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Anatomy & Physiology of the Circulatory System OBJECTIVES Compare & contrast the structure & function of arteries,

, veins & capillaries. Identify the bodys major arteries & veins. Identify the common IV access for IV medications FUNCTIONS of the Peripheral Circulation Carry blood Exchange of nutrients, waste products & gases Transport of hormones Regulate blood pressure Direct blood flow General Features of Blood Vessel Structure Arteries: are blood vessels that carry blood away from the heart. Veins: carry blood towards the heart Capillaries: very fine blood vessels, where exchange occurs between the blood & tissue. Classification of Arteries: Muscular Arteries Medium-sized artery & small-diameter arteries: The walls are relatively thick. Are called the distributing arteries. Arterioles: Transport blood from small arteries to capillaries. Capillaries Are the largest & have the thickest walls. They are stretched when the ventricles of the heart pump blood into them. Recoil when stretched which prevents blood pressure from falling apart. Veins Have valves which allow blood to flow toward the heart but not in the opposite direction. Each valve consists of folds that form 2 flaps. More valves in veins of the L.E.

Major Arteries of the Systemic Circulation

Arterial Branches of the Aortic Arch

Arterial Branches of the Abdominal Aorta

Vein & IV Access Veins of the head & trunk

Veins of the Upper Limbs

Preferred site in the Emergency Department Veins in the forearm Median cubital vein Trauma Go directly to the median cubital vein

Veins of the Lower Limbs

Veins of the Abdomen

For patients with severe abdominal trauma, it is preferable to start the IV in the upper extremity, because of the potential for injury to vessels between the lower extremities & the heart Summary for IV Access Peripheral: A. Upper Extremity: 1. Cephalic Vein (lateral forearm) 2. Median cubital vein 3. Basilic Vein (medial forearm) B. Lower Extremity: 1. Great Saphenous vein

2. Median Marginal vein C. Scalp: 1. Small superficial veins A cannula should NOT be placed in: Areas of localized edema Dermatitis Cellulitis AV Fistulas Wounds Skin grafts Fractures Planned limb surgery Previous cannulation

Smallest gauge of cannula should be selected for the prescribed therapy Provide a sufficiently high flow rate to deliver most therapies Reduce the risks of mechanical and chemical phlebitis