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Modes

of Participation: Individual Identity in School Bullying and Historical Case Studies


A Two Week Unit Plan //// University of Pennsylvania Graduate School of Education EDUC 627 Professor Karen Clark Fall 2012 Jaimie Stevenson

PART 1 Unit Title: Modes of Participation: Individual Identity in School Bullying and Historical Case Studies Subject/Topic Areas: World History Time Frame: 20th centuryPresent Designed by: Jaimie Stevenson For: Grade 9 in the Focus on Success Program at Northeast High School Key Words: bullying, the other, individual, group, identity, agency, perspective, formation, choice, membership, exclusion, discrimination, tolerance, negligence, universe of obligation, culture, race, experience, civil war, genocide, cynicism, skepticism, denial, acknowledgement, bully, upstander, bystander, perpetrator, victim, mirroring, empathy, validation, primary sources, secondary sources PART 1A: Rationale & Summary RATIONALE This unit plan describes a series of ten lessons that engage students through the question: Do nations, groups, or individuals have the right to say, You dont belong here? The motivation for the unit is my observation of the pervasive macro- and micro-aggressive bullying that takes place daily in my classroom and across the Focus community at Northeast High School. I want my students to consider episodes in history when nations, groups, and individuals made choices about how to participate in acts of bystanding, negligence, intolerance, and bullying such as ostracism, exclusion, and genocide, as well as acts of upstanding, including small and large acts of resistance. Students do not have sufficient opportunity to consider themselves as actors in history, nor to consider history as being full of individual actors. This unit seeks to challenge the attention we pay to monolithic heroes and villains, and the monolithic authorship of history. My two academic goals for the unit are for students to conceive of the individual as an agent in history, and for students to compare primary sources to evaluate perspectives on history. Both of these tasks require that the student engage in identity work to locate themselves in their individual present. Before investigating individuals in history, my students must be able to identify themselves as choice-making individuals in the present. Inherent in evaluating different takes on historical events is the students perspectivethe present context from which the student is evaluating, or regarding the past. The unit is an exercise in knowing the present in order to learn about the past. The unit arc borrows from the Facing History and Ourselves (FHAO) curricular journey, following five stages of inquiry: 1. The Individual and Society a. How is my identity formed? How do I see myself? How do I see others? How do others see me? How do those perceptions shape the choices I make? 2. We and They

a. How do we acquire membership in a group? Who belongs? Who is in? Who is out? 3. History a. Examining case studies b. How can your own choices shape history and define an age? Was what happened in this history inevitable? 4. Judgment, Memory, and Legacy a. Good and evil, guilt and responsibility, prevention and punishment b. How do we remember the past? How do those memories shape the present? 5. Choosing to Participate a. How have individuals made a difference in history? Can I make a difference? How do I confront cynicism and practice healthy skepticism? I appreciate Facing Historys methodology as a thorough investigation into individual identity and group membership. The introductory days of the unit will focus on these themes, before beginning to examine four historical case studies. We will spend less time on FHAOs step four, which requires students to make moral judgments where I would rather have them build critical literacy skills. At this phase we will spend more time analyzing text, images, and films pertaining to the case studies. For a culminating project, students will choose from a select list of historical examples to analyze independently. They will follow the same model we executed as a class for the first four case studies, and produce a first-person narrative addressing the topic they choosewriting either a petition or a newspaper editorial from the perspective of a person living at the time of the historical episode. It is my goal for the culminating project to be a multiple intelligences assessment. The unit arc (and individual lessons) also borrows from TCIs model, orienting student work around a preview activity, considerate texts, graphically-organized reading notes, and a processing activity, plus an instruction-informed assessment. Content may also include visual media, basic skill building, experiential exercises, writing for understanding, persuasive writing, historical documentation, group-based problem solving, and deliberative dialogues.1 Throughout the unit, the methods for presenting primary sources and teaching students how to examine them comes from the Stanford History Education Groups (SHEG) Reading Like a Historian (RLH) curriculum. I must initiate my students into the work of reading historical sources, starting with short excerpts that I edit to an appropriate reading level. This unit intentionally incorporates more reading than my students typically complete during a class period. I hope the assignments both welcome my students into the task of critical reading, and challenge my students resilience as readersbut I am aware that I might have to amend the length of the assignments throughout the unit.

1 http://www.teachtci.com/social-studies-teaching-strategies.html but also find citation from TCI book

SUMMARY Day One: In this lesson students identify attributes of their own identities, and begin to distinguish between the traits they feel ownership of and the traits they feel are attached to them by others. The reading, Orientation Day, by Jennifer Wang offers a teenagers perspective on being an outsider to a group, and struggling to figure out what words to use to describe herself to strangers. Students create identity maps for Jennifer Wang, and then for themselves. Day Two: In this lesson students start to identify the common characteristics of group membership, and analyze the impact that such membership has on ones perception of the other. Activities include reading Rudyard Kiplings poem, We and They, and Jesus Colons first-person account, Little Things are Big, both of which convey individual perspectives that are informed by membership to one or more groups. Students conclude the lesson by writing their own first-person narrative about a tough choice that they or someone they know has made, particularly one that included stereotyping or prejudice. Day Three: In this lesson students read a story about school bullying and examine their own experiences with bullying in school. Students may keep their personal reflections confidential, but are encouraged to share as they are comfortable. In this lesson students also define their universe of obligation, to begin to explore the way their individual identity intertwines with the identities of others, and their responsibility towards others based on group and individual identity. The lesson explores many questions similar to Day Two. Day Four: In this lesson students explore the topic of school bullying in more detail. Unfortunately the documentary Bully has not yet been released in its full form. In lieu of watching a clip of the documentary, students will view the trailer, which introduces the topic and some of the statistics surrounding suicide and dropout rates due to school bullying. We use Eve Shalens story, The In-Group, which was assigned as homework, as the starting point for the days lesson. We compare the various case stories of bullying that weve encountered so far, as well as watching the somewhat esoteric 1970s animated film, Up is Down. All of the content of this days lesson is united by the objecting of exploring the parameters of what counts as bullyingboth at an interpersonal level and a systemic, or institutional level. The lesson concludes by introducing the four key terms that define the roles an individual can play in a situation of bullying: victim, perpetrator, bystander, or upstander. Day Five: This lesson asks students to consider how they would act in a controversial scenario, depending on their particular identities. Students begin to explore the concept of perspective through full-class discussion and individual writing assignments. The lesson also introduces students to the graphic organizer they will use throughout the rest of the unit to organize their notes on the historical Case Studies. Day Six: In this lesson students evaluate and analyze the first case study that they will diagram on the Case Studies Organizer. The 2009 example of peer bullying and administrative neglect, or bystandership, at South Philadelphia High School allows students to approach the topic 4

through a case study that is also at a Philadelphia School District public school. Students engage in silent conversations about the SPHS Case Study using the Big Papers method, wherein pairs of students respond to a printed passage by writing back and forth to one another on poster paper. Following the initial silent conversation, students circulate the room to observe others conversations about the same topic. Day Seven: In this lesson students examine a second case study, the role of the Women of Liberia Mass Action for Peace as a resistance effort in the Liberian Civil War. This group of women provides an example of individuals who occupy the role of both victim and upstander. Students collect information from class notes and viewing a video to fill out the Case Studies Organizer on the roles of individuals in this Case Study. Day Eight: In this lesson students briefly explore the history of the Holocaust, in order to analyze the underlying questions behind the Nuremburg trials: who should be held accountable for the deaths of 10 million people in Europe during the Holocaust? Using the Case Studies Organizer, students explore the complex task of assigning responsibility, and dig deeper in exploring the role of the individual in history. Activities include a Gallery Walk of photographs from Nazi Germany and the just-liberated concentration camps, which students examine using a Media Analysis protocol familiar to them, as well as a reflective writing exercise. Day Nine: In this lesson students examine a single image by the photojournalist Kevin Carter, which won him a Pulitzer Prize but also may have contributed to his eventual suicide. The photograph shows an emaciated child crawling across the ground, with a similarly-sized vulture on the ground behind her, apparently following her. Using the same observe-reflect-question Media Analysis Protocol used in previous lessons, students examine the role of the photographer as an actor in history. Day Ten: This lesson introduces students to the culminating project for the unit, although the project falls outside of the ten days of lessons outlined here. When I teach the unit in Spring 2013 I intend to structure students work on the project over the course of about five days. The purpose of the project is for each student to research an additional historical case study, and identify the roles of individuals in that case study using the same organizer-schema used throughout the unit. Finally, students will write a first-person narrative addressing the topic they choose, in the form of either a petition or a newspaper editorial from the perspective of a person living at the time of the historical episode. In addition to introducing the project, this lesson summarizes many of the concepts students have explored in the previous two weeks. Ideally, this lesson (and the previous nine lessons) serve to initiate a long-term conversation about the contingency of history (the historical record) upon the perspectives of individualsboth the actors involved, and the authors who record it.

PART 2: Enduring Understandings PA State Standards and objectives the unit addresses Historical Analysis and Skills Development: Analyze chronological thinking o 8.1.9.A.1: Difference between past, present and future o 8.1.9.A.5: Context for events Analyze and interpret historical sources o 8.1.9.B.2: Data in historical and contemporary maps, graphs, and tables o 8.1.9.B.3: Different historical perspectives o 8.1.9.B.4: Data from maps, graphs and tables o 8.1.9.B.5: Visual data presented in historical evidence Analyze the fundamentals of historical interpretation o 8.1.9.C.2: Reasons/causes for multiple points of view o 8.1.9.C.5: Author or source used to develop historical narratives o 8.1.9.C.6: Central issue Analyze and interpret historical research o 8.1.9D.4: Primary sources o 8.1.9D.5: Secondary sources o 8.1.9D.7: Credibility of evidence Evaluate chronological thinking o 8.1.12.A.3: Context for events Synthesize and evaluate historical sources o 8.1.12.B.3: Different historical perspectives Evaluate historical interpretation of events o 8.1.12.C.1: Impact of opinions on the perception of facts o 8.1.12.C.3: Multiple points of view Analyze and Interpret Historical Research Evaluate how conflict and cooperation among social groups and organizations impacted world history from 1450 to Present in Africa, Americas, Asia and Europe: o 8.4.12.D.1: Domestic Instability o 8.4.12.D.2: Ethnic and Racial Relations o 8.4.12.D.4: Immigration and Migration o 8.4.12.D.5: Military Conflicts Enduring Understandings A trustworthy historical record is composed of many perspectives. Understanding perspective is central to evaluating and analyzing history. Applying a critical lens to all media helps us understand what is going on in the world. Identity describes both individuals and groups. Groups are composed of individuals and individuals are usually members of multiple groups. Individuals have the agency to act independently or in-line with group values. Choosing to participate means that individuals may act in 4 different roles: victim, bystander, upstander, or perpetrator; an individual may occupy more than one role. Prejudice is a judgment about someone based on preconceived assumptions rather than actual experience with him/her. Community is a group of people with a shared goal, a group of people who live near one another, and/or a group that is part of your universe of obligation.

Journalists may or may not do more good than harm by occupying the role of a bystander. PART 2A: Essential Questions2 How is an individuals identity formed? How do I see myself? How do I see others? How do others see me? How do these perceptions shape the choices I make? How do our attitudes and beliefs influence our thinking? How does our thinking influence our actions? How do individuals acquire membership in a group? How can we keep our individuality and still be part of a group? How does our tendency to see us as unique but them as members of groups affect our behavior as well as our attitudes? Are we limited by the groups to which we belong, or can we act as individuals? Does an individuals identity change over time? What different roles can an individual occupy in any event? What external conditions (group, society, etc.) affect what role an individual can occupy? Who gets to decide in what groups you belong? Does being a member of a group mean that you believe everything the group stands for? How does your perspective about the other change when youre in the dominant group? When youre not a part of it? Who is in your "universe of responsibility?" Under what conditions might your universe of responsibility shift? In whose universe of responsibility do you reside? How can an individuals choices shape history for an entire group, community, or time period? How can your own choices affect your individual history? Was what happened in history inevitable? How do we remember the past? How do others remember the past? How do memories of the past shape the present? What is the role of the bystander in perpetuating injustices? What is the role of the bystander in bullying? Are journalists exempt from the criticism earned by other types of bystanders? Who should be held accountable for the atrocities committed during the Holocaust? Who should be tried? Are individuals responsible for their crimes if they have obeyed the laws of their nation? Or are there higher laws? If so, what are those laws?


curricula.

2 Some Essential Questions listed here originate from various sources in Facing History and Ourselves

Should those individuals be tried before a court of law? What is the purpose of a trial? Is it to punish evil-doing? Or is to set a precedent for the future? How does one determine punishment? Is everyone equally guilty? Do some people bear more responsibility than others? Can an entire nation be guilty?3 How can an individuals choices shape history for an entire group, community, or time period? What role do journalists play as individuals, when reporting on topics like death, war, and famine? How does studying the role of the individual change your understanding of how people (including yourself) act in your own life? What is the role of the individual in making change happen in your life?

3 Some Essential Questions included here are adapted from the teaching materials, Holocaust and Human

Behavior: A Resource Book, by M.S. Strom (1994) Brookline, MA: Facing History and Ourselves. P.419

PART 3 Instructional strategies to develop essential skills and content/concepts: Vocabulary log of important terms to which students add new entries throughout the unit. Do Now serves as a focusing question or hook for each lesson. Exit Ticket serves as a summary of the days lesson, a launching point to thinking about broader implications of the days lesson, and is in most cases a formative assessment for the teacher to gauge student understanding and engagement. T-chart allows students to organize their notes on a topic while reading. Identity Maps allow students to diagram attributes by which an individual identifies him/herself, and the various attributes that others may use to identify that individual. Big Paper/Silent Conversation allows students to engage difficult topics without facing issues of peer pressure or silencing in group conversation. All students participate, and all voices are given equal footing in the conversation. Unlike a typical class discussion, where students may stay silent or fail to listen to one another, in this exercise all students have the chance to read one anothers contributions, and everyone participates. Historical first-person narratives encourage students to write about an historical episode from the perspective of a person (real or imagined) living at that time. Reflective writing allows students to connect their personal experience to the topic of study. Take a Stand requires students to evaluate a scenario on the fly and formulate an opinion or stance on how they would respond to an issue. Text Rendering as a full class allows students to make an impressionistic summary of a text rather than a literal one. Students select sentences, phrases, and individual words that stick with them, and share these selections with the class. Materials/equipment: Unique to each days lesson; see below. Accommodations: Unique to each days lesson; see below. PART 4: Assessment Evidence Performance Tasks: Unique to each days lesson; see below. Other Evidence of Learning: Unique to each days lesson; see below. Student self-assessment: Unique to each days lesson; see below.

PART 5: Daily Lesson Plans DAY ONE: Individual Identity RATIONALE: In this lesson students identify attributes of their own identities, and begin to distinguish between the traits they feel ownership of and the traits they feel are attached to them by others. The reading, Orientation Day, by Jennifer Wang offers a teenagers perspective on being an outsider to a group, and struggling to figure out what words to use to describe herself to strangers. Students create identity maps for Jennifer Wang, and then for themselves. ESSENTIAL UNDERSTANDINGS: Identity describes both individuals and groups. Groups are composed of individuals and individuals are usually members of multiple groups. Individuals have the agency to act independently or in-line with group values. Choosing to participate means that individuals may act in 4 different roles: victim, bystander, upstander, or perpetrator; an individual may occupy more than one role. An individual may occupy multiple roles at once. A trustworthy historical record is composed of many perspectives. Understanding perspective is central to evaluating and analyzing history. GUIDING QUESTIONS: How is an individuals identity formed? How do I see myself? How do I see others? How do others see me? How do these perceptions shape the choices I make? How do our attitudes and beliefs influence our thinking? How does our thinking influence our actions? How do individuals acquire membership in a group? How can we keep our individuality and still be part of a group? How does our tendency to see us as unique but them as members of groups affect our behavior as well as our attitudes? Are we limited by the groups to which we belong, or can we act as individuals? Does an individuals identity change over time? What different roles can an individual occupy in any event? What external conditions (group, society, etc.) affect what role an individual can occupy? OBJECTIVES: Identify characteristics of individual identity Identify groups to which we belong, and analyze the impact of those groups on individual identity Read Jennifer Wangs story, Orientation Day Apply the concept of identity mapping to the character of Jennifer Wang ASSESSMENTS/PERFORMANCE TASKS: Students outline an identity map for themselves

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Students outline an identity map for Jennifer Wang Students interpret Jennifer Wangs identity by drawing a T-chart to guide their reading notes Students demonstrate reading independently and aloud ACCOMODATIONS: The identity mapping activities allow students to engage the assignment at their individual skill levels. The reading assignment is suited for a young adult audience, and the combination of reading independently and aloud allows auditory and verbal learners both to access the content. MATERIALS + PREP: Prior to Day One, the teacher cleans old classwork out of the folders students keep in a crate in the classroom. Student Composition Books, which reside in classroom Student Late Arrival Book LCD Projector Dry erase markers Teacher Powerpoint_Modes of Participation Unit Student Handout_Orientation Day_JWang PROCEDURES OPENER (5 mins) DO NOW: What shapes a persons identity? (Write 5 lines) Reminders: start writing at the top of a brand new page write todays date BODY OF THE LESSON 1. Debrief Do Now (5 mins) a. Tell students the materials they need for today: i. Composition book, folder, pen/pencil b. Have students label 1 page in their notebooks for Important Terms i. Draw a border around this page, but leave plenty of room to write ii. This page is only for new vocabulary words. We will add to it throughout the next two weeks. 2. Activity One: Read Orientation Day4 (15 mins) a. Guiding question for reading: What shapes this persons identity? b. Have students draw a T-chart in their notebooks. Label one side: how she sees herself, and label the other side: how others see her. c. Tell students we will read the story twice: first a quick read for general first impressions, second to find evidence about Jennifers identity.

4 This activity is adapted from Lesson One: Who are We in the teaching unit, Choices in Little Rock, by

Facing History and Ourselves (2009). P.5

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i. First read: tell students to read along and quickly underline any words they think might describe Jennifers identity. Read first paragraph aloud, then cold call students to read one paragraph each. ii. Second read: read each paragraph aloud. Discuss each paragraph as a full class to determine which words to add to the T-chart, and on which side. 3. Activity Two: Create an Identity Map for Jennifer Wang (10 mins) a. Have students open their composition books to a new page, but keep a finger on their T-charts. i. Label the page: Jennifers Identity Map. ii. Draw a 3x3 square in the center of the new page. iii. Now put all of the details from the column, how she sees herself inside of the square. On the outside of the square, draw lines pointing to all of the details from the column, how others see her. b. With a partner: Pick 2 details from Jennifers identity map that you think would be hard for her to reconcile. i. Define reconcile: to cause multiple things to coexist in harmony, to make those things compatible with one another c. Short discussion: What parts of her identity shaped the way she sees herself? What parts of her identity shaped the way others see her? Is this fair? Do you feel a disconnect between the way you view yourself, and the way others view you? 4. Activity Three: Student Identity Maps (10 mins) a. Have students turn to the next page in their notebook. b. Draw a 3x3 square in the center of the new page. c. Have students write their own name in the square. d. Inside of the box, write details that answer the question, Who are you? Outside of the box, draw lines to details that answer the question, Who do others think you are? e. Remind students that some details might belong in both places: inside AND outside of the box. CLOSURE (5 mins) EXIT TICKET: Considering Jennifer Wang as an example, how would you go about defining identity? Dont write a definition, but do write at least 3 sentences describing what factors you would have to consider. (Write in your composition book, get it stamped to leave the room) PERSONAL REFLECTIONS / NOTES Insert notes on same day after teaching the lesson.

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DAY TWO: Group Identity and Membership RATIONALE: In this lesson students start to identify the common characteristics of group membership, and analyze the impact that such membership has on ones perception of the other. Activities include reading Rudyard Kiplings poem, We and They, and Jesus Colons first-person account, Little Things are Big, both of which convey individual perspectives that are informed by membership to one or more groups. Students conclude the lesson by writing their own first-person narrative about a tough choice that they or someone they know has made, particularly one that included stereotyping or prejudice. ESSENTIAL UNDERSTANDINGS: Identity describes both individuals and groups. Groups are composed of individuals and individuals are usually members of multiple groups. Individuals have the agency to act independently or in-line with group values. Choosing to participate means that individuals may act in 4 different roles: victim, bystander, upstander, or perpetrator; an individual may occupy more than one role. An individual may occupy multiple roles at once. A trustworthy historical record is composed of many perspectives. Understanding perspective is central to evaluating and analyzing history. GUIDING QUESTIONS: Who gets to decide in what groups you belong? Does being a member of a group mean that you believe everything the group stands for? How does your perspective about the other change when youre in the dominant group? When youre not a part of it? How is an individuals identity formed? How do these perceptions shape the choices I make? How do our attitudes and beliefs influence our thinking? How does our thinking influence our actions? Does an individuals identity change over time? What different roles can an individual occupy in any event? What external conditions (group, society, etc.) affect what role an individual can occupy? OBJECTIVES: Students will create a running log of important terms for new vocabulary Students will differentiate between we and they in excerpt of Rudyard Kiplings poem, We and They Students will analyze Jesus Colons decision about how to act in the situation he describes in the story, Little Things are Big Students will reflect on personal experiences with tough choices ASSESSMENTS/PERFORMANCE TASKS: Students compile new vocabulary words on a new page in their notebooks titled Important Terms Students select lines from Kiplings We and They to discuss as a full class 13

Students interpret Colons story by listening to audio recording, reading independently, and answering questions about the story Students compose an account of a personal experience with a tough choice ACCOMODATIONS: The running log of important terms helps students organize all notes on new terminology in one place, to which they will refer often during this unit. Reading Kiplings poem allows students to access ideas about group identity from a more impressionistic perspective. Listening to Colon read his own writing allows students to follow along as they read, and interpret the story with the aid of the authors intonation; students who struggle with auditory transfer may rely on the written transcript of Colons recording. The Tough Choices writing activity calls on students personal experiences, which allows for a wide range of interpretation and writing skill levels. MATERIALS + PREP: Student Composition Books, which reside in classroom Student Late Arrival Book LCD Projector Dry erase markers Teacher Powerpoint_Modes of Participation Unit Student Handout_We and They_RKipling Student Handout_Little Things are Big_JColon PROCEDURES OPENER (5 mins) DO NOW: What individuals or groups showed up on your identity map, besides yourself? Do you believe in everything these groups stand for, or just parts? Explain. (5 lines) BODY OF THE LESSON 1. Debrief Do Now (5 mins) a. Tell students the materials they need for today: i. Composition book, folder, pen/pencil 2. Introduction to new terms (5 mins) a. Introduce new terms for students to record in their log. Display definitions for students to copy: i. prejudice: comes from the word pre-judge. We pre-judge when we have an opinion about a person because of a group to which that individual belongs. ii. discrimination: occurs when prejudices are translated into action. It reduces an individual to a category or a stereotype. 1. Example: a person who says that all Mexicans are lazy is guilty of prejudice, but one who refuses to hire a Mexican is guilty of discrimination. iii. stereotype: a judgment about a person based on the real or imagined characteristics of a group

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3. Activity One: Read We and They (10 mins) a. Distribute the Rudyard Kipling poem, We and They to students i. Read the first stanza aloud ii. Ask for volunteers to read aloud the next two stanzas iii. Pose the questions: 1. What does the narrator think about the group to which he belongs? 2. Who is in the They group? 3. What does the narrator think about the They group? iv. Goals for the discussion are for students to arrive at some understanding that prejudice: 1. is based on real or imagined differences between groups. 2. attaches values to those differences in ways that benefit the dominant group at the expense of minorities. 3. is generalized to all members of the group youre talking about. 4. Activity Two: Read and listen to Little Things are Big (15 mins) a. Display slide with an image of Jesus Colon. b. Distribute excerpted reading, Little Things are Big c. Explain the task: First we will listen to Jesus Colon read his essay. Then we will read two short excerpts from it, and answer questions. At the end we will listen to the recording again to see if we missed anything. d. Play recording of Jesus Colon reading his essay (audio is embedded in Presentation, or found at this site: http://www.facinghistory.org/little-things- are-big-hear-read-story ) i. First section, audio only ii. Second section, audio aligns with handout. Pause at end of section, allow students to answer questions. Depending on attitude of class, this could be independent or as a group. iii. Third section, audio aligns with handout. Pause at end of section, allow students to answer questions. Depending on attitude of class, this could be independent or as a group. iv. Fourth section, audio only CLOSURE (15 mins) EXIT TICKET: Writing Activity: Tough Choices5 1. Have students turn to the back of the Little Things Are Big handout, where they will write this response. 2. Encourage students to keep their pencils moving for the entire 10 minutes. Style and grammar dont matter for this, just getting out their ideas. 3. Assignment: Write a paragraph about a tough choice that you or someone you know made. (1 paragraph = at least 5 sentences)

5 This activity is adapted from Lesson Two: Little Things are Big in the teaching unit, Choices in Little

Rock, by Facing History and Ourselves (2009). P.9

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a. b. c. d. e. f.

Choose a decision that involved stereotyping or prejudice. Explain why the decision was difficult to make. Explain the factors that shaped the decision. Explain the effects of that decision. What lessons did you learn from this decision? Example: A couple of years ago a close friend of mine was suffering from mental illness, but my other friend and I could not figure out exactly what was going on. The girls symptoms were getting worse and worse, and it started to look like she was suffering from psychosis. There are so many stereotypes about mental illness and we knew that the girl who was sick did not want to get medicated if she didnt have to. So we tried to get help from psychiatrists and her family, but things got worse quickly. We decided to take my friend to a psychiatric hospital, even though that was not what she wanted. It was an incredibly difficult decision because it was against my friends wishes, but she was too sick for us to take care of on our own. I learned that once in a while, it is more important to follow my instincts than to make people happyin this case, taking my friend to the psychiatric hospital against her will was the best decision to keep her safe and get her the help she needed.

PERSONAL REFLECTIONS / NOTES Insert notes on same day after teaching the lesson.

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DAY THREE: Group Identity, Social Obligation, and Bullying RATIONALE: In this lesson students read a story about school bullying and examine their own experiences with bullying in school. Students may keep their personal reflections confidential, but are encouraged to share as they are comfortable. In this lesson students also define their universe of obligation, to begin to explore the way their individual identity intertwines with the identities of others, and their responsibility towards others based on group and individual identity. The lesson explores many questions similar to Day Two. ESSENTIAL UNDERSTANDINGS: Identity describes both individuals and groups. Groups are composed of individuals and individuals are usually members of multiple groups. Individuals have the agency to act independently or in-line with group values. Choosing to participate means that individuals may act in 4 different roles: victim, bystander, upstander, or perpetrator; an individual may occupy more than one role. An individual may occupy multiple roles at once. A trustworthy historical record is composed of many perspectives. Understanding perspective is central to evaluating and analyzing history. Prejudice is a judgment about someone based on preconceived assumptions rather than actual experience with him/her. Community is a group of people with a shared goal, a group of people who live near one another, and/or a group that is part of your universe of obligation. GUIDING QUESTIONS: Who gets to decide in what groups you belong? Does being a member of a group mean that you believe everything the group stands for? How does your perspective about the other change when youre in the dominant group? When youre not a part of it? Who is in your "universe of responsibility?" Under what conditions might your universe of responsibility shift? In whose universe of responsibility do you reside? How is an individuals identity formed? How do these perceptions shape the choices I make? How do our attitudes and beliefs influence our thinking? How does our thinking influence our actions? Does an individuals identity change over time? What different roles can an individual occupy in any event? What external conditions (group, society, etc.) affect what role an individual can occupy? OBJECTIVES: Students will examine their own experiences with school bullying Students will examine how discrimination based on bias can escalate into acts of violence

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Students will discuss the impact of prejudice on individuals and society Students will identify the role of individuals in interrupting the escalation of hate Students will practice critical reading independently ASSESSMENTS/PERFORMANCE TASKS: Students complete the Have You Ever questionnaire Students analyze an account of school bullying in Japan to discuss as a full class Students apply terms from the Pyramid of Hate to their own experiences and the account of school bullying from Japan Students will read Eve Shalens story independently for homework and answer questions about the choices made by the author ACCOMODATIONS: The lesson engages similar concepts through different activities, including a personal questionnaire, a full-class discussion, teacher-led reading, independent reading, and independent writing. Students may access the concepts through various modes of learning. The activity also calls upon students personal experience, which allows for a more equitable assessment. Writing passages are mostly presented in both written and verbal forms. MATERIALS + PREP: Student Composition Books, which reside in classroom Student Late Arrival Book LCD Projector Dry erase markers Teacher Powerpoint_Modes of Participation Unit Student Handout_Have You Ever Questionnaire Student Handout_Pyramid of Hate Student Handout_Example of Anti-Gay Bullying in One School (1/3 sheets) Student Handout_HOMEWORK_The In Group_EShalen PROCEDURES OPENER (5 mins) DO NOW: Who are some of the people in the world who you would do anything to support, protect, stand up for? Why? BODY OF THE LESSON 1. No debrief of Do Nowwill return to it in Activity Two. (0 mins) 2. Activity One: Have You Ever?6 (25 mins) a. Students complete questionnaire (3 mins) i. Distribute sheet printouts of the Have You Ever? Questionnaire ii. Answer yes/no iii. Explain to students that they will not have to share their responses with anyone. Write on the sheet, but keep it to yourself.
6 This activity is adapted from the teaching materials, Pyramid of Hate, from the Anti-Defamation League

and Survivors of the Shoah Visual History Foundation. http://www.adl.org/education/courttv/pyramid_of_hate.pdf

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iv. Students complete the questionnaire independently. Show students that teacher is completing it too. v. Have students place the questionnaire in their folders when they are finished. b. Students examine Pyramid of Hate (3 mins) i. Distribute the diagram Pyramid of Hate ii. Ask students to read the diagram from the bottom to the top, and put an x next to any behavior they have seen or heard about in their own lives. Dont include things that youve seen on TV/internet, but do include things that youve heard about in your family or seen at school. c. Short discussion on prejudice (57 mins) i. Explain to students that we will have a short discussion. Teacher will pose questions while students listen silently. Think about the question while you are listening, and raise your hand when you have an idea about how to answer the question. If you want to respond to what someone else has said, raise your hand. Teacher will call on people to make sure everyones voice is heard. ii. Why do you think people tell ethnic jokes about other groups, insult others, or exclude them socially? iii. Why would these differences cause a person to put down someone else? iv. Where do people learn to disrespect people who seem different? v. Give an example of a prejudice you have learned through the media d. Case study: an example of school bullying (10 mins) i. Display case study on board, have students read it silently ii. Also distribute small slips of paper with case story printed 1. In one school, a group of four boys began whispering and laughing about another boy in their school that they thought was gay. They began making comments when they walked by him in the hall. Soon, they started calling the boy insulting anti-gay slurs. By the end of the month, they had taken their harassment to another level, tripping him when he walked by and pushing him into a locker while they yelled slurs. Some time during the next month, they increased the seriousness of their conduct they surrounded him and two boys held his arms while the others hit and kicked him. Eventually, one of the boys threatened to bring his fathers gun into school the next day to kill the boy. At this point another student overheard the threat and the police were notified. iii. Pose questions to discuss as a full class: 1. Could something similar to this have happened at this school? 2. How do you think a situation like this could affect the entire Focus community? 3. What could have been done to stop the situation from escalating? 19

4. Who should have stopped it? iv. Tell the students that they have been discussing a situation that started out as whispering and laughing and became more intense, escalating to violence. 1. Have students refer back to the Pyramid of Hate handout 2. Pose questions: a. Where would you place whispering and laughing on the Pyramid (Level I)? b. Why do you think that something which, at first, seemed harmless, progressed into violence? (Answers might include: nobody stopped it, the perpetrators gained confidence that they could continue without interference or consequences, the victim did not seek help, etc.) c. Even if it seemed harmless to the perpetrators and bystanders, do you think it felt harmless to the victim? How do you think he felt? d. At what level of the pyramid do you think it would be easiest for someone to intervene? e. What would be some possible ways to intervene? 3. Activity Two: Universe of Obligation (20 mins) a. Have students refer back to the Do Now. Add to/make a list of all of the individuals or groups of people to whom they feel responsible: i. Who relies on you? Who do you rely on? Who do you feel obligated to help or make happy? ii. Remind students that we have talked a lot about what makes us who we are as individuals, but what about the way that relate to other people in the world? 1. (Make sure to include both individuals and groups, including family members, coworkers, distant cousins, neighbors, people concerned with Gay Rights, strangers of the same religion as me, etc.) iii. Have each student share 3 people from their list, and encourage other students to add to their own lists if they hear good ideas from their peers. b. Next, have students make a list of the communities to which they belong i. Ask clarifying question, What do we mean by community? 1. Narrow responses down to: a. A group of people with a shared goal b. A group of people who live near one another c. A group that is part of your universe of obligation 2. Have students ADD this term to their log of Important Terms ii. Students compose their lists (encourage them to come up with at least 7 items for this, so they stretch their conception of community) 20

c. Model the drawing of a universe of obligation i. Have students label a page in their notes, My Universe of Obligation ii. Have students draw 3 concentric circles, writing their name at the center 1. Teacher models this on board, using themselves as an example a. You have two lists to pull from: 1) the people to whom you feel responsible; 2) the communities to whom you feel responsible. b. Place the names of people or communities at each level of your universethose closer to you, at the center, are the ones that are most important to you/youre most obligated to d. Have students ADD this term to their log of Important Terms: i. universe of obligation: the circle of persons toward whom obligations are owed, to whom rules apply, and whose injuries call for [amends] by the community. 4. Assign Homework: Read The In-Group by Eve Shalen a. Distribute Eve Shalens story, The In-Group i. Students should answer Stop and Reflect questions on the page. ii. On the back of the same page, students should draw a diagram of Eves universe of obligation. iii. Write one paragraph answering these questions (1 paragraph = at least 5 sentences): 1. Who is in Eves universe of obligation? 2. Is the answer the same at the end of the story as at the beginning? 3. What factors cause her universe of obligation to change? CLOSURE EXIT TICKET: Can you imagine yourself interrupting an incident of bullying in school? Why/why not?

PERSONAL REFLECTIONS / NOTES Insert notes on same day after teaching the lesson.

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DAY FOUR: Bullying & Choosing to Participate RATIONALE: In this lesson students explore the topic of school bullying in more detail. Unfortunately the documentary Bully has not yet been released in its full form. In lieu of watching a clip of the documentary, students will view the trailer, which introduces the topic and some of the statistics surrounding suicide and dropout rates due to school bullying. We use Eve Shalens story, The In-Group, which was assigned as homework, as the starting point for the days lesson. We compare the various case stories of bullying that weve encountered so far, as well as watching the somewhat esoteric 1970s animated film, Up is Down. All of the content of this days lesson is united by the objecting of exploring the parameters of what counts as bullyingboth at an interpersonal level and a systemic, or institutional level. The lesson concludes by introducing the four key terms that define the roles an individual can play in a situation of bullying: victim, perpetrator, bystander, or upstander. ESSENTIAL UNDERSTANDINGS: Identity describes both individuals and groups. Groups are composed of individuals and individuals are usually members of multiple groups. Individuals have the agency to act independently or in-line with group values. Choosing to participate means that individuals may act in 4 different roles: victim, bystander, upstander, or perpetrator; an individual may occupy more than one role. An individual may occupy multiple roles at once. GUIDING QUESTIONS: What counts as bullying? What is the role of the bystander in bullying? Who gets to decide in what groups you belong? Does being a member of a group mean that you believe everything the group stands for? How does your perspective about the other change when youre in the dominant group? When youre not a part of it? What different roles can an individual occupy in any event? What external conditions (group, society, etc.) affect what role an individual can occupy? Who is in your "universe of responsibility?" Under what conditions might your universe of responsibility shift? In whose universe of responsibility do you reside? OBJECTIVES: Students will describe bullying at both the institutional and interpersonal levels. Students will respond orally to discussion questions and make space to hear one another in full-class discussions. Students will memorize the terms victim, perpetrator, bystander, and upstander. ASSESSMENTS/PERFORMANCE TASKS: Students evaluate multiple examples of school bullying in an independent writing activity 22

Students respond to teacher and to one another in a respectful and timely manner during full-class discussion. Students add new terms to their log of important terms ACCOMODATIONS: In this lesson students do a lot of processing, both verbally and in writing. The short discussions and short writing assignments will help all students to synthesize the large amount of material through tightly directed questioning by the teacher. MATERIALS + PREP: Student Composition Books, which reside in classroom Student Late Arrival Book LCD Projector Dry erase markers Teacher Powerpoint_Modes of Participation Unit Student Handout_School Bullying in Japan ( sheet) Student Handout_Up is Down Viewing Guide ( sheet) PROCEDURES OPENER DO NOW: What did you think of Eve Shalens experience being an outsider and an insider to bullying? Explain a situation in your life that is similar, either for you or someone you know. BODY OF THE LESSON 1. Activity One: Debrief Homework (15 mins) a. Have students take out the handout, The In-Group by Eve Shalen i. Teacher circulates room to stamp homework ii. Teacher lets students know that they will have time to catch up on the work in class if they didnt finish it for homework, but wont get full credit for homework if they werent prepared with the assignment before class. b. Orally review the stop and reflect questions as a full class (this time will allow students who didnt do the homework to scan to catch up) c. Draw the universe of obligation diagram on board and have students contribute to constructing that diagram d. Writing review: students who completed the paragraph writing in the homework assignment should review what they wrote and make changes based on what we discussed as a full class; students who did not complete the homework should write the assignment now. 1. Who is in Eves universe of obligation? 2. Is the answer the same at the end of the story as at the beginning? 3. What factors cause her universe of obligation to change? e. Collect homework sheets at end of activity. 2. Transition Activity: Watch movie trailer for Bully (5 mins) a. Show students the trailer (2:21) as a transition to the next activity.

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b. http://youtu.be/W1g9RV9OKhg 3. Activity Two: What counts as bullying? (10 mins) a. Display case study on board, have students read it silently i. Also distribute small slips of paper with case story printed ii. In Japan, students labeled as itanshi odd or different are often subject to bullying by classmates. In 1992, the Japanese reported at least thirteen bullying-related murders at junior and senior high schools. Children bully other children everywhere, of course, said Masatoshi Fukuda, head of the All-Japan Bullying Prevention Council. But in Japan it is worse because the system itself seems to encourage the punishment of anyone who does not conform to social norms. A fifteen-year-old girl, for example, was beaten to death in Toyonaka City after months of enduring insults for wearing hand-me-down public school uniforms. The person who attacked her told police, She was an irritation in our faces... she dressed poorly when all other students have new uniforms every year. b. Pose question: What is the difference between Eve Shalens experience of bullying, and the Japanese students experience of bullying? Who were the perpetrators? Who were the bystanders? Were there any upstanders? i. Note: This will be the first time that students have heard these terms, but the purpose of introducing them here is to have students infer their meaning in context. They will encounter the terms a few times before being asked to add them to their logs of important terms. ii. At this point it is important for students to recognize that individuals AND institutions are capable of bullying behavior. b. Have students write responses in their composition books: i. Put todays date and the title: Example of bullying in Japan in 1992 1. What does the girls attacker mean when he says, She was an irritation in our faces? 2. Who is most likely to be a victim of bulling in our society? 5. Activity Four: Watch video, Up is Down (10 mins) a. Students watch video (5:39) http://youtu.be/eyS29Y0mXmw b. Answer questions on the sheet handout, Up is Down Viewing Guide, during the film, while pausing periodically: i. What makes the boy different? ii. What are the strengths of his difference? iii. What are the weaknesses of his difference? c. Answer questions after the film, going back to replay parts as needed: i. Who is being punished for their differences? Who is the victim in this story? ii. Who is doing harm to the victim? Who are the perpetrators in this story? iii. Is there anyone in this story who just stands by watching as the perpetrators do harm to the victim? 24

iv. Is there anyone in this story who stands up for the victim, in opposition to the perpetrator? d. Teacher says: Bullying typically involves others besides the tormentor and his or her
target. Numerous peers are often aware of the bullying, and they must choose how to respond. The choice comes down to playing one of three roles: perpetrator, bystander, or upstander.7

6. New vocabulary (5 mins) a. Have students add these to their log of important terms i. victim: a person harmed, injured, or killed as a result of an event or action ii. perpetrator: join in the bullying, escalate the harassment, or initiate new attacks on the target later. iii. bystander: attempt to remain uninvolved in the situation, often by looking on silently or finding an excuse to walk away. iv. upstander: take action to oppose the bullying/other offense in some way. They might intervene directly and tell the perpetrators to stop, but they need not put themselves at risk in order to be helpful. Upstanders might also respond in other ways such as making friends with the targeted student or seeking help from adults. v. NOTE: These three roles are fluid, or not permanent: everyone can be a perpetrator, bystander, or upstander at different times and in different situations. CLOSURE EXIT TICKET: In the video, Up is Down, should the adults have forced the boy to conform to their point of view? Why/why not?

PERSONAL REFLECTIONS / NOTES Insert notes on same day after teaching the lesson.

7 This statement comes from the teaching materials, A Guide to the Film Bully: Fostering Empathy and Action

in Schools by Facing History and Ourselves & The Bully Project (2012). Pg. 28. http://safeschools.facinghistory.org/content/about-facing-history-and-bully

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DAY FIVE: Intro to Case Studies Organizer & Big Ideas RATIONALE: This lesson asks students to consider how they would act in a controversial scenario, depending on their particular identities. Students begin to explore the concept of perspective through full-class discussion and individual writing assignments. The lesson also introduces students to the graphic organizer they will use throughout the rest of the unit to organize their notes on the historical Case Studies. ESSENTIAL UNDERSTANDINGS: Identity describes both individuals and groups. Groups are composed of individuals and individuals are usually members of multiple groups. Individuals have the agency to act independently or in-line with group values. Choosing to participate means that individuals may act in 4 different roles: victim, bystander, upstander, or perpetrator; an individual may occupy more than one role. An individual may occupy multiple roles at once. perspective is a particular attitude or way of viewing something, based on physical location, personal experience, or other factors unique to an individual. GUIDING QUESTIONS: How can an individuals choices shape history for an entire group, community, or time period? How can your own choices affect your individual history? Was what happened in history inevitable? What counts as bullying? What is the role of the bystander in bullying? Who gets to decide in what groups you belong? Does being a member of a group mean that you believe everything the group stands for? How does your perspective about the other change when youre in the dominant group? When youre not a part of it? Who is in your "universe of responsibility?" Under what conditions might your universe of responsibility shift? In whose universe of responsibility do you reside? How do your perceptions as an individual shape the choices you make? OBJECTIVES: Students will analyze their own agency in affecting history. Students will Take a Stand on a scenario presented to the entire class, and be able to explain their stance in terms of individual identity and the concept of perspective. ASSESSMENTS/PERFORMANCE TASKS: Students construct and defend a stance in the Take a Stand activity Students apply their conception of individual identity in the Take a Stand activity Students compose a written explanation of their stance following the Take a Stand activity Students compose a written explanation of how their own perspective differs from the

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perspective of another person in their life ACCOMODATIONS: Like all the previous lessons, this lesson asks students to draw on personal experience. Since there are no right or wrong answers, students may access the activities from a variety of skill levels. MATERIALS + PREP: Student Composition Books, which reside in classroom Student Late Arrival Book LCD Projector Dry erase markers Teacher Powerpoint_Modes of Participation Unit Student Handout_Take A Stand Scenario ( sheets) Student Handout_Case Studies Organizer PROCEDURES OPENER DO NOW: What do you think is the role of the bystander in bullying? BODY OF THE LESSON 1. Debrief Do Now & Review Agenda (5 mins) 2. Activity One: Take a Stand (20 mins) a. Explain that were going to talk about a very controversial situation, and that everyone will have very different responses to it. b. The activity has two rules: be silent unless called on by the teacher; dont judge other peoples responses. c. Have students line up in a row at the center of the back of the room. d. Explain that students will receive a small slip of paper describing the scenario. Read it, then fold it in half and face the front of the room when you are finished. e. Hand out small slips of paper describing the scenario. i. You are walking out of a corner store at night and see two white cops approaching a black man down the sidewalk from where you are. You see the cops lunge at the guy without any explanation. He loses his footing, and is on the ground before a word escapes your mouth. The cops are throwing their nightsticks, both have mace on their belts, and one looks like he has a tazer. You cant quite make out what the guy on the ground looks likehe might be a junkie, but he kindof just looks like a guy who is tired on his way home from work. All you can tell is that he is young. What do you do? f. After students have read it, tell them to take a stand on the spectrum between two options: i. One: Do nothing, get out of the situation as quickly as possible ii. Two: Do something, get into the situation as quickly as possible g. Once students have situated themselves on the spectrum, tell them that each one will explain why they chose what they chose.

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h. Ask each student to explain what they would do. Push students to identify what it is about their own identity that informs their perspective on this situation. i. Make sure each student has a chance to talk. j. Pose question, What else would you want to know about this situation in order to make a more informed decision about what you would do? k. Have students return to seats. l. Reflective writing: have students write 1 paragraph (at least 5 sentences) in response to the question, Where is the victim of the situation in your universe of obligation? What part(s) of your identity affected the way you think you would respond to the situation? m. Have a few students share their answers. 3. Distribute Case Studies Organizer (10 mins) a. Explain to students that we are going to fill in this log for the scenario we just discussed, and also use it throughout the next week while looking at case studies of bullying at the personal and institutional level. b. Take out your folder and use the 3 holes in the paper to attach the log to the 3- hole divider in the folder. You will add more pages when this one fills up. c. Pose question to students, Considering your response to Take a Stand, where would you put yourself on this chart? d. Have students label the chart, White cops/black victim scenario e. Have students put themselves on the chart, then fill in the other roles. 4. Discussion: Perspective/Points of View (15 mins) a. Pose questions: What did the scenario show us about points of view? b. What causes us, as individuals, to have different points of view? i. Collect student responses on board during discussion ii. Have students take notes on what the teacher writes on the board, but keep the emphasis on the discussion. c. Could we call the differences in our points of view differences in perspective? d. Add word to log of important terms i. perspective: a particular attitude or way of viewing something, based on physical location, personal experience, or other factors unique to the individual e. Do you the adults in your household have the same perspective on topics like, what time you should come home at night? i. Why are the perspectives different? ii. Make sure students are getting to answers like personal experience, generational gap, the responsibility of a different role (being a parent), etc. f. Have students open their composition books to write a short response to the following prompt: Describe a situation in your life in which you realized that your perspective was different from another persons. Describe how your identity and the other persons identity made the difference in the perspectives. i. Write 1 paragraph, at least 5 lines 28

CLOSURE EXIT TICKET: Show Ms. Stevenson your paragraph, get it stamped to leave the room. PERSONAL REFLECTIONS / NOTES Insert notes on same day after teaching the lesson.

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DAY SIX: Case StudySouth Philly High School (2009) RATIONALE: In this lesson students evaluate and analyze the first case study that they will diagram on the Case Studies Organizer. The 2009 example of peer bullying and administrative neglect, or bystandership, at South Philadelphia High School allows students to approach the topic through a case study that is also at a Philadelphia School District public school. Students engage in silent conversations about the SPHS Case Study using the Big Papers method, wherein pairs of students respond to a printed passage by writing back and forth to one another on poster paper. Following the initial silent conversation, students circulate the room to observe others conversations about the same topic. ESSENTIAL UNDERSTANDINGS: Like individuals, institutions can be bystanders in acts of injustice History is not inevitable, but rather individuals make choices about how to act, and so individuals and the groups/systems they inhabit are what make history happen. Identity describes both individuals and groups. Groups are composed of individuals and individuals are usually members of multiple groups. Individuals have the agency to act independently or in-line with group values. Choosing to participate means that individuals may act in 4 different roles: victim, bystander, upstander, or perpetrator; an individual may occupy more than one role. An individual may occupy multiple roles at once. GUIDING QUESTIONS: How do we remember the past? How do others remember the past? How do memories of the past shape the present? How can an individuals choices shape history for an entire group, community, or time period? How can your own choices affect your individual history? Was what happened in history inevitable? What counts as bullying? What is the role of the bystander in bullying? Does being a member of a group mean that you believe everything the group stands for? Under what conditions might your universe of responsibility shift? How do your perceptions as an individual shape the choices you make? OBJECTIVES: Students will engage one another in a silent conversation about the case study Students will observe and respect their peers contributions to the silent conversation Students will consider the idea that history is not inevitable Students will gain a basic understanding of the contemporary issue of bullying at South Philadelphia High school ASSESSMENTS/PERFORMANCE TASKS: Students question the case study and their peers through silent conversation

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Students collect and sort information on their Case Studies Organizer ACCOMODATIONS: The silent conversation/Big Paper activity encourages all students to engage in the conversation at the same volume: shy students can participate without having to compete with louder voices, and more outgoing students must communicate in writing rather than with their voices. The activity positions all students in a slightly different social orientation than they are used to, which opens up opportunities for students of various skill levels to perform differently than usual. MATERIALS + PREP: Prior to the period, teacher hangs large pieces of poster paper (Big Papers) around the room, enough for each pair of students to have their own sheet. Print and attach a copy of Helens quotation from the article, South Philly High_StoryCorps Blog, to each Big Paper Pens/markers for students Student Composition Books, which reside in classroom Student Late Arrival Book LCD Projector Dry erase markers Teacher Powerpoint_Modes of Participation Unit Student Handout_Case Studies Organizer Student Handout_South Philly High_Story Corps Blog PROCEDURES OPENER DO NOW: When students are bullying one another at school, do you think teachers and administrators should intervene, or let the students work it out on their own? BODY OF THE LESSON 1. Introduce first Case Study (15 mins) a. Explain to students the idea of a case study: We have been talking about issues of bullying and the 4 different roles that people play in acts of bullying on a small scale. Today were going to start to look at bigger examples of this kind of intolerance, and analyze who plays what role, and why. b. Display map of Philadelphia, with South Philadelphia High School pinpointed. c. Explain scenario: Three years ago, in December 2009, tension among students of different races at South Philadelphia High School erupted into actual violence. In the weeks after the violence the issue got attention from local, national, and international news media. The target group was Asian American studentsin the years and weeks leading up to the violence, they had documented lots of examples of the school administration ignoring complaints of bullying by students of different racial groups. When the violence happened, the big question on everyones minds was, Why didnt the school do anything sooner? Today we are going to read some more about the background, and listen to the perspectives of students who were there.

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d. Have students take out their Case Study Organizers e. Distribute South Philly High_StoryCorps Blog i. Read first paragraph aloud, then have students read subsequent paragraphs aloud to whole group. 2. Add SPHS Case Study to the Organizer (5 mins) a. Who are the victims in this story? (We call this the outsider group) i. SPHS Asian American and Asian immigrant students b. Who are the perpetrators in this story? i. Other students at SPHS, predominantly African American c. Who do the victims say are the bystanders in this story? i. SPHS lunchroom staff, security guards, school administration d. And who are the upstanders? i. SPHS Asian American and Asian immigrant students who testified in front of the district, plus many community activist groups at the local and state levels 3. Activity: Big Papers/Silent Conversation8 (20 mins) b. Explain to students that they are going to get into pairs to have a conversation about the story of what happened at South Philadelphia High School in 2009. The catch is that the conversation will be silent. c. Explain the parameters: i. All communication will be in writing. ii. You and your partner will respond to this photograph from 1960s school integration in the US South, and this quote from the article: 1. Helen explained that the events in December 2009 were inevitable because of the rupture in the schools social fabric discrimination was normalized and left to escalate into violence towards Asian students. She compared the events at South Philly High to racial integration of the 1960s, where African American students were also mocked, harassed, and attacked by their peers. iii. Begin with a comment or a question in response to what Helen said, then let your partner respondalso in writing. iv. All comments and questions must be on the topic of the reading, the photograph, or the conversation, and under no circumstances may you cross out or insult what someone else has written on a Big Paper. v. You will have about 10 minutes to go back and forth with your partner, then you will walk around the room to read other conversations. vi. As you read the conversations on other posters, you may add comments in writing. Remember that it is OK for people to interpret the quote and
8 This activity is adapted from Lesson Four: The Choices Students Made in the teaching unit, Choices in Little Rock, by Facing History and Ourselves (2009). P.98; as well as A Guide to the Film Bully: Fostering Empathy and Action in Schools by Facing History and Ourselves & The Bully Project (2012). Pg. 50. http://safeschools.facinghistory.org/content/about-facing-history-and-bully

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d. e. f. g.

h.

i.

photograph differently than you. Respect these differences, because we can learn from others perspectives. Give students time to ask questions before the activity begins to minimize interruptions later. Assign partners, and then assign each pair to a Big Paper already hanging around the room. Start timer for 10 mins, and circulate the room to help students get started. When time is up, ask students to leave their partner and silently walk around the room reading the other Big Papers. Allow enough time for students to not only read all of the other papers but also to comment on them in writing if they wish to do so. After about 5 minutes, ask students to return to their own Big Paper. Tell students to spend 2 minutes talking aloud with their partners using these sentence starters (displayed on the board): i. One thing that surprised me about what you wrote is ii. One thing that you wrote that I really agree with is iii. One that that you wrote that I dont completely agree with is iv. Did you see the comment on Big Paper #___? I really liked it because Have students take their seats to debrief as a class. i. How did it go? ii. Do you think you were more or less comfortable with sharing your real opinion during the silent conversation than if you were talking out loud? iii. Did you come to any conclusions about how Jennifer should navigate her identity?

CLOSURE EXIT TICKET: Do you think you were more or less comfortable sharing your real opinion during the silent conversation than if you were talking out loud? What did you NOT say?

PERSONAL REFLECTIONS / NOTES Insert notes on same day after teaching the lesson.

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DAY SEVEN: Case StudyLiberian Civil War (2004) RATIONALE: In this lesson students examine a second case study, the role of the Women of Liberia Mass Action for Peace as a resistance effort in the Liberian Civil War. This group of women provides an example of individuals who occupy the role of both victim and upstander. Students collect information from class notes and viewing a video to fill out the Case Studies Organizer on the roles of individuals in this Case Study. ESSENTIAL UNDERSTANDINGS: Choosing to participate means that individuals may act in 4 different roles: victim, bystander, upstander, or perpetrator; an individual may occupy more than one role. An individual may occupy multiple roles at once. Like individuals, institutions and governments can be bystanders in acts of injustice History is not inevitable, but rather individuals make choices about how to act, and so individuals and the groups/systems they inhabit are what make history happen. Identity describes both individuals and groups. Groups are composed of individuals and individuals are usually members of multiple groups. Individuals have the agency to act independently or in-line with group values. GUIDING QUESTIONS: How can an individuals choices shape history for an entire group, community, or time period? How can your own choices affect your individual history? Was what happened in history inevitable? What is the role of the bystander in perpetuating injustices? Does being a member of a group mean that you believe everything the group stands for? How do your perceptions as an individual shape the choices you make? OBJECTIVES: Students will examine a case study in which individuals occupy multiple roles at once Students will gain a basic understanding of the Liberian Civil War Students will analyze the Liberian Civil War in the context of their case studies organizer ASSESSMENTS/PERFORMANCE TASKS: Students collect information about the roles of individuals during the Liberian Civil War on their Case Studies Organizer Students compose a written reflection about the roles of individuals in the case study ACCOMODATIONS: In this lesson students collect notes on the background of the Liberian Civil War by copying or paraphrasing slides presented to the full class. Watching a video about the womens resistance movement allows different types of learners to access the information as well. Teacher stops video periodically to ask comprehension questions to the class, and summarize what theyve just seen. MATERIALS + PREP: Student Composition Books, which reside in classroom Student Late Arrival Book LCD Projector 34

Dry erase markers DVD: Pray the Devil Back to Hell Teacher Powerpoint_Modes of Participation Unit Student Handout_Case Studies Organizer

PROCEDURES OPENER Do Now: Explain a moment in your life when you stood up against an individual or a system that was doing wrong to you. (Write 1 paragraph= at least 5 lines) BODY OF THE LESSON 1. Debrief Do Now & Agenda (5 mins) 2. Introductory Notes (10 mins) a. Students take notes on these slides: i. Background: 1. Liberia was founded as a country by African slaves who returned there from America. 2. Liberian Civil War was a power struggle among different social classes, and resulted in brutal murder, mutilation, and rape. 3. In 2003, a group of womencalled Women of Liberia Mass Action for Peaceunited their efforts despite Christian/Muslim religious differences, to create a resistance movement. 4. The womens resistance movement was NONVIOLENT, and became very political. ii. Key Players: 1. Leymah Gbowee is a female Liberian social worker who organized the women 2. Charles Taylor was the dictator in charge at the time of the civil war 3. Many other warlords, including Taylors opposition, were responsible for heinous crimes (evil existed on both sides of the war) 4. Child soldiers, whom the warlords kidnapped, gave drugs to, and trained to kill without regret iii. Display a map for students to see the location of Liberia 3. Activity One: Watch selection of video, Pray the Devil Back to Hell (25 mins) a. Before watching, have students take out their Case Study Organizers. b. Add Liberian Civil War, (2004) to the list c. Play film from 0:00 to 16:03 d. While watching, students collect notes from the film on who are the victims, perpetrators, bystanders, and upstanders i. **remember, the same people/groups/institutions can play multiple different roles

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e. Pause film periodically to ask students how to categorize the role of a character weve just seen on screen. f. Following the viewing, give students 2 minutes to fill in their organizers independently. g. Rejoin as a full class to discuss the graphic organizerdisplay the organizer and take notes on board during discussion, so students can see the accumulation of their responses h. Give students time to copy/fill in as needed 4. Activity Two: Written reflection (10 mins) a. Have students write 1 paragraph (at least 5 sentences) in their composition books in response to the questions i. How did the women change their role from victims to upstanders? ii. Are you surprised that they changed their role? Explain what youre thinking. CLOSURE EXIT TICKET: What do you think about the idea of nonviolent resistance? How does the Liberian womens nonviolent political resistance compare to standing up to bullying at school?

PERSONAL REFLECTIONS / NOTES Insert notes on same day after teaching the lesson.

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DAY EIGHT: Case StudyHolocaust and WWII (1940s) RATIONALE: In this lesson students briefly explore the history of the Holocaust, in order to analyze the underlying questions behind the Nuremburg trials: who should be held accountable for the deaths of 10 million people in Europe during the Holocaust? Using the Case Studies Organizer, students explore the complex task of assigning responsibility, and dig deeper in exploring the role of the individual in history. Activities include a Gallery Walk of photographs from Nazi Germany and the just-liberated concentration camps, which students examine using a Media Analysis protocol familiar to them, as well as a reflective writing exercise. ESSENTIAL UNDERSTANDINGS: Choosing to participate means that individuals may act in 4 different roles: victim, bystander, upstander, or perpetrator; an individual may occupy more than one role. An individual may occupy multiple roles at once. Like individuals, institutions and governments can be bystanders in acts of injustice History is not inevitable, but rather individuals make choices about how to act, and so individuals and the groups/systems they inhabit are what make history happen. Identity describes both individuals and groups. Groups are composed of individuals and individuals are usually members of multiple groups. Individuals have the agency to act independently or in-line with group values. GUIDING QUESTIONS: Who should be held accountable for the atrocities committed during the Holocaust? Who should be tried? Are individuals responsible for their crimes if they have obeyed the laws of their nation? Or are there higher laws? If so, what are those laws? Should those individuals be tried before a court of law? What is the purpose of a trial? Is it to punish evil-doing? Or is to set a precedent for the future? How does one determine punishment? Is everyone equally guilty? Do some people bear more responsibility than others? Can an entire nation be guilty?9 How can an individuals choices shape history for an entire group, community, or time period? How can your own choices affect your individual history? Was what happened in history inevitable? What is the role of the bystander in perpetuating injustices? Does being a member of a group mean that you believe everything the group stands for? How do your perceptions as an individual shape the choices you make? OBJECTIVES: Students will view photographs from Nazi Germany and just-liberated concentration camps as an example of the horror that individuals can do to one another. Students will use the observe-reflect-question Media Analysis Protocol to form initial impressions and analyses of photographs in the Gallery Walk.
9 Some Essential Questions included here are adapted from the teaching materials, Holocaust and Human

Behavior: A Resource Book, by M.S. Strom (1994) Brookline, MA: Facing History and Ourselves. P.419

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Students will gain a basic understanding of the events of the Holocaust within WWII. Students will reflect on the concepts of responsibility, culpability, and the exaction of punishment. ASSESSMENTS/PERFORMANCE TASKS: Students complete a Media Analysis Worksheet for the Gallery Walk Students collect notes on the basic history of the Holocaust and WWII Students compose written responses to big-picture questions about responsibility, culpability, and the exaction of punishment ACCOMODATIONS: In this lesson the Gallery Walk allows students to access the main concepts non-verbally. Captions offer some context for the images, but much of the Media Analysis Protocol is based on students observations, impressions, and inferences. The lesson includes more lecture than is typical for this class, which is complemented by presentation slides with some of the same information, so students may read if they cannot transfer the information auditorily. MATERIALS + PREP: Prior to class, print Holocaust Gallery Walk Exhibits and hang them around the room Student Composition Books, which reside in classroom Student Late Arrival Book LCD Projector Dry erase markers Teacher Powerpoint_Modes of Participation Unit Student Handout_HOMEWORK_SSontag_On Photography Excerpt Student Handout_Media Analysis Worksheet Student Handout_Case Studies Organizer PROCEDURES OPENER Do Now: What do you know about World War II? What names and events come to mind? BODY OF THE LESSON 1. Debrief Do Now & Review Agenda (5 mins) a. Distribute homework for the next day, excerpt from Susan Sontags On Photography b. Explain to students that they must read it and answer the brief questions on the same sheet. Due tomorrow. 2. Introduction: World War II Notes (10 mins) a. Lasted from 19391946 b. About 80 million people died in the war, including 10 million as a result of the Holocaust c. WWII was fought between 2 sides: Axis Powers and Allied Powers i. Axis: Germany, Italy, Japan ii. Allied: United States, United Kingdom (Britain), Russia, France, Poland 38

d. The war affected life for people around the world: i. Massive discrimination against people by national leaders/governments 1. In the US: discrimination against Japanese 2. In Germany and Europe: discrimination against Jews, Polish, Russians, and other non-Aryans e. Main events include: Japan attacks the US at Pearl Harbor, the US drops the Atomic Bomb at Nagasaki & Hiroshima, fascism in Italy and Nazi Germany, the Holocaust 3. Activity One: Gallery Walk (25 mins) a. Students go on a gallery walk to observe photographs of concentration camps in Nazi Germany. Of all topics we could cover for WWII, focusing on the human responsibility for the human toll during the Holocaust is the focus of the lesson. These images are intentionally graphic so that students might feel some of the emotional weight of the damage done during the Holocaust, in preparation for considering the moral responsibility of those tried at the Nuremburg trials. i. Images and captions can be found in the document, Holocaust Gallery Walk Exhibits.10 b. Teacher introduces the photographs with some variation on this summary: i. The leader of Nazi Germany, Adolf Hitler, believed that only pure Germanspeople he called Aryansdeserved to live in Europe. His solution to removing people of other ethnic origin was first to force them out of their homes and neighborhoods into concentrated ghettos, then to kill them. He called this the final solution. He murdered civilians en masse, targeting Russians, Polish, and especially Jews. It began with death squads and massacres, and continued in concentration camps where prisoners were actively denied proper food and health care. It culminated in the construction of extermination campsgovernment facilities whose entire purpose was the systematic murder and disposal of massive numbers of people. When soldiers from the US and Europe entered Germany in 1945 they found hundreds of thousands of starving and sick prisoners locked in with thousands of dead bodies. They encountered evidence of gas chambers and high-volume crematoriums, as well as thousands of mass graves, documentation of awful medical experimentation, and much more. The Nazis killed more than 10 million people in this manner, including 6 million Jews.11 ii. This gallery walk shows you images of what the Allied troops found in those camps, as well as some familiar and unfamiliar images from other parts of the war. You may feel disturbed by what you seeif so, take a seat near the exhibit and write on your organizer about the response
10 Image and captions come from The Atlantics 20-week photographic retrospective of World War II. World War II in Photos: A retrospective in 20 parts. The Atlantic Monthly Online. http://www.theatlantic.com/infocus/2011/10/world-war-ii-the-holocaust/100170/ 11 This statement adapted from World War II in Photos: A retrospective in 20 parts. The Atlantic Monthly Online. http://www.theatlantic.com/infocus/2011/10/world-war-ii-the-holocaust/100170/

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youre having. You can always raise your hand if you want to talk with me about what youre seeing, but please stay silent. c. Explain expectations for the activity to students: i. As with all previous gallery walks, this gallery walk is silent. ii. Follow the Media Analysis protocol, Observe, Reflect, Question, when you get to each exhibit. iii. List all of the exhibits on the same sheet, just draw a line across the columns to separate your notes on each exhibit. iv. You will have about 2 minutes at each exhibit. Teacher will announce the time to switch. v. If you arent finished when it is time to switch, put a mark next to the exhibit, and I will give you time at the end to return to previous stations. d. Distribute handout to students: Media Analysis Worksheet for Images i. This is a media analysis worksheet students will have used in previous lessons on media analysis (outside of this unit plan). ii. For each exhibit, students write down the title of the image, then record initial observations, explore connected reflections, and pose questions for what more they would need to know in order to better analyze the image. e. During gallery walk, display a list of terms students will see in the captions, mostly the names of concentration camps: i. Auschwitz: a concentration camp ii. Dachau: a work camp and concentration camp iii. Warsaw Ghetto: a neighborhood where Jews were forced by the German military to live, but lacked food, supplies, and other basic rights iv. Bergen-Belsen: a concentration camp v. SS: the German Secret Service, part of the German military under Hitler vi. emaciated: abnormally thin due to an illness or lack of food 4. Activity Two: Discussion about the Trials at Nuremburg: Who is responsible? (10 mins) a. Pose question: The photographs in the Gallery Walk have shown us a small fraction of the extent of the damage done by the Holocaust. How do you think the rest of the world reacted? i. Students respond out loud b. Teacher adds detail: In the second half of 1945, about six months after the Allied powers liberated the concentration camps, the U.S. and other countries held international trials to prosecute Germans involved in mass murder during the Holocaust. But who did they try? Even if the whole thing was Hitlers idea, what about the thousands of people up and down the chain of command who followed his orders? Who is more responsible, the guy in charge of turning on the gas in the gas chamber, or the commander overseeing an entire concentration camp? i. Students respond out loud c. Have students write independently in their composition books: i. Write 1 paragraph for each question (at least 5 lines for each paragraph):

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1. Who should be tried? Are individuals responsible for their crimes if they have obeyed the laws of their nation? Or are there higher laws? If so, what are those laws? 2. How does one determine punishment? Is everyone equally guilty? Or do some bear more responsibility than others? Can an entire nation be guilty? 5. Activity Three: Add Holocaust and Nuremburg Trials to Case Studies Organizer a. Due to a lack of time, this will happen on following day. CLOSURE Exit Ticket: Show Ms. Stevenson your 2 paragraphs, get a stamp to exit the room.

PERSONAL REFLECTIONS / NOTES Insert notes on same day after teaching the lesson.

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DAY NINE: Case StudyFamine in Sudan (1993) RATIONALE: In this lesson students examine a single image by the photojournalist Kevin Carter, which won him a Pulitzer Prize but also may have contributed to his eventual suicide. The photograph shows an emaciated child crawling across the ground, with a similarly-sized vulture on the ground behind her, apparently following her. Using the same observe-reflect-question Media Analysis Protocol used in previous lessons, students examine the role of the photographer as an actor in history. ESSENTIAL UNDERSTANDINGS: Journalists may or may not do more good than harm by occupying the role of a bystander. Choosing to participate means that individuals may act in 4 different roles: victim, bystander, upstander, or perpetrator; an individual may occupy more than one role. An individual may occupy multiple roles at once. Like individuals, institutions and governments can be bystanders in acts of injustice History is not inevitable, but rather individuals make choices about how to act, and so individuals and the groups/systems they inhabit are what make history happen. Identity describes both individuals and groups. Groups are composed of individuals and individuals are usually members of multiple groups. Individuals have the agency to act independently or in-line with group values. GUIDING QUESTIONS: What role do journalists play as individuals, when reporting on topics like death, war, and famine? Are journalists exempt from the criticism earned by other types of bystanders? Who should be held accountable for the atrocities committed during the Holocaust? Who should be tried? Are individuals responsible for their crimes if they have obeyed the laws of their nation? Or are there higher laws? If so, what are those laws? Should those individuals be tried before a court of law? What is the purpose of a trial? Is it to punish evil-doing? Or is to set a precedent for the future? How does one determine punishment? Is everyone equally guilty? Do some people bear more responsibility than others? Can an entire nation be guilty?12 How can an individuals choices shape history for an entire group, community, or time period? How can your own choices affect your individual history? Was what happened in history inevitable? OBJECTIVES: Students will finish adding the Holocaust and Nuremburg Trials to the Case Study Organizer from the previous days lesson. Students will use the Media Analysis Worksheet to analyze Kevin Carters photograph. Students will evaluate the role of the photographer/photojournalist in history.
12 Some Essential Questions included here are adapted from the teaching materials, Holocaust and Human

Behavior: A Resource Book, by M.S. Strom (1994) Brookline, MA: Facing History and Ourselves. P.419

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Students will gain a basic understanding of the early 1990s famine in Sudan. ASSESSMENTS/PERFORMANCE TASKS: Students will assess the case study of the Holocaust and add it to the Case Study Organizer Students will assess the case study of the famine in Sudan and add it to the Case Study Organizer Students will complete a Media Analysis Worksheet for Kevin Carters photograph. ACCOMODATIONS: Students will access the content of this lesson through basic notetaking skills, as well as the analysis of Kevin Carters photograph. The combination of individual analysis and full-class discussion to debrief the individual work will allow students with varying ranges of comfort with Media Analysis to access the activity through the modeling of their peers. MATERIALS + PREP: Student Composition Books, which reside in classroom Student Late Arrival Book LCD Projector Dry erase markers Teacher Powerpoint_Modes of Participation Unit Student Handout_Case Studies Organizer Student Handout_Media Analysis Worksheet PROCEDURES OPENER DO NOW: Write a job description for a journalist. Explain the goals and responsibilities of a person in that job. (5 lines) BODY OF THE LESSON 1. Debrief Do Now & Review Agenda (5 mins) 2. Wrap up from previous day: Add Holocaust and Nuremburg Trials to Case Studies Organizer (10 mins) a. Have students take out their Media Analysis Worksheets from the Holocaust Gallery Walk, their composition books, and their Case Studies Organizer b. With teacher modeling on board (since well be doing this a day after the activity), add the Nuremburg Trials to the Case Studies Organizer, with the Holocaust in parentheses nearby. Just one entry for the topic. c. Have students generate ideas aloud, with teacher taking notes for the class on the board. 3. Activity One: Photographing famine in Sudan (15 mins) a. Instruct students to turn to their Media Analysis Worksheets from the Holocaust Gallery Walk, or distribute new sheets if students need more space. b. Explain that we will analyze one photograph of the widespread famine that took place in Sudan, East Africa, in the early 1990s. We will do some steps of the media analysis process as a group, and some independently.

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c. Display Kevin Carters 1994 photograph of a starving Sudanese child on the ground being followed by a vulture. d. First 2 minutes, students work independently to take notes in the observe column e. Have students circle 3 things from their list of observations i. Have students stand up at their seats ii. Remind students that many of them might have noticed the same details. If someone says the detail that you planned to share, pick the second from your list. iii. One-by-one, have students walk to the board to point to the details they observed. After showing one, they should return to their seats, but stay standing. iv. Have students continue to share until students have collectively shared all of their top 3s. f. Read through prompting questions in the Reflect column i. Time 5 mins for students to write independently. ii. Have students share out their reflections. Make sure to address: 1. Topic (via the caption) 2. Authors perspective 3. Audience 4. Viewers perspective 5. Possible context g. Move on to Question i. Point out to students that with the image alone, we dont know everything about what is happening in, and around, photo. ii. What questions remain unanswered? iii. What else would we need to know in order to analyze this image? 1. Who? 2. What? 3. Where? 4. When? 5. Why? 4. Activity Two: Notes on the famine in Sudan (5 mins) a. Sudan is a country in East Africa b. Famine affected Sudan throughout the 1990s, killed at least 70,000 people c. One cause was drought, another cause was government spending on military machinery instead of investing in agricultureas a result, very little food was available d. Civil war has affected Sudan and South Sudan for the past 3 decades, since the early 1980s e. In cases of widespread famine, the international community (other nations) often take some role in providing supplies or intervening with aid. 5. Activity Three: What is the role of the photojournalist? (15 mins) a. Have students take out their Case Studies Organizer 44

b. Display Kevin Carters photograph again. c. Pose question to the class, What is the role of the photojournalist in this situation? d. After students situate the photographer in their own schema, tell students that this photographer both: i. received the Pulitzer Prize (biggest photojournalism prize) for this image ii. and ended up committing suicide within a year after taking this photo e. Pose question, Does that information change your thinking about what others thought his role was? About what he thought his role was? f. Now that students have added the role of the photojournalist to their schema, have them fill in information for the rest of the roles for the 1990s famine in Sudan. They can use general titles to describe the roles for victims (the famished), perpetrators (including the Sudanese national government), bystanders (also may include the Sudanese national government, the international community, etc). The focus here is for students to think critically about the role of the photojournalist as a bystander. CLOSURE EXIT TICKET: Do you agree with what the class decided about the role of the photojournalist? If he were still alive, what would you say to Kevin Carter about his infamous photograph of the starving girl and the vulture?

PERSONAL REFLECTIONS / NOTES Insert notes on same day after teaching the lesson.

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DAY TEN: Introduction to Culminating Project RATIONALE: This lesson introduces students to the culminating project for the unit, although the project falls outside of the ten days of lessons outlined here. When I teach the unit in Spring 2013 I intend to structure students work on the project over the course of about five days. The purpose of the project is for each student to research an additional historical case study, and identify the roles of individuals in that case study using the same organizer-schema used throughout the unit. Finally, students will write a first-person narrative addressing the topic they choose, in the form of either a petition or a newspaper editorial from the perspective of a person living at the time of the historical episode. In addition to introducing the project, this lesson summarizes many of the concepts students have explored in the previous two weeks. Ideally, this lesson (and the previous nine lessons) serve to initiate a long-term conversation about the contingency of history (the historical record) upon the perspectives of individualsboth the actors involved, and the authors who record it. ESSENTIAL UNDERSTANDINGS: Choosing to participate means that individuals may act in 4 different roles: victim, bystander, upstander, or perpetrator; an individual may occupy more than one role. An individual may occupy multiple roles at once. Like individuals, institutions and governments can be bystanders in acts of injustice History is not inevitable, but rather individuals make choices about how to act, and so individuals and the groups/systems they inhabit are what make history happen. Identity describes both individuals and groups. Groups are composed of individuals and individuals are usually members of multiple groups. Individuals have the agency to act independently or in-line with group values. GUIDING QUESTIONS: How does studying the role of the individual change your understanding of how people (including yourself) act in your own life? What is the role of the individual in making change happen in your life? How can an individuals choices shape history for an entire group, community, or time period? How can your own choices affect your individual history? Was what happened in history inevitable? OBJECTIVES: Students will select their top 3 topics for the culminating project. Students will read an excerpt from Cynthia Ozicks Prologue to Rescuers. Students will reflect on their conception of the role of the individual in making, and recording, history. ASSESSMENTS/PERFORMANCE TASKS: Students submit preferences for top 3 topics for the culminating project Students participate in a Text Rendering of Cynthia Ozicks Prologue to Rescuers Students compose written responses to summary questions on the topic of the unit 46

ACCOMODATIONS: In this lesson students may determine their own topics for the culminating project, or select from a list. In the culminating project, the teacher provides research packets to guide student research and ensure the inclusion of certain information, but also accepts student-generated research. In this lesson, students also spend time reflecting on their learning from the previous two weeksthis input is valuable for the teacher, and allows students to articulate their concerns or growth on their own terms. MATERIALS + PREP: Student Composition Books, which reside in classroom Student Late Arrival Book LCD Projector Dry erase markers Teacher Powerpoint_Modes of Participation Unit 3x5 index card for each student Student Handout_COzick_Prologue to Rescuers PROCEDURES OPENER DO NOW: What is the role of the individual in making history? (Hint: use the terms victim, perpetrator, bystander, upstander in your response) BODY OF THE LESSON 1. Debrief Do Now & Review Agenda (5 mins) a. Remind students that they have done a great job working through some very big concepts in the past two weeks. Encourage them that they are going to have the chance to use these ideas in their own projects, which well introduce today and continue in the following week. 2. Activity One: Introduce Final Project (15 mins) a. Distribute Final Project Planning Worksheet to students b. Explain to students that they will spend the next week working independently to create a Case Study. It will follow the same format as all of the case studies we have examined in the previous week. Teacher will provide Research Packets, but students will also have the opportunity to research on the internet during class. They will also produce a first-person narrative about the Case Study they choosethey will write either a petition or a newspaper editorial from the perspective of a person living at the time of the historical Case Study. c. Review the checklist of items students must complete for the project d. Answer students initial questions e. Direct students to the back of the Planning Worksheet, where they will find a list of possible topics. i. Tell students that they must select a topic today. ii. Give students 34 minutes to read through the proposed ideas. iii. Distribute 3x5 index cards to students. iv. Have students write their top 3 choices from the list or new ideas.

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v. Before the next class, teacher will review students index cards, confirm topics making sure that no more than two students are covering the same topic, and distribute research packets to each student the next day. 3. Activity Two: Reading from Cynthia Ozicks Prologue to Rescuers (15 mins) a. This reading serves to initiate a summary discussion to wrap up the first two weeks of the unit. Teacher has excerpted and amended the reading to better meet student reading levels. b. Distribute reading, Cynthia Ozicks Prologue to Rescuers c. Display image of a hillside covered in sheep, with one stag or otherwise misfitted form in the frame. Avoid explaining the image to students until, at least until they have read through the passage once. d. Explain to students that we will read it as a class for the first pass, then they will read through independently to look for details. e. Teacher reads through of the first paragraph, then selects a student to finish. At start of 2nd paragraph, teacher selects 3 students to read the next 3 paragraphs. f. Sub-Activity: Text Rendering i. Have students re-read Prologue independently, underlining one sentence, one short phrase (about 5 words), and two single words that stick with them (2 mins) ii. Have students do a quick whiparound: from their seats, each student reads aloud their chosen sentence, moving quickly from one person to the next. Remind students that it is normal for multiple people to choose the same sentence: repetition is a good thing! iii. Repeat the whiparound, this time reading aloud the short phrases iv. Repeat the whiparound, this time reading aloud the two single words g. Pose the discussion question: What does Cynthia Ozick think about the role of the bystander? What words does she use to describe it? i. Explore this question in a full-class discussion. Make sure the discussion continues to refer back to Ozicks ideas by encouraging students to back up what they are saying with examples from the text. 4. Activity Three: Reflective Writing (10 mins) a. Have students open their composition books to a new page, and title it Thoughts on the individual in history b. Refer back to Do Now. c. Pose question, How does studying the role of the individual change your understanding of how people (including yourself) act in your own life? What is the role of the individual in making change happen in your life? (Hint: use the terms victim, perpetrator, bystander, and upstander in your answer) CLOSURE EXIT TICKET: This unit is all new material for Ms. Stevensondo you think she should teach it again next year? Why/why not? (Write two comments about the unit, and 1 question) 48

PERSONAL REFLECTIONS / NOTES Insert notes on same day after teaching the lesson.

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