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SREEKAVITHAENGINEERIG COLLEGE

EEE Department EM-II LAB

Experiment No: 2 Page 1 of 5

III/IV EEE (I Semester)

BACK-TO-BACK TEST ON TWO SIMILAR TRANSFORMERS. Aim: - To determine the core losses, copper losses and equivalent
circuit of two similar transformers using Sumpners test.

Apparatus: S.No. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Meter Voltmeter Voltmeter Ammeter Ammeter Wattmeters Variacs Range 0-150V 0-300V 0-20A 0-10A 5/10 A, 300V,UPF 10/20A, 300V,UPF 1-, 260V / 15 A 1-, 260V / 5 A Type MI MI MI MI Dynamometer Quantity 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

Name Plate Details: Voltage : Single. Full Load Current :

1- Transformer. Phase KVA : : 3.

230/230 Volts 13 Amps.

Circuit Diagram: -

Lab In Charge EEE

HOD,

SREEKAVITHAENGINEERIG COLLEGE
EEE Department EM-II LAB

Experiment No: 2 Page 2 of 5

III/IV EEE (I Semester)

Theory: Sumpners test for determining the efficiency of transformers is also known as back to back test. The efficiency of a transformer may be estimated from the open-circuit and shortcircuit tests or by performing an actual load test. For determining the maximum temperature-rise under full-load conditions, however, a load test is necessary. A small transformer can be subjected to a full-load test, but it is difficult to perform this test on large transformers, partially, because of the wastage of large amount of energy but mainly because of the difficulty in arranging a suitable load to absorb the full-load power. In such cases, recourse is made to Sumpners test. The object of this experiment is to obtain only the efficiency by this method. This test, like regenerative tests, needs two identical transformers. The two primaries are connected in parallel across a supply of normal voltage and frequency, and the secondaries are connected in series with their polarities in opposition. If the primary circuit is now closed, the total voltage across the two secondaries in series will be zero. Also, the total power taken from the main supply will be equal to combined iron losses of two transformers, and may be measured by a wattmeter W 1 connected in the circuit. If a small voltage is injected in the secondary circuit from a separate source, it will circulate a current in the two secondary

Lab In Charge EEE

HOD,

SREEKAVITHAENGINEERIG COLLEGE
EEE Department EM-II LAB

Experiment No: 2 Page 3 of 5

III/IV EEE (I Semester)

windings in series. The corresponding current in the primary windings will follow a circulatory path. Since this is a circulatory current in the primary winding, it will not affect the power drawn from the main bus-bar which will remain equal to the combined iron losses of the two transformers. The power loss on account of this circulatory current (equal to copper losses in the primary and secondary windings of the two transformers) will be supplied by the source of the low injected voltage, and can be measured by the wattmeter W2 in this circuit. If the injected voltage is of such magnitude that it forces full-load current in transformer windings, the power recorded by W2 will be equal to the combined full-load copper loss of the two transformers. If Wi is the total iron-loss as recorded by wattmeter W1, and Wc is the total full-load copper-loss as recorded by wattmeter W 2, then iron-loss of each transformer = loss of each transformer = Wc If Q is the kVA rating of each transformer, then for a load kVA equal to x Q and load power-factor cos, the efficiency is given by
= xQ cos 1 1 xQ cos + Wi + x 2 WC 2 2
1 2 1 Wi , and full-load copper2

Maximum efficiency occurs at a value of load at which the iron-loss is equal to the copper loss i.e.,
x2 1 1 Wc = Wi 2 2

Or, x =

Wi Wc

Procedure: 1. Connect the circuit as per circuit diagram. 2. Single phase variac on primary side is adjusted till it indicates the rated voltage of the transformer. 3. At this position wattmeter on this side indicates the core losses of both the transformers. 4. Single phase variac on secondary side is adjusted till the ammeter on this side indicates the rated current of the transformer. 5. At this position wattmeter on this side indicates the copper losses of both the transformers.

Lab In Charge EEE

HOD,

SREEKAVITHAENGINEERIG COLLEGE
EEE Department EM-II LAB

Experiment No: 2 Page 4 of 5

III/IV EEE (I Semester)

Observation: S.No . V1 (Volts) I1 (Amp) W1 (Watt) V2 (Volts) I2 (Amp) W2 (Watt)

Model Calculations:Core losses W1 =V1 I 1Cos1


Cos1 = W1 = V1 I 1 V1 R0 = = I 1Cos1 V1 X0 = = I 1 Sin1 V K = 2 V1
1 R0 = R0 .K 2 =

1 X0 = X 0 .K 2 =
2 R02 Cu loss = W2 = I 2

R02 =
Z 02 =
X 02 =

W2 = 2 I2
V2 = I2
2 2 Z 02 R02 =

R01 = X 01

R02 = K2 X = 02 K2

Precautions: 1. Secondary side of the two transformers should be connected in opposite polarities to create short circuit, primaries should be in parallel.

Equivalent Circuit: -

Lab In Charge EEE

HOD,

SREEKAVITHAENGINEERIG COLLEGE
EEE Department EM-II LAB

Experiment No: 2 Page 5 of 5

III/IV EEE (I Semester)

Result: Core losses & Copper losses are calculated and Equivalent circuit of two similar transformers is drawn using Back-to-Back test.

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HOD,