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Automatic Coil Winder

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Automatic Coil Winder

This is my build of the: High Stepping Automatic Coil Winder project that was featured in the June 2005 issue of Nuts & Volts magazine and authored by Robert Lang. The idea behind the coil winder project was to create an automatic coil winder that the author could set up, walk away from, and return to a finished coil. He also intended it to be an introductory learning tool for his readers in precision object positioning and I happen to be one of his readers. I have no affiliation with Nuts & Volts magazine or the author of the original article so if you are interested in reading the original article or building the High Stepping Automatic Coil Winder a print copy or digital version of the June 2005 issue of The Nuts & Volts magazine can be ordered from the Nuts & Volts website.

The completed coil winder is up and running. Click on above photo to view larger image.

To run the winder you need a copy of the "Coil Winder" software program (you can download from the Nuts & Volts website) running on a pc with a parallel port, a parallel port printer extension cable, and a power supply to power the driver board and stepper motors. The Coil Winder program will run in MS Windows 98, but to run in newer operating systems such as, NT, 2000 or XP you will need to download and install a driver named INPOUT32.DLL from LOGIX4U.NET otherwise you will get an error when the Coil Winder software tries to access the parallel port.

A screen shot of the Coil Winder program. The white fields are filled in by the user and the green fields are the calculated results output by the program based on the user inputs.

For the wood parts of the coil winder I was able to use wood I had leftover from other projects. The plywood I used for the sides and bottom of the winder have a 1/2 inch nominal thickness. The sides are cut to 8" X 8", and the bottom is 8" X 18". The side supports are 3/4" X 2 1/2" X

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27-Apr-13 22:56

Automatic Coil Winder

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8", and the channels cut into the supports are 3/8" deep and the width of the plywood.

I had a difficult time understanding the placement of some of the coil winder components while referencing the original coil winder mechanical drawing, so I studied it and made my own drawing to locate the positions of the motors, and threaded and brass rods. Click on mechanical drawing below to see full size image.

The side panels are glued into the side supports, and the side supports are fastened to base with screws from the underside of the base. The side support screws can be loosened so you can adjust the sides of the winder. If the sides are not parallel to each other the rotating rods will bind up. Cardboard shims can be placed under the side supports as needed to make the sides vertical.

Top Left: Cutting threads in an aluminum spacer to be used as the bearing surface for the threaded rod. Top Center: and Right: Drilling holes in winder components with dremel drill press. Bottom: 3/16" solid brass rods to be used for the various coil winder shafts. A 10-32 threaded steel rod used as the carriage lead screw and other miscellaneous parts.

Photo bottom left: There are two spacers inserted between the nylon couplers and rods that are not shown in the above photograph.

The stepper motors the author used were surplus units from All Electronics

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27-Apr-13 22:56

Automatic Coil Winder

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and are no longer available. Here is the information from the original stepper motor listing. I got this from The Wayback Machine. New stepper motors are generally expensive to use for hobby projects. I bought new old stock stepper motors through the Internet. It can be difficult to find specifications for old stepper motors. I gathered as much information as I could, took a chance on these motors and I am quite satisfied with their performance. The coil winder 28BB-H151-11 stepper motor wiring diagram & information.

28BB-H151-11 Minebea Astrosyn 7.5 deg/step stepper motors mounted. Top: Coil winder motor, Bottom: Carriage motor.

Minebea Stepper Motor part number decoding & specifications, Circa 1999.

The underside of the carriage base with polystyrene slide tube and threaded #10-32 hex nut fitted into channels and epoxied into place. I formed the channels in the base with a miter saw, wood chisel and a round file.

Pilot holes were drilled into the top edge of the winder carriage before inserting the wire guides to prevent the wood from splitting.

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27-Apr-13 22:56

Automatic Coil Winder

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I used a large sewing needle and small eye hooks as wire guides for the carriage.

The polystyrene material was purchased from a local hobby shop. A 1.25 inch hole saw was used to cut the sheet material. The hole saw pilot bit cut the center hole just right for the .25 inch tubing. I glued the spool together with gel super glue, but have since purchased a solvent to weld future spools together. The foam cylinder in the photo was a sewing thread spool that I cut and sanded to use as a form to make the coil winder spools. Coil winder spool made from polystyrene .25 outside diameter tubing, and sheet material.

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27-Apr-13 22:56

Automatic Coil Winder

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Coil winder and carriage rod nylon bearings epoxied into side panel. Aluminum spacer epoxied on threaded rod as inner bearing surface.

When I first started running the coil winder I noticed the stepper motors were randomly miss stepping. After checking into the problem I discovered that my computer's parallel port could not properly drive the IRF510 mosfets specified in the original Nuts & Volts article. The parallel printer ports uses 5 volt logic so I replaced the mosfets with IRL540 logic level mosfets and it eliminated the random miss stepping. Winder and carriage stepper motor driver board. Click on the driver board link to see pictures of the board making process. Automatic Coil Winder 1 2 3 4 5 Next >

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27-Apr-13 22:56

Coil Winder Electronics

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Coil Winder Electronics

The board layout was done by the author Robert Lang using free software from board manufacturer ExpressPCB. The pcb board file is available from Nuts & Volts magazine online. Since I intended to make the board myself. I downloaded ExpressPCB, and installed it. Opened the board.pcb file, and printed the board layout to PDF Creator which allowed me to create a pdf file. I opened the board layout pdf file in Paint Shop Pro, and modified the layout to shorten the jumper lengths because, I was making a single layer board that required jumpers, and increased the size of the through hole pads to make them more robust.

Using Paint Shop Pro the board layout was printed onto Techniks transfer material with my HP4L laser printer.

A Steel square clamped down to the pcb material to use as a straight edge for scoring, and a piece of scrap wood is placed under the pcb to protect the work bench.

The board scoring process requires a bit of effort, and I generally go through a few utility knife blades in the process. The circuit boards should be separated

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27-Apr-13 22:56

Coil Winder Electronics

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by aligning the score line of the board with the edge of a piece of wood or the edge of the work bench, and bending the board. After separating the boards I file the board edge to smooth it and remove any copper burrs.

The board is scored on both sides before separating. Copper side is scored first so score lines are visible on other side when board is turned over.

Before transferring the toner to the circuit board. I use a scotch bright pad to clean and ruff up the copper surface. Than clean the board with an isopropyl alcohol dampened paper towel. The toner is transfered to the board using a clothes iron with the temperature set just below the steam level. I remove the transfer paper after the board has cooled. I drill the corner mounting holes of the board being careful not to scratch the toner off the board. Laser printer toner circuit pattern transfered onto pcb board using a clothes iron.

I agitate the etching solution by manually moving the board around in the solution to speed up the etching process, periodically removing it from the solution to check the progress. The etching process typically takes less than 10 minutes to complete.

Board being etched with ferric chloride. I warm the echant with an aquarium to speed up the etching process.

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27-Apr-13 22:56

Coil Winder Electronics

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When the etching process is finished, the board is submerged in two different containers of water, and then rinsed off under the faucet.

The dremel drill, and drill press work well for drilling component holes in circuit boards. I leave the toner on the board till I am finished drilling because it keeps the drill bit centered in the pad. Also the toner keeps the copper from oxidizing so leave it on till your ready to install the components. I remove the toner from the board with a lacquer thinner dampened paper towel.

I prefer to drill the circuit boards outdoors because of the fiberglass dust.

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27-Apr-13 22:56

Coil Winder Electronics

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Underside of completed stepper motor driver board.

The coil winder 28BB-H151-11 stepper motor wiring diagram & information.

Completed stepper motor driver board.

The standard parallel port printer cable with a 36 pin centronics connector won't interface to the driver board. A parallel port printer extension cable has the correct connectors to interface the parallel port of your computer to the male DB 25 connector on the stepper motor driver board. I replaced the centronics connector on an existing parallel port printer cable with a female DB 25 connector to interface with the winder because I had the parts on hand.

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27-Apr-13 22:56

Coil Winder Electronics

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27-Apr-13 22:56

Automatic Coil winder Stepper Motor Wiring Diagram & Information

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Coil Winder Stepper Motor Wiring Diagram & Information

Wiring connections for the Minebea Astrosyn 28BB-H151-11 and the high stepping automatic coil winder. Other wiring configurations will also work.

The stepper motor above is configured as a unipolar motor. The red and black leads of all 4 phases (coils) are tied to +5 volts. The other lead of each of the phases is tied to a mosfet on the circuit board. As each mosfet on the board is energized it pulls the corresponding motor lead to ground potential and powers that phase of the stepper motor.

I bought a 5 volt, 4 amp switching power adapter for the coil winder at a local surplus dealer for a few dollars. I tested the power adapter with the coil winder. The output voltage of the

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27-Apr-13 22:56

Automatic Coil winder Stepper Motor Wiring Diagram & Information

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adapter was stable with the minimum load of the winder at idle to the maximum load with the coil winder running. The coil winder power supply load using the two 28BB-H151-11 stepper motors peaks at about 2.1 amperes while running with the winder software set to wave mode and 3.6 amperes with the winder software set to hi-torque mode.

ACBEL model AD8048 switching power adapter.

The stepper above is a 4 phase (8 wire) permanent magnet motor. It can be configured for unipolar or bipolar use.

The approximate dimensions of the Minebea 28BB-H151-11 in inches are: Diameter 2 11/16" Mounting plate 2 3/4" square Motor depth 1 5/8" (excl. shaft) Mounting holes 2 9/32" on center Shaft 3/4" long Shaft diameter 1/4"

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27-Apr-13 22:56

Automatic Coil winder Stepper Motor Wiring Diagram & Information

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Inside view of a Minebea Astrosyn 28BB-H151-11 stepper motor. Automatic Coil Winder < Previous 1 2 3 4 5 Next >

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27-Apr-13 22:56

Coil Winder Motor Couplings

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Coil Winder Motor Couplings

Here are the first couplings I made using 1/4" I.D. brass tubing and two part epoxy to attach them to the stepper motor shafts. The motors had round shafts ( no flats ) and I applied the epoxy and rotated the sleeves while holding the motor shaft stationary to evenly spread the epoxy between the shaft and sleeve. These are the type of couplings used in the original Nut & Volts Automatic Coil Winder article. The epoxied on sleeves are on really straight, but I really didn't like the idea of permanently mounting the sleeves to the motors so I started looking for other inexpensive solutions that I could make from materials that I could buy locally. The stepper motor to the right is one of two small and under powered stepper motors that I bought from a local surplus store to use temporarily while building the coil winder. I made my first removable couplings from nylon spacers but the spacers have a loose fit to begin with and deform when you tighten the set screw.

The second coupling I made from an aluminum spacer I had is better but I can't buy them locally. The bronze couplings I made from bronze bearings have the best fit of the removable couplings and are made from materials that can be purchased from a local home center or hardware store. A negative of the bronze couplers is the wall thickness of 1/16". Very little wall thickness to tap threads into for the set screws, although I have put quite a bit of torque on the small hex key wrench tightening the set screws several times without having any issues with them stripping. At this point I don't know if it will become a problem in the future.

The nylon coupling on the left is made from a nylon bushing but because of the excessive inside diameter and the fact that the nylon deforms somewhat when the set screw is tightened the fit was not optimal. The middle coupling made from a aluminum spacer an is better than the nylon coupling but I can't find them locally. My latest couplings are made of bronze.

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27-Apr-13 22:56

Coil Winder Motor Couplings

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My latest couplings are made using 1/4" x 3/8" x 1" bronze bearings (bushings) and are attached to the motor shafts with #8 - 32 x 3/16" set screws. I also used #18 x 3/4" brass escutcheon pins to secure the coil winder threaded and brass rods to the couplings. I cut the brass pins to size and filed the end smooth than used vinyl tubing with a 3/8" inside diameter (1/2" O.D.) and cut the tubing to about 1/4" width to hold the shaft pins in place. I heated the vinyl tubing with a hot air gun to straighten it and to make it easier to cut through the tubing with a utility knife. In the images to the right you can see the 1/4" O.D. polystyrene tubing being used as a bushing between the 1/4" I.D. coupling and the 3/16" O.D. brass rod. The polystyrene tubing I used is made by evergreen scale models, Item no. 228 .250 diam (6.3mm). I bought it from a local hobby shop. The rods are not rigidly held inside the polystyrene tubing. There is still some space between the rods plastic tubing allowing tolerance for alignment issues.

These bronze bushings have a better fit than the nylon or aluminum spacers I used for the 1/4" stepper motor shafts and the 1/16" wall thickness doesn't seem like it will be an issue for this winder but it may be an issue for more demanding applications. The cost of the bronze bushings locally are about $2.50 each. You can over sleeve them with another bronze bushing or a cheaper steel spacer to double the wall thickness. Since making the bronze couplings I have since added nylon bearings to the motor coupling side of the coil winder so the construction of the motor couplings are less critical. Coil Winder Updates Page These particular bushings are porous and impregnated with oil so the first thing I did was submerse them in isopropyl alcohol for at least a couple of days or more to degrease them because I am using them as couplings not as bearings.

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27-Apr-13 22:56

Coil Winder Motor Couplings

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27-Apr-13 22:56

Automatic Coil Winder Updates and Suggestions

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Automatic Coil Winder Updates and Ideas

Changes To The Coil Winder


I added nylon bearings to the motor coupling side of the rotating shafts to reduce shaft wobble. This will also make the construction of the motor couplings less critical. Because of the large existing holes in the wood I used nylon spacers around the nylon bearings. I roughed up the nylon surfaces to be glued and used a 5 minute two part epoxy to bond the parts together and then to the plywood. I put the rotating shafts in place before the epoxy set to make sure the alignment and position of the bearings were correct.

In the left image above is one of the new coupling side nylon bearings. To the right is the old setup using the motor coupling to support the rotating shaft.

The spacer for the coupling was locked in place on the threaded rod with a brass pin. Now I am using an aluminum threaded spacer further in on the threaded rod to use it as a bearing surface inside the nylon bearing instead of using it as a spacer inside of the motor coupling. I wrapped plumbers Teflon tape around the threaded rod than rotated the aluminum spacer over the tape and into position. The Teflon tape helps to center the spacer on the threaded rod and holds the aluminum spacer in place. Some epoxy or other adhesive can also be applied to secure the spacer.

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Automatic Coil Winder Updates and Suggestions

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With the new bearings I mounted the motors on 1 1/2" standoffs to allow room for the couplings between the motors and the newly added nylon bearings. I also moved the plywood winder side in by about 1 1/2" to adjust for the new motor mounting so I could continue to use my existing threaded and brass rotating shafts. The bronze couplings to the right were the latest change I made to the coil winder right before adding the motor coupling side bearings. These couplings are pretty good but after adding them I realized that adding bearings to the motor side was the way to go as opposed to continuing the try to perfect inexpensive homemade couplings. The remaining wobble in the rotating shafts is caused by the brass and threaded rods not being straight. Improving the couplings and adding bearings (bushings) to both sides has made this obvious.

Coil Winder Construction Ideas


Use two stationary guides for the moving stage as opposed to one guide and the rotating threaded rod. The guide rail(s) from an old ink jet printer or scanner would probably work well. With bearings on the coupling side of the rotating shafts, couplings can be made from something as simple as rubber hose, such as automotive or lawn equipment fuel line. Automatic Coil Winder < Previous 1 2 3 4 5

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27-Apr-13 22:56

Test Bench Power Supply

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Test Bench Power Supply

I recently updated my test bench power supply with new circuit boards, a robust recycled power transformer, fine voltage control adjustments, output switches with indicator leds, floating outputs, earth grounded jacks, and a power cord jack. The inspiration for my power supply updates came from an article in the March 2007 issue of Nuts & Volts magazine titled "A Test Bench Power Supply". I used my existing power supply case so I had to be somewhat creative with the front control panel layout because of the existing holes in the case. The completed power supply with two adjustable 0 to 20 volt floating supplies @ 1.5 amps each.

This power supply uses the core voltage regulation circuit (with modifications) and some of the other features that were used in the original magazine article. Each supply has separate coarse and fine voltage adjustment potentiometers and are adjustable down to a minimum of about zero volts through the use of LM385BZ voltage reference ics. The power supplies are electrically isolated so you have flexibility in how they are configured with reference to each other and earth ground.

View of the back of the power supply with LM317K regulators in TO-3 packages mounted on a heat sink recycled from an old 1960s electronic organ.

After finishing the updated power supply and using it a few times I discovered the voltage reference ic would get fried if a power supply output was accidentally overloaded. I fixed that problem and some other issues by adding a few components and a relay delay circuit. The relay delay circuit allows time for the power supply to stabilize before the outputs become active and more importantly shuts them down as soon as the line power (120VAC) is removed.

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27-Apr-13 23:00

Test Bench Power Supply

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I have each of the two power supply circuit boards mounted to the back of the case. The startup delay / shutdown relay circuit board mounted to the bottom of the case. I am using the large transformer to provide the primary output power for both power supplies and the negative reference voltage of one of the supplies. I also have a small transformer mounted to the back of the enclosure to provide the negative reference voltage for the second supply.

To the right is the modified power supply circuit with components added to resolve the previously cited issues. The added components are in red with the exception of the C5 capacitor that I changed from 100uf to 470uf. I added the C7 capacitor in parallel with the voltage reference ic to prevent the C6 capacitor from being discharged through the voltage reference ic if the output is abruptly overloaded. I also added the D4 Schottky diode in parallel with the voltage reference ic that prevents the ic from being forward biased more than .3 volts and prevents the 470uf and 100uf capacitors from being subjected to a reverse polarity greater than .3 volts during line power shutdown. I added the R4 2.2K resistor to speed the discharge of the C1 4700uf main filter capacitor. This was more of an earlier effort to reduce output voltage rise problem during line power shutdown but also helps to reduce the time that the voltage reference capacitors are reverse biased.

The power supply has two resistors that have to be calculated. I used a value of 1.5K for resistor R3 to provide a current flow of 10ma through the voltage reference ic. The effective current flow through the reference ic will actually about 5ma because of an opposing current through the voltage adjust circuit. The R2 resistor value(s) will be chosen to to set the maximum voltage output for the power supply. My actual values are 11K and 13K.

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27-Apr-13 23:00

Test Bench Power Supply

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To resolve the output voltage swing problem that occurs when the line power is shutdown, I added a relay delay circuit. I was going through my electronics parts and discovered that I had a Potter & Brumfied KHU-17D11-12 relay with a 12VDC coil and four sets of contacts rated at 28VDC, 3A that would be a perfect fit for this project. Than I did a search for circuit ideas and found a great circuit to try out. I found the Handy Time Delay with Relay Output. circuit at ExtremeCircuits. Updated power supply board with components added to protect voltage reference ic and reduce voltage overshoot but I have since changed the regulator ics and mounted them on the back of the enclosure.

For the relay circuit I used a DF06 bridge rectifier package fed from one of the power transformer secondary windings to power the circuit. Substituted a 2N2222A transistor in place of the BC549 specified and used an old discontinued Radio Shack 276-1020 because it was the only SCR I had in my parts inventory. I built the time delay with relay circuit on a breadboard trying different parts until I got the delay time right. I also changed the specified 1N4001 D1 diode to a 11DQ06 Schottky diode to improve timing circuit's capacitor discharge. This tightened the delay timing repeatability. I used a 680K resistor for R1 and a 47uf capacitor for the C1 timing components. The delay time is about 2.6 seconds for the initial power on and 1.6 seconds for repeated startups.

Here is the completed relay delay circuit board ready to install. The delay time shortened quite a bit on the final grid board build as compared to the breadboard build but not so much that I had to adjust the timing.

I didn't want to put too much time into the relay board project so I built it on a Radio Shack 276-149A circuit board. I marked the locations on the circuit board where the relay contacts would pass through and cut slots in the board with my Dremel rotary tool than removed the copper lands around the board slots with a small X-acto knife.

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27-Apr-13 23:00

Test Bench Power Supply

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I mounted the relay and then positioned the rest of the parts around the board bending the leads into position. After I had all the parts positioned I soldered them into place.

Bottom view of the completed relay delay circuit board ready to install in my power supply. Test Bench Power Supply 1 2 Next >

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Test Bench Power Supply Schematic Circuit Drawings

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Test Bench Power Supply Schematic Circuit Drawings

Warning!
This power supply circuit uses 120 volts household mains and should only be attempted by someone that has the knowledge and skills to safely construct such a project. Otherwise personal injury and or property damage could result.

Page Under Construction!

Test Bench Power Supply Schematic Complete. The left side outlined in yellow is one of two power supply circuits. On the right is the relay delay circuit.

Power Supply Parts List


BR1 - KBL405 Bridge Rectifier or equivalent C1 C2 C3 C4 4700uf Electrolytic Capacitor 0.22uf Capacitor 22uf 35V Electrolytic Capacitor 0.1uf 35V Capacitor BR101 - DF06 C101 - 1 nf C102 - 47uf C103 - 100uf D101 - 1N4002 D102 - 11DQ06 Q1 - 2N2222 Transistor IC1 - LM 317K Regulator IC R1 - 240 (All resistors 1/4 watt) R2 - 12K* R3 - 1.5K* R4, R5 - 2.2K R6 - 1K (2 watt) R101 - 680K R102 - 100 R103 - 2.2K RLA101 - Potter & Brumfied KHU-17D11-12

D1, D2, D3 - 1N4002 Diode D4 - 11DQ06 Schottky Diode

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Test Bench Power Supply Schematic Circuit Drawings

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SCR101** - 276 - 1020 (Obsolete Part) VREF - LM385BZ - 1.2 AC Receptacle and or Power Cord Banana Jacks F1 - 2A Fuse Indicator Lamp - Line Power (120VAC) S1 - Toggle Switch SPST S2 - Toggle Switch DPDT T1 - Power Transformer(s) LED1 - LED Output Indicator ** The NTE5465 is listed as a replacement for the RS 276-1020 in the NTE cross reference. Other SCRs with lower current handling capabilities could be substituted to drive the relay used for this power supply project. The 276-1020 was the only SCR I had in my parts inventory.

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27-Apr-13 23:00

Solid State Triac Relay

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Solid State Triac Relay

This Solid state relay was designed to operate a 120VAC inline duct booster. The required input signal to the relay is the standard 24VAC from a conventional heating and air conditioning system. I built this solid state relay to replace a failing mechanical relay that was powering an inline duct booster.

Solid State Relay Schematic & Circuit Board Drawings

I used an optical isolator and input resistors used to protect the control voltage source in the air handler.

I laid out the board with Eagle Layout software. Solid State Triac Relay 1 2 Next >

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27-Apr-13 23:01

Solid State Triac Relay Schematic & Board Layout

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Solid State Triac Relay Schematic & Board Layout

Warning!
This solid state relay circuit uses 120 volts household mains and should only be attempted by someone that has the knowledge and skills to safely construct such a project. Otherwise personal injury and or property damage could result.

Solid State Relay Parts List


B1 - DF02 Bridge Rectifier C1 - 220uf, 50V Electrolytic Capacitor C2 - .01uf Suppression Capacitor Class X2 AC 275V C3 - .1uf, 25V Ceramic Capacitor IC1 - 7812 Voltage Regulator OK1 - MOC3041 Zero-Cross Optoisolator Triac Driver Output Note: All resistors 1/2 watt, except R5 - 2 watt carbon composition. R1, R6 - 47 R2 - 390 R3 - 180 R4 - 1k R5 - 100 T1 - BTB16-800CWRG Triac

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27-Apr-13 23:01

Solid State Triac Relay Schematic & Board Layout

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