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What was the Cold War?

After WWII, the tensions between the U.S. and the USSR surfaced because of their political and economic differences. 1945 - 1991

If the Cold War ever went HOT !!!!!!!

So, what was the Cold War?

The Cold War was the hostile (unfriendly) relationship between the Soviet Union (USSR) and the USA. The relationship between these two superpowers was cold because:
1. They didnt trust each other. 2. They have very different policies and the other sides ideas as wrong and/or as a threat. 3. Feared that the other side would try to take them over.

Political Policy Economic Policy

USA democratic capitalist

USSR totalitarian communist

They also feared that the other side would try to take them over.

At the end of WWII, the Allies agreed to split Germany into 4 occupation zones:
1. Britain, France, and the US joined their zones to form the Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany).

2. Soviet Unions zone became the German Democratic Republic (East Germany)

Winston Churchill called the separation of ideas between the west and east: The Iron Curtain.

Satellite States

To further protect itself from any attempts of invasion from the West, the USSR quickly started or backed communist governments in the six countries east of Germany: Bulgaria Hungary Romania Poland Czechoslovakia Yugoslavia These countries were called Satellite States because they were absolutely controlled by the Soviet Union

Domino Theory US feared that European countries would fall one by one to the Soviet Union (see map)

+++Schieve Note: Because of this theory, the Americans saw everything that Soviets did as aggressive. And the Soviets saw everything that the USA did as aggressive. The whole reason for the Cold War was lack of trust!!!!!!!! Remember the hallway metaphor!

Communism and Paranoia

The Cold War -- was fought with propaganda, sports, espionage (spies), economic, and political pressure and some armed conflict. -- was typified by the ever present fear of nuclear war. Bomb shelters, air raids, etc.

Sept 1945 Igor Gouzenko -- Russian working in the Russian Embassy in Ottawa defected (deserted his country) and asked the Canadian government to protect him and his family -- gave the government secret files revealing Russian spies in the Canadian, US and British Governments who were stealing important information, like the plans for building the atomic bomb. (CP p. 131)

Result fear of communism and communists Red Menace spread

1947, Truman Doctrine US policy to support free peoples around the world who were being threatened by communism. Containment the US foreign policy to stop the spreading of communism by providing economic aid and military support. Marshall Plan -- Goal give money to European countries to help rebuild and help them resist the advance of communism. Result: Canada and US sent $ billions in money and equipment

Berlin Airlift -- the city of Berlin had also been split into 4 zones. The allies could only get to Berlin through Soviet controlled East Germany June 1948 USSR blockaded the route to Berlin, an act of confrontation - The West airlifted food into Berlin for 15mths Result Allies believed that a stronger military presence in Europe was necessary to prevent Soviet expansion. Canadian PM Louis St Laurent suggested an alliance of democratic countries in the North Atlantic region. Result-1949 -NATO North Atlantic Treaty Organization was formed. -- it was agreed that an attack on one member was an attack on all. US, Canada, France, Britain, Holland, Italy, Luxembourg Iceland, Portugal, Belgium, Greece, Turkey, Spain, West Germany, Denmark, and Norway

1949 Mao Zedong, communist revolutionary, took control of China and his opponents, supported by the US, fled to Taiwan. 1949-- USSR announced it had the atomic bomb. Result Arms Race competition between USSR and US to build nuclear weapons MAD Mutually Assured Destruction Both realize the world will be destroyed if any bomb dropped Therefore, try to avoid atomic war 1955 -- USSR -- angered by the formation of NATO, formed the Warsaw Pact USSR, Romania, Hungary, Poland, East Germany, Czechoslovakia, Albania, and Bulgaria

Cold War Examples

Korean War 1950-53 Communist North invades democratic South USSR/China backed North, USA back South UN votes to send troops UNEF, Canada sends troops War ends in 1953, Korea split to this day at 38N Suez Crisis 1956 Egypt seizes Suez Canal from British and French Co. Britain encourages Israel to attack Egypt Crisis escalates when USSR threatens to help Egypt Lester B Pearson (Can ambassador to UN) proposes peacekeeping.stops war!!! LBP wins Nobel Prize in 1957 Cuban Missile Crisis 1962 Vietnam War 1954-1975

1950- 57 -- DEW line Distant Early Warning built to protect against attacks by long range bombers, the US built radar stations in the North. Result -- first time that US military personnel were stationed on Canadian soil Problem new missiles (ICBMs) built and could reach North America city in 30 mins. Result -1957 -NORAD -North American Air Defence Agreement - US and Canada established an integrated air defence fighters, missile bases, radar all controlled from a central command base in US (Cheyenne Mountain). Sputnik 1957 AVRO Arrow (CP p. 141)

The Red Scare in North America United States US Congress formed Committee on UnAmerican Activities- led by Senator Joseph McCarthy goal -- to discover any communists -- became a witch hunt -- anyone suspected of being a Communist could be persecuted, fired, blacklisted (prevented from getting a job) Canada PM St. Laurent refused to outlaw communism because it was not democratic (against freedom of speech), but RCMP special branch kept an eye on anyone thought to be a communist. Quebec Premier Maurice Duplessis feared communism and hated unions. Padlock Law -- allowed police to raid places in search of revolutionary material and shut down any organizations and newspapers thought to be communist.

Berlin Wall

August 13,1961, the two sides were divided physically when construction started on the Berlin Wall.