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HYDRAULICALLY DESIGNED AUTOMATIC

FIRE SPRINKLER SYSTEM


NODAL ANALYSIS
by
ABNER V. PAHILANGA
bsee , bsme, pee, mba

NODAL ANALYSIS - IN A COMPLEX PIPING NETWORK OF AN


AUTOMATIC FIRE SPRINKLER SYSTEM, IS THE STUDY OF A FLUID
FLOW CHARACTERISTIC OF A PIPING NETWORK. USING THE
PRINCIPLES OF LOOP AND NODE SOLUTIONS OF AN ELECTRICAL
CIRCUITS.
IT IS SIMILAR TO AN ANALYSIS OF A LOOP AND NODE OF A KIRCHOFFS
CURRENT LAW OR OF KIRCHOFFS VOLTAGE LAW .

ANALOGY

VOLTAGE
CURRENT

TO
TO

PRESSURE
DISCHARGE

FORMULA USED:

HAZEN WILLIAMS FORMULA


1.85
1.85 4.87
PIPE IS STEEL
P = 4.52 Q / c
d
c = roughness factor = 120
d in inches ASTM std
Q discharge in gpm
p pressure drop psi / ft
1 in dia.
1.85
P = [ Q / 59.98 ]
1 in dia.
1.85
2 1/2 in dia. 1.85
P = [ Q / 123.4 ]
p = [ Q / 563 ]
1 in dia. 1.85
3 in dia
1.85
P = [ Q / 185 ]
p = [ Q / 1008 ]
2 in dia.
1.85
4 in dia.
1.85
P = [ Q / 357 ]
p = [ Q / 2068 ]
For RISER PIPE D ARCHY-WEISBACH FORMULA
1.86
1 / 4.97
d = [ 1.6L Q / h x 1000 ]
( fairly smooth pipe )

FORMULA USED:
FOR THE SPRINKLER NOZLE DISCHARGE
0.5

Q = k [p]

Q in gpm

p in psi

TABLE OF k VALUES of sprinklers


Nominal Orifice Size
k factor
5 /16
1.8 - 2.0
3/8
2.6 2.9
7/16
4.0 4.4
1 /2
5.3 5.8 ( standard )
17/32
7.4 8.2
5/8
11 11.5
SOURCE : NFPA 13 - 1989

HYDRAULICALLY DESIGNED
FIRE SPRINKLER SYSTEM

PROJECT :
LOCATION:
TOTAL NO OF SPRINKLERS :
BASIS OF DESIGNED :

1.

2.
3.

DENSITY
AREA OF DISCHARGE
NO OF SPRINKLERS

------------ 0.16 GPM / SF


------------ 1300 SF

DESIGNED IN THE
OPERATION
--------- 13 pcs
4.
DISCHARGE AREA
PER SPRINKLER
------------- 130 SF
SYSTEM DEMAND :
1.
DISCHARGE GPM
-----2.
RESIDUAL PRESSURE TO THE APPLIED AREA -----3.
RESIDUAL AT THE BASE OF THE RISER
------

NODAL ANALYSIS

I1

I1 = I2 + I3

I2

I3
AMPS

AMPS

Q1

Q1 = Q2 + Q3

Q2

Q3

GPM

GPM

NODAL ANALYSIS

p = pressure drop
Q = gpm discharge
v = voltage drop
I = current (amp)

V1

VT

V3

I1

I3

V2

V4

I2

I4

P4
P1

P3

Q1

Q3

P2

Q2

Q4

EXAMPLE: A branch line of designated size of pipe is


connected to a cross main of 2.5 in dia. Using k = 4 for a
7/16 nozzle of a sprinkler on a light hazard area , 1. what
is the pressure at junction S of the cross main and branch
line , 2. what is the pressure and the demand gpm at the
junction T. Discharge density = 0.16 gpm/sq.ft ,demand
area / sprinkler
is 130 s.f
S
S

8
2.5

7
Q2

B
1
5
Q1

Solve for the discharge of the farthest sprinkler ,


Q1 = 0.16 x 130 = 20.8 gpm
0.5
Q = k [ p]
2
2
P1 = [ Q / 4 ] = [ 20.8 / 4 ]
=

27 psi

Pressure drop P a-b- spklr


1.85
1.85
Pa-b-s = [ Q / 59.98 ]
x 13 = [ 20.8 /59.98] x 13 = 0.14 x 13
= 1.83 psi
Pressure @ A
pA = P + Pabs = 27 + 1.83 = 28.83 psi
Discharge Q2
Assume p = 28.83 as 1st trial
0.5
0.5
Q=k[p]
= 4 x[ 28.83 ]
= 21.4 gpm
1.85
P = [ 21.4 / 60 ]
= 0.1495 psi / ft
P a-s = 7 x 0.1495 = 1.046 psi
Pressure @ spklr = 28.83 1.046 = 27.78 psi
0.5
0.5
Q of spklr = k [ p ]
= 4 x [ 27.78 ]
= 21.08 gpm
Q total = Q1 + Q2 = 20.8 + 21.08 = 41.88 gpm
Pressure @ junction T

Pressure @ junction T
1 dia pipe
1.85
1.85
P = [ Qt / 60 ]
= [ 41.88 / 60 ]
= 0.514 psi / ft
Pt= 9 x 0.514 = 4.62 psi
P @ junction S = Pa + 4.62 = 28.83 + 4.62 = 33.45 psi

2.5 dia pipe

1.85
1.85
P = [ Qt / 563 ]
= [ 41.88 / 563 ]
= 0.008 psi / ft
P t = 8 x 0.008 = 0.064 psi
Pressure @ junction T = pS + p drop 2.5 pipe
P @T = 33.45 + 0.064 = 33.514 psi
SUMMARY OF RESULTS:
1. Pressure @ junction S = 33.45 psi
2. Pressure and demand gpm @ junction T
2.1 P@T = 33.514 psi
2.2 demand gpm = 41.88 gpm

Table 2 . Valve Losses in Equivalent Meters of pipe


source : Mechanical Engineer's Handbook

nominal pipe
dia.

globe valve

60deg wye
valve

45deg wye
valve

angle valve

gate valve

swing check valve

lift check
valve

in

mm

ft

ft

ft

ft

ft

ft

spring loaded

3. / 8

10

17

2.4

1.8

1.8

0.6

0.2

1.5

1./2

12

18

5.5

2.7

2.1

2.1

0.7

0.2

1.8

3./4

20

22

6.7

11

3.4

2.7

2.7

0.9

0.3

2.4

25

29

8.8

15

4.6

12

3.7

12

1.7

0.3

10

same as

1 1/4

32

38

11.6

20

6.1

15

4.6

15

4.6

1.5

0.5

14

4.3

globe valve

1 1/2

40

43

13.1

24

7.1

18

5.5

18

5.5

1.8

0.5

16

4.9

50

55

16.8

30

9.1

24

7.3

24

7.3

2.1

0.7

20

6.1

2 1/2

60

69

21

35

10.7

29

8.8

29

8.8

2.8

0.9

25

7.6

80

84

25.6

43

13.1

35

10.7

35

10.7

3.2

30

9.1

3 1/2

90

100

30.5

50

15.2

41

12.5

41

12.5

1.2

55

10.7

100

120

36.6

58

17.7

47

14.3

47

14.3

4.5

1.4

40

12.2

130

140

42.7

71

21.6

58

17.7

58

17.7

1.8

50

15.2

150

170

51.8

88

26.8

70

21.3

70

21.3

2.1

60

18.1

200

220

67.1

115

35.1

85

25.9

85

25.9

2.7

80

24.4

10

250

280

85.1

145

44.2

105

32

105

32

12

3.7

100

30.5

12

300

320

97.5

165

50.3

130

39.6

130

39.6

13

120

36.6

14

350

360

110

185

56.4

155

47.2

155

47.2

15

4.6

135

41.1

16

400

410

125

210

64

180

54.9

180

54.9

17

150

45.7

18

450

460

140

240

73.2

200

61

200

61

19

5.8

165

50.3

20

500

520

159

275

83.5

235

71.6

235

71.6

22

6.7

200

61

24

600

610

186

320

97.5

265

80.8

265

80.8

25

7.6

240

73.2

Table 3

Equivalent Length of Pipe Fittings Losses

Source : Mechanical Engineer's


Handbook

nominal pipe dia.

90deg std
elbow

45deg std
elbow

90deg side tee

coupling or straight
run tee

in

mm

ft

ft

ft

ft

3. /8

10

0.3

0.6

0.18

1.5

0.46

0.3

0.9

1./2

12

0.6

1.2

0.37

0.9

0.6

0.18

3./4

20

2.5

0.7

1.5

0.46

1.22

0.8

0.24

25

0.9

1.8

0.55

1.52

0.9

0.27

1 1/4

32

1.2

2.4

0.73

1.83

1.2

0.37

1 1/2

40

1.52

0.91

2.13

1.5

0.46

50

2.13

1.22

10

0.61

2 1/2

60

2.44

1.52

12

3.66

2.5

0.76

80

10

1.83

15

4.57

0.91

3 1/2

90

12

3.66

2.13

18

5.48

3.6

1.1

100

14

4.26

2.44

21

6.4

1.22

130

17

5.18

10

25

7.62

1.52

150

20

12

3.65

30

9.1

1.83

TABLE 13.8 SPRINKLER DESIGN GUIDELINES


PART A : Sprinkler Heads
Discharge Characteristics
Nominal
Orifice size
( in )

5/16
3/8
7/16

17/32
5/8
Source : NFPA 13 - 1989

Orifice
Type
small
small
small
small
standard
large
extra large

K Factor
1.3 1.5
1.8 2.0
2.6 2.9
4.0 - 4.4
5.3 5.8
7.4 8.2
11.0 11.5

% of Nominal
1 / 2 in discharge
25
33.3
50
75
100
140
200

TABLE 13.8 SPRINKLER DESIGN GUIDELINES


Part D Sprinkler Pipe Sizes
Light Hazard : Branch Lines shall not exceed 8 sprinkler on either side of cross main
No. of sprinkler at ceiling
STEEL
COPPER
1
2
2
3
3
4

pipe

1/2

2
sprinkler
1
5 sprinkler
10

2
12
30

2
40
60

3
65
100

3
115
( this size do not apply to systems that are hydraulically designed )
No. of sprinkler above and below a ceiling

1
1
1
2
2

STEEL

2 sprinkler
4

15
50

COPPER

1
1
1
2
2

2 sprinkler
4

18

50

TABLE 13.8 Sprinkler Design Guidelines


Ordinary Hazard: Branch Lines shall not exceed 8 sprinklers on either side of the cross
main
No. of sprinkler at ceiling
STEEL
COPPER
1
1
1
2
2
3
3
4
5
6
8

PIPE

2 sprinkler
1 tube
2 sprinkler
3
1
3

5
1
5

10
2
12

20
2
25
40
3
45

65
3
75

100
4
115
160
5
180
275
6
300
( this sizes do not apply to system that are hydraulically designed )
No. of sprinkler above and below a ceiling
STEEL

1
1
1
2
2
3

COPPER
2 sprinklers
4

15

30

60

1
1
1
2
2
3

2 sprinklers
4

18
40
65

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