average annual quantity (cu.m/yr) Average annual quantity (kg/yr) Average monthly quantity (cu.m/m) Average monthly quantity (kg/m) Average weekly quantity (cu.m/wk) Average weekly quantity (kg/wk) Average daily quantity (cu.m/d) Average daily quantity (kg/d)

Rates & Quantities of solid waste 2005 2010 2015 216850.00 285489.00 335583.00 114353.91 129540.33 156238.10 1145041.32 1406307.50 1715342.27 9529.49 10795.03 13019.84 95420.11 117192.29 142945.19 2199.11 2491.16 3004.58 22020.03 27044.37 32987.35 314.16 355.88 429.23 3145.72 3863.48 4712.48

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ANNEX-F: City-wise Types of composition of Solid Wastes from Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) Sources Yearly volume (cu.m) 2005 2010 46347.37 75201.63 37368.43 61155.88 26126.11 42721.20 10002.49 16570.63 288.84 458.16 2484.15 4022.18 4836.26 15770.73 30674.03 251410.70

Type Solid Waste from MSW Organic recyclable(including paper + others) Organic recyclable(excluding paper) Organic recyclable(excluding paper +others) Plastic(all) Special wastes(excluding Yard wastes) Hazardous waste rejects Hazardous plus special rejects(excluding yard waste) 3017.56 Non-hazardous rejects 10299.71 Recyclables other than organics & plastic 18335.05 TOTAL 154269.71 Note: Rejects are to be transported to Land fill sites;

2015 90761.14 73788.50 51547.28 19985.63 553.38 4838.16 5814.40 18869.29 36983.93 303141.71

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ii. ANNEX G: PRELIMINARY COST ESTIMATION Estimated cost of Decentralized Biogas units(DBU) for MSW feedstock Table 1 Unit with 1 cu.m capacity(2.01m middle diameter) Sr.No Item 1 Site clearing 2 Excavation for structure 3 12 mm Brick Masonry wall 4 12 mm Brick Masonry Mixing Chamber (50cmx50cm) 5 Plastering to internal side of brick wall with 1:3 mix ratio 12 mm Brick masonry Displacement Chamber 50cmX50 cm 6 internal size 7 8 cm thick RCC cover for displacement chamber(65cmx65cm) 8 8 cm thick RCC cover to mixing chamber(65cmx65cm) 9 150 mm PVC feeding Inlet pipe 10 15-20 mm GPS gas collection & distribution pipe 11 Improved stove Sub Total 10% contingency Total Estimated cost of capital per house hold(Birr) Unit sq.m cu.m sq.m sq.m sq.m sq.m sq.m sq.m LM LM pcs Quantity 4.41 3.205 6.59496 1.5725 3.29748 2.7225 0.4225 0.4225 2 5 1 Rate 3 15 70 70 30 70 64.00 64.00 100 30 30 Amount(Br) 13.23 48.075 461.64723 110.075 98.924406 190.575 27.04 27.04 200 150 30 1356.6066 135.66066 1492.2673 1492.3

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Estimated cost of Decentralized Biogas units(DBU) for MSW feedstock Table 2 Unit with 2 cu.m capacity(2.55m middle diameter) Sr.No Item 1 Site clearing 2 Excavation for structure 3 12 mm Brick Masonry wall 4 12 mm Brick Masonry Mixing Chamber 5 Plastering to internal side of brick wall with 1:3 mix ratio 12 mm Brick masonry Displacement Chamber 50cmX50 cm 6 internal size 7 8 cm thick RCC cover for displacement chamber(65cmx65cm) 8 8 cm thick RCC cover to mixing chamber(65cmx65cm) 9 150 mm PVC feeding Inlet pipe 10 15-20 mm GPS gas collection & distribution pipe 11 Improved stove Sub Total 10% contingency Total Estimated cost of capital per house hold(Birr) Unit sq.m cu.m sq.m sq.m sq.m sq.m sq.m sq.m LM LM pcs Quantity 6.5025 5.25125 10.43252 1.5725 5.216259 2.7225 0.4225 0.4225 2 10 2 Rate 3 15 70 70 30 70 64.00 64.00 100 30 30 Amount(Br) 19.5075 78.76875 730.27623 110.075 156.48776 190.575 27.04 27.04 200 300 60 1899.7702 189.97702 2089.7473 1044.9

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Estimated cost of Decentralized Biogas units(DBU) for MSW feedstock Table 3 Unit with 3 cu.m capacity(2.90m middle diameter) Sr.No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Item Site clearing Excavation for structure 12 mm Brick Masonry wall 12 mm Brick Masonry Mixing Chamber Plastering to internal side of brick wall with 1:3 mix ratio 12 mm Brick masonry Displacement Chamber 50cmX50 cm internal size 8 cm thick RCC cover for displacement chamber(65cmx65cm) 8 cm thick RCC cover to mixing chamber(65cmx65cm) 150 mm PVC feeding Inlet pipe 15-20 mm GPS gas collection & distribution pipe Improved stove Sub Total 10% contingency Total Estimated cost of capital per house hold(Birr) Unit sq.m cu.m sq.m sq.m sq.m sq.m sq.m sq.m LM LM pcs Quantity 8.41 7.205 13.37505 1.5725 6.687523 2.7225 0.4225 0.4225 2 10 2 Rate 3 15 70 70 30 70 64.00 64.00 100 30 30 Amount(Br) 25.23 108.075 936.25321 110.075 200.62569 190.575 27.04 27.04 200 300 60 2184.9139 218.49139 2403.4053 1201.7

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Estimated cost of Decentralized Biogas units(DBU) for MSW feedstock Table 4 Unit with 4 cu.m capacity(3.18m middle diameter) Sr.No Item 1 Site clearing 2 Excavation for structure 3 12 mm Brick Masonry wall 4 12 mm Brick Masonry Mixing Chamber 5 Plastering to internal side of brick wall with 1:3 mix ratio 12 mm Brick masonry Displacement Chamber 50cmX50 cm 6 internal size 7 8 cm thick RCC cover to mixing chamber(65cmx65cm) 8 8 cm thick RCC cover for displacement chamber(65cmx65cm) 9 150 mm PVC feeding Inlet pipe 10 15-20 mm GPS gas collection & distribution pipe 11 Improved stove Sub Total 10% contingency Total Estimated cost of capital per house hold(Birr) Unit sq.m cu.m sq.m sq.m sq.m sq.m sq.m sq.m LM LM pcs Quantity 10.1124 9.0562 15.98399 1.5725 7.991996 2.7225 0.4225 0.4225 2 15 3 Rate 3 15 70 70 30 70 64.00 64.00 100 30 30 Amount(Br) 30.3372 135.843 1118.8794 110.075 239.75987 190.575 27.04 27.04 200 450 90 2619.5494 261.95494 2881.5044 960.5

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Estimated cost of Decentralized Biogas units(DBU) for MSW feedstock Table 5 Unit with 6 cu.m capacity(3.60 m middle diameter) Sr.No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Item Site clearing Excavation for structure 12 mm Brick Masonry wall 12 mm Brick Masonry Mixing Chamber Plastering to internal side of brick wall with 1:3 mix ratio 12 mm Brick masonry Displacement Chamber 50cmX50 cm internal size 8 cm thick RCC cover for displacement chamber(65cmx65cm) 8 cm thick RCC cover to mixing chamber(65cmx65cm) 150 mm PVC feeding Inlet pipe 15-20 mm GPS gas collection & distribution pipe Improved stove Sub Total 10% contingency Total Estimated cost of capital per house hold(Birr) Unit sq.m cu.m sq.m sq.m sq.m sq.m sq.m sq.m LM LM pcs Quantity 12.96 12.48 20.31799 1.5725 10.159 2.7225 0.4225 0.4225 2 20 4 Rate 3 15 70 70 30 70 64.00 64.00 100 30 30 Amount(Br) 38.88 187.2 1422.2594 110.075 304.76988 190.575 27.04 27.04 200 600 120 3227.8393 322.78393 3550.6233 887.66

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Preliminary design report for Mekelle City Integrated Solid Waste Management Annex-H: Observations on collection at Land fill site Day-I (October 27, 2005) Observation time 3:20 AM local time: Loader Plate No.00518 Location 22 is the site first serviced by the loader (PN 00518) in the next day 28th Oct. and considered as the last redeposition site on the first day (Oct.27); the loader did not transported loaded container after 3:25 AM on the first day; It was observed to be off-route after it had redeposited the WEWEKMA (Location 26) container to Adis Alem Bus Station (Location 22) due to unknown reason;

PN 0075 Loader: First reached disposal site 8:20 PM local time on Oct.27th 2005; Returned to city at 11:05 PM to dispatch location; (Edaga Finjal---D1------- Egrie Hawlti ---- D1------Edaga Bieray - D1---Alpha KG----DL)-Dispatch location DAY-2 Oct.28th 2005 PL 0075(Early time 1:30AM-Late time 11:12PM) (DL--- Alpha KG-----D1-----Mesfin----D1------Dejen-----D1---Kebele 15-- D1----Hadush Mender Kebele 05-----DL) PL 00518(Early time 3:33AM-Late time 9:00PM) (DL--- Addis Alem Bus Station----D1----- Gotera L8----D1------ Kebele 20 L13---DL) DAY THREE: Oct.29th 2005 PL 0075(Early time 1:22AM-Late time 10:10PM) (DL---Debre Damo L15--D1----Semein Health center L30----D1---Muslim Cemetery L4--D1--Enda Cherkos L33--- D1----Sewhi Negus L28---D1--- Edaga Finjal L2---- D1 ---- Edaga Finjal---DL) PL 00518 (Early time 1:50AM-Late time 5:27PM) (DL---Kebele 20 L13--D1-------Adihawsi Endatsaba L18 or Adihawsi Taxi Terminal L47---DL) DAY FOUR: Oct.30th 2005 PL 0075(Early time 1:22AM-Late time 10:10PM) (DL--- WEWEKMA L26---D1---- near EELPA L27--- D1----Ayder Livestock market L5- D1--- Mayduba L10---- D1------- WEWEKMA L26--- DL); PL 00518 (Early time 1:05AM-Late time 3:32PM) (DL--Gebriel church L24---D1--Business Taxi Terminal L17---D1--Business Taxi Terminal L17---DL) PROMISE CONSULT: CONSULTING ARCHITECTS AND ENGINEERS 138

Preliminary design report for Mekelle City Integrated Solid Waste Management DAY FIVE: Oct.31th 2005(21-02-98) PL 0075(Early time 2:08AM-Late time 10:08PM) (DL---Kebele 19---D1---- Edaga Bieray L19--- D1----Live stock market Kebele 17 D1---- Live stock market Kebele 17----DL) PL 00518 (Early time 2:35AM-Late time 2:45PM) (DL---Axum Hotel L21-- D1---- Edaga Adi Haki L41---- D1----- Edaga Adi Haki---DL) DAY SIX: Nov 1 2005(21-02-98) PL 0075(Early time 2:52AM-Late time 9:58PM) (DL--- Enkodo L3--D1--- AdishumDuhun L34--- D1---- Agricultural office L9---D1--WEWEKMA L26--DL) PL 00518: No collection service provided on the fifth day; the loader was ideal or on maintenance service; DAY SEVEN: Nov 2 2005(21-02-98) PL 0075(Early time 2:10AM-Late time 10:48PM) (DL--- Alpha KG--D1--- Edaga Finjal --- D1---- Denbesco---D1---Ayder Low Cost Housing D1----Abreha Castel------ D1---- Abreha Castel---DL) PL 00518: the loader was idle or on maintenance service;

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Preliminary design report for Mekelle City Integrated Solid Waste Management

ANNEX-I: INSTITUTION AND LEGISLATION RELATED TO SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT 1. At Federal Level The Institution and Legislation issues related to Environmental security and Solid Waste Management in Ethiopia at the national level are citied below. The Ethiopian constitution Article 44 says, all persons have the right to a clean and healthy environment". Currently, there is no federal legislation dealing comprehensively with all aspects of solid waste management; The National Health Policy has given priority to the development of environmental heath, promotion of intersectoral collaboration in developing safe disposal of human, household, agricultural and industrial wastes, encouragement of recycling, attention for healthy environment and prevention of environmental pollution from hazardous chemical wastes; At federal level, the Public Health Proclamation No 200/2000 has provisions on waste handling and disposal; Environmental Protection Authority (EPA) also deals with solid waste issues for sustainable use of natural resources in the country. It is mandated to develop standards and norms for the protection of national environment; National Environmental Policy gives due attention to sustainable development, polluter pays principle, recycling and other environmental issues like Financing Public awareness and participation Institutional arrangement Legal support

At federal level, Ministry of Health plays a leading and direct role in matters related to Public Health and Sanitation for which solid waste management is part of public health issues. The provisions stipulated in the federal proclamation No 200/2000 with regard to solid waste management (SWM) enables the Ministry of Health to plan the way forward for SWM to meet the challenges of the nation. 1.1 Environmental Protection Policies Before specifically dealing with the policies and regulations related to waste it would be better to indicate the highlights of the environmental policy of the country. The overall goal of the Environmental Policy of Ethiopia is to improve and enhance the health and quality of life of all Ethiopians and to promote sustainable social and economic development through sound management and use of natural, human and cultural resources and the environment as a whole so as to meet the needs of the present generation without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. PROMISE CONSULT: CONSULTING ARCHITECTS AND ENGINEERS 140

Preliminary design report for Mekelle City Integrated Solid Waste Management

In the Ethiopian EPA Sectoral Environmental Policies, issues related to urban environment and solid waste management practices are resolved under Article 3.4 (water resources),Article 3.5(Energy Resource), Article 3.7 (Human Settlement, Urban Environment and Environmental Health) , Article 3.8 (control of Hazardous Materials and Pollution From Industrial Waste ,and Article 3.9( Atmospheric Pollution and Climate Change). The policies that pertain both to solid and liquid waste are pinpointed here below under each Sectoral policies. Article 3.4 Water resources: d. To promote the protection of the interface between water bodies and land (example lakes shores, river banks, and wetlands) Article 3.5 Energy Resource: b. To promote the development of renewable energy sources and reduce the use of fossil energy resources for ensuring sustainability and for protecting the environment, as well as for their continuation into the future; Article 3.7 Human Settlement, Urban Environment and Environmental Health: b. To integrate harmoniously, human produced and natural elements in the development and management of urban areas in order to maintain the natural ecosystems; c. To ensure that improved environmental sanitation be placed highest on the federal and regional agendas for achieving sustainable urban development; e. To recognize the importance of and help bring about behavioral change through education and public awareness of environmental sanitation problems in trying to achieve demanddriven community led programs of improved urban environments as well as the sustainable use and maintenance of sanitation facilities; f. To bring about a sound partnership between the government and communities in the development of an integrated sanitation delivery system, and to foster the supplementary role of NGOs; g. To ensure that housing and sanitation technologies and regulatory standards are set at a level and cost that are within reach of the users and flexible enough to be adaptable to the very varied socio-economic, epidemiological, climatic and physical site conditions, which are found in urban areas; h. To give priority to waste collection services and its safe disposal; m. To undertake studies, which identify suitable sanitary land fill sites in the major cities and towns of Ethiopia;

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Preliminary design report for Mekelle City Integrated Solid Waste Management p. To the extent possible to recycle liquid and solid wastes from homesteads and establishments for the production of energy, fertilizer and for other uses; Article 3.8 Control of Hazardous Materials and Pollution from Industrial Waste: a. To adhere to the precautionary principle of minimizing and where possible preventing discharges of substances ,biological materials or their fragments from industrial plants and personal or communal appliances or any other external sources that could be harmful, and to disallow the discharge when they are likely to be hazardous; b. To adopt the polluter pays principle while endorsing the precautionary principle since pollution is likely to occur, and ensure that polluting enterprises and municipalities and Wereda councils provide their own appropriate pollution control facilities; c. To establish clear linkage between the control of pollution and other policy areas including water resources, agriculture, human settlements, health and disaster prevention and preparedness; d. To provide adequate regulation of agriculture (crop and livestock) chemicals and micro-organisms; e. To establish safe limits for the location of sanitary land fill sites in the vicinity of wells, bore holes and dams, and issue regulations to enforce them; g. To review and develop guidelines for waste disposal, public and industrial hygiene and technologies to enable the cost effective implementation of defined standards of control, and to issue regulations to enforce them; h. To formulate and implement country wide strategy and guidelines on the management of wastes from the medical, agriculture and other sectors that may use potentially hazardous biological organisms, their fragments or chemicals, and to issue the necessary regulations to enforce them; i. To establish a system for monitoring compliance with land, air, and water pollution control standards and regulations, the handling and storage of hazardous and dangerous materials, mining operations, public and industrial hygiene, waste disposal, and water quality; j. To maintain an up-to-date register of toxic, hazardous and radioactive substances, and to make the information available on request; l. To enforce exhaustive labeling and detailing of the contents usage and expiry date of foods, drugs, cosmetics, other chemicals, and when any of the contents are poisonous or dangerous in any other way, the fixing of strikingly visible labels to that effect; m. To promote waste minimization processes, including the efficient recycling of materials wherever possible; n. To create by law an effective system of control, distribution, utilization and disposal after use of expiry of chemicals, biological organisms or fragments of organisms that could be hazardous but are required for use; p. To hold a legally liable an employer who deploys employees in using or handling hazardous materials without adequately training them on how to deal with the hazard and without adequate equipment to protect each one of them for physical harm or disease starts in the place of work or away from it ; q. To foster better understanding of the dangerous effects of chemicals and Organisms and their fragments through the provision of information in a form understandable to users, and provide or enforce the provision of information on appropriate methods and technologies for the treatment and disposal of wastes; PROMISE CONSULT: CONSULTING ARCHITECTS AND ENGINEERS 142

Preliminary design report for Mekelle City Integrated Solid Waste Management

Article 3.9 Atmospheric Pollution and Climate Change: d. To actively participate in protecting the ozone layer since, as the highlands of Ethiopia already have a thin protective atmosphere and are liable to suffer Agricultural losses and adverse health effects from exposure to ultraviolet rays; The issues of control of air pollution in relation to modern waste transformation facilities like incinerators and traditional methods like bonfire and uncontrolled burning of solid waste materials are raised under Article 3.8. The traditional methods of waste combustion could not be justified as good practices in any society, but this practice is common in the project city. 1.2 Urban Development policy The urban development policy of Ethiopia also has given attention to the protection of urban environmental. The policy focuses on the inevitability of the implementation of the national and regional environmental protection policy, rules and regulations on urban centers. Some of the issues that the policy discusses with regard to environmental protection are: giving attention to environment at city plan preparation stage; focus on reusing/recycling wastes and encouraging those engaged in such activities; build the capacity of institutions in all aspects that can protect/control pollutions that arise from house hold and institutions; Making efforts to change the attitude, culture and belief of citizens towards preventing pollution and protecting the environment; ensuring sustainable and coordinated community participation with this regard.;

In addition to the above policy, there are relevant proclamations and regulation both at federal and regional level. Article 12 of proclamation 200/2000 of the public health proclamation of the Federal state issued on waste handling and disposal declares the following. . Any person shall collect waste in an especially designated place and in a manner that does not affect the health of the society. No person shall dispose solid, liquid or any other waste in a manner that contaminates the environment or affects the health of the society. Any solid, liquid and other wastes generated from hospitals should be handled with special care and their disposal procedures should meet the standards set by the public health authorities. 2. At Regional Level The constitution of the Tigrai National Regional state article 44 declares that all citizens in the region have the right to live in a clean and healthy environment. Based on the constitution and Federals public health proclamation the Regional Government had also issued city proclamation, hygiene and sanitation regulation. The city proclamation of TNRS declares that providing or ensuring the provision of environmental services is one of the major functions of cities. PROMISE CONSULT: CONSULTING ARCHITECTS AND ENGINEERS 143

Preliminary design report for Mekelle City Integrated Solid Waste Management

The Tigrai National Regional State had also issued hygiene and sanitation regulation number 4/1997. According to this regulation, the disposal of solid wastes along roads, avenues, rivers, ponds, lakes and other unauthorized sites is prohibited. The proclamation also states that neighborhoods within 20 meters of distance of unauthorized dumpsites are considered as being disposed by the neighborhoods. This proclamation is also applicable to liquid wastes as well. With regard to the solid waste storage equipment, the Regional Hygiene and Sanitation Regulation stated that the waste storage facilities must be waterproof, washable, and insectproof covered with a lid and it can be made up of sheet of iron or plastic. When we come to the Institutions, at regional level, Bureau of Heath, Environmental Protection and Land Administration Authority, and Bureau of Urban Development and Construction are directly involved in solid waste management activities. Bureau of Health plays a leading and direct role in matters related to public health and sanitation for which solid waste management is part of public health issues; the recently established Environmental Protection and Land Administration Authority has also a direct leading role in matters related to environmental protection for which solid sedate management is part of environmental issues. And the Bureau of urban Development and Construction is the third regional body that is responsible to build the over all capacity of cities

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iii. ANNEX-J: SPECIFICATION FOR COMPOSTING i.Particle size distribution Particle size distribution of organic waste fraction of 25 to 75 mm ;Shred large size organic waste materials removed at pre-sorting site to the size range from 25 to 75 mm and place the shredded materials at pilling area; large size particles need to be shredded to desired size; ii.Carbon-nitrogen (C/N) ratio Initial values of C/N ratio between 25 and 50 are considered to achieve optimum composting. Literature values of % N and C/N ratio are used to find out the weight fractions of materials for blending and seeding. See values of C/N ratio in table. iii.Blending and seeding Bending and seeding of the organic waste materials collected from 01MSW, O2MSW,& 03MSW with digested sludge, raw sludge ,cow dung, poultry manure, biogas slurry and sawdust and water is considered and the optimum mix proportion of each fractions required for optimum performance of windrow aerobic composting units are determined. Weight of water, dry matter, nitrogen and carbon are computed for each 1 kg weight of organic compost ingredients and 1 kg of seeding matter considered for blending. Then the required amount of seeding matter is computed to achieve C/N ratio between 25 and 50. A weighted average amount of 310.88 gram of digested sludge should be blended with 5000 gm of main compost ingredient indicated in the table excluding mixed paper. The blended mix is composed of 1000 gm Grass >50mm or biomass(Bermuda grass) 1000 gm Grass <50mm or biomas(Bermuda grass) 1000 gm Food wastes 1000 gm Fruits & Vegetables 1000 Yard wastes 310.88 gm of Digested activated sludge If significant sawdust reaches the MRF, it should be accounted as part of the main organic ingredients in mix design. The total weight of mixed MSW composed of grass, food wastes, fruits and vegetables and yard wastes to be blended with 310.88 gm weighted average weight of digested sludge is 5.00 kg. The mix ratio between sludge to mixed MSW shall be 1 to 16.08, i.e. 1 part of digested sludge and 16.08 part of mixed MSW by weight. PROMISE CONSULT: CONSULTING ARCHITECTS AND ENGINEERS 145

Preliminary design report for Mekelle City Integrated Solid Waste Management

Similarly, blending mix proportions of waste materials are computed for other seeding materials such as raw sludge, manure, and urea. iv.Moisture content Initial optimum moisture content between 50 to 60% is considered and watering of pilled mixed and shredded organic waste will be done to achieve desired moisture content (MC). v.Mixing and turning Labor intensive mixing and turning is considered to aerate premature compost. Air mainly oxygen should reach all parts of the compost unit in the thermophilic phase. vi.Optimum temperature The optimum temperature for the thermophilic phase is 45 to 750C and optimum 550C and 20 to 400C for mesophilic phase with an optimum value of 350C.A thermophilic temperature range from 50 to 550C is also acceptable. No turning and mixing will be done in the mesophilic phase on regular basis. The thermophilic phase temperature is expected to kill all pathogens in the compost. Control of pathogens affect use of compost products and temperature ranges from 60 to 70 oc maintained for 24 hours kills the pathogens. Degree of decomposition during operation of units may be check measuring temperature Temperature below 15 oc will cause psychrophilic conditions and is not desirable for good performance of composting unit. vii.PH value PH value should remain 7 to 7.5. viii.Composting reactor The thermophilic reactors are batch flow reactors with periodic mixing and turning where as the mesophilic reactors are plug flow reactors as there is no turning and mixing in the maturation phase. The selected composting units are open windrow as these units require least resources in composting practices. The possible materials and geometry of the reactor are: Rectangular steel tank Rectangular wooden tank Triangular steel tank Triangular wooden tank Triangular wire mesh tank Rectangular wire mesh tank

Triangular reactors require more space in terms of plan area than rectangular reactors and the rectangular ones are suitable in areas where there is space limitation. As there is space limitation in urban areas, the use of rectangular reactors is highly commendable. ix.Composting period (tc) Thermophilic phase, ttc =25-27 days; PROMISE CONSULT: CONSULTING ARCHITECTS AND ENGINEERS 146

Preliminary design report for Mekelle City Integrated Solid Waste Management

Pilot plant study should be undertaken to determine the optimum composting periods at the project site. x.Volume and area of reactor High rate windrow composting could be achieved in small size cross-section with height from 1.80 to 2.2 m & 4.3 to 4.9m wide at the bottom; turning and mixing done twice in a week or every 84 hours; H= 2.00 m & W=4.60 m; Daily Organic loads, Vd (cu.m/d) Length and number of compost units: Total length of reactor: Lt= Vd*ttc/ (W*H) = Vd *27/ (2*4.6) =372.66 m (2005) = 604.65 m (2010) = 729.76 m (2015) 1714.24 m2 (2005) or 0.17 ha = 2781.39 m2 (2010) or 0.28 ha = 3356.90 m2 (2015) or 0.34 ha Total area for composting (Phase-I) At= Lt * W= Lt *4.6 = 1714.24 m2 (2005) or 0.17 ha = 2781.39 m2 (2010) or 0.28 ha = 3356.90 m2 (2015) or 0.34 ha Length of each reactor is given by L= Daily capacity/ (no.of units*W*H) (b) Mesophilic composting unit Activities: maturing first phase compost screening and packing xi.Composting period Mesophilic phase=24 to 26 days; xii.Screening Screenings of matured compost should be returned to the shredding and pilling stages and reprocessed; xiii.Optimum temperature

126.98

206.03

248.66

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Preliminary design report for Mekelle City Integrated Solid Waste Management Temperature range from 20 to 400C for mesophilic phase with an optimum value of 350C. No turning and mixing will be done in the mesophilic phase on regular basis. Degree of decomposition during operation of units may be check measuring temperature Temperature below 15 oc will cause psychrophilic conditions and is not desirable for good performance of composting unit. xiv.Volume and area of reactor High rate windrow composting could be achieved in small size cross-section with height from 1.80 to 2.2 m & 4.3 to 4.9m wide at the bottom; turning and mixing done twice in a week or very 84 hours; H= 2.00 m & W=4.60 m; Daily Organic loads, Vd (cu.m/d)

126.98

206.03

248.66

Length and number of compost units: Total length of reactor: Lt= Vd*ttc/(W*H) = Vd *26/(2*4.6)= 358.86 m (2005) = 582.26 m (2010) = 702.73 m (2015) Total area for composting (Phase-II) At= Lt * W= Lt *4.6 = 1650.76 m2 (2005) or 0.17 ha = 2678.40 m2 (2010) or 0.27 ha = 3232.56 m2 (2015) or 0.32 ha Total area of land required for phase-I and phase-II composting is At= 3365m2 (2005) or 0.34ha = 5459.79 m2 (2010) or 0.55ha = 6589.46 m2 (2015) or 0.66 ha Length of each reactor is given by L= Daily capacity/ (no. of units*W*H) xv.Total area requirement Land requirement of unit with capacity of 50 ton/d is around 6070.5 to 8094 m2, which means 121.41 to 161.88 m2/ ton/day. The average total area requirement will be 142 m2/ ton/day or 0.014 ha/ ton/day. The approximate total area for the composting suggested in literatures is quit lower than the estimated requirements obtained for the design composting periods. This type of arrangement is suitable for transferring thermophilic compost to Maturation units provided for Mesophilic phase with manual labor. Thermophilic units Adjoining sides with clearance for aeration and protect contamination of matured compost PROMISE CONSULT: CONSULTING ARCHITECTS AND ENGINEERS 148

Preliminary design report for Mekelle City Integrated Solid Waste Management

Mesophilic units

Estimated Cost of capital (excluding land value): The cost of material high-end MRF with feed stock derived from processing of commingled wastes; with enclosed building with concrete floors, MRF equipments with unit operations (shredding, screening and conveying system, and in-vessel composting; enclosed building for curing of compost product =between 25,000 to 50,000 per ton per day. This is equipment and capita intensive facility and 25 to 50 % cost reduction could be achieved in labor-intensive windrow composting facility; Daily Total loads (ton/d) Estimated cost of MRF (2005-2010): Capital-intensive MRF: 843375 to 1686750 Eth.Birr Labor intensive MRF: 421688 to 843375 Eth.Birr Total land for MRF: A= 1.5* 0.34ha = 0.51 (2005) =1.5*0.55ha= 0.825 (2010) =1.5* 0.66 ha= 0.99 (2015) Land area of 0.83 ha (2005-2010) & additional land of 0.17 (2010-2015) Proper selection of equipments, consideration of environmental control and aesthetic aspects are the additional factors considered in design of MRF. 3.15 3.86 4.71

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iv. ANNEX-K: DECENTRALIZED BIOGAS UNITS (DBU) The generation of energy in the form of methane from house holds organic fraction of garbage could be considered in low income groups of the city. The feed stock materials could be mix of Organic solid waste materials Cows Manure Poultry manure Pit manure or Toilet manure or human waste Basic toilet services required for the disposal of human feces on-site may not be provided in the households as the human waste could be used in the production of biogas in the house holds. The daily human wastes and urine can be fed to the biogas units in a controlled manner directly from the Toilet superstructure. There is no need to erect the substructure or toilet pit in case of individual household biogas units. The contents of toilet pit, which is mainly digested sludge, could also be emptied and applied to shared decentralized biogas units. Design parameters: Average per capita solid waste generations: Years Average rate of generation(l/c/d) Average rate of generation(kg/c/d) Daily available quantity of organic solid wastes (liter/d) Daily per capita available quantity of organic solid wastes (kg/d) Available organic solid waste in single family (kg/d)

2005 0.92 0.27 0.29 0.086 0.421

2010 1.18 0.34 0.38 0.1081 0.5296

2015 1.21 0.35 0.385 0.1113 0.5452

Average daily solid waste feed: The daily requirements are taken from literature written on biogas units running with cow dung feed stock materials, which has an estimated organic content ranging fron 48 to 56% in dry state. More quantities of solid wastes may be required than indicated in table below. The PROMISE CONSULT: CONSULTING ARCHITECTS AND ENGINEERS 150

Preliminary design report for Mekelle City Integrated Solid Waste Management actual requirements of solid waste need to be determined from pilot plant studies before implementation of projects in the city. Gas yield for MSW Solids loading: The estimated gas yield in low solids anaerobic digestion ranges from 0.25 to 0.45 m3 / kg of biodegradable volatile solids (bVS) destroyed in anaerobic digestion. The production rate ranges from 1.5 to 2.5 m3 per m3 of reactor capacity. Composition of gas: The estimated proportion of methane ranges from 50 to 70 % of total gas production in case of MSW and the rest 30 to 50% represent carbon dioxide gas. The estimated proportion of methane in case of manure used as fed stock material ranges from 65 to 70% and carbon dioxide from 30 to 35%. Design considerations for Decentralized Biogas unit with MSW fed stock (2005) Standard reactor size (cu.m) <1 1 2 3 4 Gas yield in low solids anaerobic digestion (m3/kg bVS) <0.25 0.25 0.30 0.35 0.40 Gas yield (m3/ m3 reactor size ) <1.70 1.70 1.90 2.10 2.30 Solids retention time(days) 20 20 20 20 20 Methane production for 60 % 0.90 1.02 1.14 1.26 1.38 composition (m3/ m3 reactor size) Daily per capita available quantity of organic solid wastes (kg/d) 0.086 0.086 0.086 0.086 0.086 Available organic solid waste in single family (kg/d) 0.421 0.421 0.421 0.421 0.421 Available bVS in single family Within 20 days(kg) 8.42 8.42 8.42 8.42 8.42 Total gas production for 2.11 2.11 2.53 2.95 3.37 3 20 d cycle(m ) Required reactor volume per family m3 ) 1.24 1.24 1.33 1.40 1.47 Number of HH to share standard Size reactor 1 1 2 2 3 Contd Daily available organic solid (kg/d) Daily methane production(liter/family ) Average daily water requirement (liter/kg waste) Gas holding capacity as % produced (67% consumed) Per capita methane generation (liter/d) Arch segments side ratio 0.421 <63.15 0.421 63.15 0.842 75.78 0.842 88.41 1.263 101.04

6 0.45 2.50 20 1.50

0.086 0.421 8.42 3.79

1.52 4

1.684 113.67

0.85 33.00 <12.89 5:1

0.85 33.00 12.89 5:1

0.85 33.00 15.47 5:1

0.85 33.00 18.04 5:1

0.85 33.00 20.62 5:1

0.85 33.00 23.19 5:1 151

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Preliminary design report for Mekelle City Integrated Solid Waste Management

Capacity of unit: The use of individual (private) units or shared units could be considered in low income households. The individual house hold units will have a total capacity of 1 m3 or less. The shared units may have varying size from 2 upto 6 m3 depending on the number of households sharing the bio gas unit and the availability of space in the house holds. The optional sizes of the units are 0.25, 0.50, 0.75,1, 2,3,4,5, and 6 m3 . Type of unit: A biogas unit with maximum possible surface area will be provided. To achieve this requirement, segmental spherical units buried below ground surface will be considered. Determination of process loading rates The loading rates of organic fraction at the composting facility in year 2005 is 3.15 ton/d, which is 81.60% of the full plant capacity expected in year 2010.The full capacity in 2010 will be 3.86 ton/d. Quantities of MSW and rganic fraction from 01MSW, 02MSW, & 03MSW sources is shown on table 4.1. Table 4.1 Quantities of MSW from 01MSW, 02MSW, & 03MSW sources Years 2005 2010 Average weekly quantity (cu.m/wk) 1906.06 2491.16 Average weekly quantity (kg/wk) 22020.03 27044.37 Average Daily presorting loads (cu.m/d) 272.29 355.88 Average daily Presorting load of non-organic wastes (cu.m/d) 145.3 1 149.85 Average Daily Organic loads (cu.m/d) 126.98 206.03 Average Total loads (ton/d) 3.15 3.86

2020 3004.58 32987.35 429.23 180.57 248.66 4.71

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ANNEX-L: MANUALLY LOADED AND MECHANICALLY UNLOADED REAR LOADING COMPACTORS WITH LOADING CAPACITY OF 15.30 CU.M Table 3.7 Labor requirements for manual curbside collection using one-person crew; Average number of Stationery containers and/or boxes Pickup time, Per pick up locations Collector min/location 1 or 2 0.50 -0.60 3 or more , or Unlimited service 0.92

The average distance to be covered for average speed =8.00km/h and pick up time o f 1.766 hours is = 8.88 km/h * 1.766 h= 15.68 km For V=8 km /h , Phcs =1.176 hours, round trip distance, X=15.68 km, n=1, tp=0.92 and unlimited service from stationery containers and/or boxes per pick up locations, the number of pick up locations per trip NP= 1.176 * 60*2/ 0.92 = 153.39 pick up locations per trip The number of pick up locations in service area with solid waste collection capacity of Vp are given by NP = (Vsw *r)/ Vp Where, Vsw =volume of collection vehicle (tractor-trailer), cu.m/trip PROMISE CONSULT: CONSULTING ARCHITECTS AND ENGINEERS 153

Preliminary design report for Mekelle City Integrated Solid Waste Management Vp =volume of solid waste collected per pick up locations, cu.m/location r =compaction ratio, 2 to 2.5 for manual loading collection method; The volume of solid waste that will be collected per pick up locations with a compactor having a holding capacity of 15.30 cu.m is estimated to be Vp = 15.30*2.25/ 153.39 = 224.43 liter/location OR = 4 containers each with 60 liter holding capacity per location

The desired number of locations per trip required to collect waste from 75% of the house holds in 2205 is determined below. The average rate of waste generation in residential sources in 2005 is 0.92 liter/c/d and the average numbers of households (NHH) served at a location will be NNH= 224.43 liter/location / (0.92 liter/c/d*4.9) = 49.785 house hold units/ location (Considering average household size of 4.9 in the city) This means nearly 2.5 blocks in modern residential areas could be served at a location provided that the house holds hold generated wastes within their own primes until transferred to the compactor collection trips. The total desired number of locations per trip to cover 75 % of the house holds in residential areas in 2005, i.e 0.75* 44255.1=33191.325 HHs, will be (NP) desired = 33191.325 house holds/ 49.785 house hold units/ location = 666.69 locations Nearly 667 permanent locations in residential land uses are required to collect waste from 75% of the household units with compactor service that will serve 2.5 modern blocks at a time in 2005.The required number of trips in a working day to cover all residential households in 2005 will be = 666.69 locations /153.39 pick up locations per trip = 4.35 trips per day The estimated required working hours in a day with average total time of 2.49 h per compactor trip, average speed of 8 km/h , average t1 value of 0.0694 h and t2 values of 0.194 h becomes H= [(0.0694 + 0.194) + 4.35 * 2. 49)/ (1-0.15) = (0.2634 + 10.832)/ 0.85 = 13.054 Hours The number of compactors required in primary collection fro 75 % service coverage in residential areas considering normal eight working hours in a day PROMISE CONSULT: CONSULTING ARCHITECTS AND ENGINEERS 154

Preliminary design report for Mekelle City Integrated Solid Waste Management

=13.054/8 = 1.63 compactors (virtually 2 compactors with 15.30 cu.m capacity) Therefore, it is necessary to engage two manually loaded and mechanically unloaded rear loading compactors with loading capacity of 15.30 cu.m .Alternatively; it is feasible to provide the same type of compactor with loading capacity of 28.30 cu.m. Breakthrough time: The breakthrough time in years for leachate to penetrate a clay liner of a given thickness can be estimated from t= d2 / K (d+h) Where, t= breakthrough time in years (5 years), yr d=thickness of clay liner, mm =effective porosity of clay liner, % K=Coefficient of permeability or hydraulic conductivity of liner, mm/yr h=hydraulic head or driving force (maximum depth of leachate in the pond i.e. 0.90 m), mm The breakthrough thickness of linear materials can be calculated for minimum design life time of the land filling sites, which is 5 years. The coefficient of permeability K value vary from 10-6 to 10-8 cm/s or 3.15 x 102 to 3.15 x 100 mm/yr and the Average value of K for clay liners is 1.59 x102 mm/yr. The effective porosity for clay materials range from 0.10 to 0.30 and average value is 0.20. The estimated thickness of clay liner for evaporation pond as well as land filling sites is given by 5 = d2 *0.20 / 1.59 x102 *(900+d) 795(900+d) = 0.20 d2 (=quadratic equation) d2 -795 d 3577500 =0; d= (-795+3865.49)/2 =1535.25 mm or 1.54 m clay liner This thickness value will be determined for site specific soil and permeability values. Series of ponds will be provided each serving five years time.

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Annex M: Summary of demand projection, component sizing, Operation and Maintenance Analysis (for achieving 100% collection efficiency in 2020)

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Annex N: Summary of demand projection, component sizing, Operation and Maintenance Analysis ( for achieving 100% collection efficiency in 2010)

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Annex N: Environmental Impact Assessment

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Preliminary design report for Mekelle City Integrated Solid Waste Management 12. REFERENCE

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