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STIKes Eka Harap

Palangka Raya
YAYASAN EKA HARAP PALANGKA RAYA
SEKOLAH TINGGI ILMU KESEHATAN
PROGRAM STUDI S1 KEPERAWATAN
Jalan Beliang No.110 Palangka Raya Telp/Fax. (0!"#
!!$%%0%
FORMAT ASUHAN KEPERAWATAN MEDIKAL BEDAH
Nama Mahasiswa : ……………………………………………………….
NIM : ……………………………………………………….
Ruang Praktek : ……………………………………………………….
Tanggal Praktek : ……………………………………………………….
Tanggal & Jam Pengkajian : ……………………………………………………….
I. PENGKAJIAN
A. IDENTITAS PASIEN
Nama : ……………………………………………………………..
Umur : ……………………………………………………………..
Jenis Kelamin : ……………………………………………………………..
Suku/angsa : ……………………………………………………………..
!gama : ……………………………………………………………..
Pekerjaan : ……………………………………………………………..
Pen"i"ikan : ……………………………………………………………..
Status Perkawinan : ……………………………………………………………..
!lamat : ……………………………………………………………..
Tgl MRS : ……………………………………………………………..
#iagn$sa Me"is : ……………………………………………………………..
B. RIWAYAT KESEHATAN /PERAWATAN
%. Keluhan Utama :
...................................................................................................................................................................... ………
...................................................................................................................................................................... ………
...................................................................................................................................................................... ………
&. Riwa'at Pen'akit Sekarang:
...................................................................................................................................................................... ………
...................................................................................................................................................................... ………
...................................................................................................................................................................... ………
...................................................................................................................................................................... ………
...................................................................................................................................................................... ………
...................................................................................................................................................................... ………
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(. Riwa'at Pen'akit Se)elumn'a *riwa'at +en'akit "an riwa'at $+erasi,
...................................................................................................................................................................... ………
...................................................................................................................................................................... ………
...................................................................................................................................................................... ………
...................................................................................................................................................................... ………
...................................................................................................................................................................... ………
...................................................................................................................................................................... ………
...................................................................................................................................................................... ………
-. Riwa'at Pen'akit Keluarga
...................................................................................................................................................................... ………
...................................................................................................................................................................... ………
...................................................................................................................................................................... ………
...................................................................................................................................................................... ………
...................................................................................................................................................................... ………
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GENOGRAM KELUARGA:
1
Pedoman Penyususnan & Penulisan Laporan Studi Kasus
Program Studi S1 Keperawatan
TA. 2012/2013
STIKes Eka Harap
Palangka Raya
C. PEMERIKASAAN FISIK
1. Keadaan U!:
...................................................................................................................................................................... ………
...................................................................................................................................................................... ………
...................................................................................................................................................................... ………
...................................................................................................................................................................... ………
". S#a#!$ Men#a% :
a. Tingkat Kesa"aran : ………………….
). .ks+resi wajah : ………………….
/. entuk )a"an : ………………….
". 0ara )er)aring/)ergerak : ………………….
e. er)i/ara : ………………….
1. Suasana hati : ………………….
g. Penam+ilan : ………………….
h. 2ungsi k$gniti1 :
• 3rientasi waktu : ………………….
• 3rientasi 3rang : ………………….
• 3rientasi Tem+at : ………………….
i. 4alusinasi :  #engar/!kusti/  5ihat/6isual  5ainn'a ...........................................................
j. Pr$ses )er+ikir :  l$/king  0ir/umstansial  2light $h i"eas
 5ainn'a
k. Insight :  aik  Mengingkari  Men'alahkan $rang lain
m. Mekanisme +ertahanan "iri :  !"a+ti1  Mala"a+ti1
n. Keluhan lainn'a : ………………….
&. Tanda'#anda ()#a% :
a. Suhu/T : ……………….
7
0  !8illa  Rektal  3ral
). Na"i/4R : ………………8/mt
/. Perna+asan/RR : …..…………..8/tm
". Tekanan #arah/P : ……...………..mm 4g
*. PERNAPASAN +BREATHING,
entuk #a"a : .................................................................................................
Ke)iasaan mer$k$k : …………………………………...atang/hari
 atuk9 sejak ............................................................................. ………………………………………
 atuk "arah9 sejak ................................................................. ………………………………………
 S+utum9 warna ....................................................................... ………………………………………
 Sian$sis
 N'eri "a"a
 #'s+n$e n'eri "a"a  3rth$+n$e  5ainn'a …….………..
 Sesak na1as  saat ins+irasi  Saat akti:itas  Saat istirahat
T'+e Perna1asan  #a"a  Perut  #a"a "an +erut
 Kusmaul  0he'ne;st$kes  i$t
 5ainn'a
Irama Perna1asan  Teratur  Ti"ak teratur
Suara Na1as  6esukuler  r$n/h$:esikuler
 r$n/hial  Trakeal
Suara Na1as tam)ahan  <hee=ing  R$n/hi kering
 R$n/hi )asah *rales,  5ainn'a……………
Keluhan lainn'a :
......................................................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................................................
Masalah Ke+erawatan :
......................................................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................................................
-. CARDIO(ASCULER +BLEEDING,
 N'eri "a"a  Kram kaki  Pu/at
2
Pedoman Penyususnan & Penulisan Laporan Studi Kasus
Program Studi S1 Keperawatan
TA. 2012/2013
STIKes Eka Harap
Palangka Raya
 Pusing/sink$+  0lu)ing 1inger  Sian$sis
 Sakit Ke+ala  Pal+itasi  Pingsan
 0a+illar' re1ill  > & "etik  ? & "etik
 3e"ema :  <ajah  .kstrimitas atas
 !nasarka  .kstrimitas )awah
 !sites9 lingkar +erut ……………………. /m
 I/tus 0$r"is  Terlihat  Ti"ak melihat
6ena jugularis  Ti"ak meningkat  Meningkat
Suara jantung  N$rmal9………………….
 !"a kelainan
Keluhan lainn'a :
......................................................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................................................
Masalah Ke+erawatan :
......................................................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................................................
.. PERSYARAFAN +BRAIN,
Nilai @0S : . : ………………….
6 : ………………….
M : ………………….
T$tal Nilai @0S : ……………………
Kesa"aran :  0$m+$s Menthis  S$mn$lent  #elirium
 !+atis  S$+$rus  0$ma
Pu+il :  Is$k$r  !nis$k$r
 Mi"riasis  Mei$sis
Re1leks 0aha'a :  Kanan  P$siti1  Negati1
 Kiri  P$siti1  Negati1
 N'eri9 l$kasi ………………………………..
 6ertig$  @elisah  !+hasia  Kesemutan
 ingung  #isarthria  Kejang  Trern$r
 Pel$
Uji S'ara1 Kranial :
Ner:us Kranial I : .....................................................................................................................
Ner:us Kranial II : .....................................................................................................................
Ner:us Kranial III : .....................................................................................................................
Ner:us Kranial I6 : .....................................................................................................................
Ner:us Kranial 6 : .....................................................................................................................
Ner:us Kranial 6I : .....................................................................................................................
Ner:us Kranial 6II : .....................................................................................................................
Ner:us Kranial 6III : .....................................................................................................................
Ner:us Kranial IA : .....................................................................................................................
Ner:us Kranial A : .....................................................................................................................
Ner:us Kranial AI : .....................................................................................................................
Ner:us Kranial AII : .....................................................................................................................
Uji K$$r"inasi :
.kstrimitas !tas : Jari ke jari  P$siti1  Negati1
Jari ke hi"ung  P$siti1  Negati1
.kstrimitas awah : Tumit ke jem+ul kaki  P$siti1  Negati1
Uji Kesta)ilan Tu)uh :  P$siti1  Negati1
Re1leks :
ise+ :  Kanan B/;  Kiri B/; Skala…………. Trise+
:  Kanan B/;  Kiri B/; Skala………….
raki$ra"ialis :  Kanan B/;  Kiri B/; Skala…………. Patella
:  Kanan B/;  Kiri B/; Skala…………. !khiles
:  Kanan B/;  Kiri B/; Skala…………. Re1leks
a)inski  Kanan B/;  Kiri B/;
Re1leks lainn'a : .....................................................................................................................
Uji sensasi : .....................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................
Keluhan lainn'a :
3
Pedoman Penyususnan & Penulisan Laporan Studi Kasus
Program Studi S1 Keperawatan
TA. 2012/2013
STIKes Eka Harap
Palangka Raya
......................................................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................................................
Masalah Ke+erawatan :
......................................................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................................................
/. ELIMINASI URI +BLADDER, :
Pr$"uksi Urine : ………….ml…………8/hr
<arna :
au :
 Ti"ak a"a masalah/lan/er  Menetes  Ink$tinen
 3liguri  N'eri  Retensi
 P$liuri  Panas  4ematuri
 #'suri  N$/turi
 Kateter  0'st$st$mi
Keluhan 5ainn'a :
......................................................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................................................
Masalah Ke+erawatan :
......................................................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................................................
0. ELIMINASI AL(I +BOWEL, :
Mulut "an 2aring
i)ir : ..................................................................................................................................
@igi : ..................................................................................................................................
@usi : ..................................................................................................................................
5i"ah : ..................................................................................................................................
Muk$sa : ..................................................................................................................................
T$nsil : ..................................................................................................................................
Re/tum :
4aem$r$i" :
! : ……….8/hr <arna :..……… . K$nsistensi : …………….
 Ti"ak a"a masalah  #iare  K$nsti+asi  Kem)ung
 2ea/es )er"arah  Melena  3)at +en/ahar  5a:ement
ising usus : ......................................................................................................................
N'eri tekan9 l$kasi : ......................................................................................................................
enj$lan9 l$kasi : ......................................................................................................................
Keluhan lainn'a :
......................................................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................................................
Masalah Ke+erawatan :
......................................................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................................................
1. TULANG ' OTOT 2 INTEGUMEN +BONE, :
 Kemam+uan +ergerakan sen"i  e)as  Ter)atas
 Parese9 l$kasi
 Paralise9 l$kasi
 4emi+arese9 l$kasi
 Kre+itasi9 l$kasi
 N'eri9 l$kasi
 engkak9 l$kasi
 Kekakuan9 l$kasi
 2lasi"itas9 l$kasi
 S+astisitas9 l$kasi
 Ukuran $t$t  Simetris
 !tr$+i
 4i+ertr$+i
 K$ntraktur
 Mal+$sisi
Uji kekuatan $t$t :  .kstrimitas atas………..  .kstrimitas )awah……..
 #e1$rmitas tulang9 l$kasi............................................................................................................................
 Pera"angan9 l$kasi
 Perlukaan9 l$kasi
4
Pedoman Penyususnan & Penulisan Laporan Studi Kasus
Program Studi S1 Keperawatan
TA. 2012/2013
STIKes Eka Harap
Palangka Raya
 Patah tulang9 l$kasi
Tulang )elakang  N$rmal  Sk$li$sis
 Ki1$sis  5$r"$sis
13. KULIT'KULIT RAMBUT
Riwa'at alergi  3)at......................................................................................................
 Makanan...............................................................................................
 K$sametik.............................................................................................
 5ainn'a.................................................................................................
Suhu kulit  4angat  Panas  #ingin
<arna kulit  N$rmal  Sian$sis/ )iru  Ikterik/kuning
 Putih/ +u/at  0$klat tua/h'+er+igmentasi
Turg$r  aik  0uku+  Kurang
Tekstur  4alus  Kasar
5esi :  Ma/ula9 l$kasi
 Pustula9 l$kasi.......................................................................................
 N$"ula9 l$kasi.......................................................................................
 6esikula9 l$kasi.....................................................................................
 Pa+ula9 l$kasi........................................................................................
 Ul/us9 l$kasi..........................................................................................
Jaringan +arut l$kasi
Tekstur ram)ut ..................................................................................................................................
#istri)usi ram)ut
entuk kuku  Simetris  Irreguler
 0lu))ing 2inger  5ainn'a
Masalah Ke+erawatan :
......................................................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................................................
11. SISTEM PENGINDERAAN :
a. Mata/Penglihatan
2ungsi +englihatan :  erkurang  Ka)ur
 @an"a  uta/gela+
@erakan )$la mata :  ergerak n$rmal  #iam
 ergerak s+$ntan/nistagmus
6isus : Mata Kanan *63#, :...........................................................................................
Mata kiri *63S, :............................................................................................
Selera  N$rmal/+utih  Kuning/ikterus  Merah/hi1ema K$njun/ti:a
 Merah mu"a  Pu/at/anemi/
K$rnea  ening  Keruh
!lat )antu  Ka/amata  5ensa k$ntak  5ainn'a…….
N'eri :
Keluhan lain :
…………………………………………………………………
). Telinga / Pen"engaran :
2ungsi +en"engaran :  erkurang  er"engung  Tuli
/. 4i"ung / Pen/iuman:
entuk :  Simetris  !simetris
 5esi
 Patensi
 3)struksi
 N'eri tekan sinus
 Transluminasi
0a:um Nasal <arna………………….. Integritas……………..
Se+tum nasal  #e:iasi  Per1$rasi  Pera"arahan
 Sekresi9 warna ………………………
 P$li+  Kanan  Kiri  Kanan "an Kiri
Masalah Ke+erawatan :
......................................................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................................................

Pedoman Penyususnan & Penulisan Laporan Studi Kasus
Program Studi S1 Keperawatan
TA. 2012/2013
STIKes Eka Harap
Palangka Raya
1". LEHER DAN KELENJAR LIMFE
Massa  Ca  Ti"ak
Jaringan Parut  Ca  Ti"ak
Kelenjar 5im1e  Tera)a  Ti"ak tera)a
Kelenjar T'r$i"  Tera)a  Ti"ak tera)a
M$)ilitas leher  e)as  Ter)atas
1&. SISTEM REPRODUKSI
a. Re456d!7$) P5)a
Kemerahan9 5$kasi
@atal;gatal9 5$kasi
@lan" Penis .....................................................................................
Maetus Uretra .................................................................................
#is/harge9 warna
Sr$tum .........................................................................................
4ernia .........................................................................................
Kelainan ……………………………………………
Keluhan lain ………………………………………….
a. Re456d!7$) Wan)#a
Kemerahan9 5$kasi
@atal;gatal9 5$kasi
Per"arahan .....................................................................................
2l$ur !l)us .................................................................................
0lit$ris .............................................................................................
5a)is .........................................................................................
Uretra .........................................................................................
Ke)ersihan :  aik  0uku+  Kurang
Kehamilan : ……………………………………
Ta1siran +artus : ……………………………………
Keluhan lain.............................................................................................................................................
................................................................................................................................................................
................................................................................................................................................................
Pa'u"ara :
 Simetris  !simetris
 Sear  5esi
 Pem)engkakan  N'eri tekan
Puting :  Men$nj$l  #atar  5e/et  Mastitis
<arna are$la ..........................................................................................................................................
!SI  5an/ar  Se"ikit  Ti"ak keluar
Keluhan lainn'a.......................................................................................................................................
................................................................................................................................................................
................................................................................................................................................................
Masalah Ke+erawatan :
.................................................................................................................................................................

D. POLA FUNGSI KESEHATAN
%. Perse+si Terha"a+ Kesehatan "an Pen'akit :
......................................................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................................................
&. Nutrisi"a Meta)$lisme
T : 0m
sekarang : Kg
Se)elum sakit : Kg
#iet :
 iasa  0air  Saring  5unak
#iet Khusus :
 Ren"ah garam  Ren"ah kal$ri  TKTP
 Ren"ah 5emak  Ren"ah Purin  5ainn'a……….
 Mual
 Muntah…………….kali/hari
Kesukaran menelan  Ca  Ti"ak
Rasa haus
Keluhan lainn'a.............................................................................................................................................
!
Pedoman Penyususnan & Penulisan Laporan Studi Kasus
Program Studi S1 Keperawatan
TA. 2012/2013
STIKes Eka Harap
Palangka Raya
P6%a Ma7an Se8a5)'8a5) Se$!da8 Sa7)# Se9e%! Sa7)#
2rekuensi/hari
P$rsi
Na1su makan
Jenis Makanan
Jenis Minuman
Jumlah minuman////&- jam
Ke)iasaan makan
Keluhan/masalah
Masalah Ke+erawatan
…………………………………………………………………………………………………
(. P$la istirahat "an ti"ur
…………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………
Masalah Ke+erawatan
…………………………………………………………………………………………………
-. K$gniti1 :
…………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………Masalah Ke+erawatan
…………………………………………………………………………………………………
D. K$nse+ "iri *@am)aran "iri9 i"eal "iri9 i"entitas "iri9 harga "iri9 +eran , :
…………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………Masalah Ke+erawatan
…………………………………………………………………………………………………
E. !kti:itas Sehari;hari
…………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………Masalah Ke+erawatan
…………………………………………………………………………………………………
F. K$+ing GT$leransi terha"a+ Stress
…………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………Masalah Ke+erawatan
…………………………………………………………………………………………………
H. Nilai;P$la Ke'akinan
…………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………
Masalah Ke+erawatan
…………………………………………………………………………………………………
E. SOSIAL ' SPIRITUAL
%. Kemam+uan )erk$munikasi
…………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………
&. ahasa sehari;hari
…………………………………………………………………………………………………
"
Pedoman Penyususnan & Penulisan Laporan Studi Kasus
Program Studi S1 Keperawatan
TA. 2012/2013
STIKes Eka Harap
Palangka Raya
…………………………………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………
(. 4u)ungan "engan keluarga :
…………………………………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………
-. 4u)ungan "engan teman/+etugas kesehatan/$rang lain :
…………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………
D. 3rang )erarti/ter"ekat :
…………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………
E. Ke)iasaan menggunakan waktu luang :
…………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………
F. Kegiatan )eri)a"ah :
…………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………
F. DATA PENUNJANG +RADIOLOGIS: LABORATO RIUM: PENUNJANG LAINNYA,
G. PENATALAKSANAAN MEDIS
…. …………..……………..
Mahasiswa
* ………………………………,
#
Pedoman Penyususnan & Penulisan Laporan Studi Kasus
Program Studi S1 Keperawatan
TA. 2012/2013
STIKes Eka Harap
Palangka Raya
5am+iran %& 2$rmat #iagn$sa Ke+erawatan
YAYASAN EKA HARAP PALANGKA RAYA
SEKOLAH TINGGI ILMU KESEHATAN
PROGRAM STUDI S1 KEPERAWATAN
Jalan Beliang No.110 Palangka Raya Telp/Fax. (0!"#
!!$%%0%
ANALISIS DATA
DATA SUBYEKTIF DAN DATA
OBYEKTIF
KEMUNGKINAN PENYEBAB MASALAH
P5)65)#a$ Ma$a%a8
$
Pedoman Penyususnan & Penulisan Laporan Studi Kasus
Program Studi S1 Keperawatan
TA. 2012/2013
STIKes Eka Harap
Palangka Raya
5am+iran %( 2$rmat Inter:ensi Ke+erawatan
YAYASAN EKA HARAP PALANGKA RAYA
SEKOLAH TINGGI ILMU KESEHATAN
PROGRAM STUDI S1 KEPERAWATAN
Jalan Beliang No.110 Palangka Raya Telp/Fax. (0!"#
!!$%%0%
RENCANA KEPERAWATAN
Nama Pasien : ……………………..
Ruang Rawat : ……………………..
D)a;n6$a Ke4e5a<a#an T!=!an +K5)#e5)a 8a$)%, In#e5>en$) Ra$)6na%
10
Pedoman Penyususnan & Penulisan Laporan Studi Kasus
Program Studi S1 Keperawatan
TA. 2012/2013
STIKes Eka Harap
Palangka Raya
5am+iran %- 2$rmat Im+lementasi #an .:aluasi Ke+erawatan
YAYASAN EKA HARAP PALANGKA RAYA
SEKOLAH TINGGI ILMU KESEHATAN
PROGRAM STUDI S1 KEPERAWATAN
Jalan Beliang No.110 Palangka Raya Telp/Fax. (0!"#
!!$%%0%
IMPLEMENTASI DAN E(ALUASI KEPERAWATAN
Ha5)/Tan;;a%
Ja
I4%een#a$) E>a%!a$) +SOAP,
Tanda #an;an
dan
Naa Pe5a<a#
11
Pedoman Penyususnan & Penulisan Laporan Studi Kasus
Program Studi S1 Keperawatan
TA. 2012/2013
STIKes Eka Harap
Palangka Raya
12
Pedoman Penyususnan & Penulisan Laporan Studi Kasus
Program Studi S1 Keperawatan
TA. 2012/2013

.. g...... Insight :  Baik  Mengingkari  Menyalahkan orang lain m.................... Penampilan : …………………............................. ……… Status Mental : a...........  Nyeri dada  Kram kaki  Pucat 2 Pedoman Penyususnan & Penulisan Laporan Studi Kasus Program Studi S1 Keperawatan TA..... • Orientasi Orang : ………………….................................. ……… ..........................0C  Axilla  Rektal  Oral : ………………x/mt : …........................... Bentuk badan : ………………….....………….................................mm Hg 2...........STIKes Eka Harap Palangka Raya C.................... ……… ........................................ .................. PERNAPASAN (BREATHING) Bentuk Dada Kebiasaan merokok : ......... : …………………………………............... warna Sianosis Nyeri dada .....................................Batang/hari ..................................................................................................................................................... • Orientasi Tempat : ………………….................................................... Berbicara : ………………….................................................................. j..................................................... Tingkat Kesadaran : …………………........ Keluhan lainnya : …………………...................................................... Fungsi kognitif : • Orientasi waktu : ………………….........................………....... 2012/2013 .........………........................................................................ ................................................................................... Tanda-tanda Vital : a......................................... c. b................................................. sejak Dyspnoe nyeri dada  Orthopnoe  Lainnya …….................................................................................................... Suasana hati : …………………........ h....................... Halusinasi :  Dengar/Akustic  Lihat/Visual  Lainnya .......... Ekspresi wajah : ………………….................................... Masalah Keperawatan : ..... 1.......................................................................................................... Cara berbaring/bergerak : …………………................ 5............... Pernapasan/RR d........................................... 3.......................................……………………………………… Batuk darah...................................... Tekanan Darah/BP 4.................... PEMERIKASAAN FISIK Keadaan Umum: .......................... ……… ... : ………………...................x/tm : ……...........................……………………………………… Sesak nafas  saat inspirasi  Saat aktivitas  Saat istirahat Type Pernafasan  Dada  Perut  Dada dan perut  Kusmaul  Cheyne-stokes  Biot  Lainnya Irama Pernafasan  Teratur  Tidak teratur Suara Nafas  Vesukuler  Bronchovesikuler  Bronchial  Trakeal Suara Nafas tambahan  Wheezing  Ronchi kering  Ronchi basah (rales)  Lainnya…………… Keluhan lainnya : ........................................................... Nadi/HR c...... ............ Proses berpikir :  Blocking  Circumstansial  Flight oh ideas  Lainnya k................................................................. i................................ e........................... d....……………………………………… ...................................................................................... f............. sejak Sputum........... Suhu/T b................ CARDIOVASCULER (BLEEDING)        Batuk............................ Mekanisme pertahanan diri :  Adaptif  Maladaptif n........

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