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EXPERIMENT-1 AIM: Simulate and Study Half-wave Rectifier using PSPICE windows.

APPARATUS REQUIRED: Computer System, Simulation Software etc. CIRCUIT DIAGRAM AND TRANSIENT ANALYSIS: HALF WAVE RECTIFIER: INPUT

EXPERIMENT-1 AIM: Simulate and Study Half-wave Rectifier using PSPICE windows. APPARATUS REQUIRED: Computer System, Simulation Software etc. THEORY: For half-wave rectification, only one diode is used. The A.C. supply to be rectified is generally given through a transformer. The transformer is used to step-down or step-up the mains supply voltage as per requirement. It also isolates the rectifier circuit from power lines and thus reduces the risk of electric shock. In half-wave rectification, when ac supply is applied at the input, only positive half cycle appears across the load, whereas, the negative half cycle is suppressed. PROCEDURE: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) Switched ON the system and installed the software (Circuit Maker). Open the window of Simulation software. Make the given circuit using tools inside the software. Applied input supply to the primary winding of the transformer. Give the proper grounding to the circuit on both the side (input as well as output). Then, click the Run option and simulate the circuit diagram. Observe the output on the screen of the CRO.

PRECAUTION: 1) Switched ON and OFF the system in proper manner. 2) Make the circuit as per given diagram. 3) Give the proper grounding otherwise, simulation shows some error. RESULTS: OUTPUT The experiment of half-wave rectifier using PSPICE windows has been stimulated and studied successfully.

EXPERIMENT-2 AIM: Simulate and Study Centre-tap Full-wave and bridge-Rectifier using PSPICE windows. APPARATUS REQUIRED: Computer System, Simulation Software etc. CIRCUIT DIAGRAM AND TRANSIENT ANALYSIS: CENTRE-TAP FULL WAVE RECTIFIER:

EXPERIMENT-2 AIM: Simulate and Study Centre-tap Full-wave and bridge-Rectifier using PSPICE windows. APPARATUS REQUIRED: Computer System, Simulation Software etc. THOERY: For centre-tap full wave rectification, two diodes are used. The A.C. supply to be rectified is generally given through a centre-tap transformer. The transformer is used to step-down or step-up the mains supply voltage as per requirement. It also isolates the rectifier circuit from power lines and thus reduces the risk of electric shock. In centre-tap full wave rectification, when ac supply is applied at the input, positive half as well as negative half cycle appears across the load, i.e., during positive half cycle diode D1 is conduct, similarly during negative half cycle diode D2 is conduct and the output appears across the load. Similarly, In case of full wave bridge rectification four diodes are used, when ac supply is applied at the input, positive half as well as negative half cycle appears across the load, i.e., during positive half cycle diode D1 and D3 is conduct, similarly during negative half cycle diode D2 and D4 is conduct and the positive half as well as negative half cycle appears across the load. PROCEDURE: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Switched ON the system and installed the software (Circuit Maker). Open the window of Simulation software. Make the given circuit using tools inside the software. Applied input supply to the primary winding of the transformer. Give the proper grounding to the circuit on both the side (input as well as output). Then, click the Run option and simulate the circuit diagram. Observe the output on the screen of the CRO.

FULL WAVE BRIDGE RECTIFIER:

PRECAUTION: 1. Switched ON and OFF the system in proper manner. 2. Make the circuit as per given diagram. 3. Give the proper grounding otherwise, simulation shows some error. RESULTS: The experiment of centre-tap full-wave and bridge-rectifier using PSPICE windows has been stimulated and studied successfully.

EXPERIMENT-3(a) POSITIVE CLIPPER:

EXPERIMENT-3(a) AIM: Simulate and Study Clipper Circuits using PSPICE windows. APPARATUS REQUIRED: Computer System, Simulation Software etc. THOERY: A clipping circuit consists of linear elements like resistors and non-linear elements like junction diodes or transistors, but it does not contain energy-storage elements like capacitors. Clipping circuits are used to select for purposes of transmission, that part of a signal wave form which lies above or below a certain reference voltage level.

NEGATIVE CLIPPER:

Thus a clipper circuit can remove certain portions of an arbitrary waveform near the positive or negative peaks. Clipping may be achieved either at one level or two levels. Usually under the section of clipping, there is a change brought about in the wave shape of the signal PROCEDURE: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) Switched ON the system and installed the software (Circuit Maker). Open the window of Simulation software. Make the given circuit using tools inside the software. Applied input supply from the signal generator as shown in diagram. Give the proper grounding to the circuit on both the side (input as well as output). Then, click the Run option and simulate the circuit diagram. Observe the output on the screen of the CRO.

POSITIVE BIASED CLIPPER:

PRECAUTION: 1) Switched ON and OFF the system in proper manner. 2) Make the circuit as per given diagram. 3) Give the proper grounding otherwise, simulation shows some error. NEGATIVE BIASED CLIPPER: RESULTS: The experiment of clipper circuits using PSPICE windows has been stimulated and studied successfully.

DUAL BIASED CLIPPER:

EXPERIMENT-3(b)
AIM: Simulate and Study Clamper Circuits using PSPICE windows. APPARATUS REQUIRED: Computer System, Simulation Software etc. CIRCUIT DIAGRAM AND TRANSIENT ANALYSIS:

EXPERIMENT-3(b) AIM: Simulate and Study Clamper Circuits using PSPICE windows. APPARATUS REQUIRED: Computer System, Simulation Software etc. THOERY: A clamper is an electronic circuit that prevents a signal from exceeding a certain defined magnitude by shifting its DC value. The clamper does not restrict the peak-to-peak excursion of the signal, but moves it up or down by a fixed value. A diode clamp (a simple, common type) relies on a diode, which conducts electric current in only one direction; resistors and capacitors in the circuit are used to maintain an altered dc level at the clamper output. Clampers can be constructed in both positive and negative polarities. When unbiased, clamping circuits will fix the voltage lower limit (or upper limit, in the case of negative clampers) to 0 Volts. These circuits clamp a peak of a waveform to a specific DC level compared with a capacitively coupled signal which swings about its average DC level. PROCEDURE: 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) Switched ON the system and installed the software (Circuit Maker). Open the window of Simulation software. Make the given circuit using tools inside the software. Applied input supply from the signal generator as shown in diagram. Give the proper grounding to the circuit on both the side (input as well as output). Then, click the Run option and simulate the circuit diagram. Observe the output on the screen of the CRO.

POSITIVE CLAMPER:

NEGATIVE CLAMPER:

PRECAUTION: 4) Switched ON and OFF the system in proper manner. 5) Make the circuit as per given diagram. 6) Give the proper grounding otherwise, simulation shows some error. RESULTS: The experiment of clamper circuits using PSPICE windows has been stimulated and studied successfully.

EXPERIMENT-4(a) AIM: Simulate and Study Inverting Amplifier for Op-Amp using PSPICE windows. APPARATUS REQUIRED: Computer System, Simulation Software etc. CIRCUIT DIAGRAM AND TRANSIENT ANALYSIS: INVERTING AMLIFIER:

EXPERIMENT-4(a) AIM: Simulate and Study Inverting Amplifier for Op-Amp using PSPICE windows. APPARATUS REQUIRED: Computer System, Simulation Software etc. THOERY: An inverting amplifier inverts and scales the input signal. As long as the op-amp gain is very large, the amplifier gain is determined by two stable external resistors (the feedback resistor Rf and the input resistor Rin) and not by op-amp parameters which are highly temperature dependent. In particular, the RinRf resistor network acts as an electronic seesaw where the inverting input of the operational amplifier is like a fulcrum about which the seesaw pivots. That is, because the operational amplifier is in a negativefeedback configuration, its internal high gain effectively fixes the inverting input at the same 0 V (ground) voltage of the non-inverting input, which is similar to the stiff mechanical support provided by the fulcrum of the seesaw. PROCEDURE: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Switched ON the system and installed the software (Circuit Maker). Open the window of Simulation software. Make the given circuit using tools inside the software. Applied input supply from the signal generator as shown in diagram. Give the proper grounding to the circuit on both the side (input as well as output). Then, click the Run option and simulate the circuit diagram. Observe the output on the screen of the CRO.

PRECAUTION: 1. Switched ON and OFF the system in proper manner. 2. Make the circuit as per given diagram. 3. Give the proper grounding otherwise, simulation shows some error. RESULTS: The experiment of inverting amplifier for Op-Amp using PSPICE windows has been stimulated and studied successfully.

EXPERIMENT-4(b) AIM: Simulate and Study Non-inverting Amplifier for Op-Amp using PSPICE windows. APPARATUS REQUIRED: Computer System, Simulation Software etc. CIRCUIT DIAGRAM AND TRANSIENT ANALYSIS: NON-INVERTING AMLIFIER:

EXPERIMENT-4(b) AIM: Simulate and Study Non-inverting Amplifier for Op-Amp using PSPICE windows. APPARATUS REQUIRED: Computer System, Simulation Software etc. THOERY:

The basic configuration of an operational amplifier circuit is that of a Non-inverting Amplifier. In this configuration, the input voltage signal, (Vin) is applied directly to the non-inverting (+) input terminal which means that the output gain of the amplifier becomes "Positive" in value in contrast to the "Inverting Amplifier" circuit we saw in the last tutorial whose output gain is negative in value. The result of this is that the output signal is "in-phase" with the input signal. Feedback control of the non-inverting amplifier is achieved by applying a small part of the output voltage signal back to the inverting (-) input terminal via a Rf - R2 voltage divider network, again producing negative feedback. This closed-loop configuration produces a noninverting amplifier circuit with very good stability, a very high input impedance, Rin approaching infinity, as no current flows into the positive input terminal, (ideal conditions) and a low output impedance.
PROCEDURE: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Switched ON the system and installed the software (Circuit Maker). Open the window of Simulation software. Make the given circuit using tools inside the software. Applied input supply from the signal generator as shown in diagram. Give the proper grounding to the circuit on both the side (input as well as output). Then, click the Run option and simulate the circuit diagram. Observe the output on the screen of the CRO.

PRECAUTION: 1) Switched ON and OFF the system in proper manner. 2) Make the circuit as per given diagram. 3) Give the proper grounding otherwise, simulation shows some error. RESULTS: The experiment of Non-inverting amplifier for Op-Amp using PSPICE windows has been stimulated and studied successfully.

EXPERIMENT-5 AIM: Simulate and Study Integrator Circuit using PSPICE windows. APPARATUS REQUIRED: Computer System, Simulation Software etc. CIRCUIT DIAGRAM AND TRANSIENT ANALYSIS: INTEGRATOR CIRCUIT: INPUT

EXPERIMENT-5 AIM: Simulate and Study Integrator Circuit using PSPICE windows. APPARATUS REQUIRED: Computer System, Simulation Software etc. THOERY:

Op-amp Integrator is an operational amplifier circuit that performs the mathematical operation of Integration that is we can cause the output to respond to changes in the input voltage over time. The integrator amplifier acts like a storage element that "produces a voltage output which is proportional to the integral of its input voltage with respect to time". In other words the magnitude of the output signal is determined by the length of time a voltage is present at its input as the current through the feedback loop charges or discharges the capacitor as the required negative feedback occurs through the capacitor. When a voltage, Vin is firstly applied to the input of an integrating amplifier, the uncharged capacitor C has very little resistance and acts a bit like a short circuit (voltage follower circuit) giving an overall gain of less than one. No current flows into the amplifiers input and point X is a virtual earth resulting in zero output. As the feedback capacitor C begins to charge up, its reactance Xc decreases this results in the ratio of Xc/Rin increasing producing an output voltage that continues to increase until the capacitor is fully charged.
PROCEDURE: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) Switched ON the system and installed the software (Circuit Maker). Open the window of Simulation software. Make the given circuit using tools inside the software. Applied input supply from the signal generator as shown in diagram. Give the proper grounding to the circuit on both the side (input as well as output). Then, click the Run option and simulate the circuit diagram. Observe the output on the screen of the CRO.

OUTPUT

PRECAUTION: 1) Switched ON and OFF the system in proper manner. 2) Make the circuit as per given diagram. 3) Give the proper grounding otherwise, simulation shows some error. RESULTS: The experiment of integrator circuit using PSPICE windows has been stimulated and studied successfully.

EXPERIMENT-6 AIM: Simulate and Study Differentiator Circuit using PSPICE windows. APPARATUS REQUIRED: Computer System, Simulation Software etc. CIRCUIT DIAGRAM AND TRANSIENT ANALYSIS: DIFFERENTIATOR CIRCUIT:

EXPERIMENT-6 AIM: Simulate and Study Differentiator Circuit using PSPICE windows. APPARATUS REQUIRED: Computer System, Simulation Software etc. THOERY:

The basic Op-amp Differentiator circuit is the exact opposite to that of the Integrator operational amplifier circuit that we saw in the previous tutorial. Here, the position of the capacitor and resistor have been reversed and now the reactance, Xc is connected to the input terminal of the inverting amplifier while the resistor, Rf forms the negative feedback element across the operational amplifier as normal. This circuit performs the mathematical operation of Differentiation that is it "produces a voltage output which is directly proportional to the input voltage's rate-of-change with respect to time". In other words the faster or larger the change to the input voltage signal, the greater the input current, the greater will be the output voltage change in response, becoming more of a "spike" in shape. As with the integrator circuit, we have a resistor and capacitor forming an RC Network across the operational amplifier and the reactance (Xc) of the capacitor plays a major role in the performance of a Op-amp Differentiator.
PROCEDURE:

INPUT

1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7)

Switched ON the system and installed the software (Circuit Maker). Open the window of Simulation software. Make the given circuit using tools inside the software. Applied input supply from the signal generator as shown in diagram. Give the proper grounding to the circuit on both the side (input as well as output). Then, click the Run option and simulate the circuit diagram. Observe the output on the screen of the CRO.

PRECAUTION: OUTPUT 1) Switched ON and OFF the system in proper manner. 2) Make the circuit as per given diagram. 3) Give the proper grounding otherwise, simulation shows some error. RESULTS: The experiment of differentiator circuit using PSPICE windows has been stimulated and studied successfully.

EXPERIMENT-7 AIM: Simulate and Study Common Emitter Amplifier using PSPICE windows. APPARATUS REQUIRED: Computer System, Simulation Software etc. CIRCUIT DIAGRAM AND TRANSIENT ANALYSIS: COMMON EMITTER AMLIFIER:

EXPERIMENT-7 AIM: Simulate and Study Common Emitter Amplifier using PSPICE windows. APPARATUS REQUIRED: Computer System, Simulation Software etc. THOERY: In electronics, a common-emitter amplifier is one of three basic single-stage bipolar-junction-transistor (BJT) amplifier topologies, typically used as a voltage amplifier. In this circuit the base terminal of the transistor serves as the input, the collector is the output, and the emitter is common to both (for example, it may be tied to ground reference or a power supply rail), hence its name. The analogous field-effect transistor circuit is the common-source amplifier, and the analogous tube circuit is the common-cathode amplifier. Common-emitter amplifiers give the amplifier an inverted output and can have a very high gain that may vary widely from one transistor to the next. The gain is a strong function of both temperature and bias current, and so the actual gain is somewhat unpredictable. Stability is another problem associated with such high gain circuits due to any unintentional positive feedback that may be present. PROCEDURE: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) Switched ON the system and installed the software (Circuit Maker). Open the window of Simulation software. Make the given circuit using tools inside the software. Applied input supply from the signal generator as shown in diagram. Give the proper grounding to the circuit on both the side (input as well as output). Then, click the Run option and simulate the circuit diagram. Observe the output on the screen of the CRO.

PRECAUTION: 1) Switched ON and OFF the system in proper manner. 2) Make the circuit as per given diagram. 3) Give the proper grounding otherwise, simulation shows some error. RESULTS: The experiment of common emitter amplifier using PSPICE windows has been stimulated and studied successfully.

EXPERIMENT-8 AIM: Simulate and Study MOSFET Amplifier using PSPICE windows. APPARATUS REQUIRED: Computer System, Simulation Software etc. CIRCUIT DIAGRAM AND TRANSIENT ANALYSIS: MOSFET AMPLIFIER CIRCUITS: INPUT

EXPERIMENT-8 AIM: Simulate and Study MOSFET Amplifier using PSPICE windows. APPARATUS REQUIRED: Computer System, Simulation Software etc. THOERY: The traditional metaloxidesemiconductor (MOS) structure is obtained by growing a layer of silicon dioxide (SiO2) on top of a silicon substrate and depositing a layer of metal or polycrystalline silicon (the latter is commonly used). As the silicon dioxide is a dielectric material, its structure is equivalent to a planar capacitor, with one of the electrodes replaced by a semiconductor. When a voltage is applied across a MOS structure, it modifies the distribution of charges in the semiconductor. If we consider a p-type semiconductor (with the density of acceptors, p the density of holes; p = NA in neutral bulk), a positive voltage, , from gate to body (see figure) creates a depletion layer by forcing the positively charged holes away from the gate-insulator/semiconductor interface, leaving exposed a carrier-free region of immobile, negatively charged acceptor ions (see doping (semiconductor)). If is high enough, a high concentration of negative charge carriers forms in an inversion layer located in a thin layer next to the interface between the semiconductor and the insulator. PROCEDURE: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) Switched ON the system and installed the software (Circuit Maker). Open the window of Simulation software. Make the given circuit using tools inside the software. Applied input supply from the signal generator as shown in diagram. Give the proper grounding to the circuit on both the side (input as well as output). Then, click the Run option and simulate the circuit diagram. Observe the output on the screen of the CRO.

OUTPUT

PRECAUTION: 1) Switched ON and OFF the system in proper manner. 2) Make the circuit as per given diagram. 3) Give the proper grounding otherwise, simulation shows some error. RESULTS: The experiment of MOSFET amplifier using PSPICE windows has been stimulated and studied successfully.

EXPERIMENT-9 AIM: Simulate and Study Summing & Subtractor Amplifier using PSPICE windows. APPARATUS REQUIRED: Computer System, Simulation Software etc. CIRCUIT DIAGRAM AND TRANSIENT ANALYSIS: SUMMING &SUBTRACTOR CIRCUITS:

EXPERIMENT-9 AIM: Simulate and Study Summing & Subtractor Amplifier using PSPICE windows. APPARATUS REQUIRED: Computer System, Simulation Software etc. THOERY: Summing Amplifier The Summing Amplifier is a very flexible circuit based upon the standard Inverting Operational Amplifier configuration that can be used for combining multiple inputs. We saw previously in the inverting amplifier tutorial that the inverting amplifier has a single input voltage, ( Vin ) applied to the inverting input terminal. If we add more input resistors to the input, each equal in value to the original input resistor, Rin we end up with another operational amplifier circuit called a Summing Amplifier, "summing inverter" or even a "voltage adder" circuit as shown below. Differential Amplifier Thus far we have used only one of the operational amplifiers inputs to connect to the amplifier, using either the "inverting" or the "non-inverting" input terminal to amplify a single input signal with the other input being connected to ground. But we can also connect signals to both of the inputs at the same time producing another common type of operational amplifier circuit called a Differential Amplifier. Basically, as we saw in the first tutorial about operational amplifiers, all op-amps are "Differential Amplifiers" due to their input configuration. But by connecting one voltage signal onto one input terminal and another voltage signal onto the other input terminal the resultant output voltage will be proportional to the "Difference" between the two input voltage signals of V1 and V2. PROCEDURE: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) Switched ON the system and installed the software (Circuit Maker). Open the window of Simulation software. Make the given circuit using tools inside the software. Applied input supply from the signal generator as shown in diagram. Give the proper grounding to the circuit on both the side (input as well as output). Then, click the Run option and simulate the circuit diagram. Observe the output on the screen of the CRO.

PRECAUTION: 1) Switched ON and OFF the system in proper manner. 2) Make the circuit as per given diagram. 3) Give the proper grounding otherwise, simulation shows some error. RESULTS: The experiment of Summing & Subtractor amplifier using PSPICE windows has been stimulated and studied successfully.

EXPERIMENT-10 AIM: Simulate and Study Voltage Doubler using PSPICE windows. APPARATUS REQUIRED: Computer System, Simulation Software etc.

EXPERIMENT-10 AIM: Simulate and Study Voltage Doublers using PSPICE windows. APPARATUS REQUIRED: Computer System, Simulation Software etc.

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM AND TRANSIENT ANALYSIS: VOLTAGE DOUBLER

THOERY: : A voltage doublers is an electronic circuit which charges capacitors from the input voltage and switches these charges in such a way that, in the ideal case, exactly twice the voltage is produced at the output as at its input. The simplest of these circuits are a form of rectifier which take an AC voltage as input and output a doubled DC voltage. The switching elements are simple diodes and they are driven to switch state merely by the alternating voltage of the input. DC to DC voltage doublers cannot switch in this way and require a driving circuit to control the switching. They frequently also require a switching element that can be controlled directly, such as a transistor, rather than relying on the voltage across the switch as in the simple AC to DC case. Voltage doublers are a variety of voltage multiplier circuit. Many (but not all) voltage doubler circuits can be viewed as a single stage of a higher order multiplier: cascading identical stages together achieves a greater voltage multiplication.
PROCEDURE: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) Switched ON the system and installed the software (Circuit Maker). Open the window of Simulation software. Make the given circuit using tools inside the software. Applied input supply from the signal generator as shown in diagram. Give the proper grounding to the circuit on both the side (input as well as output). Then, click the Run option and simulate the circuit diagram. Observe the output on the screen of the CRO.

PRECAUTION: 1) Switched ON and OFF the system in proper manner. 2) Make the circuit as per given diagram. 3) Give the proper grounding otherwise, simulation shows some error. RESULTS: The experiment of Voltage Doubler using PSPICE windows has been stimulated and studied successfully.