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RATIO ANALYSIS STATEMENT OF HMT WATCHES LTD.

CONTENTS
CHAPTER NO.
1. INTRODUCTION 04-30

PARTICULARS

PAGE NO

2.

RESEARCH DESIGN OF THE STUDY

31-36

3. 4.

COMPANY PROFILE DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION

37-47 48-82

5.

SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, SUGGESTIONS AND CONCLUSION

83-88

6.

ANNEXURE

89-93

7.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

94-95

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RATIO ANALYSIS STATEMENT OF HMT WATCHES LTD.

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RATIO ANALYSIS STATEMENT OF HMT WATCHES LTD.

INTRODUCTION
In an economy finance is defined as the provision of money at the time when it is required. Every enterprise, whether big, medium of small, needs finance to carry on its operations and to achieve its targets. In fact, finance is so indispensable today that it is rightly said to be the lifeblood of an enterprise. Without adequate finance, no enterprise can possibly accomplish its objectives.

DEFINITIONS
That business activity which is concerned with the acquisition and conservation of capital funds in meeting the financial needs and overall objectives of business enterprise. -Wheeler Business finance can be broadly defined as the activity concerned with the planning, raising, controlling and administering the funds used in the business. -Guttmann and dough all Business finance deals primarily with raising, administering and disbursing funds by privately owned business units operating in non-financial fields of industry.

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CLASSIFICATION OF FINANCE

The subject of finance has been traditionally classified into two classes:

FINANCE

PUBLIC FINANCE

PRIVATE FINANCE

-GOVERNMENT INSTITUTION -STATE GOVERNMENTS -LOCAL SELF-GOVERNMENTS -CENTRAL GOVERNMENT

-PERSONAL FINANCE -BUSINESS FINANCE -FINANCE OF NON-PROFIT ORGANISATIONS

Public finance Public finance deals with the requirements receipts and disbursements of funds in the government institutions like states, local self-governments and central government. Private finance Private finance is concerned with requirements, receipts and disbursements of funds in case of individual, a profit seeking business organization and a non-profit organization.

Private finance can be classified into:


Personal finance; Business finance; and Finance of non-profit organizations.

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Three main APPROACHES to finance:


i The first approach views finance as to providing of funds needed by a Business on most suitable terms. This approach confines finance to the raising of funds and to the

study of financial institutions and instruments from where funds can be procured. ii The second approach relates finance to cash. iii The third approach views finance as being concerned with rising of funds and their effective utilization.

Business finance can further be sub-classified into three categories:

BUSINESS FINANCE

SOLE-PROPRITORY FINANCE

PARTNERSHIP FIRMS FINANCE

COMPANY OR CORPORATION FINANCE

OBJECTIVES OF FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT OR BUSINESS FINANCE


Financial management is concerned with procurement and use of funds. Its main aim is to use business funds in such a way that the firms value/earnings Are maximized. Financial management provides a framework for selecting a Proper course of action and deciding a viable commercial strategy. The main Objective of a business is to maximize the owners economic welfare.

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Objective can be achieved by:

1. Profit Maximization, and 2. Wealth Maximization 1. Profit Maximization. Profit earning is the main aim of every economic Activity. A business being an economic institution must earn profit to Cover its costs and provide funds for growth. No business can survive without earning profit. Profit is a measure of efficiency of a business enterprise. Profits also serve as a protection against Risks which cannot be ensured. The accumulated profits enable a business to face risks like fall in prices, competition from other units, adverse government policies etc. thus, profit maximization is considered as the main objective of business. 2. Wealth Maximization. Wealth maximization is the appropriate objective of an enterprise. Financial theory asserts that wealth maximization is the single substitute for a stock holders utility. When the firm maximizes the stock holders wealth, the individual maximizing stock holders wealth the firm is operating consistently towards maximizing stock holders utility

SCOPE OF FINANCE FUNCTION


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Estimating financial requirements Deciding Capital Structure Selecting a Source of Finance Selecting a Pattern of Investment Proper Cash Management Implementing Financial Controls Proper Use of Surpluses

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RATIO ANALYSIS STATEMENT OF HMT WATCHES LTD. 1) Estimating Financial Requirements:

The first task of a financial manager is to estimate short-term financial Requirements of his business. For this purpose he will prepare a financial Plan for present as well as for future. The amount required for purchasing fixed assets as well as needs of funds for working capital will have to be Ascertained. The estimations should be based on sound financial principles So that neither there are inadequate nor excess funds with the concern. The inadequacy of funds will adversely affect day to day working of the concern whereas excess funds may tempt a management to indulge in extravagant Spending or speculative activities.

2) Deciding capital Structure:


It refers to the kind and proportion of different securities for raising funds. After deciding about the quantum of funds required it should be decided Which type of securities should be raised? It may be wise to finance fixed Assets through long term debts. If gestation period is longer, then share Capital may be most suitable. Long term funds should be employed to Finance working capital also, if not wholly then partially. Entirely depending Upon overdrafts and cash credits for meeting working capital needs may not Be suitable. A decision about various sources for funds should be linked to The cost of raising funds. If cost of raising funds is very high then such Sources may not be useful for long.

3) Selecting a Source of Funds: After preparing a capital structure, an appropriate source of


finance is Selected. Various sources from which the finance may be raised, include: share capital, financial institution, commercial banks, public deposits, etc. if finances are needed for short periods then banks, public deposits and financial institutions may be appropriate; on the other hand, if long term Finances are required then share capital and debentures may be useful. If the concern does not want to tie down assets as securities then public deposits May be a suitable source. If management does not want to dilute ownership Then debentures should be issued in preference to shares. The need, purpose, object and cost involved may be the factors influencing the selection of a Suitable source of financing.

4) Selecting a Pattern of Investment:


The selection of an investment pattern is related to the use of funds. The funds will have to be spent
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first on fixed assets and then an appropriate Portion will be retained for working capital. Even a various categories of Assets, a decision about the type of fixed or other assets will be essential. While selecting a plant and machinery, even different categories of them May be available. The decision making techniques such as Capital Budgeting, Opportunity Cost Analysis etc. May be applied in making decisions about capital expenditures. While spending on various assets, the Principle of safety, profitability and liquidity should not be ignored. A Balance should be struck even in these principles. One may not like to invest On a project which may be risky even though there may be more profits.

5) Proper Cash Management:


it is also an important task of finance manager. He has to assess various cash Needs at different times and then make arrangements for arranging cash.

Cash may be required to:


a) Purchase of raw materials, b) Make payments to creditors,

c) Meet wage bills, and to meet day-to-day expenses. d)

The usual sources of cash may be:


a) Cash sales, b) Collection of debts, c) Short term arrangements with banks etc.

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RATIO ANALYSIS STATEMENT OF HMT WATCHES LTD. 6) Implementing financial controls:


An efficient system of financial management necessitates the use of various Control devices. Financial control devices generally used are: a) Return on investment, b) Budgetary control, c) Break even analysis, d) Cost control, e) Ratio analysis, f) Cost and internal audit.

7) Proper use of surpluses:


The utilization of profits or surpluses is also an important factor in financial Management. A judicious use of surpluses is essential for expansion and Diversification plans and also in protecting the interests of shareholders. The plugging back of profits is the best policy for further financing but it cashes With the interests of shareholders. A balance should be struck in using funds for paying dividend and retaining earnings for financing expansion plans, etc. the market value of shares will also be

influenced by declaration of Dividend and expected profitability in future.

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A finance manager should consider the influence of various factors such as:
a) Trend of earnings of the enterprise, b) Expected earnings in future, c) Market value of shares, d) Need for funds for financing expansion, etc. a judicious policy for distributing surpluses will be essential for maintaining proper growth of the unit.

FUNCTIONAL AREAS OF FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT

1. 2. 3. 4.

Determining financial needs Selecting the sources of funds Financial analysis and interpretation Cost volume profit analysis

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5. 6. 7. 8. Capital budgeting Working capital management Profit planning and control Dividend policy

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Determining financial needs: a finance manager is supposed to meet financial needs of the
enterprise. For this purpose, he should determine financial needs of the concern. Funds are needed to meet promotional expenses, fixed and working capital needs.

Selecting the sources of funds: numbers of sources are available for raising funds. A concern
may resort to issue of share capital and debentures. Long term funds may be acquired from the financial institution. Working capital needs may be met by obtaining cash credit or overdraft facilities from commercial banks.

Financial analysis and interpretation: the analysis and interpretation of financial statement is
an important task of a finance manager. He is expected to know about the profitability, liquidity position, and short term and long term financial position of concern.

Cost volume profit analysis: is an important tool of profit planning. It helps to ascertain that
at what point of production a firm will be able to Recover its cost and volume? How much should be the output to earn

Capital budgeting: it is the process of making investment decisions in capital expenditure. It is


an expenditure the benefits of which are to be received over a expected period of time. It is an expenditure incurred for acquiring or improving the fixed assets.

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Working capital management: no business can run without an adequate amount of working
capital. Working capital refers to that part of firms capital which is required for financing short term or current receipts such as cash receivables and inventories.

Profit planning and control: the excess of revenue over expenditure determines the amount of
profit. Profit planning and control directly influence the declaration of dividend, creation of surpluses, taxation etc.

Dividend policy: dividend policy is an important area of financial management because


interests of the shareholders and the needs of the company are directly related to it.

After preparation of the financial statements, one may be interested in knowing the position of an enterprise from different points of view. This can be done by analyzing the financial statement with the help of different tools of analysis such as ratio analysis, funds flow analysis, cash flow analysis, comparative statement analysis, etc. Here I have done financial analysis by ratios. In this process, a meaningful relationship is established between two or more accounting figures for comparison.

Financial ratios are widely used for modeling purposes both by practitioners and researchers. The firm involves many interested parties, like the owners, management, personnel, customers, suppliers, competitors, regulatory agencies, and academics, each having their views in applying financial statement analysis in their evaluations. Practitioners use financial ratios, for instance, to forecast the future success of companies, while the researchers' main interest has been to develop models exploiting these ratios. Many distinct areas of research involving financial ratios can be discerned. Historically one can observe several major themes in the financial analysis literature. There is overlapping in the observable themes, and they do not necessarily coincide with what theoretically might be the best founded areas.

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Financial statements are those statements which provide information about profitability and financial position of a business. It includes two statements, i.e., profit & loss a/c or income statement and balance sheet or position statement. The income statement presents the summary of the income earned and the expenses incurred during a financial year. Position statement presents the financial position of the business at the end of the year.

Before understanding the meaning of analysis of financial statements, it is necessary to understand the meaning of analysis and financial statements.

Analysis means establishing a meaningful relationship between various items of the two financial
statements with each other in such a way that a conclusion is drawn. By financial statements, we mean two statements-

(1)Profit & loss a/c (2)Balance sheet.

These are prepared at the end of a given period of time. They are indicators of profitability and financial analysis of financial statements means establishing meaningful relationship between various items of the two financial statements, i.e., income statement and position statement Parties interested in analysis of financial statements Analysis of financial statement has

become very significant due to widespread interest of various parties in the financial result of a business unit. The various persons interested in the analysis of financial statements are:-

Short- term creditors:


They are interested in knowing whether the amounts owing to them will be paid as and when fall due for
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RATIO ANALYSIS STATEMENT OF HMT WATCHES LTD.


payment or not.

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Long term creditors: They are interested in knowing whether the principal amount and interest thereon will be paid on
time or not. Shareholders: They are interested in profitability, return and capital appreciation.

Management :
The management is interested in the financial position and performance of the enterprise as a whole and of its various divisions. Trade unions : They are interested in financial statements for negotiating the wages or salaries or bonus agreement with management.

Taxation authorities
These authorities are interested in financial statements for determining the tax liability.

RATIO ANALYSIS:Ratio Analysis enables the business owner/manager to spot trends in a business and to compare its performance and condition with the average performance of similar businesses in the same industry. To do this compare your ratios with the average of businesses similar to yours and compare your own ratios for several successive years, watching especially for any unfavorable trends that may be starting. Ratio analysis may provide the all-important early warning indications that allow you to solve your business problems before your business is destroyed by them. The Balance Sheet and the Statement of Income are
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essential, but they are only the starting point for successful financial management. Apply Ratio Analysis to Financial Statements to analyze the success, failure, and progress of your business.

Importance of financial statement analysis in an organization.


In our money-oriented economy, Finance may be defined as provision of money at the time it is needed. To everyone responsible for provision of funds, it is problem of securing importance to so adjust his resources as to provide for a regular outflow of expenditure in face of an irregular inflow of income. 1. The profit and loss account (Income Statement). 2. The balance sheet In companies, these are the two statements that have been prescribed and their contents have been also been laid down by law in most countries including India. There has been increasing emphasis on (a) Giving information to the shareholder in such a manner as to enable them to grasp it easily.30 (b) Giving much more information e.g. funds flow statement, again with a view to facilitating easy understanding and to place a year results in perspective through comparison with post year results. (c) The directors report being quite comprehensive to cover the factors that have been operating and are likely to operate in the near future as regards to the various functions of production, marketing, finance, labour, government policies, environment in general. Financial statements are being made use of increasingly by parties like Bank, Governments, Institutions, and Financial Analysis etc. The statement should be sufficiently informative so as to serve as wide a curia as possible. The financial statement is prepared by accounts based on the activities that take place in production and non-production wings in a factory. The accounts convert activities in monetary terms to the help know the position.

Uses of Financial Statement Analysis.


The main uses of accounting statements for; Executives: - To formulate policies.

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Bankers: - To establish basis for Granting Loans. Institutions \ Auditors: - To extend Credit facility to business.

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Investors: - To assess the prospects of the business and to know whether they can get a good return on their investment.

Accountants: - To study the statement for comparative purposes. Government Agencies: - To study from an angle of tax collection duty levee etc

PRECAUTATIONS TO BE TAKEN FOR USE OF RATIOS


The calculation of ratios may not be difficult task but their use is not easy. The Information on which these are based, the constraints of financial statements, Objective for using them, the caliber of the analyst, etc. are important factors Which influence the use of ratios? Following effective factors which must be Kept in mind while interpreting various ratios:

Accuracy of financial statements: The ratios are calculated from the data available in financial
statements. The reliability of ratios is linked to the accuracy of information in the statements. These statements should also be properly audited by competent auditors. The precautions will establish the reliability of data given in the financial statements.

Objective or purpose of analysis: the type of ratios to be calculated will depend upon the
purpose for which these are required. If the purpose is to study current financial position then ratios relating to current assets and current liabilities will be studied. The purpose of user is also important for the analysis of ratios. Creditors, a banker, an investor, a share holder, all have different objects for studying ratios.

Selection of ratios: another precaution in ratio analysis is the proper selection of appropriate
ratios. The ratio should match the purpose for which these are required. Calculation of large number of ratios without determining their need in the present context may confuse the things instead of solving them. Only those ratios should be selected which can throw proper light on the matter to be discussed.

Use of standards: the ratios will give an indication of financial position only when discussed with
reference to certain standards. Unless otherwise these ratios are compared with certain standards one will not be able to reach at conclusions.

Caliber of the analyst: the ratios are only the tools of analysis and their interpretation will
depend upon the caliber and competence of the analyst. He should be familiar with various financial statements and the significance of changes etc. a wrong interpretation may create havoc for the concern since wrong conclusions may lead to wrong decisions. The utility of ratios is linked to the
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expertise of the analyst.

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Ratios provide only a base: the ratios are only guidelines for the analyst, he should not base
his decisions entirely on them. He should study any other relevant information, situation in the concern, general economic concern, general economic environment, etc. before reaching final conclusions.

Functional classification or classification according to tests:


This is the most widely accepted classification of accounting ratios. Under this classification, accounting ratios are classified on the basis of their nature or functions and in view of the financial management or according to the tests satisfied, various ratios have been classified as follows:

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Liquidity Ratios
Current Ratio Liquidity Ratio or Acid Test or Quick Ratio Absolute Liquid or Cash Ratio

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Long-term Solvency and Leverage Ratio


Debt-Equity Ratio Funded-Debt to Total Capitalisation Ratio Proprietry Ratio or Equity Ratio Solvency Ratio or Ratio of Total Liabilties to Total Assets Fixed Assets to Net Worth or Proprietors Funds Ratio Fixed Assets to LongTerm Funds or Fixed Assets Ratio Ratio of Current Assets to Proprieters Funds Debt-Service Ratio or Interest Coverage Ratio

Activity Ratios
Inventory turnover ratio Debtors turnover ratio Payables Turnover Ratio Fixed Assets Turnover Ratio Total Asset Turnover Ratio Working Capital Turnover Ratio Capital Employed Turnover

Profitability Ratios
A) In relation to Sales Gross Profit Ratio Operating Ratio Operating Profit Ratio Net Profit Ratio B) In relation to investments Return on share holders investment. Return on Equity Capital Earnings per Share Return on capital employed

LIQUIDITY RATIOS:
These are the ratios which measure the short-term solvency or financial position of a firm. These ratios are calculated to comment upon the short-term paying capacity of a concern or the firms ability to meets current obligations. The various liquidity ratios are: current ratio, liquid ratio and absolute liquid ratio. Further to see efficiency with which liquid resources have been employed by a firm, debtors turnover and creditors turnover ratios are calculated.

The principal liquidity ratios are:

Current ratio or working capital ratio liquid, Quick ratio, or acid test ratio Absolute liquid ratio, cash ratio, or super quick ratio.

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RATIO ANALYSIS STATEMENT OF HMT WATCHES LTD. CURRENT RATIO:

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Current ratio may be defined as the relationship between current assets and current liabilities. This ratio, also known as working capital ratio, is a measure of general liquidity and is most widely used to make the analysis of a short-term financial position or liquidity of a firm. It is calculated by dividing the total of current assets by total of current liabilities.

QUICK OR ACID TEST OR LIQUID RATIO:


Quick ratio is that ratio which expresses the relationship between quick or liquid assets and current liabilities. Quick/liquid ratio may be defined as the relationship between quick/liquid assts and current or liquid liabilities. An asset is said to be liquid if it can be converted into cash within a short period of time. Current assets include inventories and prepaid expenses which are not easily convertible into cash, thus are excluded in liquid/quick/acid test ratio which is more rigorous test of liquidity.

ABSOLUTE LIQUID RATIO OR CASH RATIO:


Although receivables, debtors and bills receivable are generally more liquid than inventories, yet there may be doubts regarding their realization into cash immediately or in time. Hence, some authorities are of the opinion that the absolute liquid ratio should also be calculated together with current ratio and acid test ratio so as exclude even receivables from the current assets and find out the absolute liquid assets. Absolute liquid assets include cash in hand and at bank and marketable securities or temporary investments

LONG-TERM SOLVENCY RATIO/LEVERAGE RATIO


Leverage ratios are the ratios, which measure the relative interests of the owners and creditors in an enterprise. Long solvency ratios convey a firms ability to meet the interest costs and repayments schedules of its long term obligations.

The principal leverage, capital structure or solvency ratios:

Long term Debt to shareholders fund (debt equity ratio). Funded debt to total capitalisation ratio Proprietary or equity ratio Solvency ratio or Ratio total liabilities to total assets. Fixed assets to net worth or proprietors funds ratio. Fixed assets to long term funds or fixed assets ratio. Ratio of current assets to proprietors funds
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Debt service ratio or interest coverage ratio.

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LONG TERM DEBT TO SHAREHOLDERS FUNDS (DEBT EQUITY RATIO):


Debt equity ratio also known as external- internal equity ratio is calculated to measure the relative claims of outsiders and the owners i.e. shareholders against the firms assets. This ratio indicates the relationship between the external equities or the outsiders funds and the internal equities or the shareholders.

FUNDED DEBT TO TOTAL CAPITALISATION RATIO:


The ratio establishes a link between the long-term funds raised from outsiders and total long-term funds available in the business.

PROPRIETORY RATIO OR EQUITY RATIO:


The proprietary ratio which is also known as Equity Ratio or Share holders to Total Equities Ratio or Net worth to Total Assets Ratio. This ratio establishes the relationship between shareholders funds to total assets of the firm. The components of this ratio are Shareholders funds or Proprietors Funds and Total Assets. The shareholders funds are Equity Share Capital, Preference Share Capital, Undistributed profits, Reserves and Surpluses.

SOLVENCY OR RATIO OF TOTAL LIABILITIES TO TOTAL ASSETS:


This ratio is a small variant of equity ratio. The ratio indicated the relationship between the total liabilities to outsiders to total assets of firm.

FIXED ASSETS TO NET WORTH RATIO OR FIXED ASSETS TO PROPRIETORS FUNDS:


The ratio establishes the relationship between fixed assets and shareholders funds i.e. share capital plus reserves, surpluses and retained earnings.

FIXED ASSETS TO TOTAL LONG TERM FUNDS OR FIXED ASSETS RATIO:


The ratio indicates the extent to which the total fixed assets are financed by long-term funds of the firm.

RATIO OF CURRENT ASSETS TO PROPRIETORS FUNDS:


The ratio indicates the extent to which proprietors funds are invested in current assets.

DEBT SERVICE RATIO OR INTEREST COVERAGE RATIO:


Interest coverage ratio indicates the number of times interest is covered by the profits available to pay the interest HKBK DC

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charges. Long-term creditors of a firm are interested in knowing the firms ability to pay interest on their long-term borrowings.

ACTIVITY RATIOS
Activity ratios are calculated to measure the efficiency with which the resources of a firm have been employed. These ratios are also called turnover ratios because they indicate the speed with which assets are being turned over into sales e.g. debtors turnover ratio.

The principal activity ratios are:

Inventory turnover ratio. Debtors/receivables turnover ratio. Creditors/payables turnover ratio. Working capital turnover ratio. Fixed assets turnover ratio. Total assets turnover ratio. Capital employed turnover ratio.
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INVENTORY TURNOVER RATIO:


Inventory Turnover Ratio (I.T.R) indicates the number of times the stock has been turned over during the period and evaluates the efficiency with which a firm is able to manage its inventory.

DEBTORS OR RECEIVABLE TURNOVER RATIO:


Debtors/Receivables Turnover or Debtors Velocity Debtors turnover ratio indicates the velocity of debt collection of firm. In simple words, it indicates the number of times average debtors (receivables) are turned over during a year.

Average Collection Period Ratio


The average collection period represents the average number of days for which a firm has to wait before its receivables are converted into cash

CREDITORS/PAYABLES TURNOVER RATIO:


Creditors turnover ratio indicates the velocity of credit payment of firm. In simple words, it indicates the number of times average creditors (payables) are turned over during a year.

Average Payment Period


The average payment period represents the average number of days for which a firm has to wait before its payables HKBK DC

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are converted into cash.

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WORKING CAPITAL TURNOVER RATIO:


Working capital turnover ratio indicates the velocity of the utilisation of net working capital. This ratio indicates the number of times the working capital is turned over in the course of a year. This ratio measures the efficiency with which the working capital is being used by a firm.

FIXED ASSETS TURNOVER RATIO:


Fixed assets turnover ratio is the ratio between fixed assets and turnover. Fixed assets, here, mean net fixed assets, i.e., fixed assets less depreciation. Turnover means net sales, i.e., total sales less sales returns. A fixed asset turnover ratio indicates the utilization of assets in generating sales.

TOTAL ASSETS TURNOVER RATIO:

Total assets turnover ratio is the ratio between the total assets and turnover or sales (i.e., net sales).

CAPITAL EMPLOYED TURNOVER RATIO:


Capital employed turnover ratio is the ratio between sales (i.e., net sales) and capital (i.e., long-term funds, comprising owners funds and long-term borrowed funds) employed in the business

PROFITABILITY RATIO
Profitability ratio measures the results of business operations or overall performance and effectiveness of the firm. Profitability ratios are the ratios, which measure the profitability of a concern. In other words, they are the ratios, which reveal the total effect of the business transactions on the profit position of an enterprise, and indicate how far the enterprise has been successful in its aim. Profitability ratios may be classified into two categories. They are

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RATIO ANALYSIS STATEMENT OF HMT WATCHES LTD. Profitability ratio in relation to sales:
Gross profit ratio Net profit ratio Operating ratio Operating profit ratio

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GROSS PROFIT RATIO:


It measures the relationship of gross profit to net sales and is usually represented as a percentage.

OPERATING RATIO:
Operating ratio establishes the relationship between cost of goods sold and other operating expenses on the one hand and sales on the other. In other words, it measures the cost of operations per rupee of sales

Interpretation of Operating Ratio:


Operating ratio indicates the percentage of net sales that is consumed by operating cost. Obviously, higher the operating ratio, the less favorable it is, because it would have a small margin (operating profit) to cover interest, income-tax, dividend and reserves. However, 75 to 85% may be considered to be a good ratio in case of a manufacturing undertaking.

OPERATING PROFIT RATIO:


Operating Profit = Net Sales Operating Cost Or HKBK DC

RATIO ANALYSIS STATEMENT OF HMT WATCHES LTD.


= Net Sales (Cost of Goods Sold+ Administrative and Office

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expenses + Selling and Distributive Expenses)

NET PROFIT RATIO:


Net profit ratio establishes the relationship between net profit (after taxes) and sales, and indicates the efficiency of the management in manufacturing, selling, administrative and other activities of the firm.

Profitability ratios in relation to investments:


Return on shareholders investment Return on equity capital Earnings per share Return on capital employed

RETURN ON SHAREHOLDERS INVESTMENT ON NET WORTH:


Return on shareholders investment popularly known as ROI or return on share holder/proprietors funds is the relationship between net profits (after interest and tax) and the proprietors funds.

RETURN ON EQUITY CAPITAL:


In real sense, ordinarily shareholders are the real owners of the company. They assume the highest risk in the company; preference shareholders have a preference over ordinary shareholders in the payment of dividend as well as capital. Preference shareholders get a fixed rate of dividend irrespective of the quantum of profits of the company.

EARNINGS PER SHARE (E.P.S):


Earnings per share are a small variation of return on equity capital and are calculated by dividing the net profit after taxes and preference dividend by the total number of equity shares.

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RATIO ANALYSIS STATEMENT OF HMT WATCHES LTD. RETURN ON CAPITAL EMPLOYED RATIO:

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Return on capital employed establishes the relationship between profits and the capital employed. It is the primary ratio and most widely used to measure the overall profitability and efficiency of a business.

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RESEARCH DESIGN OF THE STUDY

Research simply means a search for facts, answer to questions and solution to problems. Research is a systematic and logical study of an issue or problem or phenomenon through scientific method. It is a systematic and objective analysis and according of controlled observations that may lead to development generalization principle resulting in prediction and possibly ultimate control of events. HKBK DC

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A research design is simply the framework or plan for a study that is used as a guide in collecting and analyzing the data. A research design is arrangements of condition for the collection and analysis of data in a manner that aims to combine relevance to the research purpose with economy procedure. There various research design but descriptive and analytical research design is more suitable for the study. Research design is a logical and systematic planning which helps in directing to carry out a research. It is overall operational pattern or framework of the project that stipulates what information is to be collected from which sources and by what procedures.

TITLE OF THE STUDY:


A Study on RATIO ANALSIS With reference to HMT watches ltd.

INTRODUCTION TO THE PROBLEM:


Changes in the financial performance of the company could be due to several reasons, changes in profitability, due to operating inefficiency, inefficiency in management of debtors and inventories or underutilisation of company resources and such kind of many more other reasons. The financial position of the company cannot be immobile, but it is dynamic owing to the shift in its financial position with regard to various financial parameters.

STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM:


Analysis of the financial performance tries to visualise the reasons for shift in a sound financial position and tires to establish a trend of the direction toward which the business is moving. Therefore using general expression, the statement of the problem could be generalized as an exposure of reasons for variation in the financial position of the company.

SCOPE OF THE STUDY:


This project is a financial analysis of the company. Financial performance evaluation and innumerable analytical studies have proved the utility and usefulness of this analytical technique. By analyzing financial performance by employing certain selected financial ratios the company in question with Managers, present and potential investors, outside parties as such as creditors and government sectors employees and many more and these parties could get an idea of the performance of the company over the study period .While doing so the project has accentuate upon obtaining an understanding of general competition in this line of activity also. Therefore scope of the study extends over parties both insider and outsides of the firms.

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RATIO ANALYSIS STATEMENT OF HMT WATCHES LTD. NEED AND PURPOSE OF THE STUDY:

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By analyzing systematically the identified financial ratios, which reflect financial performance well and sufficiently, the company could understand its own position over time. Such a wide understanding will be of great relevance to the managers of the company investors (present potential) as well as to any other party/parties interested in the company.

OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY:


Analysis of the financial performance of the company over the study period of 2007, 2008, and 2009. To evaluate the important aspects of the business like liquidity, solvency, performance and profitability To detect certain financial ratios which are likely to reflect the inconsistency in profit? To establish the inter-relationship between the various financial figures To conduct firm comparative analysis for the study period of 2007, 2008, & 2009. To draw valid conclusions recommendations based on the study. To suggest remedial measures to the inefficiency and inconsistency problems faced by the company.

HYPOTHESIS OR ASSUMPTIONS: This research is based on the following Assumption:


Definitions and certain technical terms used for various financial ratios and their interpretation in the project is assumed to be universal. It is assumed that financial performance is the ultimate index of performance of company. It is also assumed that ratios selected for this study reveals the financial performance well and satisfactorily

REFERENCE PERIOD:
For the purpose of carrying out this study the period of three financial years has been referred 2007, 2008 & 2009.

METHODOLOGY:
This research is a large desk research and involved the following methods and the practices:

Scanning through standard textbooks to understand the theories, concepts and certain principals

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and norms behind financial performance, and their efficiency and effectively.

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Decision regarding the study period in this case was taken to be for a period of years (2007,2008 & 2009)

Collection of industries and companies specific literature i.e., industrial background, companies profile and annual reports over the study period.

Identification of financial ratios likely to reveal the financial performance adequately of the company, in this case it was calculated to be (a) Solvency ratios (b) Activity ratios (c) Profitability ratios (d) liquidity

Calculation of these ratios over the study period and their tabulation and graphical representation. Finally forwarding certain recommendations and conclusions to the company in question.

By and large the above research design was employed for the study.

SOURCES OF DATA:
A project of this nature is by and large a desk job a primary data is of little relevance. Most data was secondary in nature and was extensively employed.

Primary data:
Primary data was collected through personnel interviews with the finance staff members and other executives and staff.

Secondary Data:
Trading and Profit and loss account and Balance sheet of the company for the year 2007, 2008, & 2009 Company profile. Product & service profile. Internet : encyclopaedia, Wikipedia Standard textbooks : Business research methods
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o Management accounting o Financial management

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FEILD WORK:
As such no fieldwork was involved for this study since this was an in-house desk research job.

LIMITATION OF THE STUDY:


It being a sincere attempt there has been certain limitations during the study that could not be avoided. They are:

The major constraint for the study was the timing of the study the immensity of the financial statement was another factor of limitation. The study is based on the data given by the officials and reports of the company the confidentiality of some facts and figures are also limitation. Financial Statements analysis is suffers form inherent weakness of accounting practice such as their historical nature matching principle etc. Ratios give just a fraction of information needed for judging financial soundness of the concern.

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COMPANY PROFILE
HMT Ltd is a public limited commercial organization involved in the manufacture and sales of engineering goods as well as project consultancy. The company is engaged in the business of manufacturing and selling tractors and food processing machines. Their segments include machine tools, watches, tractors, bearings and exports. The company's products include printing machine, bearings, and food processing machine, machine tools, watches and tractors. They have five subsidiaries namely HMT Machine Tools Ltd, HMT Watches Ltd, HMT Chinar Watches Ltd, HMT (International) Ltd and HMT
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Bearings Ltd.

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HMT Ltd was incorporated in the year 1953 by the Government of India as a Machine Tool manufacturing company with the name Hindustan Machine Tools Ltd. The company was incorporated with the objective of producing a limited range of machine tools, required for building an industrial edifice for the country. Over the years, the company diversified into Watches, Tractors, Printing Machinery, Metal Forming Presses, Die Casting & Plastic Processing Machinery, and CNC Systems & Bearings. In 1960s, the company set up new units at Pinjore, Kalamassery and Hyderabad. In 1970s, they set up HMT International Ltd as a subsidiary company to channel HMT's products and technical services abroad. They set up two units for manufacture of watches, one at Srinagar and another at Tumkur. Also, they took over Machine Tool Corporation at Ajmer as their sixth machine tool unit. In May 13, 1977, the company was converted into a public limited company and in September 12, 1978, the name of the company was changed from Hindustan Machine Tools Ltd to HMT Ltd. In 1980s, the company as a part of vertical integration efforts, launched units to manufacture Watches at Ranibagh, Watch Cases at Bangalore, Stepper Motors at Tumkur, CNC Systems at Bangalore and Ball screws for use on CNC machines at Bangalore. They took over Indo-Nippon Precision Bearings Ltd, a state owned unit as a subsidiary, which was renamed HMT-Bearings Ltd. Also, they took over Praga Tools Ltd as another subsidiary. In 1990s, the company restructured themselves into five Business Groups viz., Machine Tools, Watches, Tractors, Industrial Machinery and Engineering Components as part of Business Reorganization. In the year 1993, they launched two new brands, namely 'Ramani' for gents and 'Utsav' for ladies. In the year 1997, the tractors group launched a 45 HP Coastal Special model tractor for application in coastal areas on Commercial basis. Also, they launched 59 HP model tractors with Power Steering. In the year 1998, the company introduced 350 ranges of Citizen watches in Mumbai along with their latest EcoDrive models, which absorb power thorough any source of light. They entered into manufacturing and marketing alliance with Tennmax Industrial Ltd. of Hong Kong. In August 1, 2000, the company received the approval of the Government of India for the turnaround plan submitted by the company. Consequently, the company signed a Memorandum of Understanding with the Government of India on August 11, 2000 detailing various actions to be taken on a time bound manner both by the Government and the company. As per the restructuring plan, two separate subsidiary companies, namely HMT Machine Tools Ltd and HMT Watches Ltd have been incorporated and these subsidiaries will take over the business of Machine Tools and Watches of the company.
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In the year 2004, the company signed agreement with UK-based Tractor for high power tractors. Also, they signed MoU with State Bank of India (SBI) for tractor finance. During the year 2004-05, an Emission Testing Lab with an investment of 4 crore was set up to upgrade each of the engines to conform to emission norms. During the year 2004-05, they increased the installed capacity of Machine Tools to 1479 Nos with the increase of 90 Nos. In the year 2006, the company established a high tech Engine Emission Testing Laboratory in R&D Centre at their Tractor Division, Pinjore with an investment of Rs. 50 million. During the year 2007-08, Praga Tools Ltd, a subsidiary

Company was amalgamated with HMT Machine Tools Ltd, another subsidiary company. During the year 2008-09, the company initiated a number of operational measures such as improvement in their products, rationalization of product mix, operational methods, and capital investments, new strategies for marketing and distribution and introduction of productivity improvement schemes. The Tractor Group of the company has initiated a host of measures towards performance improvement in right earnest, by appointment of new distributors and dealers in select potential areas/ territories, engine upgradation for compliance of new emission norms for all models of tractors, setting up of a new paint plant, entering into MoUs with Banks/ Financing Agencies for priority loan sanction for the purchase of HMT Tractors, dynamic business strategies, etc.

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Profile of Directors ( Government Directors)

Shri Saurabh Chandra

Additional Secretary and Financial Adviser Ministry of Commerce and Industry, Department of Industrial Policy and Promotion Shri Saurabh Chandra, aged 54 years, an IAS Officer of 1978 Batch of Uttar Pradesh Cadre, has been appointed as a Part-time Official Director of HMT Limited. He is a graduate in Electrical Engineering
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from IIT, Kanpur and holds a Diploma in Management.

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Shri Saurab Chandra served in the State of Uttar Pradesh between 1979 to 1993 and worked in the

Department of Finance; as Collector and Magistrate of Banda and Varanasi Districts; Administrator of Agra Municipal Corporation with concurrent charge of Vice Chairman of Agra Development Authority and Managing Director of U.P. Small Industries Corporation. During two year stint as Managing a profit making undertaking. During the period 1993 - 1998 he was Director in Department of Fertilizers, Ministry of Chemicals and Fertilizers handling project related work in the Department. He was associated with setting up of Oman CPSE/multi H state cooperatives. On his return to the State, he served as Commissioner, Varanasi Division and Lucknow Division and Department of Disinvestment in the Ministry of Finance handling administration related matters of the Initial Public Offering of the Power Grid Corporation of India Limited. Between November 2007 and February 2009, he was posted as Principal Secretary in the Department of tourism, Science and Technology and Rural Engineering services. Since February 2009, he is posted as Additional Secretary and Financial Adviser in the Ministry of Commerce and Industry, Department of Industrial Policy and Promotion. He is also holding additional Industries, Department of Public Enterprises and Ministry of Corporate Affairs. National Institute of Design, Ahmedabad and Central Manufacturing Technology Institute, Bangalore. Shri Saurabh Chandra is also a Director on the Board of BHEL and Member of Governing Councils of charge of Financial Adviser to the Ministry of Micro, Small & Medium Enterprises, Department of Heavy Secretary, Department of Irrigation. He worked as Joint Secretary in the Department of Revenue and Central Board of Excise and Customs and policy related matters respectively. He was associated with India Project which is perhaps the largest and most successful overseas joint venture Company set up by Director of U.P. Small Industries Corporation, he was able to turn around this loss making Company into

Shri Harbhajan Singh Joint Secretary Department Industry Shri Harbhajan Singh, aged 54 years, an IAS Officer of 1983 Batch of Uttar Pradesh Cadre, has been appointed as a Part-time Official Director of HMT Limited. He is a post graduate in History and also a of Heavy

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Law graduate

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Shri Harbhajan Singh served in the State of Uttar Pradesh in various capacities as Assistant/SubDivisional/Joint/District Magistrate; Chief Development Officer, General Manager of U.P. Small Industries Corporation and U.P. Finance Corporation; and gained experience in the field of Land Revenue Management and District Administration between 1985 to 1997. He has worked in Education Department; Industrial Development Department; Geology and Mines Department in the capacity of Special Secretary; Secretary and Director and gained experience in the field of Human Resource Development; Industries; Urban Development; Mines and Minerals during the period 1997 to 2000. Shri Harbhajan Singh has worked in the Ministry of Consumer Affairs, Food & Public Distribution; Ministry of Civil Aviation; Ministry of Coal & Mines; Government of India, as Director and Joint Secretary during 2000 to 2006.

Company History YEAR EVENTS 1953:- The Company was Incorporated in Bangalore. The Company was
converted into a Public Limited Company on May 13, 1977. The main objects of the Company is Manufacturing of the Machine Tools, Metal forming presses and press brakes, pressure die, casting machines and automatic plastic injection moulding machines, Automatic plastic injection moulding machines, Paper cutting machines, Automatic plastic injection moulding machines, Paper cutting machines, Tractors 25/35/55 HP, Lamps and Lamp making machines, Printing Machinery, Printing Machinery, Watches. Some of the trade names of the watches manufactured are Janata, Sona, Pilot, Tarun, Nutan, Jawhar, Automatic Day and Date, Priya, Chinar, Nishat, Rakhee, Avinash and Kohinoor.

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The Machine Tool Division at HMT Bangalore was the oldest manufacturing unit of the Company and the product lines consist of 16 types of metal working machines. The Die Casting Division was set up for the manufacture of Die Casting and Plastic Injection Moulding machines in technical collaboration with Reifenhaeuser GmbH & Co. of West Germany.

1961 - The Watch Factory at Bangalore had two operating divisions the Watch Factory
Division: set up during the year in technical collaboration with Citizen Watch Co., Ltd., Tokyo, this division started with manufacture of hand winding watches. A new plant was set up to manufacture self-winding watches in collaboration with the same Japanese firm and Horological Machinery: Division was established for the manufacture of sliding headstock automatics in technical collaboration with M/s. Jos Petermann, Switzerland. The Watch Factory at Srinagar was set up for the manufacture of 3 lakh hand winding watches.

1963 - The HMT, in Pinjore have two operating divisions attached to it, viz., Machine Tool
Division and Tractor Division. The Machine Tool Division was set up during the year. The Tractor Divisions was set up in technical collaboration with Mototov Foreign Trade Corporation, Prasha, and Czechoslavakia.

1964 - The Two operating divisions attached to HMT, Kalamassery, were the Machine Tool
Division and the Printing Machine Division set up in collaboration with Societa Nebiolo, Turin, Italy.

1965 - The HMT at Hyderabad had 3 operating divisions, the Machine Tool Division
primarily for the manufacture of special purpose machine tools. The Press Division was set up in technical collaboration with M/s. Verson Allsteel Press Co., Chicago, U.S.A. The Lamp Division was established for the manufacture of lamps and lamp components in collaboration

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with United Incandescent Lamp and Electrical Co., Ltd. (Tungsram), Budapest, Hungary.

1975 - The HMT at Ajmer was set up by the Govt. of India as the unit of Machine Tool
Corporation of India, Ltd. with effect from 1st April; the unit was merged with HMT.

1976 - The manufacture of critical components like hair spring and main spring were also
taken up by setting up a new plant by the Watch Factory Division at Bangalore. The following collaborations agreements were concluded during the year: With the Cross Company, Fraser, Michigan, U.S.A. for the manufacture of special purpose machines in Hyderabad, With M/s. Creusot - Loire, Paris, for the manufacturing of rotary web offset printing machines, With M/s. Laeis - Werke AG, Trier, West Germany, for the manufacture of refractory presses, A MOU with M/s. Tesa SA, Renens, Switzerland, a subsidiary of Brown & Sharpe Manufacturing Co., Rhode Inland, U.S.A., for the manufacture of precision measuring instruments.

HMT (International), Ltd., with an issued capital of Rs 6 lakhs is a wholly owned subsidiary of the Company.

All shares held by the President of India and his nominees. Out of the issued capital, 7,122 No. of Equity shares were issued as fully paid-up without payment in cash and 40,000 fully paid Equity shares were allotted on amalgamation of the erstwhile Machine Tool Corporation of India, Ltd., Ajmer.

1977 - All shares issued to Govt. of India.

1978 - The Company undertook a scheme to expand the capacity of Watch Factory to 4 lakh
watches in 1979 and 5 lakh watches in 1980. The Govt. approved a total investment of Rs 24.50 crores in the watch factory to be

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established at Tumkur in Karnataka State for the manufacture of 2 million watch movements. The Company undertook to set up a project for the manufacture of 4 million fluorescent tubes per annum in collaboration for assembly line with Tungsram of Hungary at a capital outlay of Rs 3.19 crores. The Company undertook to diversify into the field of precision meterological and measuring instruments at Srinagar. Govt. approval was obtained during 1979-80 and negotiations were in progress for foreign collaboration. The Company undertook to set up a factory in Aurangabad, a backward area in Maharashtra, for the manufacture of dairy machinery. Industrial license was obtained and a technical collaboration agreement was entered into with Fortschritt Landmaschinen Export-Import of German Democratic Republic (FLM). In order to increase the capacity of tractor manufacture from 12,000 to 15,000 per annum, the Company undertook to set up a second line of assembly operations at Mohali, Punjab. The Company submitted a feasibility report to Govt. for the manufacture of electronic watches. The Company concluded a MOU with Hitachi and Citizen of Japan. The Company offered technical collaboration to Industrial & Commercial Development Corporation of Kenya (ICDC) to set up a plant for the manufacture of machine tools in Kenya. The company entered into an agreement with the Federal Govt. of Nigeria to set up a plant for the manufacture of machine tools in Nigeria. A new company under the name Nigeria Machine Tools, Ltd. was incorporated in Lagos. With effect from 12th September, the name of the Company was changed from Hindustan Machine Tools, Ltd. to HMT Ltd.

1979 - All shares issued to Govt. of India.

1980 - The Company entered into a collaboration agreement with Pegard S.A. of Belgium for
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adding new models to the existing range of Horizontal boring machines.

41

1981 - The Company proposed to manufacture silver oxide miniature batteries in


collaboration with Hitachi-Moxcell Ltd., Japan. These would be used in electronic and quartz watches. The Company received an industrial licence for the production of one million stepper motors required for electronics watches. The subsidiary formerly known as Indo Nippon Precision Bearings Ltd., changed its name to HMT Bearing Ltd. on 1st December.

1993 - To capture the growing urban market for fashionable watches, two new brands viz.,
`Ramani' for gents and `Utsav' for ladies were launched. Equity shares subdivided. 504, 19,400 shares issued to Government of India.

1995 - All shares issued to Govt. of India. 1996 - The Company has decided to convert Lamp Division into a separate wholly owned
subsidiary. All shares issued to Govt. of India.

1997 - Production also suffered due to slowdown in the economy coupled with stiff
competition from imported machines. The Tractors Group launched a 45 HP Coastal Special model tractor for application in coastal areas on Commercial basis. A 59 HP model tractor with Power Steering was also launched during the year. Orchard Special model tractor in 25 HP range was developed and was under test marketing. Modernisation cum Expansion plan for the Tractor division was chalked out for increasing the production capacity of Tractor division to 30,000 tractors at a cost of Rs 110 crores in the next two years. The entire net worth of this subsidiary was eroded and a reference was made to BIFR as a sick company under the Sick Industrial Companies (Special Provisions) Act, 1985.

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All shares issued to Govt. of India.

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The public sector HMT has indigenously manufactured four-colour offset printing press for the first time in the country in its unit at Kalamassery.

The HMT has introduced three new models the HMT 3022, HMT 3522 and HMT 4511 coastal special have been fitted with fuel efficient engines and heavy duty transmission.

The machine tools division of HMT has entered a new area of manufacturing with press tools and dies.

The Machine tools division has also entered into a joint working arrangement with MS Giana, Italy, for the manufacture heavy duty CNC lathes for the defence sector. This range of products will be built for the first time in the country.

HMT has signed a memorandum of understanding with the Union government under which it is expected to increase its turnover to Rs.1, 160 crore and post a net profit of Rs.10.45 crore for the year ended March 1998.

HMT introduced ADD and dater watches priced at Rs.750/900 in September. On August 15 the company launched Swarna series.

1998 - HMT International Ltd, a wholly-owned subsidiary of HMT, has bagged an Rs.13crore order for setting up an Entrepreneur Technical Development Centre (ETDC) at Dakar in Senegal. HMT International has already set up successfully training Algeria and the Maldives. A batch of 17 Senegalese instructors has already undergone training at HMT's international training centre in Bangalore. The company is launching 15 new models in the automatic day/date range. HMT would issue 41, 25,000 ordinary shares of Rs.10 each to the government. The company board has recently approved the allotment of these shares. The company had already approached the Bangalore Stock Exchange for issuing these shares to the government. A total of 10, 06, 45,165 equity shares of Rs.10 is listed with the bourse. Machine tools giant HMT is in touch with world's number one MT manufacturer Yamazaki Mazak to enter into a possible alliance to manufacture the latter's machine cutting tools under a buy-back arrangement.
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HMT Ltd has bagged the FIE award for the best quality, design and aesthetic appearance of a product at IMTEX '98.

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HMT Ltd today announced a special voluntary retirement scheme (VRS) for its lamp division employees under which those who opt for it can remain at home with half their pay till such time that the public sector behemoth receives its due from the National Renewal Fund.

HMT International Ltd., a wholly owned subsidiary of HMT Ltd., which has recently diversified into software exports, has entered into a strategic alliance with A1- PHA data LLC of Abu Dhabi, a part of $500 million US group. The two companies would jointly develop software business for HMT's Erp Solutions Vikas.

A MoU (memorandum of understanding) signed between the Government and HMT has delegated power to HMT to sanction schemes for incentives cum rewards.

The Government is making a fresh bid to privatise HMT Tractors, a profit-making unit under the fold of public sector major HMT Ltd.

HMT has two fully-owned subsidiaries now - HMT (International) Ltd, which is a trading company and HMT (Bearings) Ltd, which manufactures ball and roller bearings. It also has a partly-owned subsidiary

Praga Tools Ltd - based in Secunderabad. The union minister of state for industry released a new HMT automatic day date watch Ranjit incorporating euro-style dial, and new ladies watch Preeti.

The HMT division has a capacity of manufacturing 18,000 tractors. The company has introduced 350 ranges of Citizen Watches in Mumbai along with its latest Eco-Drive models, which absorb power thorough any source of light.

The company has entered into a manufacturing and marketing alliance with Tennmax Industrial Ltd. of Hong Kong.

HMT Ltd has been named as one of the top ten brands in India by a recent survey conducted by A&M-ORG-MARG. HMT has been ranked as the top seventh brand among the main brands in the annual survey that covers 60 brands from all over the country. HMT is also the only public sector company whose brand has features among

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the top ten in the survey. The brand has emerged as seventh from the 22nd position held last year. The company also proposes to convert 30% of the loan component into equity. Citizen Watches (India) Limited, is a joint venture between the Citizen Watch Company, Japan which holds a 51 per cent stake and Doshi Time Industries holding 49 per cent stake. It has a total paid up capital of Rs eight crores. A MoU (memorandum of understanding) signed between the Government and HMT has delegated power to HMT to sanction schemes for incentives cum rewards.

1999 - The Industry Ministry has directed the state-owned Hindustan Machine Tools to
explore possibilities of joint venture formation for its watch division. The company has tied up with Tennmax of Hong Kong and is currently marketing the HMT-Tennmax brand in India. - After Kenya and Nigeria, HMT had signed a MoU for setting up a watch assembly unit Zimbabwe. The shareholders of Hindustan Machine Tools Ltd (HMT) approved a proposal to increase the company's authorised share capital to Rs 200 crores from the present Rs 135 crores.

2000 - Icra has assigned an LAAA (SO) rating and an MAAA (SO) rating to the Hindustan
Machine Tools (HMT) bonds of Rs 469 crore 10-year tenure and Rs 40.43 two-year tenure. - HMT (International) Ltd., a wholly owned subsidiary of HMT Ltd., has been awarded the EEPC trophy for its achievements in export of technical services during the year 1998-99.

2001- Mr Manohar Joshi, Union Minister for Heavy Industries and Public Enterprises, has
unveiled the HMT 4922 tractor at a launch ceremony organised at Pinjore, Chandigarh. With the introduction of the new actor,

2002-HMT Ltd has informed that consequent upon relinquishing of the charge of Chairman
& Managing Director, Tractor, upon resignation by Mr R A Sharma on July 04, 2002 Mr M S Zahed, Director, Organisation & Management has taken additional charge of the post of Chairman & Managing Director, Tractor of the Company.

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2003-HMT Ltd has informed BSE that pursuant to Order dated January 9, 2003 from the
Department of Heavy Industry, Ministry of Heavy Industries & Public Enterprises, Government of India, New Delhi, Shri M.S. Zahed, Chairman & Managing Director (Acting) and Director (Organisation & Management) has been appointed as Chairman & Managing Director of the Company for a period of 5 years from the date he assumes charge of the post or till the date of his superannuation or until further orders, whichever is earlier. Shri.M.S Zahed assumed charge of the post of January 09, 2003.-HMT enters into Memorandum of Understanding with PNB, UCO Bank and State Bank of Mysore and has launched SBM-HMTAgri Farm Scheme to promote Agriculture mechanisation in south India.-Pinjore Unit of HMT at Chandigarh is facing a financial crisis and turnover has dropped to 50-60cr .-Shri Naresh Chaturvedi has been appointed as a part time official Director on the Board of Directors.-Shri Navin Kumar, Joint Secretary to GOI has been appointed as Part Time Official Director on the Board of Directors of the company.

2004-HMT Ltd. has informed that the equity shares of the Company have been delisted from
the Bangalore Stock Exchange Limited, the Regional Exchange for HMT Limited, with effect from January 3, 2004.-HMT signs agreement with UK-based Trantor for high power tractorsHMT bags CMTI-PMT Trust Award-HMT enters into a Technology Collaboration Agreement with M/s Trantor Vehicles Ltd-HMT Ltd. enters into a Technology Collaboration Agreement with Trantor Vehicles Ltd. U.K.-Signs MoU with State Bank of India (SBI) for tractor finance

2005-HMT inks agreement with ONGC, MRPL-HMT in dialogue with Japanese co for MUV 2006-HMT Ltd has Shri. R Asokan, Director (Finance), Department of Heavy Industry, New
Delhi has been appointed as Part-time Official Director on the Board of the Company vice Presidential Order dated October 30, 2006, with effect from October 30, 2006-Hmt Ltd. has informed that HMT (International) Limited, the wholly owned Subsidiary of HMT Limited, Bangalore, would set up Indo-Zimbabwe Technology Centre (IZTC) in Harare and India Technology Centre (ITC) in Bulawayo.-HMT Ltd has informed that the Company has established a high tech Engine Emission Testing Laboratory in R&D Centre at its Tractor Division, Pinjore at an investment of Rs 50 million.

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2007-HMT Ltd has appointed Shri. N Gokulram, Additional Secretary & Financial Adviser,
Ministry of Heavy Industries & Public Enterprises, as Part-time Official Director on the Board of the Company vice Presidential Order dated January 22, 2007, with effect from January 22, 2007 and until further orders vice Shri. R Asokan, Director (Finance), Department of Heavy Industry, New Delhi.- Dr. Surajit Mitra has been appointed as Part-time Official Director on the Board of the Company vice Presidential Order F.No.5(35)/1995-PE.X (Vol.II) dated March 06, 2007, until further orders with effect from March 06, 2007.

2008- HMT Ltd. has informed that Shri B.S. Meena has been appointed as Part-time Official
Director on the Board of HMT Limited vide Presidential Order F. No. 5 (35)/ 1995- PE. X dated January 25, 2008, until further orders with effect from January 25, 2008.- Hmt ltd has appointed Shri S. Behuria, Additional Secretary & Financial Adviser to Government of India, Ministry of Heavy Industries & Public Enterprises, New Delhi, as Part-time Official Director on the Board of HMT Limited vide Presidental Order F. No. 5(35)/1995-PE.X dated October 14, 2008, until further orders with effect from October 14, 2008". 2010- HMT Ltd has informed that Shri Harbhajan Singh has been appointed as Part-time Official Director on the Board of the Company with effect from January 11, 2010

PRODUCTS

WATCHES
The Mechanical Range Hand wound Gents & Ladies - Desh Ki Dhadkan

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Automatic Day-date- The Watch that lasts & lasts Series of Quartz Watches Elegance Roman Utsav Sangam Lalit Pace Swarna Shreyas Chandan Braille - Its all about YOU - ONLY For MEN - The Well Dressed Watch - Absolutely Modern, Absolutely Indian - Value for Money, For those who value Money - For cute faces - Good as Gold - Sign of Good Times - The fragrance watch - A gift of time to the blind

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HMT's Milestones YEAR


1953

UNITS / DIVISION
Machine Tools I

LOCATION
Bangalore

STATE
Karnataka

1961 1962 1963


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Machine Tools II Watch Factory I Machine Tools III

Bangalore Bangalore Pinjore

Karnataka Karnataka Haryana

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1965 1967 1971 1971 1972 1972 1973 1975 1975 1975 1978 1981 1981 1982 1982 1983 1985 1986 1991

Machine Tools IV Machine Tools V Tractor Division Die Casting Division Printing Machinery Division Watch Factory II Precision Machinery Division Machine Tools VI HMT (International) Ltd. Watch Factory III Watch Factory IV HMT Bearings Limited Quartz Analog Watches Watch Factory V Specialised Watch Case Division Stepper Motor Division Ball Screw Division CNC Systems Division Central Re-conditioning Division

Kalamassery Hyderabad Pinjore Bangalore Kalamassery Bangalore Bangalore Ajmer Bangalore Srinagar Tumkur Hyderabad Bangalore Ranibagh Bangalore Tumkur Bangalore Bangalore Bangalore

Kerala Andhra Pradesh Haryana Karnataka Kerala Karnataka Karnataka Rajasthan Karnataka Jammu & Kashmir Karnataka Andhra Pradesh Karnataka Uttar Pradesh Karnataka Karnataka Karnataka Karnataka Karnataka

Accolades - over the years YEAR


1960-61 1961-62 1970-71 1971-72 1971-72
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AWARD
Outstanding Performance Outstanding Performance Excellence Performance in Exports Outstanding Export Performance Outstanding Export Performance

INSTITUTED BY
President of India President of India Govt. of Mysore Govt. of Mysore EEPC

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1975-76 1978-79 1981-82 1981-82 1982-83 1982-83

National Award for Outstanding Export Performance Best Product at IMTEX - 79 Best Export Performance Best Product at IMTEX - 82 Export Excellence Meritorious Performance in the field of Export

Ministry of Commerce PMT & FIE EEPC FIE Foundation EEPC Ministry of Commerce Harvard Business School Association of India & Economic Times Foundation for Organisation Research (FORE) Organisation Research (FORE) EEPC National Productivity Council EEPC Ministry of Commerce CMTI - PMT Trust FIE Foundation National Productivity Council EEPC EEPC CEI National Productivity Council EEPC National Productivity Council Bureau of Indian Standards

1983

Best Corporate Performance

1983-84

Most Effective Organisation

1983-84 1983-84 1984-85 1984-85 1984-85 1985-86 1985-86 1985-86 1985-86 1986-87 1986-87 1986-87 1987-88 1987-88 1988-89
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Best Productivity Export Excellence Best Productivity Export Excellence Meritorious Performance in the field of Export Best Product at IMTEX - 86 Best Product at IMTEX - 86 Best Productivity Export Excellence Export Excellence Excellence in Productivity Best Productivity Export Excellence Best Productivity Company Standards

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1988-89 1988-89 1988-89 1988-89 1988-89 1990

Best Product at IMTEX - 89 Best Product at IMTEX - 89 Outstanding Performance in Industrial Safety Best Productivity Best Company for HRD Practices National Award for R&D Efforts in Industry - 1990 in the Mechanical Industrial Sector Valuable Contribution & Significant Encouragement to the cause of the Industrial Engineering Profession in India Best Productivity Tech. Development for Machine Tools, Bangalore Best Productivity National Safety Best Performance in Company Standardisation Best Products at IMTEX - 95 Best Product at IMTEX 95 Regional 'Top Exporters Shield'

CMTI - PMT Trust FIE Foundation National Safety Council National Productivity Council CEI Dept. of Scientific and Industrial Research

1989-90

H.N.THADANI National Productivity Council Directorate General of Technical Development National Productivity Council National Safety Council Sir Jahangir Ghandy Trophy CMTI - PMT Trust Award FIE Foundation Engineering Export Promotion Council, Chennai Engineering Export Promotion Council, Chennai Engineering Export Promotion Council, Kolkata FIE Foundation CMTI - PMT Trust Award

1990-91

1990-91

1991-92 1992 1994 1995 1995 1995-96

1996-97

Regional 'Top Exporters Shield -Project Exporters'

1997-98 1998 1998

All India Trophy for Highest Exporters Best Product at IMTEX 98 Best Products at IMTEX 98

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1998-99

Regional Trophy for Highest Exporters in the Group - Services Exporter Best Product at IMTEX 2001 Best Products at IMTEX 2001

Engineering Export Promotion Council, Southern Region, Chennai FIE Foundation CMTI - PMT Trust Award

2001 2001

ORGANISATION SRTUCTURE

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1. Current Ratio: The current Ratio is the ratio of current liabilities it is calculated as: Current assets Current ratio = - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Current Liabilities Generally current ratio of 2:1 is considered ideal for a concern i.e., Current Assets should be twice of the Current Liabilities

TABLE 4.1 Year Wise Total Current Assets and Current Liabilities of HMT Watches limited. (In lakhs) year 2006-2007 2007-2008 2008-2009 2009-2010 2010-2011 Current assets 9796 7769 6448 5772 5284 Current liabilities 18360 20106 21318 22875 25338 Ratio 0.53 0.39 0.3 0.25 0.21

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30000

25000

20000

Current assets 15000 Current liabilities Ratio

10000

5000

0 2006-2007 2007-2008 2008-2009 2009-2010 2010-2011

INTERPRETATION:
Current ratio measures the firms short -term solvency. The standard norm for current ratio is (2:1). It is evident from the diagram that every year current liabilities are exceeding the current assets I.e. current liabilities are greater than the current assets which is not satisfactory. Therefore it can be calculated that the liquidity performance of the company is going down day by day.

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2. LIQUID RATIO:. Formula: QUICK RATIO (LIQUID RATIO) = Liquid Asset / Current Liabilities

TABLE 4.2 Year Wise Liquid Assets and Current Liabilities of HMT WATCHES LIMITED Year 2009-2010 2010-2011 Liquid assets -245509 -271684 Current liabilities 1550199 1786002 Quick ratio -0.15 -0.15

(CA-Inventories)

2000000

1500000

1000000 2009-2010 500000 2010-2011 2010-2011 2009-2010 Liquid assets -500000

0 Current liabilities

Quick ratio

INTERPRETATION:
It is evident from the diagram that every year current liabilities are exceeding the liquidassets I.e. current liabilities are greater than the current assets which is not satisfactory. Therefore it can be calculated that the liquidity performance of the company is going down day by day.
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3. Working Capital:Working Capital It is calculated as, Working capital turnover ratio = TABLE 4.3 CALCULATION OF WORKING CAPITAL TURN OVER RATIO WITH DIAGRAM (In lakhs) Year 2006-2007 2007-2008 2008-2009 2009-2010 2010-2011 Sales 3688 1514 1352 1054 882 Working capital -8563 -12338 -14870 -17103 -20054 Working -0.43 -0.12 -0.09 -0.06 -0.04 capital Sales / Working capital

turnover ratio

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5000

0 2006-2007 2007-2008 2008-2009 2009-2010 2010-2011

-5000

Sales -10000 Working capital Working capital turnover ratio

-15000

-20000

-25000

INTERPRETATION
Working capital is the difference between the inflow and outflow of funds. In other words it is the net cash inflow. The diagram shows that the working capital of last 5 years is always exceeding the net sales that means the net outflow of cash is more than the net inflow of cash n the company is working turnover is less n company is going in loss .

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4. INVENTORY TURN OVER RATIO This Ratio is computed by dividing net sales by inventory Thus, Inventory turnover ratio= Net sales/ inventory . It might be argued that the inventory turnover ratio may be Cost of goods sold Inventory Turnover ratio = -------------------------------------------Average Inventory

TABLE 4.4 Calculation of inventory turnover ratio: (In thousands) Years Net sales Average inventory(total inventory/2) 2009-2010 2010-2011 105414 88171 161531 163682 Inventory ratio 0.65 0.54 turnover

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Calculation of inventory turnover ratio:

200000 150000 100000 50000 0 Net sales Average inventory(total inventory/2) Inventory turnover ratio 2010-2011 2009-2010 2009-2010 2010-2011

The numerator of this ratio is the net sales for the year and the denominator is the Inventory balance at the end of the year. This ratio is deemed to reflect the efficient the management of inventories and vice versa. This statement need not be always true. A low level of inventory may cause a higher inventory turnover ratio. From the graph it is clear that the net sales are decreasing in 2010-2011 as compared with 2009-2010. So the inventory ratio is decreasing.

INTERPRETATION

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5. DEBTORS TURNOVER RATIO

Debtors turnover ratio = Net credit sales /Average debtors NOTE; - Here there is no specification about net credit purchase and average debtors so, assume that (net credit sales = net sales) (Average debtors = debtors) Table 4.5 Calculation of debtors turnover ratio with diagram (In thousands) Year 2009-2010 2010-2011 Net sales 105414 88171 debtors 15172 15986 Debtor turnover ratio 6.94 5.5

100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Net sales debtors Debtor turnover ratio 2010-2011 2009-2010

During the year 2009-2010 the net sales of the company is 105414 lakhs and the debtors value is 15172 lakhs, therefore the debtors turn over ratio is 6.94 that is near to 7. On the other end during the year 2010-2011 the net sales is decreasing from 105414 to 88171 lakhs, and the debtors value is constantly increasing from 15172 to 15986 lakhs thus the debtors turnover ratio is increasing.

INTERPRETATION

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6. CREDITORS TURN OVER RATIO Creditors turnover ratio = Net credit purchases/Average of creditors

NOTE; - Here, there is no specification about net credit purchase and average of creditors, so, let assume that, (net credit purchase = Net Purchase) (Average of creditors = creditors)
Table 4.6 Calculation of creditors turnover ratio with diagram (In thousands) YEAR 2009-2010 2010-2011 NET PURCHASE 17337 24246 CREDITORS 259289 215049 Creditors ratio 0.066 0.112 turnover

300000 250000 200000 150000 100000 50000 0 NET PURCHASE CREDITORS Creditors turnover ratio

2009-2010 2010-2011 2009-2010 2010-2011

INTERPRETATION The creditors turnover ratio is an important tool as a firm can


ratio reflects liberal terms granted by suppliers, while a high turnover ratio shown that The graph above is showing that the creditors plot during both the years is exceeding the net purchases. So the creditors turnover ratio is below zero that is considered as nill. This accounts are settled rapidly.

reduce its requirement of current assets by relying on suppliers creditors.A low turnover

indicates that creditors accounts are not setteled by the company rapidly and the company is going in loss.

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7. DEBT-EQUITY RATIO Debt equity ratio = Debt / Equity

Table 4.7 Calculation of debt-equity ratio with diagram (In thousands) Year 2009-2010 2010-2011 Debt 12877479 15344099 Equity 134901 134901 debt-equity ratio 95.45 113.74

20000000 15000000 10000000 5000000 0 Debt Equity debt-equity ratio 2010-2011 2009-2010 2009-2010 2010-2011

This ratio reflects the relative claims of creditors and share holders against the assets of the firm, debt equity ratios establishment relationship between borrowed funds and owner capital to measure the long term financial solvency of the firm. The ratio indicates the relative proportions of debt and equity in financing the assets of the firm the above graph shows that debtors in 2010-2011 and 2009-2010 as well is greater than the equity.

INTERPRETATION

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8. DEBT ASSET RATIO Debt Debt Asset Ratio = ------------------------------Asset TABLE 4.8 Calculation of Debt Asset Ratio with Diagram (In thousands) YEAR 2009-2010 2010-2011 Debt 12877479 15344099 Asset 190320 157825 Debt Asset Ratio 67.66 97.22

65

20000000 15000000 10000000 5000000 0 YEAR Debt Series3 Series2 Series1 Asset Debt Asset Ratio Series1 Series2 Series3

INTERPRETATION
During the year 2009-2010 the debt value is 12877479 thousands while as the assets value is low that is 190320 thousands. Like wise during the year 2010-2011 the debts have increased to 15344099 thousands and the assets value has decreased to 157825 thousands. So the debts assets value is going on increasing year by year as it should go on decreasing day by day then only the company is in profit.

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9. INTEREST COVERAGE RATIO It is calculated as Earnings before Interest &Taxes (EBIT) Interest coverage Ratio = ---------------------------Debt Interest TABLE 4.9 Calculation of Interest Coverage Ratio with Diagram (In lakhs) Year 2006-2007 2007-2008 2008-2009 2009-2010 2010-2011 EBIT -11405 -5816 -6410 -5322 -12576 Debt Interest 8161 8864 9982 11061 12798 Debt Equity Ratio -1.39 -0.65 -0.64 -0.48 -0.98

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Interest Coverage Ratio Diagram

4000 3500 3000 2500 2000 1500 1000 500 0 Operating margin Net sales Operating incomes

Operating incomes Net sales Operating margin

INTERPRETATION

This ratio measures the debt servicing of capacity of a firm in so far as fixed interest on long term loan is concerned. Interest coverage ratio determined by dividing the operating profits or earnings before interest and taxes by fixed interest charges on loans. The graph shows that the debt interest is more than the earnings before

interest and tax, which indicates debt equity ratio, is nil.

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10. OPERATING MARGIN Operating margin = operating income/ Net sales

TABLE 4.10 Calculation of operating margin with diagram: (In lakhs) Year 2006-2007 2007-2008 2008-2009 2009-2010 2010-2011 Operating incomes 3498 618 371 1087 790 Net sales 3688 1514 1352 1054 882 Operating margin 0.94 0.40 0.27 1.031 0.89

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Operating margin with diagram

4000 3000 2000 1000 0 Operating incomes Net sales Operating margin Operating margin Operating incomes

INTERPRETATION
Operating margin gives analysts an idea of how much a company makes (before interest and taxes) on each dollar of sales. When looking at operating margin to determine the quality of a company, it is best to look at the change in operating margin over time and to compare the company's yearly or quarterly figures to those of its competitors. If a company's margin is increasing, it is earning more per dollar of sales. The higher the margin, the better For example, if a company has an operating margin of 12%, this means that it makes $0.12 (before interest and taxes) for every dollar of sales. Here the margin is very less and is going on decreasing so the company needs to increase their operating incomes as well as their net sales.

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SUMMARY OF FINDINGS & SUGGESTIONS AND CONCLUSION

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SUMMARY OF FINDINGS & SUGGESTIONS

FINDINGS

1. Current ratio is below the standard norm or ratio of 2:1, which refers that the company is going in loss.

2. The company has not been able to maintain its quick ratio above the standard ratio i.e. 1:1

3. There is not continuous improvement in the Liquidity position of the company from 200607 to 2009-10

4. The debt equity has tremendously increased because the profit of the company is decreased and also the company has not repaid its long term loans.

5. Proprietary ratio is decreasing when compared to last four years; it will show the long term insolvency. 6. Operating profit ratio has been decreasing compared to last four years.

7. There is not continuous growth in the companys Net profit ratio when compared from 2006-07 to 2009-10. The company is totally going in loss.

8. The earning per share of the company is tremendously decreasing for the last four years.

9. The increase in Debtors Turnover Ratio will show that the company has increased its credit sales.

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RECOMMENDATIONS, SUGGESTIONS

After analyzing the overall performance of the present and past years working, a few short comings have came to notice. The company is not doing well overall, more care should be taken about same of the aspects of working capital will add to the profitability of the company. A efficient management of all the aspects of working capital provides a financial defense against stiff competition in the market and enhances the credit worthiness of the firm, enables the management to operate efficiently and flexible and allows the firm to take advantage of special favorable opportunities. Keeping this view, the following recommendations are put forth after a detailed study was made: 1. The company can make an attempt to increase the sales by increasing advertisement and adding more distribution network.

2. Investment of excess cash balance in fixed deposit accounts in bank will yield better returns and also the liquidity position of the company will not be harmed.

3. However the sales of the company decreased from last 4 years. The company cannot follow a tight credit policy or restricting credit. Though, the company can make an attempt to bringing down the average collection period which has greatly exceeded by the warranted credit period.

4. The company can contribute towards better turnover figures if its marketing and distribution network is strengthened.

5. Operating profit is increased but the total income is decrease from last 4 years so other expenses can be reduced overcome this problem.

6. Better to invest in Fixed assets when there is more than sufficient capital

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7. The company must take certain precautions to reduce the operating Expenses.

8. The credit purchase period is more in purchasing the raw materials so reduce the credit purchase. 9. Return on Investment is very less when compare to previous year so Take some decisions to increase the returns.

CONCLUSION

Ratios make the related information comparable. A single figure by itself has no meaning, but when expressed in terms of a related figure, it yields significant interferences. Thus, ratios are relative figures reflecting the relationship between related variables. Their use as tools of financial analysis involves their comparison as single ratios, like absolute figures, are not of much use.

Ratio analysis has a major significance in analyzing the financial performance of a company over a period of time. Decisions affecting product prices, per unit costs, volume or efficiency have an impact on the profit margin or turnover ratios of a company. Financial ratios are essentially concerned with the identification of significant accounting data relationships, which give the decision-maker insights into the financial performance of a company. The analysis of financial statements is a process of evaluating the relationship between component parts of financial statements to obtain a better understanding of the firms position and performance. The first task of financial analyst is to select the information relevant to the decision under consideration from the total information contained in the financial statements.
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The second step is to arrange the information in a way to highlight significant relationships. The final step is interpretation and drawing of inferences and conclusions. In brief, financial analysis is the process of selection, relation and evaluation. Ratio analysis in view of its several limitations should be considered only as a tool for analysis rather than as an end in itself. The reliability and significance attached to ratios will largely hinge upon the quality of data on which they are based. They are as good or as bad as the data itself. Nevertheless, they are an important tool of financial analysis.

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BALANCE SHEET The Balance sheet shows the financial status of a business. The registered companies are to follow part 1 of schedule VI of companys \ act 1956 for recording Assets and Liabilities in The Balance Sheet. Format of Balance Sheet as prescribed by companies Act. Liabilities Share Capital Reserves & Surplus Secured loans Unsecured Loan Current Liabilities & provision ASSETS Fixed Assets Investments Current Assets, Loan Advance Misc. Expenditures & Losse

Liabilities: Liabilities defined very broadly represent what the business entity owes to other. Share capital: There are two type of share capital: Equity Capital Preference Capital Equity Capital represents the contribution of the owners of the firm. Preference capital represents the contribution of preference shareholders and the dividend rate payable on it is fixed.

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Reserve & Surplus: Reserve & Surplus are profits, which have been retained by the firm reserves, are two types, revenue Reserve and Capital Reserve.

Revenue Reserve represents accumulated retained earnings from the profits of normal business operations.

Capital reserve arises out of gains, which are not related to normal business operations. Surplus is the balance in the profit and loss account, which has not been appropriated to any particular reserve account. Reserve and surplus along with equity capital represent Owner s equity.

Secured Loans: -These denote borrowings of the firm against which specific securities have been provided. The important components of secured loans are debentures, loans from financial institutions and loans from commercial banks. Unsecured Loans: -These are borrowing of the firm against which no specific security has been provided. The major components of unsecured loans are fixed deposits, loans and advances from Promoters, Inter-Corporate borrowings and unsecured loans from Banks. Current Liabilities and Provision: Current Liabilities and Provision as per the classification under the companies Act, Consists of the Following amounts due to the suppliers of goods and services brought on credit, Advance payments received, accrued expenses. Unclaimed dividends, Provisions for taxed, Dividends, Gratuity, Pension etc. Assets: Assets have been acquired at a specific monetary cost by the firm for the conduct of its operation.

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Fixed Assets: These assets have two characteristics. They are acquired for use over relatively long period for carrying on the operations of the firm and they are ordinarily not meant for resale. Examples for fixed assets are land, building, plant, Machinery, patent & Copyrights. Investments: These are financial securities owned by the firm. Some investments represent long-term commitments of funds. Usually those are the equity shares of other firms held for income and control purpose. Other investments are short term in nature and are rightly classified under current assets for managerial purpose. Current Assets, Loans and Advances: This category consists of cash and other resources, which get converted into cash during the operating cycle of the firm current assets, are held for a short period of time as against fixed assets, which are held for relatively longer periods. The major component of current Assets is:

cash, debtors, inventories, loans and advances and pre-paid expenses.


Miscellaneous expenditure and losses: The consist of two items miscellaneous expenditure and losses miscellaneous expenditure represent outlays such as preliminary expenses and pre-operative expenses, which outlays such as preliminary expenses which have not written off loss is shown on the right hand side (Assets side) of the balance sheet.

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BALANCE SHEET AS AT 31ST MARCH 2011


(IN THOUSANDS)

PARTICULARS
SOURCES OF FUND SHAREHOLDERS FUND Capital Reserves & Surplus LOAN FUNDS Secured loans Unsecured loans FIXED ASSETS Gross block Less: depreciation Net block Machinery and equipment transit & under inspection/erection INVESTMENTS CURRENT ASSETS, LOANS & ADVANCES Inventories Sundry debtors Cash a& bank balances Loans & advances
Less: CURRENT LIABILITIES & PROVISIONS

As at 31.03.2011

As at 31.03.2010

6,49,01

6,49,01

1355,80,97

1355,80,97 1362,29,98

1132,72,80

1132,72,80 1139,21,81

189,10,27 178,88,81 10,21,46

190,06,32 178,78,66 11,27,66 7,48

NIL

NIL

NIL

NIL

32,73,65 1,59,86 3,77,10 19,83 52,83,83

32,30,63 1,51,72 6,13,43 10,39 57,72,32

Current liabilities Provisions NET CURRENT ASSETS MISCELLANEOUS EXPINDITURE (to the extent not written off or adjusted)
PROFIT AND LOSS ACCOUNT

178,60,02 74,78,42 253,38,44 200,54,61 NIL NIL

155,01,99 73,72,98 228,74,97 171,02,65 NIL NIL

1552,63,13 1362,29,98

1298,89,32 1139,21,81

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PROFIT AND LOSS ACCOUNT FOR THE YEAR ENDED 31ST MARCH 2011.
(IN THOUSANDS)

PARTICULARS EARNINGS Sales (gross) Less: excise duty Sales Other income Accretion/(Depreciation) To Work-inprogress Finished stock and scrap Less: OUTINGS Materials Personnel Depreciation Other expenses Interest VRS compensation written off Profit/(Loss) before PPA Add: prior period adjustments (PPA) PROFIT/(LOSS) BEFORE TAX Provision for fringe benefit tax PROFIT/(LOSS) AFTER TAX Balance brought forward from previous year Profit/(loss) after tax carried to balance sheet Basic/ diluted earnings per share of Rs.10 each Number of equity shares (weighted average basis)

Year ended 31.03.2011 8,81,71 75,80 8,05,91 7,89,44 NIL (16,92) 15,78,43

Year ended 31.03.2010 10,54,14 76,01 9,78,13 10,84,26 NIL (2,34,54) 18,27,85

2,55,31 61,05,26 92,40 11,35,32 1127,97,92 63,97,85 267,84,06 (252,05,63) 1,68,18 (253,73,81) NIL (253,73,81) (1298,89,32) (1152,63,13) (391) 649,01,00

4,30,98 55,98,75 1,08,58 14,56,34 110,61,01 NIL 186,55,66 168,27,81) 7,13 (168,34,94) NIL (1668,34,94) (1130,54,38) (1298,89,32) (2,59) 649,01,00

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Fundamentals of Management Accounting, S. N. Maheshwari, 3rd Edition S. Chand & Sons Publications Delhi Financial Management, Prasanna Chandra, Tata Mc Graw Hill, New Delhi. Financial Management, I. M. Pandey, Vikas Publishing, House, Delhi, 3rd Edition. Accounting for Managers, S. P. Jain, Simmi Agarawal, and K. L. Narang Kalyani Publishers. Dr. Jawaharlal Accounting and Finance for Manager 4th Edition Himalayas Publishing House. Company Brochure and Financial Report of the Company. Magazines given by the Company Annual Reports of the Company. Financial Management by R. P. Rustagi, Galgotia Publishing Company, New Delhi, 3rd Edition Vikas Publishing House, Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi.

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