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Kurikulum

Kurikulum

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kurikulum
kurikulum

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Sections

  • Cabaran 1: Kurikulum
  • Cabaran 2: Pelaksanaan Kurikulum
  • Cabaran 3: Pengajaran dan Pembelajaran
  • Cabaran 4: Latihan Guru
  • Cabaran 5: Bahan Sokongan Kurikulum
  • Cabaran 6: Pentaksiran dan Penilaian

Bahagian Pembangunan Kurikulum

Peneraju pendidikan negara

BENGKEL PENDIDIKAN SAINS DAN
MATEMATIK UNTUK PIHAK
BERKEPENTINGAN 2010

“Warga Malaysia Berinovatif dan Kreatif”

Anjuran: Akademi Sains Malaysia (ASM)

2-4 Februari
Intekma Resort & Convention Centre,
Shah Alam, Selangor

Bahagian Pembangunan Kurikulum

Peneraju pendidikan negara

ISU DAN CABARAN PENDIDIKAN
SAINS DI MALAYSIA

Kurikulum Sains Kebangsaan
Dan Pelaksanaannya

Zaidah Mohd Yusoff
Lanita Mohd Yusoff
Bahagian Pembangunan Kurikulum
Kementerian Pelajaran Malaysia

Bahagian Pembangunan Kurikulum

Peneraju pendidikan negara

What is Science?

Science is a search for a rational
explanationof natural phenomena. It is
a continuing activity. Thoughit
accumulates a body of knowledge that
is interconnected and self-consistent
and is therefore, useful in the practical
world, it’s fundamental action is search.
It’s extended action is application.

….Adler J. M.

Bahagian Pembangunan Kurikulum

Peneraju pendidikan negara

OVERVIEW

SCIENCE CURRICULUM

Bahagian Pembangunan Kurikulum

Peneraju pendidikan negara

CURRICULUM
CONTENT

Bahagian Pembangunan Kurikulum

Peneraju pendidikan negara

Curriculum Aims

To provide students with the knowledge & skills in
S&T and enable them to solve problems and
make decisions in everyday life based on
scientific attitudes and noble values,

AND

To develop a concerned, dynamic and
progressive society with a S&T culture that
values nature and works towards the preservation
and conservation of the environment.

Bahagian Pembangunan Kurikulum

Peneraju pendidikan negara

Curriculum Objectives

1. Acquire knowledge in S&T in the context of
natural phenomena and everyday life experiences.
and scientific and thinking skills.
2.Understand developments in the field of Science
& Technology.
3. Apply knowledge and skills in a creative and
critical manner for problem solving and decision
making.
4.Face challenges in the scientific and
technological world and be willing to contribute
towards the development of S&T.

Bahagian Pembangunan Kurikulum

Peneraju pendidikan negara

Curriculum Objectives (contd…)

5.Evaluate S&T-related information wisely and
effectively.
6.Practiseand internalisescientific attitudes and good
moral values.
7. Realisethe importance of inter-dependence among
living things and the management of nature for survival
of mankind,
8. Appreciate the contributions of S&T towards national
development and the well-being of mankind.
9. Create awareness on the need to love and care for
the environment and play an active role in its
preservation and conservation.

Bahagian Pembangunan Kurikulum

Peneraju pendidikan negara

Curriculum Emphasis

The curriculum emphasises the
integration of knowledge, skills and
valuesthrough inquiry-discoveryand
problem solving.

Learningthrough experiences
Learningthrough discovery
Learning through problem solving

Bahagian Pembangunan Kurikulum

Peneraju pendidikan negara

Elements In The Curriculum

Knowledge
Thinking Skills
Scientific Skills
Scientific Attitudes and Noble Values

Bahagian Pembangunan Kurikulum

Peneraju pendidikan negara

THINKINGSKILLS

… acquiringthe tools to utilise knowledge and solve problems

Critical Thinking-the ability to evaluate an idea
Creative Thinking-generate and produce ideas
Reasoning-used in making logical,just and rational judgements
Thinking Strategy

Creative SkillsCritical Skills

Conceptualize, Make Decision, Solve Problems

Bahagian Pembangunan Kurikulum

Peneraju pendidikan negara

ThinkingSkills (contd…)

THINKING SKILLS

CRITICAL

Attributing
Comparing &
Contrasting
Grouping &
Classifying
Sequencing
Prioritising
Analysing
Detecting bias
Evaluating
Making conclusions

CREATIVE

Generating ideas
Relating
Making inferences
Predicting
Making hypotheses
Synthesising
Making
generalisations
Visualising
Making analogies
Inventing

REASONING

THINKINGSTRATEGIES

*Conceptualising*Making decisions *Problem solving

Bahagian Pembangunan Kurikulum

Peneraju pendidikan negara

SCIENTIFIC SKILLS

Basic Science
Process Skills

Observing
Classifying
Measuring and Using
Numbers
Inferring
Predicting
Communicating

Integrated Science
Process Skills

Using Space-Time Relationship
Interpreting Data
Defining Operationally
Controlling Variables
Hypothesising
Experimenting

Science process skillsenable students to
formulate their questions and find out the answers
systematically.

Bahagian Pembangunan Kurikulum

Peneraju pendidikan negara

SCIENTIFIC SKILLS (contd…)

use and handle science apparatus and
laboratory substances correctly,
handle specimens correctly and carefully,
draw specimens, apparatus and laboratory
substances accurately,
clean science apparatus correctly,
store science apparatus and laboratory
substances correctly and safely.

Focussing on techniques of operation and
aspects of safety

Manipulative skillsin scientific investigation are
psychomotor skills that enable students to:

Bahagian Pembangunan Kurikulum

Peneraju pendidikan negara

•Having an interest and curiosity towards the environment.
•Being honest and accurate in recording and validating data
•Being diligent and persevering
•Being responsible about the safety of oneself, others, and the
environment.
•Realising that science is a means to understand nature
•Appreciating and practising clean and healthy living.
•Appreciating the balance of nature.
•Being respectful and well-mannered.
•Being thankful to God.
•Thinking rationally.
•Being confident and independent.

SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDES AND
NOBLE VALUES

Bahagian Pembangunan Kurikulum

Peneraju pendidikan negara

SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDES AND NOBLE VALUES
(contd..)

Noble values and scientific attitudes can be inculcated
through the learning of science.
Through science activities students will develop an
interest and curiosity about their surroundings.

They will learn to be objective and systematic in carrying
out investigations.
Students also learn to be honest and accurate in
recording and validating data.
They develop concern for living things and an awareness
of their responsibility towards the environment.

Bahagian Pembangunan Kurikulum

Peneraju pendidikan negara

Provides an opportunity for the development and
strengthening of patriotism among students.

Learning about:

The earth’s resources,

The richness and variety of living things,
The development of S&T

Students will appreciate the diversity of natural
and human resources of the country and deepen
their love for the country.

INCULCATING PATRIOTISM

Bahagian Pembangunan Kurikulum

Peneraju pendidikan negara

The Science Curriculum has been designed to
provide opportunities for students to:

•acquire science knowledge and skills,
•develop thinking skills and thinking strategies,
•apply this knowledge and skills in everyday life,
•inculcate in them noble values and the spirit of
patriotism.

The content and context suggested are chosen
based on their relevance and appeal to students so
that their interest in the subject is enhanced

CONCLUSION

Bahagian Pembangunan Kurikulum

Peneraju pendidikan negara

CURRICULUM
IMPLEMENTATION

Bahagian Pembangunan Kurikulum

Peneraju pendidikan negara

The Science Curriculum aims at producing
active learners.
Students are given ample opportunities to
engage in scientific investigations through
hands-on activities and experimentations.
The inquiry approach, incorporating
thinking skills, thinking strategies and
thoughtful learning should be emphasised
throughout the teaching-learning process.

T & L STRATEGIES

Bahagian Pembangunan Kurikulum

Peneraju pendidikan negara

T & L STRATEGIES

Integrate:

Content and Pedagogy in an interesting,
understandable and meaningful way.

Bahagian Pembangunan Kurikulum

Peneraju pendidikan negara

Learning activities should be planned in a
holistic and integrated manner that enables
the achievement of multiple learning
outcomes according to needs and context

Teachers should avoid employing a teaching
strategy that tries to achieve each learning
outcome separately according to the order
stated in the curriculum specifications.

T & L STRATEGIES (contd…)

Bahagian Pembangunan Kurikulum

Peneraju pendidikan negara

.

.

T & L STRATEGIES (contd…)

Based on ‘hands-on and minds-on
experience”

I listen……..….I forget

I look………….I remember

I do………….. I UNDERSTAND

Hands-on experience creates excitement and
interest

Bahagian Pembangunan Kurikulum

Peneraju pendidikan negara

.

.

T & L STRATEGIES (contd…)

Filled with Activities:

Hands –on, Minds –on, Hearts-on
Interesting, challenging and meaningful …

to encourage students to carry out
investigations and explorations in a systematic
and fun way

You can tell students what they need to know very fast.
But they will forget what you tell them even faster

Bahagian Pembangunan Kurikulum

Peneraju pendidikan negara

.

.

T & L STRATEGIES (contd…)

Emphasise :

Acquisition and application of knowledge
Mastering the thinking skills and scientific

skills
Inculcation of scientific attitudes and
noble values.

Bahagian Pembangunan Kurikulum

Peneraju pendidikan negara

.

.

T & L STRATEGIES (contd…)

FOCUS

Thoughtful learning and
Optimise learning outcomes

(to deepen learning and retention)

Bahagian Pembangunan Kurikulum

Peneraju pendidikan negara

.

.

T & L STRATEGIES (contd…)

Thoughtful Learning

A process that helps students acquire
knowledge and master skills that will
help them develop their minds to the
optimum level

Bahagian Pembangunan Kurikulum

Peneraju pendidikan negara

.

.

T & L STRATEGIES (contd…)

Optimise Learning Outcomes

Use technology as one of the means
Invite experts to give talks
Visits and use external resources
Do Projects

Bahagian Pembangunan Kurikulum

Peneraju pendidikan negara

Various Teaching and Learning
Approaches

Inquiry and Discovery
Constructivism
Contextual Learning
Mastery Learning
Science, Technology and Society

T & L STRATEGIES (contd…)

Bahagian Pembangunan Kurikulum

Peneraju pendidikan negara

Various Teaching and Learning
Methods:

Experiments
Discussions
Simulations
Projects
Visits & Use Of External Resources
Use of Technology

T & L STRATEGIES (contd…)

Bahagian Pembangunan Kurikulum

Peneraju pendidikan negara

T & L STRATEGIES (contd…)

Teachers may modify the suggested activities to suit

their students’ abilities and styles of learning.

Teachers are encouraged to design and use other
innovative and effective learning activities.

Bahagian Pembangunan Kurikulum

Peneraju pendidikan negara

T & L Materials

Teaching Coursewares

Graphing Culcalators

Laboratory Equipments

Modules

Bahagian Pembangunan Kurikulum

Peneraju pendidikan negara

“Teachers like to teach , they
rarely like to assess”

Teachers who can assess well will
be better teachers

Effective assessment will enhance

a teacher’s instructional

effectiveness

ASSESSMENT

Bahagian Pembangunan Kurikulum

Peneraju pendidikan negara

ASSESSMENT

To determine a student’s

status with respect to the
knowledge , skills or attitudes
and values that the teacher
attempts to promote

Bahagian Pembangunan Kurikulum

Peneraju pendidikan negara

ASSESSMENT

Why Assessment?

•To diagnose students’ strengths and

weaknesses

•To monitor students’ progress

•To determine instructional
effectiveness

Bahagian Pembangunan Kurikulum

Peneraju pendidikan negara

Continuous assessment through
observation and questions

Teachers may observe students during

activities to assess students’ understanding as

well as the development of skills and noble
values.

Students’ work products such as folios,

models, scrap books and presentations can
also be used as indicators.
Teachers may also question individual students
to assess their understanding.

ASSESSMENT

Bahagian Pembangunan Kurikulum

Peneraju pendidikan negara

ASSESSMENT(contd…)

Answers: What, How, Why,
and When

Do the students know:
1. whatthey have to do,
2. howto do,
3. why they are doing it,
and,
4. when they have done it

Bahagian Pembangunan Kurikulum

Peneraju pendidikan negara

1.Reduce teacher’s talk –from 80-90% to 20-
30%, do more practical work.
2.Save energy; let your students do the work
3.Use a lot of graphics
4.From teacher and student-centred to learning-
centred (activity-based)
5.Use examples/applications which are relevant to
students knowledge and experiences.
6. Support verbal statements with actions /writing
/evidence
7. Use realia such as specimens when and
wherever possible rather than show pictures
from books,charts etc.

CHANGES IN CULTURE

Bahagian Pembangunan Kurikulum

Peneraju pendidikan negara

8.Make teaching fun and learning successful
9.Use practical ideas immediately in your class
10.Motivate your students to achieve their best
11.Use powerful learning experiences to really
reach your students
12.Make a difference for yourself and your
students
13.Become a more successful, impactful teacher

CHANGES IN CULTURE (contd…)

Bahagian Pembangunan Kurikulum

Peneraju pendidikan negara

ISU
KURIKULUM SAINS

Bahagian Pembangunan Kurikulum

Peneraju pendidikan negara

ISU KURIKULUM

Maklumat berdasarkan tiga sumber:
1.Input daripada kertas cadangan Transformasi
Kurikulum oleh BPK
-Fokus utama teras kedua PIPP 2006-2010
-Gagasan ketiga Ucapan Dasar Y.A.B. Perdana
Menteri dalam Perhimpunan Agung UMNO 2006
2. Mesyuarat dan Bengkel Kurikulum Sains 2008 &
2009 anjuran Unit Sains Elektif, BPK
3. Pemantauan Pelaksanaan Kurikulum Sains 2009 oleh
Unit Sains Elektif, BPK

Bahagian Pembangunan Kurikulum

Peneraju pendidikan negara

Isu 1

Kurikulumperlulebihholistikdanpada
masayangsamatidakterlaluakademik
dan terlalu membebankan dan
berorientasikan peperiksaan

Bahagian Pembangunan Kurikulum

Peneraju pendidikan negara

Isu 2

Kurikulumperludimantapkanbagimemenuhi
keperluan-keperluanberikut:

Pembangunanmodalinsan
Menghasilkanpelajarcelikminda
Melahirkan barisan warga yang menguasai
ilmu, kemahiran dan maklumat
Membangunkanakalmanusiadalam
melahirkaninsanUlulAl-Bab

Bahagian Pembangunan Kurikulum

Peneraju pendidikan negara

Kurikulum perlu mengambil kira perkara-perkara berikut:
Seimbang
Skop: luas dan kedalaman
Koheren
Kesinambungan dan kemajuan (progression)
Lompang (gaps), pertindihan, pengulangan,
konteks baru
Sesuai dengan realiti di sekolah

Isu 3

Bahagian Pembangunan Kurikulum

Peneraju pendidikan negara

Fokus kepada keperluan mata pelajaran
Pernyataan perlulah jelasdan tepat supaya tidak
menimbulkan pelbagai pentafsiran.
Penulisan Learning Outcomestidak konsisten
Suggested Learning Activities(SLA) lebih teori
berbanding amali
Kurang penekanan terhadap sikap saintifik dan
nilai murni: tidak terjelma/ tersirat

Isu 4

Bahagian Pembangunan Kurikulum

Peneraju pendidikan negara

ISU PELAKSANAAN
KURIKULUM SAINS

Bahagian Pembangunan Kurikulum

Peneraju pendidikan negara

ISU PELAKSANAAN KURIKULUM SAINS

Maklumat berdasarkan dapatan umum pemantauan pelaksanaan
kurikulum sains dan program kurikulum tahun 2009 oleh 5
pegawai Unit Sains Elektif, BPK ke 38 buah sekolah, di 13 negeri
bermula Julai hingga November 2009 secara berjadual.

Aspek yang dipantau:

1.P&P di bilik darjah/makmal
2.Pelaksanaan kerja amali sains
3.Penggunaan Bahan Sokongan Kurikulum: Kalkulator Grafik
dan Bahan Sumber P&P sains

Bahagian Pembangunan Kurikulum

Peneraju pendidikan negara

ISU PELAKSANAAN
KURIKULUM SAINS

Instrumen pemantauan dan pentadbiran instrumen:

1. Pencerapan p&p dan temuramah –41 guru
2. Soal selidik murid -570 orang
3. Soal selidik pembantu makmal -57orang

Bahagian Pembangunan Kurikulum

Peneraju pendidikan negara

Ketidakcukupan masa, guru terpaksa mengejar
sukatan pelajaran
Terbeban dengan tugas sampingan dan
pentadbiran.
Kursus/latihan/mesyuarat yang perlu dihadiri.
Program/aktiviti kurikulum anjuran KPM, JPN, PPD,
agensi luar yang perlu dilaksanakan.
Kekerapan ujian/peperiksaan peringkat sekolah,
daerah, jabatan, kementerian.

Isu 1: Kekangan dalam pelaksanaan kurikulum
Temuramah guru

Bahagian Pembangunan Kurikulum

Peneraju pendidikan negara

Isu 2: Pengajaran dan Pembelajaran
Pencerapan P&P Guru

Antara kelemahan yang dikesan:
1.Kesediaan guru untuk mengajar
-sesuatu yang rutin
-rancangan mengajar yang ditulis dalam buku rekod
mengajar kurang membantu dalam memandu guru
melaksanaan p&p.
-kaedah yang kerap digunakan ialah perbincangan,
amali, penggunaan teaching courseware
2. Penglibatan murid
-banyak mendengar, kurang menyoal
-ikut arahan/penerangan guru sebelum,semasa dan
selesai aktiviti

Bahagian Pembangunan Kurikulum

Peneraju pendidikan negara

Isu 2: Pengajaran dan Pembelajaran (samb..)
Pencerapan P&P Guru

3. Kemahiran saintifik dan penerapan sikap saintifik dan
nilai murni kurang diberi penekanan.

4. Lebih tumpuan diberi kepada murid mengetahui
berbanding dengan murid memahami tentang sesuatu
idea/konsep dan jarang dikaitkan dengan aplikasinya
dalam kehidupan harian

5. Pengalaman pembelajaran sains yang
menyeronokkan dan lebih bermakna kurang terserlah.

Bahagian Pembangunan Kurikulum

Peneraju pendidikan negara

Isu 3: Penggunaan Bahan Sokongan Kurikulum

Kelemahan dikesan dari aspek:

1.tujuan bahan digunakan
2. memanfaatkan sepenuhnya bahan dalam p&p
3. mengintegrasikan bahan dalam p&p
4. kreativiti dalam menggunakan bahan p&p
5. penggantian/pengubahsuaian bahan jika tiada

Pencerapan P&P Guru

Bahagian Pembangunan Kurikulum

Peneraju pendidikan negara

Isu 4: Pelaksanaan Amali Sains
Pencerapan P&P Guru
Temubual guru/murid/pembantu makmal

1. Amali dan Aktiviti hands–on kurang dilaksanakan
walaupun ada keperluan untuk berbuat demikian.
Ada guru menjalankan amali hanya 2 kali saja
dari Januari –September 2009
2. Bahan dan peralatan tidak dioptimumkan
penggunaannya –menggunakan kaedah demonstrasi

Bahagian Pembangunan Kurikulum

Peneraju pendidikan negara

Isu 4: Pelaksanaan Amali Sains (samb...)
Pencerapan P&P Guru

Kemahiran dan pengetahuan guru dalam mengendalikan
p&p berbentuk amali perlu dipertingkatkan. Kelemahan
dikesan dalam:

3. memberi arahan, dan membimbing murid dalam
menjalankan amali.

4. teknik penyoalan (galakkan murid berfikir dan
memantau sama ada murid mengikuti pelajaran)
dan soalan tidak ke arah pembinaan konsep.

Bahagian Pembangunan Kurikulum

Peneraju pendidikan negara

Isu 4: Pelaksanaan Amali Sains (samb...)
Pencerapan P&P Guru

5. Penyiasatan dan penerokaan kurang ditekankan-
amali lebih berbentuk resipi, pendekatan inkuiri
tidak ditekankan.

6. Kesediaan guru: Guru digalakkan mencuba dulu
eksperimen sebelum p&p bagi memastikan
eksperimen itu menjadi dan kemungkinan ada
keperluan membuat pengubahsuaian.

Bahagian Pembangunan Kurikulum

Peneraju pendidikan negara

Isu 4: Pelaksanaan Amali Sains (samb...)
Pencerapan P&P Guru

Secara keseluruhannya, aktiviti amali sains masih lagi
belum diberi perhatian dan penegasan oleh guru
sepenuhnya.

Kemahiran proses sains dan kemahiran manipulatif
kurang diberi perhatian dan penekanan.

Bahagian Pembangunan Kurikulum

Peneraju pendidikan negara

Isu 4: Pelaksanaan Amali Sains (samb...)
Pencerapan P&P Guru
Temubual guru

Mungkinkah ini punca amali sains tidak lagi menjadi
keutamaan dalam p&p sains ?

1. Tiada peperiksaan amali sains dalam SPM
2. Penilaian amali sains berasaskan sekolah kurang membantu
meningkatkan pelaksanaan amali sains
3. Di peringkat pusat, pengetahuan dan kemahiran dalam amali
sains dinilai secara teori melalui Kertas 3 (SPM)-
implikasinya, amali boleh diajar secara teori.

Bahagian Pembangunan Kurikulum

Peneraju pendidikan negara

Isu 5: Makmal Sains
Pemantauan ke sekolah oleh BPK
1.Makmal sains tidak di selenggarakan dengan

baik

2.Makmal sains lama dengan susun atur yang
kurang sesuai
3.Makmal sains tidak mencukupi/ tiada
4.Bahan /Radas yang telah luput/rosak
5.Makmal sains yang telah diubah suai
menjadi bilik darjah
6.Pembantu makmal yang kurang pengalaman
7.Latihan pembantu makmal yang tidak
mencukupi

Bahagian Pembangunan Kurikulum

Peneraju pendidikan negara

Isu 6: Peruntukkan Waktu /Jadual Waktu
Temubual Guru

1. Peruntukan waktu untuk p&p sains tidak mencukupi.
2. Kurikulum sains yang menekankan pendekatan
inkuiri melalui aktiviti hands –on danamali sains di
mana murid digalakkan menyiasat dan meneroka
konsep sains dalam memperoleh pengalaman
pembelajaran sukar dilaksanakan sepenuhnya dalam
masa yang begitu terhad.
3. Ini memerlukan masa p&p yang lebih panjang dan
fleksibel.
4. Masa yang diperuntukkan dalam jadual waktu
persekolahan formal perlu dikaji semula.

Bahagian Pembangunan Kurikulum

Peneraju pendidikan negara

CABARAN
KURIKULUM DAN
PELAKSANAAN
KURIKULUM

Bahagian Pembangunan Kurikulum

Peneraju pendidikan negara

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