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KOMPOSISI DAN SIFAT TANAH

KOMPOSISI DAN SIFAT TANAH

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Pengenalan dasar terhadap komposisi dan sifat tanah asli
Pengenalan dasar terhadap komposisi dan sifat tanah asli

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Published by: daus_parisi on May 23, 2013
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01/25/2015

NATURE OF SOIL

COMPOSITION
By
M. Firdaus, MT
www.dauspoli.weebly.com
Soil Definition
• Mixture of particles consisting of one or all of the
following types :
 Boulders, Large pieces of rock, usually greater than 250
mm to 300 mm. For the size range 150 mm to 250 mm,
gravel rock fragments is called (cobbles/pebbles).

Gravel, Particles of rock the size of 5 mm to 150 mm.

Sand, Sized particles of rock which 0.074 mm to 5 mm.
Ranging from coarse (3 to 5 mm) until smooth (< 1 mm).

Silt, Sized rock particles 0.002 mm to 0.074 mm.




 Clay, Mineral particles smaller than 0.002 mm. These particles
are the main source of cohesion in cohesive.
Mineral aluminum silicate clay is a complex compound
consisting of two basic units namely aluminum silica
tetrahedron and octahedron.
Weight and Volume Relationships
• Soil consists of :
1. Granular soil (solid), which may be macroscopic (can be
viewed directly by eye) or microscopic (only visible with a
microscope).
2. The pores or cavities (voids), which is the open space
between the grain-bitiran ground, with various sizes filled
with air and water and if the condition will only beris water
saturation and if the condition will only contain air Jering
(macro scale).
3. Soil moisture, which can cause the soil looks wet or dry or
humid, mainly due to the presence of water in soil pores.

Illustration section - part of soil
Compact soil
Voids
That can be filled with water / air
Phase of soil elements
From illustration :
a. A Parliament of soil with volume V and weight W To make the connection
weight - the volume of soil aggregates
b. Three phases (solid grains, water and air) are separated as shown in
Figure, so that the volume of soil expressed as :
Total Weight
=
W
Volume
total
=
V
V
V

V
w

V
s

W
w

W
s

W
V
a

(a)
(b)
a W S V S
V V V V V V + + = + =
• Apabila udara dianggap tidak mempunyai berat, maka berat
total dari contoh tanah dinyatakan sebagai :


• Hubungan volume yang umum digunakan untuk suatu elemen
tanah adalah :
– Angka pori (void ratio) = e


– Porositas (porosity) = n


– Derajad kejenuhan (degree of saturation) = S



v
s
V
e
V
=
v
V
n
V
=
w
v
V
S
V
=
w
v
V
S
V
=
• Istilah hubungan berat yang umum digunakan adalah :

– Kadar air (water content) = w

– Berat volume (unit weight) = ¸

• Dari persamaan-persamaan tersebut dapat diturunkan lagi
beberapa persamaan
Hubungan antara angka pori dan porositas :

w
s
W
w
W
=
W
V
¸ =
( ) 1
(1 )
v
v
v
s
v
v
V
V n
V
V
e
V
V
V V n
V
= = = =
÷ ÷
÷
( ) 1
( )
v
v s
v
s
v v
v s
s s
V
V e V
V
n
V V
V V e
V V
= = = =
+ +
+
• Hubungan berat volume juga dapat dinyatakan dalam berat butiran padat,
kadar air dan volume total :




• Berat volume kering (dry unit density) = ¸
d


• Hubungan antara berat volume, berat volume kering dan kadar air dapat
dinyatakan sebagai :







1
(1 )
w
s
s
s w s
W
W
W
W W W w
W
V
V V V
¸
| |
+
|
+ +
\ .
= = = =
s
d
W
V
¸ =
1
d
w
¸
¸ =
+
Tiga fase elemen tanah dengan volume
butiran padat = 1
Berat
total
=
W

V=1+e
V
V
=e
W
w
= w.G
s.
¸
w

V
w
= w.G
s

V
s
=1
W
s
=G
s.
¸
w

• Karena volume dari butiran padat adalah
sama dengan angka pori, maka W
w
dan W
s
,
dapat dinyatakan sebagai berikut :


Dimana :
Gs = berat spesifik butiran padat
w = kadar air
¸
w
= berat volume air


. . .
s s w
w s s w
W G
W wW wG
¸
¸
=
= =
• sehingga :


Dan


(1 )
1 1
s w s w s w s w
W W G wG w G W
V V e e
¸ ¸ ¸
¸
+ + +
= = = =
+ +
1
s s w
d
w s w
w s
w w
w s
s
v
W G
V e
W wG
V wG
V wG
S atau Se wG
V e
¸
¸
¸
¸ ¸
= =
+
= = =
= = =
Elemen tanah yang jenuh air dengan
V
s
=1
Berat
total
=
W

V=1+e
W
w
= e.¸
w

V
w
= V
w
=e
V
s
=1 W
s
=G
s.
¸
w

• Apabila contoh tanah adalah jenuh air (saturated) maka ¸
sat

(berat volume tanah jenuh) dapat ditentukan :


• Hubungan antara Berat Volume, Porositas dan Kadar Air
Elemen tanah dengan volume total V = 1

( )
1 1
s w s w w s w
sat
W W W G e G e
V V e e
¸ ¸ ¸
¸
+ + +
= = = =
+ +

V=1
V
V
=n
W
w
= wG
s
¸
w
(1-n)
V
s
=1-n
W
s
=G
s
¸
w
(1-n)
• Dari persamaan :

• Jika V = 1 , maka V
v
= n sehingga V
s
= 1 – n
• Maka berat butiran padat (W
s
) dan berat air (W
w
) dapat dinyatakan
sebagai berikut :
v
V
n
V
=
( )
( )( )
( )
( )
( ) ( )
(1 )
. (1 )
:
1
(1 )
1
1 1
1
1
1
.
1 1
s s w
w s s w
s w
s
d s w
s w
s w
s w w
s w
sat s w
w w
s s w s
W G n
W wW wG n
sehingga
G n
W
G n
V
W W
G n w
V
G n n
W W
n G n
V
W n n
W
W n G n G
¸
¸
¸
¸ ¸
¸ ¸
¸ ¸
¸ ¸
¸
¸
= ÷
= = ÷
÷
= = = ÷
+
= = ÷ +
÷ +
+
= = = ÷ + (
¸ ¸
= = =
÷ ÷
Contoh Soal 1
Dalam keadaan asli suatu tanah basah mempunyai volume = 0,33
ft
3
dan berat = 39,93 lb. Setelah dikeringkan dalam oven, berat
tanah kering adalah 34,54 lb. Apabila Gs = 2,71 , hitunglah kadar
air, berat volume basah, berat volume kering, angka pori,
porositas dan derajad kejenuhan.

Penyelesaian :
Kadar air (w)

Berat volume basah (¸)
( )
39,93 34,54
100 % 15,6 %
34,54
s
w
s
s
W W
W
w x
W
W
÷
÷
= = = =
3
39,93
121
0,33
W lb
V
ft
¸ = = =
Berat volume kering (¸
d
) :


Angka pori (e) :




Sehingga :
3
35,54
107, 67
0,33
s
d
W
lb
V
ft
¸ = = =
3
3
34, 54
0, 204
2, 71 62, 4
0, 33 0, 204 0,126
v
s
s
s
s w
v s
V
e
V
W
V ft
G x
V V V ft
¸
=
= = =
= ÷ = ÷ =
0,126
0, 618
0, 204
v
s
V
e
V
= = =
Porositas (n) :


Derajad kejenuhan (S) :
0, 618
0, 382
1 1 0, 618
e
n
e
= = =
+ +
3
5, 39
0, 086
62, 4
0, 086
100 68, 3 %
0,126
w
v
w
w
w
V
S
V
W
V ft
S x
¸
=
= = =
= =
Contoh Soal 2
Dari hasil pengujian suatu tanah didapatkan : e = 0,75 , w = 22 %,
Gs = 2,66. Hitunglah : porositas, berat volume basah, berat
volume kering, dan derajad kejenuhan.

Penyelesaian :
Porositas (n) :


Berat volume basah (¸) :
0, 75
0, 429
1 1 0, 75
e
n
e
= = =
+ +
3
(1 ) (1 0, 22)2, 66.62, 4
115, 715
1 1 0, 75
s w
w G
lb
ft
e
¸
¸
+ +
= = =
+ +
Berat volume kering (¸
d
) :
3
2, 66.62, 4
94,848
1 1 0, 75
( )
0, 22.2, 66
100 78 %
0, 75
s s w
d
w s
v
W G
lb
ft
V e
Derajad Kejenuhan S
V wG
S x
V e
¸
¸ = = = =
+ +
= = = =

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