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Komunikasi

ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR
S T E P H E N P. R O B B I N S
E L E V E N T H 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. E D I T I O N PowerPoint Presentation by Charlie Cook WWW.PRENHALL.COM/ROBBINS

OBJECTIVES

After studying this chapter, you should be able to:


1. 2. 3. 4. Menjelaskan proses komunikasi Kelebihan dan kekurangan komunikasi oral dan tulisan Membandingkan efektivitas jalur komunikasi chain, wheel, dan all channel. Mengidentifikasi faktor-faktor yang mempengaruhi penggunaan grapevine.

LEARNING

5.
6. 7. 8.

Mendiskusikan pengaruh Teknologi Informasi dalam proses komunikasi organisasi


Menjelaskan kepentingan pengayaan channel untuk meningkatkan efektivitas komunikasi Mengidentifikasi halangan yang muncul dalam komunikasi efektif. Menjelaskan potensi permasalahan yang muncul dalam proses komunikasi cross-cultural.

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101

Definisi Komunikasi

Proses pengiriman ide atau pikiran, dari satu orang kepada orang lain dengan tujuan untuk menciptakan pengertian dalam diri orang yang menerimanya .......( C.A.Brown) Proses penyaluran informasi dan pengertian dari satu orang ke orang lain ................(K.Davis)

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102

Fungsi Komunikasi

Komunikasi adalah proses dimana fungsi-fungsi Management (Planning, Organizing, Actuiting, Leading, Controlling) dilaksanakan. Komunikasi adalah sarana /media untuk mengaktualisasikan segala pengetahuan dan keterampilan seorang manager. Komunikasi adalah kegiatan dimana manajer mencurahkan sebagian besar dari waktunya.

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103

Elements of the Communication Process


The sender (pengirim) Encoding (pengkodean) The message (pesan) The channel (saluran) Decoding (penafsiran anti decoding) The receiver (penerima) Noise (gangguan)

Feedback (umpan balik)

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104

The Communication Process Model

Communication Process
Tahapan-tahapan dalam proses transfer pemahaman dan pengertian yang dilalui mulai dari sumber pesan (resource/sender) hingga penerima sumber (receiver).
2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 105

The Communication Process


Channel
Media yang dipilih oleh pengirim informasi (sender) untuk mengirimkan pesan ke penerima (receiver).

Types of Channels
Formal Channels
Komunikasi yang berjalan sesuai kerangka/kaidah formil organisasi yang berlaku (professional activities of members).

Informal Channels
Komunikasi yang berjalan secara personla/tidak formil (biasa disebut personal or social messages in the organization). Komunikasi seperti ini biasanya muncul secara spontan atau tiba-tiba dan didominasi oleh pilihan/kehendak pribadi.
2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 106

Pola Komunikasi dalam Organisasi

Downward

Lateral

Upward

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107

Pola Komunikasi dalam Organisasi

Komunikasi Vertikal (Up/Down) Komunikasi Horisontal

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108

Komunikasi Interpersonal
Komunikasi Oral
Kelebihan : Kecepatan dan respon/feedback yang cepat. Kekurangan: Resiko terjadi distorsi pesan.

Komunikasi Tertulis
Kelebihan : Tangible/nyata (fisik) dan dapat diverifikasi. Kekurangan : waktu penyampaian dan respon/feedback lebih lama.

Nonverbal Communication
Kelebihan : Mampu menyampaikan komunikasi lain dan dapat mengeksplore perasaan dan emosi. Kekurangan : kesalahan persepsi dari body language atau kesalahan interpretasi terhadap pesan yang disampaikan kepada penerima (salah tingkah).
2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 109

Bentuk Jejaring Komunikasi (group)

2 4 5 1 2 5 4 3

melingkar
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E X H I B I T 103 1010

Small-Group Networks and Effectiveness Criteria


NETWORKS

Criteria
Speed Accuracy

Chain
Moderate High

Wheel
Fast High

All Channel
Fast Moderate

Emergence of a leader
Member satisfaction

Moderate
Moderate

High
Low

None
High

E X H I B I T 104 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 1011

Grapevine
Grapevine Characteristics
Informal, tidak dikendalikan oleh manajemen (formil) Persepsi dari sebagian besar employee, lebih reliable dan dipercaya dari komunikasi formil Umumnya digunakan sebagai pemuas/pemenuhan keingintahuan/kebutuhan individu (self interest) Berasal dari :
Keinginan terhadap informasi tentang situasi penting Situasi membingungkan Issu yang diduga sebagai sumber kegelisahan (kelompok)
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Grapevine

CLUSTER
GOSIP Satu orang berkomunikasi kepada banyak orang
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Banyak orang berkomunikasi secara terbatas

1013

Upaya Mereduksi Efek Negatif dari Rumor

1. Refutation (sangkalan) 2. Retrieval cue (isyarat menarik kembali) 3. Storage cue (isyarat menyimpan) 4. No respon (tidak merespon)

Source: Adapted from L. Hirschhorn, Managing Rumors, in L. Hirschhorn (ed.), Cutting Back (San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1983), pp. 5456. With permission.

E X H I B I T 105 1014

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Computer-Aided Communication
E-mail
Advantages: quickly written, sent, and stored; low cost for distribution. Disadvantages: information overload, lack of emotional content, cold and impersonal.

Instant messaging
Advantage: real time e-mail transmitted straight to the receivers desktop. Disadvantage: can be intrusive and distracting.

2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.

1015

Emoticons: Showing Emotion in E-Mail


Electronic mail neednt be emotion free. Over the years, a set of symbols (emoticons) has evolved that e-mail users have developed

for expressing emotions. For instance, the use of all caps (i.e., THIS PROJECT NEEDS YOUR IMMEDIATE ATTENTION!) is the e-mail equivalent of shouting. The following highlights some emoticons:

E X H I B I T 106 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 1016

Computer-Aided Communication (contd)


Intranet
A private organization-wide information network.

Extranet
An information network connecting employees with external suppliers, customers, and strategic partners.

Videoconferencing
An extension of an intranet or extranet that permits face-to-face virtual meetings via video links.

2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.

1017

Knowledge Management (KM)


Knowledge Management A process of organizing and distributing an organizations collective wisdom so the right information gets to the right people at the right time.
Why KM is important: Intellectual assets are as important as physical assets. When individuals leave, their knowledge and experience goes with them. A KM system reduces redundancy and makes the organization more efficient.
2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 1018

Choice of Communication Channel


Channel Richness Banyaknya jumlah informasi yang dapat disampaikan dalam suatu episode/kejadian komunikasi.

Karakteristik Richness Channel:


1. Handle multiple cues simultaneously. 2. Facilitate rapid feedback.

3. Are very personal in context.

2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.

1019

Information Richness of Communication Channels

Low channel richness

High channel richness

Routine
Source: Based on R.H. Lengel and D.L. Daft, The Selection of Communication Media as an Executive Skill, Academy of Management Executive, August 1988, pp. 22532; and R.L. Daft and R.H. Lengel, Organizational Information Requirements, Media Richness, and Structural Design, Managerial Science, May 1996, pp. 55472. Reproduced from R.L. Daft and R.A. Noe, Organizational Behavior (Fort Worth, TX: Harcourt, 2001), p. 311.

Nonroutine

E X H I B I T 107 1020

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Hambatan dalam Komunikasi


Filtering A senders memanipulasi informasi sehingga info yang disampaikan kelihatan lebih baik dari aslinya. Selective Perception Seseorang akan selektif terhadap fokus informasi yang diterima, tergantung pada kepentingan, background, pengalaman dan sikapnya. Information Overload Kondisi dimana informasi mengalir/masuk melebihi kapasitas (penerimaan) seseorang tersebut.
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Barriers to Effective Communication (contd)


Emotions
Perasaan dan waktu penerimaan sebuah informasi menetukan interpretasi sebuah informasi.

Language
Kata-kata dapat bermakna berbeda antara satu orang dengan yang lain. Komunikasi keprihatinan/ketakutan Penekanan (pengucapan/tulisan) yang kurang tepat/tidak sesuai dan mengakibatkan kesalahan (oral communication, written communication, or both).
2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 1022

Politically Correct Communication


Certain words stereotype, intimidate, and insult individuals. In an increasingly diverse workforce, we must be sensitive to how words might offend others. Removed: handicapped, blind, and elderly Replaced with: physically challenged, visually impaired, and senior. Removing certain words from the vocabulary makes it harder to communicate accurately. Removed: death, garbage, quotas, and women. Replaced with terms: negative patient outcome, postconsumer waste materials, educational equity, and people of gender.
2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 1023

Communication Barriers Between Men and Women


Men talk to: Women talk to:

Emphasize status, power, and independence.


Complain that women talk on and on. Offer solutions. To boast about their accomplishments.

Establish connection and intimacy.


Criticize men for not listening. Speak of problems to promote closeness. Express regret and restore balance to a conversation.
1024

2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.

Source: The Far Side by Gary Larson 1994 Far Works, Inc. All rights reserved. Used with permission. 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.

E X H I B I T 108 1025

Cross-Cultural Communication
Cultural Barriers Semantics Cultural Guide Assume differences until similarity is proven. Emphasize description rather than interpretation or evaluation. Practice empathy. Treat your interpretations as a working hypothesis.

Word connotations
Tone differences Differences among perceptions

2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.

1026

Hand Gestures Mean Different Things in Different Countries

E X H I B I T 109 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 1027

Hand Gestures Mean Different Things in Different Countries (contd)

E X H I B I T 109 (contd) 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 1028

Communication Barriers and Cultural Context


High-Context Cultures

Cultures that rely heavily on nonverbal and subtle situational cues to communication.
Low-Context Cultures Cultures that rely heavily on words to convey meaning in communication.
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Highvs. LowContext Cultures

E X H I B I T 1010 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 1030