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Research Methodology: Final Exam: Part One: Answer ALL questions:

Dr. Hamsa ElSaid 25/5/2013

1. Research done with the intention of applying the results of the findings to solve specific problems currently being experienced in an organization is called basic research. a. T b. F 2. Scientific investigation is characterized by a good theoretical base and a sound methodological design. These characteristics are both related to the of the investigation. a. Rigor. b. Precision and confidence. c. Objectivity. d. Parsimony. 3. a. b. c. d. 4. a. b. c. d. 5. a. b. 6. a. b. 7. a. b. c. d. Confidence, as a characteristic of scientific investigation, refers to: The probability that our estimations are correct. The idea that a simple model that explains a certain phenomenon has preference over a complex model. The fact that findings are generalizable. The fact that an investigation has a clear theoretical foundation. Parsimony refers to: The probability that our estimations are correct. The idea that a simple model explaining a certain phenomenon is preferred to a complex model. The fact that findings are generalizable. The fact that an investigation has a clear theoretical base. Both theory generation (induction) and theory testing (deduction) are essential parts of the research process. T F A researcher who observes individual phenomena, and on this basis attempts to arrive at general conclusions, works inductively. T F Which of the following answers is not an objective of preliminary research? One does not run the risk of reinventing the wheel. Important variables that are likely to influence the problem situation are not left out of the study. The problem statement can be made with precision and clarity. To determine whether a variable is an independent variable, a dependent variable, a mediating variable, or a moderating variable.

8. a. b. 9. a. b. 10. a. b. c. d. 11. a. b. c. d. 12. a. b. c. d. 13. a. b. 14. a. b. 15.

Data gathered for research from the actual site of occurrence of events are called primary data. T F Articles and books that were written thirty or even forty years ago should not be included in the literature review. T F The ________________ is the variable of primary interest to the researcher. Independent variable. Intervening variable. Moderating variable. Dependent variable. Which of the following does not include the process of building a theoretical framework? Definitions of the concepts or variables in the model. An operationalization of the concepts or variables in the model. A logical explanation of the relationships within a model. A graphical representation of the model. Job satisfaction is: An independent variable. A dependent variable. A moderating variable. This is not clear based on the above information. Hypotheses cannot be tested with qualitative data. T F If a bank manager wants to analyze the relationship between interest rates and bank deposit patterns of clients, a field study is the most suitable method of investigation. T F A marketing manager aims to investigate the relationship between customer satisfaction and store loyalty among British consumers. For this purpose, data will have to be collected from British stores and the unit of analysis is the country. T F The goal of a _____________ study, hence, is to offer to the researcher a profile of the phenomena of interest from an individual, organizational, industry-oriented, or other perspective.

a. b. 16.

a. b. c. d. 17. a. b. c. d. 18. a. b. 19.

Exploratory. Descriptive. Causal. Experimental. ____________ studies are also necessary when some facts are known, but more information is needed for developing a viable theoretical framework. Exploratory. Descriptive. Causal. Experimental. The unit of analysis refers to the level of aggregation of the data collected during the subsequent data analysis stage. T F A marketing manager is interested in tracing the pattern of sales of a particular product in four different regions of the country on a quarterly basis for the next 2 years. This is an example of a: Cross-sectional study. Longitudinal study. Exploratory study. Case study. Operationalizing is: Designing questionnaires. Translating a problem definition into a research question. Making an abstract concept measurable. Defining difficult concepts in the research proposal.

a. b. c. d. 20. a. b. c. d.

21. What is the type of scale of the variable age if it is measured in the following way? What is your age? ____ years. a. Nominal. b. Ordinal. c. Interval. d. Ratio. 22. Julia stands on a pair of scales three times in a row. The first time she weighs 69 kilo, the second time 69 kilo, and the third time 69 kilo. Her real weight is 51 kilo. What is the matter with the scales? The pair of scales is not reliable and not valid. The pair of scales is reliable but is not valid. The pair of scales is not reliable but is valid. The pair of scales is reliable and valid.

a. b. c. d.

23. Instead of phrasing all questions positively, it is advisable to include some negatively worded questions as well, so the tendency in respondents to mechanically circle the points toward one end of the scale is minimized. a. T b. F 24. a. b. c. d. 25. a. b. To what extent would you say you are happy? Leading. Loaded. Double-barreled. Ambiguous. The bigger the sample size, the better. T F

26. A researcher wants to investigate the relationship between the use of drugs and study results of students. He would like to generalize the results to the population. Which of the following sampling methods would usually be the best to use? a. Stratified sampling b. Judgement sampling c. Simple random sampling d. Quota sampling 27. a. b. 28. a. b. c. d. 29. a. b. The payroll of an organization would serve as the sampling frame if its members are to be studied. T F The type of probability and non-probability sampling designs that is chosen depends on: The extent of generalizability desired. The demands of time and other resources. The purpose of the study. All of the above The standard deviation offers an index of the spread of a distribution or the variability in the data. T F

30. Data coding involves assigning a number to the participants responses so they can be entered into a database. a. T b. F

Part Two: Answer BOTH Questions: Exercise #1 On Frequency Distributions Below is a tabulation of the demographic data from the Frequency distribution of a survey done by Ms. Sandra Jones. Her sample consisted of 115 of a total of 2,500 clerical employees in three service organizations. Based on the tabulation provided below, describe the sample characteristics. Table 1: Frequency Distributions of Sample RACE Non-whites = 15 (13%) Whites = 100 (87%) EDUCATION High School = 88 (77%) College Degree = 14 (12%) Masters Degree = 13 (11%) GENDER Males = 100 (87%) Females = 15 (13%)

AGE < 20 = 0(0%) 20-30 = 20(17%) 31-40 = 25(22%) >40 = 70 (61%)

# OF YEARS IN ORG. < 1 year = 5 (4%) 1-3 = 10(9%) 4-10 = 80(70%) >10 = 20(17%)

MARITAL STATUS Single 15 (13%) Married 60 (52%) Divorced 40 (35%) Alternative0 (0%)

Exercise #2 on Means, Standard Deviations, and Other Statistics Here is another tabulation of the Means, Standard Deviations, etc., for Ms. Jones data. How would you interpret these data? Table 2: Means, Standard Deviations and Other Statistics VARIABLE Age # of Years Married Stress Job Involvement Performance MEAN 37.5 12.1 3.7 3.9 3.6 STD. DEV 18 24 0.79 1.53 1.86 MODE 38 15 3 4 3 MIN 20 0 1 2 3 MAX 64 32 7 7 7