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Chapter 8 - Introduction to Metabolism

3/7/13 10:35 PM

Biol 1002 - Spring 2013


Chapter 8 - Introduction to Metabolism

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Chapter 8 - Introduction to Metabolism Due: 9:00am on Monday, March 11, 2013 Note: You will receive no credit for late submissions. To learn more, read your instructor's Grading Policy

Activity: Energy Transformations

Click here to complete this activity. Then answer the questions.

Part A
Which of these is exhibiting kinetic energy? ANSWER: the high-energy phosphate bonds of a molecule of ATP a rock on a mountain ledge a space station orbiting Earth an archer with a flexed bow a person sitting on a couch while watching TV

Correct
Kinetic energy is energy of motion.

Part B
"Conservation of energy" refers to the fact that _____. ANSWER: energy cannot be created or destroyed but can be converted from one form to another if you conserve energy you will not be as tired the entropy of the universe is always increasing no chemical reaction is 100 percent efficient the net amount of disorder is always increasing

Correct
This is what is meant by conservation of energy.

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Part C
Chemical energy is a form of _____ energy. ANSWER: kinetic heat potential motion entropic

Correct
Chemical energy is a form of stored energy.

Part D
In your body, what process converts the chemical energy found in glucose into the chemical energy found in ATP? ANSWER: potentiation redox digestion anabolism cellular respiration

Correct
This is the name given to the process by which the body converts food energy to energy stored in ATP.

Part E
Which of these are by-products of cellular respiration? ANSWER: carbon dioxide and water glucose, carbon dioxide, and water heat, carbon dioxide, and water ATP, carbon dioxide, and water ATP and carbon dioxide

Correct
These are the by-products of cellular respiration.

ATP and Energy


Biological processes involve both catabolism, the breaking down of high-energy molecules into simple molecules, and anabolism, the building of complex molecules from simple ones. In general, catabolic processes generate energy, whereas anabolic processes require energy. The energy is usually stored in intermediate energy-carrying molecules such as adenosine triphosphate (ATP).

Part A - Identifying the highest energy form of adenosine


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Select the highest energy form of adenosine from the following images.

Hint 1. How adenosine gains energy


The addition of phosphates to the ribose component (a pentose sugar) of an adenosine molecule gives the molecule usable energy. The phosphates can be broken off by an enzyme, and the energy freed from the release of the phosphate group can drive endergonic (energyrequiring) chemical reactions in the cell.

Hint 2. Which molecule has the highest energy?


Rank the following molecules from highest to lowest energy content. To rank molecules as equivalent, overlap them. ANSWER:

Correct
Because adding phosphate groups to the ribose component of an adenosine molecule gives the molecule usable energy, the adenosine with the most phosphate groups has the highest energy content, and the one with no phosphate groups has the lowest energy content.

ANSWER:

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Correct
Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is the high-energy form of adenosine because it contains the most phosphate groups (three). This molecule fuels many different endergonic (energy-requiring) enzymatic processes in biological organisms. ATP molecules diffuse or are transported to the place where the energy is needed and deliver chemical energy from the breaking of their phosphate bonds.

Part B - Energy release from ATP


Which part of the adenosine triphosphate molecule is released when it is hydrolyzed to provide energy for biological reactions?

Hint 1. The general structure of adenosine triphosphate (ATP)


Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is made up of three main structural parts: the nitrogenous base adenine, the ribose sugar, and the three phosphate groups bonded together by phosphodiester bonds.

Hint 2. What are the different parts of the ATP molecule?


Complete the following vocabulary exercise relating to the parts of the ATP molecule. ANSWER:

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ANSWER: -phosphate (the phosphate closest to ribose) -phosphate (the middle phosphate) -phosphate (the terminal phosphate) adenine group ribose sugar

Correct
The -phosphate is the primary phosphate group on the ATP molecule that is hydrolyzed when energy is needed to drive anabolic reactions. Located the farthest from the ribose sugar, it has a higher energy than either the - or -phosphate.

Activity: Chemical Reactions and ATP

Click here to complete this activity. Then answer the questions.

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Part A
In this reaction _____.

ANSWER: entropy has decreased AC is a reactant CD is a product the products have been rearranged to form reactants the products have less potential energy than the reactants

Correct
This is what is shown by the graph.

Part B
In this reaction _____.

ANSWER: the chemical energy of the products is greater than that of the reactants disorder has decreased the kinetic energy of the reactants is less than that of the products entropy has decreased heat has been released to the environment

Correct
The potential energy of the products is less than that of the reactants.

Part C
The reaction A --> B + C + heat is released in a(n) _____ reaction.

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ANSWER: exchange exergonic dehydration synthesis endergonic anabolic

Correct
Energy has been released.

Part D
A(n) _____ reaction occurs spontaneously. ANSWER: chemical endergonic exergonic kinetic anabolic

Correct
In exergonic reactions the products have less potential energy than the reactants.

Part E
Which of these reactions requires a net input of energy from its surroundings? ANSWER: hydrolysis ATP --> ADP + P endergonic catabolic exergonic

Correct
The products of endergonic reactions have more potential energy than the reactants.

Part F
In cells, what is usually the immediate source of energy for an endergonic reaction? ANSWER:

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sugar ADP ATP as spontaneous reactions, endergonic reactions do not need an addition of energy glucose

Correct
The hydrolysis of ATP provides the energy needed for an endergonic reaction.

Part G
The reaction ADP + P --> ATP is a(n) _____ reaction. ANSWER: chemical endergonic spontaneous exergonic hydrolysis

Correct
Energy has been acquired from the surroundings.

Part H
The energy for an endergonic reaction comes from a(n) _____ reaction. ANSWER: ADP + P --> ATP exergonic anabolic glucose + glucose --> maltose synthesis

Correct
The energy released by an exergonic reaction can be used to drive an endergonic reaction.

Part I
What is the fate of the phosphate group that is removed when ATP is converted to ADP? ANSWER: It is acquired by a reactant in an exergonic reaction. It is used to convert an ATP into an AQP. It is acquired by a reactant in an endergonic reaction. It is broken down into one phosphorus and four oxygen atoms. It is acquired by a reactant in a spontaneous reaction.

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Correct
By acquiring the phosphate group the reactant acquires energy.

Part J
This graph illustrates a(n) _____ reaction.

ANSWER: exergonic catabolic hydrolysis spontaneous endergonic

Correct
The products contain more potential energy than the reactants.

Part K
Select the INCORRECT association. ANSWER: potential energy ... positional energy enzyme ... protein kinetic energy ... motion exergonic ... uphill exergonic ... spontaneous

Correct
Exergonic reactions release energy.

Part L
What is energy coupling? ANSWER:

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the use of energy released from an exergonic reaction to drive an endergonic reaction the hydrolysis of ATP to ADP + P a description of the energetic relationship between the reactants and products in an exergonic reaction a barrier to the initiation of a reaction the use of an enzyme to reduce EA

Correct
This is energy coupling.

Enzyme and Substrate Concentrations


In general, an enzyme has one active site at which catalysis can occur. When the substrates are bound to the active site, the enzyme will catalyze the reaction. As the concentration of substrate increases, the reaction rate increases, until the point where the active site is saturated with substrate. When the enzyme is saturated, the rate of the reaction will not increase with the concentration of substrates.

Part A
Look at the graph of reaction rate versus substrate concentration for an enzyme. In which region does the reaction rate remain constant?

Hint 1. How to read the graph


On this graph, changes in reaction rate are shown by vertical (up or down) movement of the line. A constant reaction rate would be represented by a flat portion of the line (one that moves neither up nor down). ANSWER: region A region B region C

Correct
In region C of the graph, the reaction rate is independent of substrate concentration.

Part B
Refer again to the graph. In which region is the enzyme saturated with substrate?

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Hint 1. How to approach the problem


When the enzyme is saturated, adding more substrate molecules will not increase the rate of reaction. In which region of the graph is the reaction rate independent of substrate concentration? ANSWER: region A region B region C

Correct

Part C
Consider a situation in which the enzyme is operating at optimum temperature and option for increasing the rate of the reaction? , and has been saturated with substrate. What is your best

Hint 1. Select what would happen if the substrate concentration were increased
If the enzyme is saturated, what would happen if the substrate concentration were increased? ANSWER: The added substrate molecules would bind to the active site. The added substrate molecules would not bind to the active site.

Hint 2. Select the correct meaning of optimum


What does the term optimum mean in this context? ANSWER: It means that adjusting the temperature or It means that adjusting the temperature or It means that the can improve the enzyme activity a little. can improve the enzyme activity quite a bit.

or temperature is such that the enzyme is not active. .

It means that the enzyme has maximum activity and cannot be improved by adjusting temperature or

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Correct

ANSWER: Increase the .

Increase the temperature. Increase the enzyme concentration. Increase the substrate concentration.

Correct
If an enzyme is saturated with substrate, and it is operating at optimum and optimum temperature, there is very little that can be done except to increase the enzyme concentration. Some enzymes can be activated further by allosteric activators, in which case one might add some activator to the reaction. But otherwise, increasing the enzyme concentration is the only option.

Enzyme Inhibition
Molecules other than substrates bind to enzymes. Some of these other molecules slow down the rate of the enzymatic reaction. These molecules are called enzyme inhibitors.

Part A - Types of enzyme inhibitors


Complete this vocabulary exercise relating to the three types of enzyme inhibitors. Drag the words on the left to the appropriate blanks in the sentences on the right. Each word is used only once.

Hint 1. What are the characteristics of competitive inhibitors?


Which of the following statements correctly describe(s) competitive inhibitors? Select all that apply. ANSWER: A competitive inhibitor competes with the substrate for the active site of the enzyme. A competitive inhibitor binds irreversibly to the enzyme and renders it useless. The structure of a competitive inhibitor is very similar to that of the substrate. At sufficient concentration, a competitive inhibitor reduces enzyme activity; enzyme activity can be regained by increasing the substrate concentration.

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Correct
A competitive inhibitor has the same structure as the substrate with which it competes. Like the substrate, a competitive inhibitor binds at the enzymes active site, although relatively weakly. The competitive inhibitor reduces enzyme activity, but the effect can be reversed by increasing the substrate concentration.

Hint 2. What are the characteristics of noncompetitive inhibitors?


Which of the following statements correctly describe(s) noncompetitive inhibitors? Select all that apply. ANSWER: A noncompetitive inhibitor binds to the active site on an enzyme. The effect of a noncompetitive inhibitor is reversible; enzyme activity is restored when the noncompetitive inhibitor is removed from the enzyme. The structure of a noncompetitive inhibitor is similar to that of the substrate. A noncompetitive inhibitor distorts the enzymes shape when it binds to the enzyme.

Correct
A noncompetitive inhibitor binds to the enzyme away from the active site, which alters the shape of the enzyme. This affects the enzymes ability to bind to the substrate and decreases the enzymes activity. Like a competitive inhibitor, a noncompetitive inhibitor also binds relatively weakly and its effect can be reversed because it can be removed.

Hint 3. What are the characteristics of irreversible inhibitors?


Which of the following statements correctly describe(s) irreversible inhibitors? Select all that apply. ANSWER:

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Irreversible inhibitors usually form covalent bonds within the active site, preventing the substrate from entering the active site or preventing catalytic activity. Irreversible inhibitors include nerve gases and insecticides, which act on acetylcholinesterase. Irreversible inhibitors can be competed out of an active site by adding more substrate. Irreversible inhibitors act by breaking the enzyme apart.

ANSWER:

Correct
Competitive inhibitors compete physically and structurally with the substrate for an enzymes active site; they can be outcompeted by adding extra substrate. Noncompetitive inhibitors do not compete for the active site, but inhibit the enzyme by binding elsewhere and changing the enzymes shape. Irreversible inhibitors bind directly to the active site by covalent bonds, which change the structure of the enzyme and inactivate it permanently. Most medications are enzyme inhibitors of one kind or another.

Part B - Irreversible inhibition


You have added an irreversible inhibitor to a sample of enzyme and substrate. At this point, the reaction has stopped completely. What can you do to regain the activity of the enzyme?

Hint 1. How to approach the problem


To answer this question, think about the properties of irreversible inhibitors. What do they do to an enzyme? If you have inhibited an enzyme with an irreversible inhibitor, whatif anything can be done to activate the enzyme?

Hint 2. What is the description of an irreversible inhibitor?


Which of the following statements most accurately describes an irreversible inhibitor? ANSWER:

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An irreversible inhibitor binds to the active site of an enzyme and can easily be removed. An irreversible inhibitor binds to a different location than the substrate and can easily be removed. An irreversible inhibitor binds covalently to the active site of an enzyme and cannot be removed easily. An irreversible inhibitor binds to the substrate and removes it from solution so it cannot react with the enzyme.

Correct
An irreversible inhibitor binds covalently to the enzyme, which alters the enzymes chemical structure. The inhibitor cannot be removed easily.

ANSWER: Removing the irreversible inhibitor should get the reaction working again. The enzyme is inactive at this point. New enzyme must be added to regain enzyme activity. Adding more substrate will increase the rate of reaction. Adding more inhibitor should get the reaction up to speed again.

Correct
Because they bind directly to the active site by covalent bonds, irreversible inhibitors permanently render an enzyme inactive. Some drugs are irreversible inhibitors, including the antibiotic penicillin (which inhibits an enzyme involved in bacterial cell-wall synthesis) and aspirin (which inhibits cyclooxygenase-2, the enzyme involved in the inflammatory reaction).

Part C - Reversible inhibition


You have an enzymatic reaction proceeding at the optimum pH and optimum temperature. You add a competitive inhibitor to the reaction and notice that the reaction slows down. What can you do to speed the reaction up again?

Hint 1. How to approach the problem


To answer this question, think about the properties of competitive inhibitors. How do they work? Is there a way to remove them from the active site of the enzyme once they are in it? If so, what is it?

Hint 2. How does a competitive inhibitor work?


Which of the following statements most accurately describes a competitive inhibitor? ANSWER: A competitive inhibitor has a structure that is so similar to the substrate that it can bind to the enzyme in the same way as the substrate. The structure of a competitive inhibitor does not resemble the substrate and does not compete for the active site. Most competitive inhibitors are toxic substances that destroy enzymes. Competitive inhibitors bind at the enzyme's active site, where the enzyme converts them into the reaction product(s).

ANSWER: Add more inhibitor to speed up the reaction. Add more substrate; it will outcompete the inhibitor and increase the reaction rate. Increase the temperature. Increase the pH.

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Correct
Competitive inhibition can be overcome by adding more substrate to outcompete the inhibitor. Many drugs used to treat different medical conditions, including hypertension, are competitive inhibitors. It is fairly easy to make a molecule that is similar in structure to a particular substrate because the known enzymes shape can be used as a model of what the molecule needs to look like. It is more difficult to make a noncompetitive inhibitor because it is less obvious what the noncompetitive inhibitors shape and structure should be.

How Enzymes Function


Enzymes are biological catalysts. They can increase the rate of chemical reactions as much as a millionfold by lowering the energy barrier of a reaction.

Part A - Enzymes and activation energy


The graph presents three activation energy profiles for a chemical reaction (the hydrolysis of sucrose): an uncatalyzed reaction, and the same reaction catalyzed by two different enzymes.

Rank these by reaction rate, as measured by the rate of product formation (from the most product formed to the least product formed). To rank items as equivalent, overlap them.

Hint 1. Definition of activation energy


Activation energy (also called free energy of activation) is the initial investment of energy needed to start a reaction. It is the amount of energy that the reactants must absorb before a chemical reaction will start.

Hint 2. How does activation energy affect reaction rate?


Complete the following statement. ANSWER: more less

The higher the activation energy, the

product formed per unit time.

Correct

ANSWER:

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Correct
Enzymes lower the activation energy of a chemical reaction. This means that a catalyzed reaction is more likely to proceed than an uncatalyzed reaction, and it forms products more rapidly than an uncatalyzed reaction.

Part B - Factors that affect enzymes


Complete this vocabulary exercise relating to enzymes. Match the words in the left-hand column to the appropriate blank in the sentences in the right-hand column.

Hint 1. How enzymes work


This diagram shows the process by which an enzyme converts reactant molecules into product molecules. (In this case, the enzyme converts two reactants, or substrates, into two products.)

Hint 2. Which factors affect enzyme activity?


Choose the factors that affect enzyme activity by altering either the enzymes shape or its effectiveness.
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Select all that apply. ANSWER: temperature pH inorganic ions and vitamins activation energy

Correct
An enzyme will denature, or change its shape and lose its biological activity, when the reaction's environmental temperature is too high for that enzyme, or when the pH is outside of that enzymes optimal range. Cofactors, including inorganic ions and vitamins, often bind to enzymes and affect catalysis.

ANSWER:

All attempts used; correct answer displayed


A substrate binds at an enzymes active site; the enzyme typically recognizes the specific shape of its substrate. A cofactor, such as an inorganic ion or vitamin, may bind to the enzyme and assist in catalyzing the reaction. The reaction environment must be appropriate for catalysis to proceed. An enzyme will denature, or change its shape and lose its biological activity, at too high a temperature or at a pH outside the enzymes optimal range.

Activity: How Enzymes Work

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Click here to complete this activity. Then answer the questions.

Part A
In general, enzymes are what kinds of molecules? ANSWER: lipids minerals proteins carbohydrates nucleic acids

Correct
Enzymes are proteins.

Part B
Enzymes work by _____. ANSWER: adding energy to a reaction increasing the potential energy difference between reactant and product adding a phosphate group to a reactant reducing EA decreasing the potential energy difference between reactant and product

Correct
Enzymes work by reducing the energy of activation.

Part C
An enzyme _____. ANSWER:

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can bind to nearly any molecule is an organic catalyst is a inorganic catalyst increases the EA of a reaction is a source of energy for endergonic reactions

Correct
Enzymes are proteins that behave as catalysts.

Part D
What name is given to the reactants in an enzymatically catalyzed reaction? ANSWER: products active sites EA reactors substrate

Correct
This is the name given to the reactants in an enzymatically catalyzed reaction.

Part E
As a result of its involvement in a reaction, an enzyme _____. ANSWER: loses energy loses a phosphate group is unchanged permanently alters its shape. is used up

Correct
Enzymes are not changed as a result of their participation in a reaction.

Part F
What is the correct label for "A"?

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ANSWER: energy of activation substrate energy enzyme energy uphill ATP

Correct
The energy of activation must be overcome in order for a reaction to proceed.

Regulating Enzyme Action


Organisms require many different small molecules for their moment-to-moment activities. These small molecules are often produced in enzymatic pathways that have three or more enzymes making modifications to the substrate. These pathways must be regulated so that the small molecules are present in appropriate amounts. The image shows a hypothetical enzymatic pathway with four enzymes, labeled E1, E2, E3, and E4. The enzymes make products, labeled P0, P1, P2, P3, and P4.

Part A
Which of the following statements is most likely to be true in the case of the feedback-regulated enzymatic pathway shown?

Hint 1. How to approach the problem


In an enzymatic pathway such as the one depicted, there is a normal pattern of feedback inhibition. The inhibition usually involves the first enzyme in the pathway, since this enzyme catalyzes what is commonly known as the "committed step" of the pathway. To answer the question, think about what would be the most efficient way of regulating an enzymatic pathway, so that it is on when the products are needed, and off when there is too much of the product.

Hint 2. Identify how to regulate an enzymatic pathway


Which of the following is the most logical way to regulate an enzymatic pathway if you are trying to keep a constant level of product around? ANSWER: The initial reactant deactivates the last enzyme. The initial reactant deactivates the first enzyme. The final product inhibits the first enzyme. The final product activates the last enzyme.

ANSWER:

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P0 binds E4 and activates it. P2 binds E2 and activates it. P4 binds E1 and deactivates it. P3 binds E2 and activates it P4 binds E3 and deactivates it.

Correct
Many enzymatic pathways are regulated by the feedback inhibition model described here. In fact, it is so common that another name for it is endproduct inhibition.

Chapter 8 Question 1
Part A
Choose the pair of terms that correctly completes this sentence: Catabolism is to anabolism as _______ is to _______. ANSWER: exergonic; endergonic work; energy entropy; enthalpy exergonic; spontaneous free energy; entropy

Correct

Activity: Build a Chemical Cycling System

Click here to complete this activity. Then answer the questions.

Part A
What process occurs in structure H?

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ANSWER: protein synthesis ribosome synthesis intracellular digestion photosynthesis cellular respiration

Correct
Chloroplasts are the sites of photosynthesis.

Part B
What molecules belong in space A and B?

ANSWER: glucose and carbon dioxide glucose and oxygen carbon dioxide and water oxygen and water carbon dioxide and oxygen

Correct
Photosynthesis produces glucose and releases oxygen into the atmosphere.

Part C
What organelle is indicated by the letter C?

ANSWER:

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Golgi apparatus peroxisome chloroplast mitochondrion lysosome

Correct
Mitochondria are the sites of cellular respiration.

Part D
What molecules belong in spaces E and F?

ANSWER: oxygen and water glucose and oxygen carbon dioxide and water glucose, water, carbon dioxide, and oxygen carbon dioxide and oxygen

Correct
Carbon dioxide and water are by-products of cellular respiration.

Activity: Overview of Cellular Respiration

Click here to complete this activity. Then answer the questions.

Part A
What process occurs in Box A?

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ANSWER: electron transport and oxidative phosphorylation electron transport glycolysis oxidative phosphorylation the citric acid cycle

Correct
Glycolysis occurs in the cytosol.

Part B
What process occurs within Box B?

ANSWER: oxidative phosphorylation photophosphorylation the citric acid cycle electron transport glycolysis

Correct
The citric acid cycle transfers electrons to NADH and FADH2.

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Part C
What molecule is indicated by the letter D?

ANSWER: ATP water pyruvate oxygen glucose

Correct
Oxygen is the final electron acceptor of cellular respiration.

Activity: Redox Reactions

Click here to view this animation. Then answer the questions.

Part A
Which term describes the degree to which an element attracts electrons?

Hint 1.
Which is a property of atoms? ANSWER:

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Electronegativity. Reduction. Oxidation. Polarity.

Correct
Electronegativity is the tendency of an atom to attract electrons toward itself.

Part B
Which terms describe two atoms when they form a bond in which electrons are completely transferred from one atom to the other?

Hint 1.
How does the electrical state of each atom change? ANSWER: Proton and electron. Polar and nonpolar. Anion and cation. Ionic and covalent.

Correct
Each atom will carry a charge from the transfer of electrons.

Part C
Which of the following statements is true of the bonds in a water molecule?

Hint 1.
Consider the atomic properties of oxygen and hydrogen. ANSWER: There is equal sharing of the electrons between the oxygen atom and the two hydrogen atoms, and the net charge is zero. The electron in each hydrogen atom is completely transferred to the oxygen atom, and each hydrogen atom has a net charge of +1. Oxygen acts as the electron acceptor and is oxidized. Oxygen holds electrons more tightly than hydrogen does, and the net charge is zero.

Correct
The oxygen and hydrogen atoms in water have partial charges, but the molecule has a net charge of zero.

Part D
Which of the following statements is not true of most cellular redox reactions?

Hint 1.

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What happens to the electrons and bonds during a redox reaction? ANSWER: A hydrogen atom is transferred to the atom that loses an electron. The electron acceptor is reduced. The reactant that is oxidized loses electrons. Changes in potential energy can be released as heat.

Correct
A hydrogen atom (proton, or H+) is often transferred to the atom that gains an electron.

Part E
What kind of bond is formed when lithium and fluorine combine to form lithium fluoride?

Hint 1.
Consider the electrons in the outermost shell of each atom. ANSWER: Redox. Nonpolar covalent. Ionic. Polar covalent.

Correct
The complete transfer of an electron from lithium to fluorine results in a stable compound in which both atoms have full outermost shells.

Part F
Gaseous hydrogen burns in the presence of oxygen to form water: 2H2 + O2 2H2 O + energy Which molecule is oxidized and what kind of bond is formed?

Hint 1.
How are the electrons transferred? ANSWER: Oxygen, polar. Oxygen, nonpolar. Hydrogen, polar. Hydrogen, nonpolar.

Correct
Hydrogen loses electrons to oxygen, which is more electronegative and thus pulls the electrons closer to itself in the water molecule.

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Cellular Respiration (2 of 5): Glycolysis (BioFlix tutorial)


In glycolysis, the first stage of cellular respiration, one molecule of glucose is oxidized to two molecules of pyruvate, with the production of ATP and NADH. As you watch the Glycolysis animation, pay attention to the reactions involved in the production of NADH. These reactions, called redox (oxidation-reduction) reactions, play a key role in cellular respiration. Also pay attention to the mechanism by which ATP is synthesized. Think about how ATP synthesis at this stage differs from ATP synthesis during oxidative phosphorylation, where most of the ATP in cellular respiration is made.

Part A - Redox (oxidation-reduction) reactions in glycolysis


In glycolysis, as in all the stages of cellular respiration, the transfer of electrons from electron donors to electron acceptors plays a critical role in the overall conversion of the energy in foods to energy in ATP. These reactions involving electron transfers are known as oxidation-reduction, or redox, reactions. Drag the words on the left to the appropriate blanks on the right to complete the sentences.

Hint 1. Redox reactions


Under normal circumstances, redox reactions always occur in pairs. In the first of the two reactions, the electron donor is oxidized (it loses electrons). In the second reaction, the electron acceptor is reduced (it gains the electrons lost by the first compound). A generic redox reaction showing the transfer of two electrons is illustrated here.

Note that compounds A and B each exist in two forms: One form is reduced (it carries the extra electrons) while the other form is oxidized (it does not carry the extra electrons). In the reaction shown here, the electron donor is the reduced form of compound A and the electron acceptor is the oxidized form of compound B.

Hint 2. The oxidation of carbon-containing compounds


In the net reaction of cellular respiration, glucose (C6H12O6) is completely oxidized to CO2.

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Chapter 8 - Introduction to Metabolism

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In reality, glucose is not oxidized to CO2 in a single step, as suggested by the net reaction. Instead, there is a step-wise removal of 12 pairs of electrons from the carbon-containing intermediates of glucose catabolism (one pair at a time) until all of the carbons exist in the form of CO2. Two of the 12 pairs of electrons are removed in the reactions of glycolysis.

Hint 3. What are the electron carriers in glycolysis?


In glycolysis and the other stages of cellular respiration, electrons removed from intermediates in glucose catabolism are not passed directly to O2. Instead, electron carriers shuttle the electrons from the oxidation of the carbon-containing compounds to the eventual reduction of O2 to water. In glycolysis, which molecule picks up the electrons released by the oxidation of glucose?

Hint 1. Redox reactions involving NAD+ and NADH


Recall that compounds involved in redox reactions occur in pairs, an oxidized form and a reduced form. The most common pair of electron carriers in cellular respiration is NAD+ (the oxidized form) and NADH (the reduced form).

ANSWER: ATP O2 NAD+ NADH

Correct

ANSWER:

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Chapter 8 - Introduction to Metabolism

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All attempts used; correct answer displayed


In the net reaction for glycolysis, glucose (the electron donor) is oxidized to pyruvate. The electrons removed from glucose are transferred to the electron acceptor, NAD+, creating NADH.

Part B - Energy from glycolysis


Among the products of glycolysis, which compounds contain energy that can be used by other biological reactions?

Hint 1. Energy in carbon-containing compounds


In the overall process of cellular respiration, glucose is oxidized to carbon dioxide and much of the energy generated by the breakdown of glucose is used to make ATP. In glycolysis, however, glucose is only oxidized to pyruvate; no carbon dioxide is produced in this stage of respiration. In addition, only a small fraction (<10%) of the total ATP produced by cellular respiration is generated in glycolysis. Consider what this means in terms of the energy content of pyruvate and its oxidation in subsequent stages of cellular respiration.

Hint 2. ATP-- the energy currency of cells


The interconversion of ATP and ADP + Pi is a key step in the transfer of energy between reactions that release energy and those that require an input of energy.

Most of the ATP produced in our cells comes from the oxidation of foods in cellular respiration. The reverse reaction, the hydrolysis of ATP to ADP and Pi, powers most of the energy-requiring reactions that take place in cells, such as active transport and muscle contraction.

Hint 3. What is the fate of NADH produced by glycolysis?


Is the NADH produced in glycolysis used in any other reactions of cellular respiration where ATP is produced? ANSWER: Yes, NADH is an input to the citric acid cycle, where more ATP is produced. Yes, NADH is an input to oxidative phosphorylation, where more ATP is produced. Yes, NADH is an input to both the citric acid cycle and oxidative phosphorylation, where more ATP is produced. No, NADH is used in oxidative phosphorylation, but no additional ATP is produced. No, NADH is not used in any subsequent stages of cellular respiration.

ANSWER: ATP and NADH only CO2 only pyruvate, ATP, and NADH NADH only ATP only pyruvate and ATP only O2 only

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Chapter 8 - Introduction to Metabolism

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Correct
ATP is the main product of cellular respiration that contains energy that can be used by other cellular processes. Some ATP is made in glycolysis. In addition, the NADH and pyruvate produced in glycolysis are used in subsequent steps of cellular respiration to make even more ATP.

Part C - ATP synthesis in glycolysis: substrate-level phosphorylation


The ATP that is generated in glycolysis is produced by substrate-level phosphorylation, a very different mechanism than the one used to produce ATP during oxidative phosphorylation. Phosphorylation reactions involve the addition of a phosphate group to another molecule. Sort the statements into the appropriate bin depending on whether or not they correctly describe some aspect of substrate-level phosphorylation in glycolysis.

Hint 1. The reactions of glycolysis are catalyzed by soluble enzymes


All of the reactions of glycolysis are catalyzed by soluble enzymes located in the cytosol of the cell. None of the enzymes is associated with membranes.

Hint 2. Oxidative phosphorylation and ATP synthesis


In oxidative phosphorylation, the last stage of cellular respiration, energy released from the oxidation of NADH and FADH2 is used to produce ATP from ADP and free inorganic phosphate (Pi) ions. ANSWER:

Correct
In substrate-level phosphorylation, an enzyme transfers a phosphate group from one molecule (an intermediate in the breakdown of glucose to pyruvate) to ADP to form ATP. This is very different from the mechanism of ATP synthesis that takes place in oxidative phosphorylation.

Pathways for Pyruvate


In most organisms, the end product of glycolysis is pyruvate. Pyruvate still contains a substantial amount of energy, which can be further extracted. Whether the organisms are operating under aerobic or anaerobic conditions determines the metabolic pathway that pyruvate undergoes to produce more ATP. In this tutorial, you will identify the end products of these metabolic pathways.

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Chapter 8 - Introduction to Metabolism

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Part A - Products of pyruvate metabolism


Match each product of pyruvate metabolism with the condition under which it is produced. Drag each item to the appropriate bin.

Hint 1. Is the formation of acetyl CoA oxidation or reduction?


When pyruvate is _____ to acetyl CoA, NAD+ is reduced to NADH. ANSWER: oxidized reduced

Hint 2. An example of fermentation


Recall that wineries use fermentation to turn grape sugar into alcohol. This may help you remember that alcohols are a typical product of fermentation.

Hint 3. Fermentation in muscle cells


When animal muscles metabolize glucose faster than they can be supplied with oxygen, fermentation takes place, producing lactate rather than acetyl CoA. Organisms that normally produce energy using oxygen as an electron acceptor can use fermentation instead to generate energy when oxygen is absent.

ANSWER:

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Chapter 8 - Introduction to Metabolism

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Correct
In the presence of oxygen, human cells carry out aerobic respiration, which yields acetyl CoA. In the absence of oxygen, human cells can carry out lactic acid fermentation, which yields lactate. Yeasts and many bacteria carry out alcohol fermentation, which takes place under anaerobic conditions, and produces ethanol.

Part B - Reactants and products of lactic acid fermentation


Sort the following items according to whether they are reactants or products in the anaerobic reduction of pyruvate during lactic acid fermentation. Drag each item to the appropriate bin.

Hint 1. How to approach the problem


During a reduction-oxidation reaction such as the anaerobic reduction of pyruvate in lactic acid fermentation, there are always two entities involved. One of them gets reduced (gains electrons), and the other one gets oxidized (loses electrons). In the case of the reduction of pyruvate (the reducing agent), you need to determine which form of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide gets oxidized.
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Chapter 8 - Introduction to Metabolism

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Hint 2. What is the reduced form of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide?


Which of the following molecules is the reduced form of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide? ANSWER: NAD+ NADH NADH2 FADH2

ANSWER:

Correct
When an animal engages in strenuous usage of its muscles, anaerobic conditions ensue, and pyruvate is reduced to lactate. In the process, NADH is oxidized to NAD+. This NAD+ can further oxidize glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate to produce more ATP.

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Chapter 8 - Introduction to Metabolism

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Activity: Fermentation

Click here to complete this activity. Then answer the questions.

Part A
In muscle cells, fermentation produces _____. ANSWER: carbon dioxide, ethanol, NADH, and ATP carbon dioxide, ethanol, and NAD+ pyruvate lactate and NAD+ lactate, NADH, and ATP

Correct
These are the products of fermentation as it occurs in muscle cells.

Part B
In fermentation _____ is reduced and _____ is oxidized. ANSWER: NAD+ ... pyruvate NADH ... lactate lactate ... NADH lactate ... ethanol pyruvate ... NADH

Correct
The pyruvate from glycolysis is reduced to either lactate or ethanol, and NADH is oxidized to NAD+.

Misconception Question 40

Part A

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Chapter 8 - Introduction to Metabolism

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Which statement about the binding of enzymes and substrates is correct? ANSWER: Substrate molecules bind to the active site of the enzyme only by weak bonds, such as hydrogen bonds or hydrophobic attraction. When substrate molecules bind to the active site of the enzyme, the enzyme undergoes a slight change in shape. Substrate molecules fit into the active site of an enzyme like a key fits into a lock.

Correct
As the substrate enters the active site, the enzyme changes shape slightly due to interactions between the substrates chemical groups and chemical groups on the side chains of the amino acids that form the active site. This shape change makes the active site fit even more snugly around the substrate. This induced fit is like a clasping handshake. Score Summary: Your score on this assignment is 85.4%. You received 13.67 out of a possible total of 16 points.

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