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1. Prinsip PRICE – Protection, Rest, Ice, Compress,Elevate

 Rest;
- rest the injury tissue
- modify activity to maintance fitness, strength and skill as much as
possible as possible
 Ice;
- apply ice to the are of injury for 10-15 mintus every 45-60 min.
This minimize bleeding,pain and associated muscle spasm, and
decrease the metabolic rate of the underlying tissue
 Compress;
- Compress bandages ( not tourniquets) are used to minimize the
bleeding and oedema and must be confortably tight. A crepe or
elastic bandage is recommended.
 Elevation;
- Elevation of the injured tissue minimizes the effect of gravity on
accumulating blood oedema at the site of injury

2. Prinsip TOTAPS – kecedraan luar / nampak darah .

 Talking;
- Dptkan maklumat punca dr mangsa / rakan mangsa / kesan badan.
- Hubungi pihak pakar & tanya apa yg perlu dilakukan.
 Observe;
- Lihat tempat kecederaan
- Lihat tanda & simptom
 Touch ;
- Sentuh utk kenalpasti bahagian terlibat berpandukan reaksinya.
 Active ;
- Reaksi mangsa aktif – tidaklah kronik / tenat.
 Passive ;

- Reaksi mangsa pasif – diam / terkejut.

 Skill ;
- Pergerakan yg dapat / boleh dilakukan oleh mangsa – gerakan ibu jari /
kaki / tangan/ kepala dll.

3. Prinsip DRABC

 Danger ;
- pastikan persekitaran berada dlm keadaan selamat.
- Pindahkan mangsa jika perlu.
 Respon ;
- Pastikan tindakbalas dari mangsa.
- Sentuh & tanya mangsa
- Minta bantuan.
 Airways ;
- Pastikan saluran pernafasan mangsa tidak tersekat dgn bahan.
- Buang bahan yg menghalang.
 Breathing ;
- Periksa pernafasan mangsa
- Pandang pergerakan dada.
- Dengar pernafasan mangsa
- Rasa pernafasan
 Circulation ;
- Periksa nadi karotid @ radial mangsa.

A. Sekiranya tiada pernafasan tetapi ada denyutan nadi.

 Lakukan EAR ( Expired Air Resuscitation )
1. Dewasa : Kadar 12 hembusan seminit.
2. Kanak2 & awal remaja : kadar 15 hembusan seminit
3. Bayi (5 thn ke bawah) : Kadar 20 hembvusan seminit.

B. Sekiranya tiada denyutan nadi tetapi ada pernafasan
 Lakukan ECC ( External Cardiac Compression ) – memaksa darah
beredar menerusi jantung ke seluruh anggota. ( mampatan dada )
1. Dewasa :
- Gunakan kedua-dua tangan
- Kadar 80-100 seminit.
- Mampatan sedalam 4-5 cm.
2. Kanak-kanak;
- 8 thn ke bawah
- Gunakan sebelah tangan
- Kadar 100 seminit.
- Mampatan sedalam 2.5 cm
3. Bayi ;
- Gunakan jari telunjuk & jari hantu
- Kadar 120 seminit.
- Sedalam 1.5 cm

C. Sekiranya tiada pernafasan dan tiada nadi

 Lakukan CPR ( Cardiac Pulmonary Resuscitation ) EAR + ECC
 Hembusan dan mampatan henjutan dada mengikut;
1. Dewasa ; 2 : 15
2. Kanak-kanak ; 1:5
3. Bayi ; 1 :5
 Lakukan sebanyak 4 kitaran- lihat rangsangan / tindakbalas mangsa.
 Periksa nadi setiap 1 minit.
 Jika mangsa sedar, letakkan mangsa dlm kedudukan pemulihan.
 Jika tidak sedar , teruskan buat bantuan CPR sehinga bantuan tiba.
o Jika terdapat dua orang :
= pembantu mula akan melakukan mampatan dan hembusan pada kali
pertama kemudian berselang dengan pembantu mula yang kedua selepas
hembusan pada kali ke dua.

= pembantu mula kedua akan bersedia selepas mendengar kiraan yang
ketiga belas. Contoh kiraan ialah dua belas dan tiga belas dan tukar dan
lima belas.
= kemudian pembantu mula yang kedua akan memeriksa nadi karotid
sebelum meneruskan CPR.

4. Prinsip RICER – dalaman / lebam/ benjol.

 Rest;
- Rehatkan bahagian yg cedera.

 Ice ;
- Letakkan ais yg dibungkus dgn kain, air meresap keluar.
- Utk menurunkan suhu di tempat cedera kerana kapilari darahnya putus
/ cedera.
 Compression ;
- Balut dgn kain bersih, tekanan selama 15-20 minit.
 Elevation ;
- Tinggikan bahagian yg dibalut.
 Refer ;
- Rujuk pakar / pemulihan.


This condition often occurs when people exercise (work or play) in a hot, humid
place and their body fluids are lost through sweating, causing the body to overheat.


This medical condition is life-threatening. The person's cooling system, which is

controlled by the brain, has stopped working, and the internal temperature has risen to
the point where brain damage or damage to other internal organs may result
(temperature may reach 105+°F).


A form of heat exhaustion characterized by muscle spasm attended by pain, dilated

pupils, and weak pulse. It occurs in people who lose much salt and water by working
intensely in excessive heat. Usual course - acute; intermittent. Endemic areas: tropics;


• Hastens healing time by reducing swelling around injury

• Sudden cold contracts blood vessels
• Helps stop internal bleeding from injured capillaries and blood vessels
• Keep damp or dry cloth between skin and ice pack
• Do not apply ice for longer than 15 to 20 minutes at a time
• For 3 days after injury
• Apply every hour for 10 to 20 minutes
• Apply ice after 3 days as long as pain or inflammation persist
• Apply at least 3 times throughout the day for 15 to 20 minutes

Cooling treatments lower body temperature in order to relieve pain, swelling,

constriction of blood vessels, and to decrease the liklihood of cellular damage by
slowing the metabolism. Sponge baths, cold compresses, and cold packs are all wet
cooling treatments. Dry treatments, such as ice bags and chemical cold packs, are also
used to lower body temperature


The most common reason for cooling a body is fever or hyperthermia (extremely high
fever). The body can sustain temperatures up to 104°F (40°C) with relative safety;
however, when temperatures rise above 104°F (40°C), damage to the brain, muscles,
blood, and kidneys is increasingly likely. Cooling treatments are also applied
immediately following sprains, bruises, burns, eye injuries, and muscle spasms to help
alleviate the resulting swelling, pain, and discoloration of the skin.

Cooling treatments slow chemical reactions within the body. For this reason, cooling
tissues below normal temperature (98.6°F/37°C) can prevent injury from inadequate
oxygen or nutrition. Cold water drowning victims suffering from hypothermia
(cooling of the body below its normal temperature) have been successfully
resuscitated after long periods underwater without medical complications because of
this effect. For the past 40 years, heart surgeons have been experimenting with
hypothermia to protect tissues from lack of blood circulation during an operation.
Neurosurgeons are also working with hypothermia to protect the very sensitive brain
tissues during periods of absent or reduced blood flow.

Depending on the medical need, various cooling methods are used.

• Cold packs and ice bags are placed on a localized site and provide topical
relief. These compresses should be covered with a waterproof material to
protect the skin. Repeated treatments produce the desired pain and swelling
• Cold treatments are placed on the groin and under the arms to treat
hyperthermia. Treatments are refreshed periodically until the appropriate
temperature is attained.
• A tepid sponge bath relieves fever without cooling the body too fast. Eighty
degrees Farenheit is still 20°F below body temperature and yet warm enough
not to drive blood from the skin, thereby preventing the cooling from getting
to the body's core. Limbs are bathed first and then the chest, abdomen, back,
and buttocks.
• Perfusion of isolated regions like the brain by using cooled blood is an
experimental treatment, offering promising results for the treatment of stroke.


Topical treatments are prepared with ice, cold water (59°F/15°C), and chemical cold
packs. Tepid baths should be 80-93°F (26.7-34°C).


Small children, adults with circulation problems, and the elderly are all at risk of
tissue damage. Rapid cooling causes chills, which in effect raise the body's
temperature by raising its metabolism. Blood clots may form from thickened blood
caused by the temperature change.

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