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ALIRAN DAYA & RUGI-RUGI DAYA

Aliran Daya Reaktif : - mengakibatkan rugi-rugi pada saluran dan transformator - menurunkan kapasitas jaringan distribusi - faktor daya menunjukkan besar aliran daya reaktif

Faktor daya daerah perumahan (Rabu)

0,7 0,9

Faktor daya daerah perumahan (Minggu)

0,7 0,9

Faktor Daya typical berdasarkan jenis industri dan jenis proses


(motor industri menyerap energi listrik > 50%)
No
1 2 3 4 5

Industry
Auto parts Brewery Clothing Hospital Commercial Building

Power Factor
0.750.8 0.760.8 0.350.6 0.750.8 0.80.9

Process
Air Compressing Welding Machining Stamping Spraying

Power Factor
0.750.8 0.350.6 0.40.65 0.60.7 0.665

Faktor Daya motor induksi sangat tergantung pada beban

Peralatan/Beban yang menyerap Daya Reaktif


1. Motor Induksi
Distribusi Rugi-Rugi typical
Power
HP kW Output[W] Input [W] Efficiency [%] -

Ml
1 0.746 746 1,020 73

M2
5 3.7 3,730 4,491 83

M3
25 18.65 18,560 20,946 89

M4
50 37.3 37,300 41,217 90.5

M5
100 74.6 74,600 81,530 91.5

M7
200 149.2 149,200 160,432 93

Rugi-Rugi Magnetik
Power
HP kW MagnetiC Core Loss [W] Total Loss [W] . Magnetic Loss [%] Magnetic Loss current [A]

Ml
1 0.746 76 274 27 0.1

M2
5 3.7 225 761 29 0.31

M3
25 18.6 351 2,296 15 0.5

M4
50 37.3 765 3,917 19 1.06

M5
100 74.6 906 6,930 13 1.2

M7
200 149.2 1,650 11,232 15 2.3

Komposisi Rugi-Rugi
Motor Component Loss
Standard power loss Rotor power loss Magnetic core loss Friction and windings Stray load loss

Loss [%]
37 18 20 9 10

Efisiensi motor induksi tergantung pada besar/size dari motor (makin besar motor makin tinggi efisiensinya) Rata-rata rugi magnetik 20 % dari rugi-rugi total (cukup significant)

2. Alat Pengatur Kecepatan (Variable Speed Drive)

Untuk aplikasi industri, motor induksi membutuhkan pengaturan kecepatan Digunakan variable speed drive system yang menghasilkan variable frequency dan variable voltage Faktor daya dari three phase diode bridge rectifiers sangat tinggi (teoritis : 0.955) Bila digunakan thyristor bridge rectifiers, faktor daya menjadi fungsi dari firing angle dan overlap angle yang akan meningkatkan konsumsi daya reaktif

3. Discharge Lamps
Rangkaian lampu yang menggunakan choke/leakage transformer ballast mempunyai faktor daya lagging yang rendah Faktor daya dikoreksi dengan kapasitor menjadi 0,85 atau lebih (rangkaian < 30 watt biasanya tidak dikoreksi)

Koreksi faktor daya dari 0,5 menjadi 0,85 akan menghasilkan penurunan arus sebesar 40 % Keuntungan Electronic Ballast :
Improved circuit efficiency i.e. reduced ballast loss Reduction in weight, particularly for larger lamp sizes. Improved luminous efficacy for many lamp types Absence of flicker. Elimination of audible ballast noise. Elimination of supply current harmonics and provision of unity power factor without the use of a correction capacitor. Facility for accurate control of lamp power or current. Reduced run-up time and restart time for high-pressure lamps. Controlled starting and operating conditions leading to improved lamp life.

4. Transformator
Rugi-rugi trafo tergantung pada besar arus beban dan tahanan belitan primer & sekunder trafo

Bila mengalir arus nominal, rugi-rugi trafo :

Atau,

Rugi-rugi total :

Contoh 1 :
Diketahui transformer dng data Sn : 500 kVA, V:11/0.4 kV, Po : 2100 W and Pn = 9 450 W, hitung dan plot rugi-rugi sebagai fungsi beban.
Load [%] Load [kVA] No-load Losses [W] Load Losses [W] Total Losses [W] Losses [%] 10 50 2100 94.5 95.6 25 125 2100 590 78 50 250 75 375 100 500 2100 9450 18

2100 2100 2362 5315 47 28

2194.5 2690

4462 7415 11550

Transformer load and no-load losses as a function of load Rugi-rugi no-load constant tidak tergantung pada beban

No load losses (in % of total losses) as a function of transformer load

Rugi-rugi per kVA

Beban optimal (ekonomis) trafo :

Secon : pembebanan ekonomis trafo

Transformer losses per KVA as a function of transformer load

CATATAN : 1. Minimum losses per kVA terjadi pada beban trafo kira-kira 50% rated capacity 2. Hanya rugi-rugi trafo yang diperhitungkan (tidak termasuk rugi-rugi saluran/supply lines)

Daya reaktif trafo tanpa beban :


i0 = arus tanpa beban (%)

Daya reactif yang diserap trafo :

Daya reactif beban penuh atau

Daya reaktif beban penuh juga dapat ditentukan sbb.:

Untuk trafo besar, S n > 1 MVA

Daya reaktif total trafo :

Aliran daya reaktif menghasilkan rugi-rugi pada jaringan distribusi :

kq : 0.1 0.2

Rugi-rugi total : Rugi-rugi trafo dan rugi-rugi jaringan distribusi

Rugi-rugi tanpa beban Rugi-rugi berbeban

Rugi-rugi per kVA dari daya VA :

Beban optimal (ekonomis) trafo :

Contoh 2 :
Diketahui trafo dng data 1000 kVA, u% = 5%, io = 4.5%, Po = 4000kW , Pn = 14000W Rugi-rugi tanpa beban :

Rugi-rugi beban nominal (rated load) :

Untuk kq = 0.15, beban ekonomis trafo

When total losses appearing in both transformers and distribution lines are taken into account, the optimal transformer load is about 70% of full load.

TUGAS-2
Siapkan sistem jaringan distribusi (1 feeder) Run Load Flow Check rugi-rugi trafo-nya Cari data typical dari rugi-rugi trafo untuk pembebanan nominal (Pn), dan beban nol (P0) Hitung rugi-rugi total (Pt) dari trafo. Note: S ditentukan dari hasil run Load Flow.

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Perhitungan Rugi-Rugi akibat Aliran Daya Reaktif


P : rugi-rugi akibat aliran daya reactif : sudut fasa antar tegangan dan arus supply R : tahanan saluran supply

Rugi-rugi transmission dan distribusi (dikompensasi oleh capacitor banks)


Q : P tan Qc : kapasitas dari compensating devices

Losses in distribution lines depend on the location of customers, and they should be calculated for each customer individually To obtain losses of electrical energy, power losses should be multiplied by the number of hours of demand. This is a relatively easy task when demand is constant. Unfortunately, in practice, demand varies during the day, so there is a need for the introduction of a measure allowing the determination of energy losses for varying demand.

TUGAS : RUMUS UTK MENENTUKAN RUGI-RUGI ENERGI DNG MENGGUNAKAN LOSS FACTOR

Kompensasi Daya Reaktif


Pembangkitan Daya Reaktif Kapasitif
Daya reaktif induktif yang dibutuhkan peralatan listrik dapat dng mudah diperoleh secara lokal dari kapasitor yang terhubung paralel (shunt capacitors). Dengan demikian aliran daya reaktif dari sumber/pembangkit yang jauh bisa dihindari, sehingga dapat mengurangi rugi-rugi akibat aliran daya reaktif. Flow of active and reactive power without compensation

Flow of active and reactive power with compensation

Reactive power may be generated by rotating compensators or capacitors


Synchronous generators at power stations that produce and supply reactive power. Such generators can be used to supply reactive power to local customers. Transmission of reactive power to distant customers is associated with network losses and is not cost effective. Synchronous generators are designed in such a way that the optimal operating point requires some reactive power generation, so a very high power factor is not feasible. Synchronous condensers that consist at unloaded generators connected in various places within the supply network. Their primary role is to supply only reactive power. Due to high initial cost and significant losses, synchronous compensators are only used in applications where their voltage regulating and stabilizing effects are necessary. Synchronous motors can produce reactive power when overexcited. Since small synchronous motors are expensive, this method is rarely used.

Capacitors are the best solution to producing reactive power, due to their low initial cost and inexpensive maintenance

mutual interaction of inductive and capacitive currents, by their arithmetic summation, leads to high values for a power factor, calculated as cos , and reduction of supply current magnitude

Kapasitor pada sistem 3 fasa dapat dihubungkan delta atau star. Hubungan delta memberikan daya reaktif lebih besar dari hubungan star dengan harga kapasitor (F) yang sama. Ini diakibatkan oleh tegangan antar fasa yang lebih besar pada capacitor bank dengan hubungan delta

HUBUNGAN DELTA Daya reaktif yang dibangkitkan oleh kapasitor :

(sin = 1.0)

Arus kapasitor :

HUBUNGAN STAR Tegangan pada kapasitor : V : Tegangan antar fasa Daya reaktif yang dibangkitkan :

Although a delta configuration provides three times more reactive power than a star arrangement, capacitors connected in delta are subjected to higher voltages; therefore, this arrangement is not recommended for HV installations.

Lokasi Kapasitor
Central compensation capacitor bank terhubung pada HV incoming feeder. Group compensation capacitor bank terhubung pada MV/LV buses. Individual compensation unit capacitor terhubung pada motor2.

Central compensation mengakibatkan penurunan rugi2 pada


sisi supply, rugi2 pada jaringan industri tidak terkompensasi. Kompensasi ini hanya untuk memenuhi persyaratan perusahaan listrik agar mempunyai faktor daya diatas yang ditentukan (PLN menentukan faktor daya minimal 0.85 lag)

Keuntungan
Utilization of reactive power compensating banks, since all motors do not operate at the same time. Low maintenance cost.

Kerugian
Switching the protection equipment may cause explosions Transients caused by energizing of a large capacitor group Space requirements Provides only upstream compensation

Group compensation Keuntungan :


Low installation cost Ability to utilize installed capacitance Low maintenance cost

Aspek negatif :
Necessity to install capacitor banks on each MV/LV bus Only upstream compensation Space requirements

Individual capacitor units


Keuntungan :
increased capacity of the supply lines provide direct voltage support capacitor and load are switched ON/OFF together, which does not require expensive switching equipment easy selection and installation of capacitor units

Aspek negatif :
high installation cost, since price per kVAr is higher for small units requires lengthy calculations installation is not fully utilized over-excitation of a motor large transients generated in frequently switching the installation (ON/OFF) longer running off periods for some loads

The best solution is usually a combination of individual and group compensation. Although this solution involves lengthy calculations, it can be cost effective in many installations.

1. Release Line Capacity

The flow of reactive power causes not only energy losses due to resistance of distribution lines, but it also reduces the capacity of transmission lines, in particular in peak demand periods.

Contoh 3:
Diketahui beban yang menyerap daya aktif yang dinyatakan dengan arus aktif sebesar 50A. Harga awal cos nya adalah 0.5 lagging, yang menghasilkan arus total sebesar 100A. Hitung peningkatan kapasitas saluran, bila faktor daya diperbaiki dengan compensating devices. Hasil perhitungan diberikan pada tabel2 berikut.
Ia

It Ir

P (kW) Q (kvar)

S (kVA)

cos sin Reactive current [A] Total current [A] Active current [A] Line Capacity Increase (%)

0.5 0.866 86 100 50 0

0.6 0.8 66.4 83 50 17

0.7 0.71 50.7 71.4 50 28,6

0.8 0.6 37.5 62.5 50 37.5

0.9 0.43 23.8 55.5 50 44.5

0.98 0.2 10.2 51 50 49

Increase of supply line capacity due to power factor improvement

It is very difficult to evaluate the exact increase of line capacity, in particular when many distribution lines are not fully loaded, even in peak periods

Increase of supply line capacity due to power factor improvement

2. Jaringan Industri
Untuk menekan biaya peralatan kompensasi daya reaktif adalah dengan menentukan lokasi yang tepat untuk pemasangan kapasitor, yang tidak hanya mengurangi kebutuhan daya reaktif tetapi juga biaya peralatan dan pemasangan yang minimal. Jaringan industri umumnya mempunyai konfigurasi radial. Kompensasi daya reaktif di industri bertujuan untuk mencapai faktor daya tertinggi di gardu induk yang menghubungkan sistem kelistrikan industri tsb dengan jaringan distribusi/transmisi, dan mengurangi rugi-rugi pada sistem kelistrikan industri

Metode paling efektif adalah individual compensation karena memberikan kompensasi daya reaktif langsung ke beban. Pada kondisi-kondisi tertentu metode ini sangat mahal, dan bisa mengakibatkan kenaikan tegangan yang cukup besar pada belitan/kumparan motor induksi. Central compensation adalah metode kompensasi yang paling sederhana, karena kompensasi dipasang pada main substation. Tetapi metode ini tidak mengurangi rugi-rugi didalam sistem kelistrikan. Pada Group compensation, peralatan kompensasi dipasang pada substation yang mensupply kelompok2 beban. Kompensasi ini bertujuan untuk mengurangi rugirugi energi pada semua saluran supply.

Fungsi objective untuk memperoleh total rugi2 minimal pada semua saluran supply (group compensation) diformulasikan sbb.:

Qi = reactive power consumed in each substation, Qci = reactive capacitance to be installed in each substation Ri = resistance of supply lines V = supply voltage

Constraint dari permasalahan ini adalah harga dari faktor daya pada main bus (yang telah ditentukan), dan kapasitas kapasitor harus sama dengan besar daya reaktif yang harus dikompensasi untuk faktor daya tertentu.

Qctotal = the total value of capacitance to be installed. Permasalahan ini dapat diselesaikan dengan menggunakan 2 metode : by application of Lagrange multiplier by application of Dynamic Programming

Sebagai contoh perhitungan praktis, perhatikan saluran ke 4 dari sistem dibawah ini (lihat tabel)
Line 1 2 3 4 Total P [kW] 150 110 100 150 510 Q[kV A] 60 60 130 250 500 R [] 4.0 2.0 0.5 0.2 -

Faktor daya pada main bus ditentukan, yaitu 0.96, maka kapasitas kapasitor yang dibutuhkan adalah 350 kVAr. Hasil optimasi diberikan pada tabel dibawah ini. Untuk memberikan gambaran dari metode optimasi ini, lokasi kapasitor dan rugi-rugi ditentukan dengan menggunakan "classical approach" dimana kompensasi faktor daya dilakukan pada setiap substation untuk mencapai 0.96.

Optimal Calculation Substation QC[kVAr] 50 50 100 150 350 Losses [kW] 1 2 3 4 Total 0.77 0.43. 0.87 3.87 5.94

Classical Approach QC[kVAr] 20 30 100 200 350 Losses [kW] 12.3 3.5 0.87 0.967 17.64

TUGAS
Dengan metode trial and error, tentukan nilai kapasitor yang menghasilkan total rugi2 antara 5,94 kW dan 17,64 kW Buat 2 (dua) scenario

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3. Penyulang (Feeders) Distribusi


Pada jaringan supply distribusi, optimisasi aliran daya reaktif bertujuan untuk menentukan lokasi kapasitor pada suatu feeder sehingga rugi-rugi yang disebabkan oleh aliran daya reaktif minimal, untuk mempertahankan tegangan (maximum) sepanjang feeder tsb, dan untuk meminimisasi biaya pemasangan.

check

Untuk menghindari over kompensasi pada saluran supply, capacitor banks should be split into two parts: fixed capacitors and switched capacitors.

When demand is not known, it is assumed, as a rule of thumb, that 1/3 of the units are fixed on line year around, while 2/3 of the units are switched due to the variable demand

Bila capacitor banks akan dipasang pada satu titik di saluran supply, maka circuit load centre ditentukan sbb.:
where Pi : loads in a particular section of the supply line li : distances between nodes

Contoh 4:

Lcenter = 2.2 x 500 + 1.5 x 1000 + 0.5 x 2000 = 1636 m 2.2

Load centre mendekati node 2, sehingga capacitor bank dipasang pada node 2. This simple rule-of-thumb does not take into account either varying demand or differences in line resistance between feeder nodes. It is estimated that this method provides the optimal solution in less than 40% of cases.

Side Effects
1. Overcompensation

Bila terjadi overcompensation, tegangan saluran supply menjadi lebih tinggi dari nominalnya, yang akan mempengaruhi beban-beban lain yang terhubung pada saluran tsb. Hal ini mengakibatkan berkurangnya umur isolasi, dan mempunyai dampak negatif pada beban-beban sensitif, misalnya lampu pijar.

Automatic capacitor control


In order to avoid overcompensation, equipment for group or central compensation is often provided with automatic regulation, switching capacitors in and out in step with the load. When large load fluctuations exist, it is recommended to use an automatic bank with several steps. Switching of the capacitors is regulated by a power factor relay, keeping the power factor at the setting value

2. Induction Motor Excitation


Kompensasi individual dari motor-motor induksi dengan ratings sampai dengan 8 kW bisa digunakan besaran standard dari kapasitor tegangan rendah. However, capacitors used for individual compensation should not be too large. This limitation results from possible motor excitation. When an induction motor is disconnected from the supply and continues to rotate, the capacitor feeds excitation current to the motor that starts operating as an induction generator. If the capacitor is too large, the self-excitation voltage is higher than the rated voltage. This can damage both the motor and capacitor.

Untuk menghindari masalah ini, individual compensation should never have an output higher than the output corresponding to the no-load current of the motor,
where Io = no-load current

Bila data Io tidak ada, Io dapat ditentukan sbb.:

When a capacitor is to be connected to a motor with a star/delta switch, it is important to check that there is no switching position in which the capacitor is either directly short-circuited or in series with the motor windings

Capacitors reduce motor supply currents, so the setting of the motor protection switch should be adjusted to give the same protection to the motor as it was before compensation

Case Study
Reactive Power Compensation in Industrial Networks
An industrial customer intends to increase production by the installation of new machines. The new installation comprises seven induction motors of 22 kW. A new supply line of 185 mm2 (copper) is proposed. An initial calculation showed that the new installation would cause the transformer to be overloaded. Consider compensation of reactive power to reduce energy demand.

No 1 2 3 4

Load Metal Halide Lamp 220*400W Induction Motors 5.5 kW*16 Induction Motors 11kW*9 Induction Motors 22kW*7 Total

P Q cos kW kVAr 88 88 99 154 429 0.85 0.7 0.6 0.7 54.5 90 132 157 433.5

S kVA

I A

Iactive A 122 122 138 214 596

Ireactive A 76.4 124 184 218 602.4

103.5 144 125 165 220 610 174 230 306 847

No 1 2 3 4

Load Metal Halide Lamp 220*400W Induction Motors 5.5 kW*16 Induction Motors 11kW*9 Induction Motors 22kW*7 Total

P kW 88 88 99 154 429

cos 0.96 0.96 0.96 0.96 -

Qnew kVAr 25.6 25.6 28.6 44.9 125

QC kVAr 28.9 64.4

S kVA 91.6 91.6

I A 127 127 143 223 620

Iactive A 122 122 138 214 596

Ireactive A 35.6 35.6 40.25 62.4 173.8

103.2 103.1 112.1 160.4 308.6 446.8

Parameters
S [kV A] Transformer load [%] maximum Total current [A] Total active current [A] Total reactive current [A] Average cos Active power [kW] Reactive power [kVAr] . Compensation devices [kVAr]

OPTION 1 Uncompensated 610 122(*) 847 596 602 0.7 . 429 433 -

OPTION 1 Compensated 447 89 620 596 174 0.96 429 125 308.6

Tugas UTS
SIAPKAN SISTEM KELISTRIKAN PLN (JTM) 1. RUN LOAD FLOW (BASE CASE) PROFILTEGANGAN, DAYA INPUT, FAKTOR DAYA, LOSSES JARINGAN, LOSSES TRAFO, PEMBEBANAN TRAFO 2. PEMBEBANAN DIUBAH SHG TERJADI MASALAH POWER QUALITY PROFILTEGANGAN, DAYA INPUT, FAKTOR DAYA, LOSSES JARINGAN, LOSSES TRAFO, PEMBEBANAN TRAFO

Tugas UTS
3. BERIKAN KOMPENSASI DAYA REAKTIF YANG MENGHASILKAN PENGURANGAN LOSSES (C DI PASANG PADA 2/3 PANJANG FEEDER, PADA LOAD CENTER, DLL) PROFILTEGANGAN, DAYA INPUT, FAKTOR DAYA, LOSSES JTM, LOSSES TRAFO, PEMBEBANAN TRAFO (GI & DISTRIBUSI) 4. UTK NO 3, HITUNG PENINGKATAN AVAILABLE POWER, RELEASE CAPACITY & PENGURANGAN LOSSES, FAKTOR DAYA
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Tambahan Kuliah
Tgl 03 04 08 , Kamis, jam 18.30, di Lab SSTL (reg) Tgl 03 04 08 , Kamis jam 16.00, ruang C103 (ext)

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Tugas UTS
SIAPKAN SISTEM KELISTRIKAN INDUSTRI 1. RUN LOAD FLOW (BASE CASE) PROFILTEGANGAN, DAYA INPUT, FAKTOR DAYA, LOSSES JARINGAN, LOSSES TRAFO, PEMBEBANAN TRAFO 2. PEMBEBANAN DIUBAH SHG TERJADI MASALAH POWER QUALITY PROFILTEGANGAN, DAYA INPUT, FAKTOR DAYA, LOSSES JARINGAN, LOSSES TRAFO, PEMBEBANAN TRAFO
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Tugas UTS
3. BERIKAN KOMPENSASI DAYA REAKTIF YANG MENGHASILKAN PENGURANGAN LOSSES (BESAR DAN LOKASI C DITENTUKAN SECARA TRIAL AND ERROR) PROFILTEGANGAN, DAYA INPUT, FAKTOR DAYA, LOSSES JARINGAN, LOSSES TRAFO, PEMBEBANAN TRAFO 4. UTK NO 3, HITUNG PENINGKATAN AVAILABLE POWER, RELEASE CAPACITY & PENGURANGAN LOSSES, PENINGKATAN FAKTOR DAYA