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# Statistics

Activity
This activity has two parts. The first part involves matching statistical analyses terms and definitions from Chapters 19 & 20. The second part involves problem solving of basic statistical problems. [One person in the group can write the answers in and then scan/save/upload to the discussion forum] Part I Matching. Match the term on the left with a definition from the right. Chapter 19
1. Range 2. Mode Term Definition A. failing to reject the null hypothesis when it is false B. mathematical formulas that test the hypotheses based on three assumptions: 1) samples come from populations that are normally distributed, 2) there is homogeneity of variance, and 3) data generated from the measures are interval level C. rejecting the null hypothesis when it is true D. estimate range of values in which an unknown population parameter is likely to exist E. point in a distribution at which 50% of the cases fall above and 50% below F. number derived from a mathematical procedure as part of the analytical process in experimental-type research G. type of statistic to draw conclusions about population parameters, based on findings from a sample H. difference between the highest and lowest observed value in a collection of data I. set of procedures designed to identify relationships between multiple variables J. distribution of values for a given variable and the number of times each value occurs K. average score calculated by adding the objects or items and then dividing the sum by the number of objects or items. L. indicator of the average deviation of scores around the mean M. summary measure, such as range or standard deviation, that describes distribution of observed values N. probability that defines how rare or unlikely the sample data must be before the researcher can reject the null hypothesis O. value that occurs most frequently in a data set P. formulas used to test hypotheses when 1) normality of variance in the population is not assumed, 2) homogeneity of variance is not assumed, 3) data generated from measures are ordinal or nominal, and 4) sample sizes may be small Q. procedures used to reduce large sets of observations into more compact and interpretable forms R. descriptive statistic for interpreting variability; derived by squaring the difference between each score from the mean, which are then summed

3. Variance 4. Mean 5. Type I error 6. Statistic 7. Type II error 8. Interquartile range 9. Dispersion 10. Descriptive Statistics 11. Associational Statistics 12. Parametric Statistics 13. Median 14. Standard Deviation 15. Non-Parametric Statistics 16. Confidence Interval

## 19. Sum of Squares 20. Frequency Distribution 21. Confidence Level

S. reflects the mean or average of the sum of squares T. usually represented as percentage, the probability value associated with a confidence interval U. measure of variability in experimental-type research that refers to the range of scores that compose the middle 50% of subjects, or the majority of the responses

Chapter 20
1. triangulation 2. constant comparison 3. categories 4. truth value A. term used in naturalistic inquiry to refer to the accuracy of interpretation or how closely the analytical scheme reflects the natural context or focus of the investigation B. use of multiple strategies or methods as a means to strengthen credibility of an investigators findings related to the phenomenon under study C. truthfulness and accuracy of findings in naturalistic inquiry D. naturalistic data analysis technique in which each datum is compared and contrasted with previous information to fit all the pieces together inductively into a bigger puzzle E. analytical process used in naturalistic inquiry in which the investigator identified patterns and topics from which a theme is derived F. point at which an investigator has obtained sufficient information from which to obtain an understanding of the phenomena G. analytical step in naturalistic inquiry in which the investigator examines the derived categories and themes and develops a conceptual understanding of the phenomenon. H. naturalistic data analysis technique in which the researcher organizes similar or related categories into larger categories and identifies differences between sets of subcategories and larger or overarching categories I. basic analytical step used in naturalistic inquiry in which the investigator groups phenomena according to similarities and labels the groups

## 5. taxonomic analysis 6. interpretation 7. saturation

8. credibility

9. theme

Part II Problems Solving. Measures of Central Tendency 1. Retailers who sell travel packages want to know the average age at which people get married. Travel professionals believe that couples who are older when they marry spend significantly more on honeymoons than those who marry younger, therefore they will create more elaborate packages if the average age of marriage is getting higher. The following ages of bridal couples were gathered in an unscientific sampling at a bridal show. Find the mean, median, and mode for: a. women: Mean ______; Median ______; Mode ______ b. men: Mean ______; Median ______; Mode ______

2. Advertising executives are working on a campaign to sell a blood pressure medicine. These executives want to select (3) actors to use in the ads that will appeal to the broadest market in need of such medications. Find the mean, median, and mode BP (in some cases there may be no mode) for: a. Caucasian women b. Caucasian men c. African-American women d. African-American men e. Latino women f. Latino men g. All women combined h. All men combined
Race/Gender
Caucasian Women Caucasian Women Caucasian Women Caucasian Women Caucasian Women Caucasian Women African-American Women African-American Women African-American Women African-American Women African-American Women African-American Women Latino Women Latino Women Latino Women Latino Women Latino Women Latino Women

Age Range
30-39 40-49 50-59 60-69 70-79 80-89 30-39 40-49 50-59 60-69 70-79 80-89 30-39 40-49 50-59 60-69 70-79 80-89

Systolic BP
110 116 125 130 129 127 126 132 141 147 155 160 122 125 130 136 145 151

Race/Gender
Caucasian Men Caucasian Men Caucasian Men Caucasian Men Caucasian Men Caucasian Men African-American Men African-American Men African-American Men African-American Men African-American Men African-American Men Latino Men Latino Men Latino Men Latino Men Latino Men Latino Men

Age Range
30-39 40-49 50-59 60-69 70-79 80-89 30-39 40-49 50-59 60-69 70-79 80-89 30-39 40-49 50-59 60-69 70-79 80-89

Systolic BP
141 152 158 173 179 175 156 161 172 183 188 187 146 150 159 167 172 172

Measures of Variability 3. Find the range for the following sets of data in problem #2: a. Caucasian women b. Caucasian men c. African-American women d. African-American men e. Latino women f. Latino men g. All women h. All men 4. Sum of the Squares finding the sum of the squares is an interim step to finding the standard deviation. Use the test score data sets below and find the sum of the squares. Remember, you must first find the mean, then subtract the mean from each score, then square the answer. Add all the squared numbers for each data set. Set I Mean Sum Squared Set II Mean Sum Squared 94 98 76 94 52 88 98 90 80 84 78 86 5. Standard Deviation using the sum of the squares from question 4, find the standard deviations for: a. Set I b. Set II 6. Find the standard deviation for the following sets of data representing the number of books read by students in (4) different classrooms. a. Class I b. Class II c. Class III d. Class IV

7. Z-scores: Z scores translate data from numbers specific to a data set to a score that represents where that number would fall on a normal curve that represents the data set. The z-score is the distance, in standard deviations, from the mean. Z-scores can be negative, the number is less than the mean, or positive, more than the mean. The closer the z-score is to 0 the closer the number is to the mean. Using the data for Class I in question 6, find the z-scores for the 16 scores. a. Score = 4, z = b. Score = 1, z = c. Score = 10, z = d. Score = 7, z = e. Score = 6, z = f. Score = 2, z = g. Score = 11, z = h. Score = 6, z = i. Score = 22, z = j. Score = 5, z = k. Score = 8, z = l. Score = 10, z = m. Score = 3, z = n. Score = 4, z = o. Score = 9, z = p. Score = 6, z =