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The term Comparative Literature was first used in the western countries, especially in America, France in the European countries. The term comparative occurs in the Middle English. It is derived from Latin term comparativus. Generally speaking comparison is a common instinct of human experience. This common instinct of human experience reveals itself in literary response and authentic appreciation and therefore now we speak of comparative literature. Comparative literature involves comparison of theme, genre, movement. It also involves comparison of two works or authors of even or uneven importance or magnitude, or significance or weightage similarities and dissimilarities are weighed in terms of systematically organised, scientifically arranged and intellectually convincing way in order to validate the comparison. According to H.H.Remak comparative literature is the study of literature beyond the confines of one particular country, and the study of the relationships between literature on one hand and other areas of knowledge and belief. Such as the arts,(eg. Painting, Sculpture, Architecture, Music), Philosophy, History, and Social Science (eg.Political, Economics, Sociology), Religion, etc., on the other. In brief

it is the comparison of one literature with another and the comparison of literature with spheres of human experience. The term comparative literature has its equivalents in other language as follow: In France it is known as literature compare. In Germany they can it vergleichenda literature. In Italy it is called litteraturacomparata. In Japan it is called Hikatabunkaku. In Tamil Nadu it is called Oppilakkanam. The term comparative is used by Shakespeare in Henry IV part I, and Henry V. Another writer Francis Meres used the term in A Comparative Discourse of our English poets with the Greek, Latin and Italian poets. In the 17th and 18th centuries, there are many examples. Dryden uses it in his Essay on Dramatic poetry and Matthew Arnolds touch stone involves comparative study. Growth of comparative literature depends upon the linguistic division of politically demarcated countries. For example Italy, Spain, Sweden and Holland are mono-lingual countries because in the Italy only Italian language is spoken. In Spain Swedish language is spoken and in Holland Dutch language is spoken. No second language is spoken in these countries. In monolingual countries national literature flourished. But still there is a possibility of comparing two or more national literature. Poly lingual countries and multilingual countries provide advantageous comparative literature. THE HISTORY AND THE CURRENT SITUATION OF COMPARATIVE

LITERATURE: Considering the history and the current situation of Comparative Literature, it appears that there is a consensus about its problematic nature and in some aspects; this problematic situation appears to be very acute again. Susan Bassnett, in her influential 1993 Comparative Literature: A Critical Introduction states that "Today, comparative literature in one sense is dead". While Bassnett may be right that Comparative Literature in the traditional centres -France, Germany, the United States -- is undergoing both intellectual and institutional

changes and a certain loss of position owing to factors such as the takeover of theory by English, the impact of cultural studies, the diminishing number of Comparative Literature professorships, etc., this loss of presence is occurring in the centres of the discipline and with regard to its own natural context of Eurocentrism and Euro-American centre. Clearly, Bassnett's pronouncement of the death of Comparative Literature is exactly from that Eurocentrism she otherwise is attempting to subvert and oppose in her book. And thus, curiously, Bassnett pays no attention to the strong development of the discipline and the promise its holds outside of the discipline's traditional centres: In the last two decades Comparative Literature has shown much promise in some countries and cultures where the discipline has not been very strong or, in some cases, in existence at all before. Interestingly, while the traditional centres of the discipline -- the mnage--trios of France, Germany, and the United States -- are at best able to maintain a status quo of the discipline, in China (Mainland), Taiwan, Japan, Brazil, Argentina, Mexico, Spain, Portugal, Italy, Greece, universities in the states of the former East Germany, etc., the discipline is emerging and developing strongly and this can be gauged by the emergence of new Comparative Literature journals, new chairs in Comparative Literature, a marked increase in publications, etc. In view of the well-known and much discussed intellectual insecurity and institutional liabilities of the discipline of Comparative Literature, the questioning of and an attempt to redefine the discipline -- in whatever context -- is a valid as well as timely exercise. Comparative Literature remains an embattled approach and discipline of the study of literature. Yet, it produces that meaningful dialogue between cultures and literatures that is its mark theoretically, in application, and in basic as well as higher level education. It will continue to have supporters, students, and disciples who value Comparative Literature's insistence on the knowledge about as well as the inclusion of the Other in the widest definition of the concept and its realities, its global and international nature, its

interdisciplinary, its flexibility, and its objective as well as ability to translate one culture into another by the exercise and love of dialogue between cultures.

EARLY WORKS: Works are considered foundational to the discipline of Comparative Literature include Transylvanian Hungarian Hugo Meltzl de Lomnitz's scholarship, also the founding editor of the journal ActaComparationisLitterarumUniversarum (1877) and Irish scholar H.M. Posnett'sComparative Literature (1886). However, antecedents can be found in the ideas of Johann Wolfgang von Goethe in his vision of "world literature" (Weltliteratur) and Russian Formalists credited Alexander Veselovsky with laying the groundwork for the discipline. Viktor Zhirmunsky, for instance, referred to Veselovsky as "the most remarkable representative of comparative literary study in Russian and European scholarship of the nineteenth century" (Zhirmunskyqtd. in Rachel Polonsky, English Literature and the Russian Aesthetic Renaissance;see also David Damroschl During the late 19th century, comparatists such as Fyodor Buslaev were chiefly concerned with deducing the purported Zeitgeist or "spirit of the times", which they assumed to be embodied in the literary output of each nation. Although many comparative works from this period would be judged chauvinistic, Eurocentric, or even racist by present-day standards, the intention of most scholars during this period was to increase the understanding of other cultures, not to assert superiority over them (although politicians and others from outside the field used their works for this purpose) SCHOOLS OF COMPARATIVISM:

There schools of comparative namely French school of comparativism, concentrated on the development of comparative literature. The French school of comparativism combined in itself historicism and positivism. Leading French comparatists are Jean Marie Carre, Rene Etimble, Paul Van Tieghem and Baldensperger academic freedom allowed in various compuses of college and Universities in America provide the basic for the study of comparative literature. In the Dravidian school of comparativism, any one of the Dravidian language provides the core literature and English or any other European becomes the reference one. The principles and theories of comparative literature in Dravidian school of comparativism are essentially more contrastive than analogistic. SubramaniyaBharathi, and kailasapati are some of Dravidian comparatists. THE FAMOUS COMPARATISTS: Here are some famous comparatists from different counties. Leading American Comparatists are H.H.Remak, Harry Levin, VernerFreidrich, Francois, Jost and Arthur Kunst. The philosophy of communism in Russia provided fertile soil for the growth of comparative literature. Leading Russian comparatists are Victor Shlovisky, Roman Jacobson, BoriesEichenbaum, YuryTynyonov and Zhirmunsky. STUDY OF INFLUENCE: French comparatist like Baldensperger, Paul Van Tieghen and Carre has made a deep in road in to the study of influence. For them the study of influence involves movement, theme, attitudes, and techniques from one writer or group of writer to another. According to the American comparatists influence should be more between one work and another work, rather than between one writer and another writer and it is more internal than external. The important comparatists who contributed to influence studies are Baskell Block, Claudi o Guillen, J.T.Shaw, Anna Balakian, S.S.Prawer and Ulrich Weisstein.

THE GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF COMPARATIVISM: The following are the norms, though they came from the particular set up of America, Russia, France, which become the general principles of comparativism as a whole. A combination of historicism and positivism is at the root of theories of comparative literature, developed in France. A tolerance and an uninhabited electricism leading to literary cosmopolitanismis at the root of the theories of comparative literature formulated in the setup of the U.S.A. I am actually working on an essay comparing two short stories as we speaks, I started mine project based on the short story of my lord the baby by Rabindranath Tagore from Bengali literature, and Mann by Aykkan from Tamil literature. Both short stories have a same circumstance and story about the parents, who were sacrifice their child for their goodness for the different reasons. My lord the baby is one of the short stories of Rabindranath Tagore, and this is one of the short stories in hungry stones and the other stories. The next short story is from the Tamil literature, named Mann written by Aykkan, the ancient Tamil writer. This is the famous Tamil emotional short story. This is expressed the female babies situation in early Tamil Nadu, India. Both stories have some similarities as well as some dissimilarity in it. In the second chapter we are going to deal about introduction of the first story My lord the baby by Rabindranath Tagore.


BIOGRAPHY OF TAGORE: My lord, the baby is the famous short story by Rabindranath Tagore. This story was first written in Bengali, and then translated in to English. Tagore was born May 7, 1861, in Calcutta, Bengal, India, which was then under British rule. His father was a famous religious reformer, mystic, and scholar who were popularly referred to as Maharshi, Great Sage. From 1879 to 1880, Tagore attended University College in London, but returned to India before completing his studies. At twenty-two, Tagore married his ten-year-old child bride. He published several volumes of poetry during the 1880s, and throughout the 1890s Tagore managed his family estates in rural Bengal. There he encountered the villagers upon whom many of his characters are based, and many of his most renowned short stories were written during this period. In 1901, Tagore founded an experimental school, combining Indian and Western thought and culture; this school became Visva-Bharati University in 1921. During the first decade of the new century, Tagore suffered extensive personal tragedy as he endured the deaths of his wife, his father, and three of his children. In 1913, he was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature for his poetry collection Gitanjali (1910; Song Offerings); he spent the following years travelling throughout Europe, Asia, and the Americas to lecture and read

from his works. Tagore was a supporter of the cause for Indian national independence from Britain, although he publicly criticized some of Gandhi's ideas. However, like Gandhi, Tagore was also active in combatting the Indian caste system. Throughout his life, Tagore was a prolific writer of novels, plays, popular songs, and numerous works of nonfiction. While in his seventies, Tagore began painting and made a significant contribution to modern Indian art. Tagore died on August 7, 1941. THE WORKS OF TAGORE: People know Tagore mainly as a poet. But his literary works include novels, essays, short stories, travelogues, dramas, and thousands of songs. He was also an expert painter. Novels and non-fiction Tagore wrote eight novels and four short novels (novellas). Some of them are: Gora, Chaturanga, ShesherKobita, Char Odhay, and Noukadubi. GhareBaire (The Home and the World). These works covered a variety of themes. "KAABOOLIWALA" is a tagore's children's literature. Tagores novels remain among the least-appreciated of his works. However, recently many movies have used the stories of these novels. Many movies also have soundtracks featuring selections from Tagore's Rabindrasangeet. Tagore also wrote many non-fiction books. These also covered many subjects including history of India, linguistics, essays and lectures, autobiography, and details of travels by him. Music and artwork Tagore was also an excellent musician and painter. He wrote around 2,230 songs. People call these songs as RabindraSangeet. Translated into English language, RabindraSangeet would mean "Tagore Song". These songs are now a part of present day culture of Bengali people. His many poems and songs are parts of his novels and stories. His songs and music cover

many aspects of human emotion, from devotional hymns to songs of love. In most of Bengali speaking families, people sing RabindraSangeet. Music critic ArtherStrangeways of The Observer first introduced his songs to non-Bengalis. He did this through his book named The Music of Hindostan. The book describes Tagore Song as a "vehicle of a personality ... [that] go behind this or that system of music to that beauty of sound which all systems put out their hands to seize." Among RabindraSangeet are two great works, which are now national anthems of two different countries, India and Bangladesh. Thus, Tagore is the only person in the world to have written the national anthems of two nations. They are: Bangladesh's Amar SonaarBaanglaa and India's Jana GanaMana. Rabindrasangit influenced the styles of such musicians like Vilayat Khan, BuddhadevDasgupta, and composer Amjad Ali Khan At age sixty, Tagore took interest in drawing and painting. Successful displays of his drawings and paintings took place in France and London. He made drawings and painted using many styles from different parts of the world. His styles included craftwork by the Malanggan people of northern New Ireland, Haida carvings from the Pacific Northwest region of North America, and woodcuts by Max Pechstein. Sometimes, Tagore used his handwritings in artistic styles on his manuscripts. Theatrical pieces When he was only a boy of sixteen years, he had performed in a drama organized by his brother, Jyotirindranath Tagore. When Tagore was of twenty years old, he wrote a drama named ValmikiPratibha (The Genius of Valmiki). This described the life of Valmiki, his change from a robber to a learned person, blessing to him by goddess Saraswati, and his writing of the Ramayana. Another notable play by him is DakGhar (The Post Office), describes how a child tries to escape from his confinement, and falls asleep. This sleeping is suggestive of death. This play

received reviews in many parts of Europe. In 1890 he wrote Visarjan (Sacrifice). Many scholars believe this to be his finest drama. The Bangla-language originals included intricate subplots and extended monologues. He wrote many other drams on a variety of themes. In Tagore's own words, he wrote them as "the play of feeling and not of action". RabindraNrityaNatya means dance dramas based on Tagores plays. Short stories Tagore wrote many stories during the period from 1891 to 1895. Galpaguchchha (Bunch of Stories) is a three volume collection of eighty-four of his stories. Tagore wrote about half of these stories during the period 1891 to 1895. This collection continues to be very popular work of Bangla literature. These stories have given ideas to produce many movies and theatrical plays. Tagore drew inspiration and ideas for writing his stories from his surroundings, from the village life of India. He saw the poor people very closely during travels to manage his familys large landholdings. Sometimes he used different themes to taste his depth of his intellect. Poetry Tagore's poetry is very varied, and covers many styles. He drew inspiration from 15th - and 16th century poets, as also from ancient writers like Vyasa. Bengals Baul folk singers also influenced his style of poetry. He wrote many poems when he was at Shelidah managing his familys estates. Many of his poems have a lyrical quality. These poems tell about the "man within the heart" and the "living God within". Over next seventy years, he repeatedly revised his style of writing poetry. In 1930s, he wrote many experimental works of poetry, and also used modernism and realism in his works.

One of his poems have words like: "all I had achieved was carried off on the golden boat; only I was left behind.". However, Tagore is known around the world for his, Gitanjali (Song Offerings), his best-known collection, winning him his Nobel Prize. A free-verse translation by Tagore of a verse of Gitanjali reads as follows: "My song has put off her adornments. She has no pride of dress and decoration. Ornaments would mar our union; they would come between thee and me; their jingling would drown thy whispers." "My poet's vanity dies in shame before thy sight. O master poet, I have sat down at thy feet. Only let me make my life simple and straight, like a flute of reed for thee to fill with music." TAGORE AS A SHORT STORY WRITER: His works are frequently noted for their rhythmic, optimistic, and lyrical nature. Such stories mostly borrow from deceptively simple subject matter: commoners. Tagore's non-fiction grappled with history, linguistics, and spirituality. Tagores writings style is simple and easy one. Now I am going to speak about the short story of Tagore, show that now we move on to Tagores short stories characteristics. Tagore wrote one hundred short stories during his abundant literary career. It was during the 1890s that he wrote 59 stories. Some Fifty or more stories are readily available in English in collections like Glimpses of Bengal life, Hungry Stones and other stories (1916), Broken Ties (1925), The parrots training (1944) and, Mashie (1918,) The Runaway (1959), some stories where translated from Bengali into English by the poet himself and the other by several qualities translator. Tagore is widely regarded as the inventor of the modern Bengali short story and is credited with introducing colloquial speech into Bengali literature. He has been compared to

such masters of the short story form as Edgar Allan Poe, Anton Chekhov, and Guy de Maupassant. Tagore's short fiction is often set in rural Bengali villages and is peopled by characters from the underprivileged sectors of society, reflecting Tagore's commitment to social realism in prose and his ten years among such individuals. Many of Tagore's short stories also include elements of the supernatural and bizarre. The celebrated Indian film director Satyajit Ray has adapted several of Tagore's tales into movies. Tagore deviated from the tradition way of story- telling and devised for himself a new structure. The short story of Tagore begins abruptly, develops around a trivial and ordinary incident or situation and ends with a twist when the readers curiosity about the story is almost acute. He presents life as vignettes and not in its totality or completeness. Thus Tagores stories are deliberately fashioned works of art and not straight forward tales of one event or more. Tagores stories were original creations having no influence from any western writers, realism mixed with Romanticism insight in to human minds absence of excessive passion and absence of exaggerated situation, make his stories singular. Till now I am dealt about only the writer of the short story My lord, the baby, that is the famous writer Rabindranath Tagore. His biography, other works in literature, and his characteristics of his short story writing. Now we I am going to deal about the short story My lord, the baby with its summary and famous quotes. MY LORD, THE BABY: My lord, the baby is one of the short stories of Rabindranath Tagore. This is taken from the collection of short stories, entitled Hungry Stones and other stories. This stories display the versatility of the great writer hang from the fanciful and supernatural in Hungry stones. To the delicate, pignance in the Home coming Tagore had remarkable capacity to

empathize with his character and his characterisation shows a great deal of psychological

insight. A master of the short story genius Tagore can provoke pathos and humour at the reader an objective view of otherwise sentimental situations. These stories have a firm narrative thread and are a delight to every reader, serious and not so. Hungry stones and other stories consists with nearly thirteen interesting stories with great narration. Those were almost more poetry than prose. Those thirteen short stories expressed several types of emotions and feeling but much number of stories expressed the pathos and some deep feelings of the man and woman in their inner heart. OUTLINE OF THE STORY: My lord, the baby is the story of the man, who sacrificed his baby for his beloved one. But he gives his baby to his master, a rich magistrate, because he became too old and he cant fulfil his sons dreams and his needs. The summary of the story is: The main character here is named Raicharan. He was only 12 years old when he became a servant. His Master made him a private servant to his Son. He took good care of him, until the time that the little Master Anukul grew up and got married. When Anukul had a son of his own.Anukul still made Raicharan his Sons private servant. If he used to call a little one, the child calls him as chacha. But fate got in the way; the little Master disappeared when Raicharan was taking him for a stroll. No one knows whether the Baby was taken by a group of Gypsies who were hovering nearby or He drowned in the river. Anukuls wife got so distressed and furious that there is no reasoning with her. The mother of the child accused him of kidnapped the child for the gold ornaments, it had no its body. Raicharan didnt ventures to break the mothers hope. Anyhow, she feels somewhere the child is alive. They made Raicharan go back to his Village. There he learned that his wife just gave birth to a Baby Boy but she died immediately. At first Raicharan didnt want to accept his Son because he knew that he cannot sire a child. But as the Boy grows, he can see similarities with his young master. And so he

thought that his son is the rebirth of the young master. His sister named the child as Phailna. Raicharan gave everything and anything his son would want, he made his son live like a rich man up to the point that he is sturbing himself to death.

"Ah! my little Master, my dear little Master, you loved me so much that you came back to my house. You shall never suffer from any neglect of mine." As thinking like this, he brought up him, with great care as a rich mans son. At last a time comes; he becomes too old, and couldnt meet out the needs of his son. So, he decided to go back to Anukul and told him that his son was with him all along; Raicharan let them think that hes the one who kidnap their son. Anukuls magistrate mind, first suspect it first. But his wife Padma accepted the boy at first sight. But they didnt allow him to stay there. It is really a pitiable situation, where he asked Anukul: "Where shall I go, Master?" said Raicharan, in a choking voice, folding his hands; "I am old. Who will take in an old man as a servant?" Raicharan broken, when his son too called (told) Anukul that: "Father, forgive him. Even if you don't let him live with us, let him have a small monthly pension." After hearing he left the place without alter word. It didnt suggest that is it means he has lost his son forever or it would mean his death the story relates the belief that there is rebirth (i.e.) life after death. Thus the story, in which patterned emotion, have been studied help the children understand there same emotions, lest the parent be a victim of the childs ignorance. This just goes to

show that a father can and is willing to sacrifice almost anything just for the good of his beloved son.

In this story Tagore deeply dealt about the fathers emotion for his son. When Phailan with Raicharan, he never felt that the feeling of a father for his child. Instead of he made himself as a servant to his son only. But when Phailan called Anukul papa, then he felt that how he lost his pleasure from his son as a father. But as a father he did his work. That means when he became too old, or when he cant fulfil his sons needs, he arranged a good future for his son by left him in the house of Anukul, whose child was missed by Raicharan, that is misunderstood by Anukul that his child was kidnapped by Raicharan.


INTRODUCTION OF THE AUTHOR: Mann is the famous and ancient Tamil short story written by Aykkan. In Tamil short story world, there are many figures, who are produced their literary works to us, even though they worked in the different fields. For example,IndraParthasarathy, KalaingarM.Karunanithi. In this list Aykkan is the most remarkable person. His original name is M. Ayyakkannu. He was born in September 1, 1935 at Kottaiyur. He finished his schoolings in Kottaiyur, higher secondary in PallathurArunachalamsettiyarhigher secondary school, and finished his degree in Alagappa College. From childhood he had much interest in art creativity, and then it changed in to short story and poems writings. His first short storyvalliyinThirumanam published in AnandhaVigadan, its become very famous, so he continued his writings. In interest developed to write dramas, novels, stories, literary works all. After completed M.A and P.T he joined as a college lecture in college. In

TiruppathurAarumugampillaiSeethaiyammal College he becomes head of the Tamil department. In his free time he wrote stories, essays, dramas, literary history. HIS AWARDS AND WORKS: Tamil Nadu government selected sixteen short stories for translating into twenty two languages. Included the stories of Peraringar Anna, MutharigarRajaji, KalaingarKarnanithi,

PuthumaiPithan, Ku. Alagiri, Jeyakanthan, R.Sudamani, Sujatha, and Aykkan also.Aykkan won lot of First prizes in many short story writing competitions, held by lot of organizations and many state governments. He won First prize in the short story writing competition held by world Tamil Marai research centre at Malaysia on 2005. He got first prize in story writing organized by Paris Tamil Club on 2007. All India Radio held a competition and it was won by Aykkan also, and his story translated in to nineteen national languages and made telecast in the Radio also. He got Tamil Nadu government first prize for three times for his stories. He won sakithya award for his "Sri stories. He won "NarkkathaiNambi" given by by




University Thamilashiriarmandram and Alagappa University. "EaluthuVenther" was given by Central Minister, Thiru. Pa. Chithambaram and V.G.P. Literary award also won by him. He wrote hundreds of short stories, novels, dramas, children stories, literary essays, all are published as books. His works are translated in to many languages like English, Bengali, Malayalam, kannadam,thelugu, Orissa, etc. His stories are speaks about the humanities with the nature of this sand. He wrote everything like social stories, dramas, children stories all are with the content and message to the society. When he started his first story valliyinThirumanam from that time he navar write a stories without a message or content. Irandavathu August 15 is a remarkable novel, it is based on the concept of Mahatma Gandhis words that is Villages are the heart of India, and if the politicians and Government officers are acted with the responsibility, our India get soul and growth also. He won first prizes in Amuthasurabi short novel competition, ThinamaniKathir historical novel writing competition, Kalki short story writing competition, Uyir (1972), Ilavenil (1977), Veer (1978), NeeyumNaanumVeeralla (1979), En Magan (1989) those are the most famous works of Aykkan in the world. MannninMallargal, Thavam, VediVelli,

Vellaithamarai, Nellikkani, Parimanangal, KarikalanKanavu, Shakthi, Maruppakkam,

NilalilNirkkumNijangal, MaareshaMaangal, TheerkkaSumangali, SaathikalMaaruthadi Papa, those are his famous short stories. Avanukkagamalipeigirathu is a novel. Pen Enraale, Kan those are examples for dramas. Kan was translated in to Hindi also. AthiyamaanKathali is historical novel; Vedivelli is the children novel, AnnamalaiArasar is the biography of Annamalaisettiyar. He is famous and well trained in the historical novels, essays creating by research the history. This novel got Literature Peeda prize. He did his job for the growth of writing story, essay critical drama also. His works are mostly in Tamil and then translated into many languages. Those are SaththiyaVelvi, KalviKaavalar, Pirpakal, AykkanKathikal, Ilakkihangkalsirukathaikkoorakal, Naan, Eni,

BharathiPaadiyaAathichudiKathaigal, KassaThevayani, TheerkkaSumangali, Vellaithamarai, Kan, AykkanSirukathaigal, Shakthi, Poopaalar, Pen Enraale, Vannakkanavugal,

PenninParinamangal, OnrilErandu, BharathikaatumBharatham, AthiyamaanKathali, Veer, Neithalilpoothakurinjee, etc. His books are prescribed for Chennai, Madhurai, Kovai, Thrichy Universities and Private colleges and schools in Singapur also. He wrote nearly one thousand short stories, novels, drama, those all published into seventy one books. So that he is a famous shot story writer, novelist, and dramatist also. His stories are Government prescribed lessons for the HSC and SSLC students also. His works are used to the M.Phil, and Ph.D students for their research. He was honoured by the World Academic of Arts &Culture in America for his literary works. He also is working as a head of the All India Writers Club. HIS CHARACTERISTICS: Aykkan was the most emotional short story writer. Mostly he wrote about,the bring out the pathos in the characters. In each and every stories of Aykkan expressed the strong moral as well as the emotional also. He wanted to people to realize their blind believes and

their wrong way of approaching their life problems like if they wanted to solve their financial problem they killed, their female babies by the fear of growing up the children. The people in early Tamil Nadu most of them uneducated, Tamil society also filled with evil things like female child murder, childhood marriage, sati, etc. The writing style of Aykkan is very simple and crisp one. Because the choice of word, he used are most common. Because most of his all short stories have a basic structure like opening scene, rising, peek of the story, falling scene and climax. His characters are mostly uneducated and poor family in Tamil Nadu. They are poor but the never ready to lose their pride. They should be the follower of moral activities, culture and humanities also. The themes in Aykkan's short stories are moral related to social problems; he always has theme from the social and its problems, and gives the solution for overcome the problem. The writer should be the reader of the society. Because,theycould change the world by their Pens.So that is truly proved, the pen mightier than the sword". Aykkan did the same duty in his society, to realizing the people of their faults. THE OUTLINE OF THE STORY: Now we were going to see about short story "Mann" by Aykkan. The following things are expressed the summary of the short story and its characteristics. "Mann" is the short story of a poor couple in Suarppatti, Tamil Nadu. Their names areRamaye and Karuppaiya. Karuppaiya is a coolie farmer; they got work for three or four month in a year. Sometimes they go for "Maikkatu" work also. From those work they got little bit of money, with those money they filled their half hungry stomach with liquid cool only. In Surappatti, the people are most uneducated and poor one. Dowry is the major problems of India and poor women. So they are afraid about to care of the women children. They never wanted to kill them; they are ready to accept them. Govindharaj is a minor

character, working in the seva service organization. He explained about the evilness of women child murder. Every one exciting to hear his speech but no one follows it. In that timeRamayi got a third women child. But that time they are very poor. They can't take care of the child because they already got two women children. They saved them from the child murder, But they didn't know how to took care of the another woman child. Then Govindraj came to them and say that Richard and lishi, the England couple. They wanted to adopt an Indian poor child. They are the financial helper of seva service organization. And Govindraj came there to gives the child to the couple instead of murder the child. So he asked permission to Karuppaiya and Ramaye to give their child. But the village people condemned for adaptation. But as a mother Ramaye dont Want to kill her child, so she gives her child to the couple. She satisfied with that her child was not died, but it is living in the unseen place.So against the thought of the village people, she did it. Twenty one years after the adopted child will come to the village to see her parents in the name of Chinnathaye. For her welcome the full Surappatti village have a festival appearance. The village people are waiting from her visit, to see her. Because she born in India, and grownup as an England people. Govindraj took Richard, Lishi, and Chinnathaye to Surappatti. When they entered in to the village the women made a different sound called Kulavai in Tamil, and put Garlands in their necks, and took aarthi in front of Ramayes house. When Chinnathaye see her parents, she become very emotional, and she huge them and ask, Aatha! Appa! Nalamaierukkirgala? Her eyes are filled with tears. The village people are surprised to see her, she speak Tamil very well. Richard and Lishi are belongs to the generation of G.U.Pope, who came to Tamil Nadu, and learn the language very well, and then he translated the works Thirukkural, Thiruvasagam, in to English. When they see Tamilans,

they are happy to speaking in Tamil. Chinnathayewas well known about her parents from her childhood. So she wanted to see her parents, so that the couple bring her here. When Chinnathaye came to meet her parents, Ramayeprepared lot of south Indian food verities. And she feed food to her in her hands with lot of pleasure also. Some news reporters came to took Interview to Chinnathaye. Then she said to them that she was very happy to see her birth mann, but also she sad about her family situation. After the interview she goes to all village people house and took food given by them. After three days Chinnathaye and her family started to move from the Surappatti, Karuppaiya and Ramaye without heart they sent their daughter to England. In the way Lishi said to Govindraj that she cant forgot the love showed by Ramaye family, even though they are very poor,Chinnathaye can help her family without them permission, but she cant do it. So, she was really proud of the Indian women culture and character. Then she took two lakhs from her hand bag, gave it to Govindraj, and said that give this money to Ramayes family. Then they went away. When Govindraj came to Ramayes house to give money to them, they are refused to have it. Ramaye says that they have a wealth of child, so she gave her child to the couples only, not for sales, so please return the money to them. When Richard and Lishi hear these words of Ramaye, them they felt much proved about her. Because even though they are poor, they not get money from them in the name of help. In this story Ramaye played a vital role. Because even though as a traditional Tamil woman, she broke the limits of her village in the adaptation issue. As well as she expressed herself as a real Indian woman in her character. Then Chinnathaye character is one of the major characters in the story. Because, she was grownup in the foreign country, but her character are similar with her mother as a traditional Tamil woman.


I am actually working on an essay comparing two short stories as we speak, I started mine project on the short story My lord, the baby by Rabindranath Tagore from the Bengali literature, and Mann by Aykkan from the pure traditional Tamil literature. Though both stories have many similarities and dissimilarities also. But the both stories are based on the Indian culture, but India is many cultured country, like Bengali, Tamilian, Orissian, etc. so in that manner these both stories are taken from the different cultured based one. Here we are going to compare the themes, settings, protagonists, plots, cultures, dictions, narration, structures, length and influence of the both short stories. THE THEMES: The theme of the short story My lord, the baby by Rabindr anath Tagore is Sacrifice. Because in that story a father sacrifice his son to the other couple, in the problem of financial, because when he became too old, he cant fulfil his sons dreams and needs also. So he decided to give him to the rich couple, whose son was missed by him in many years before. So he lied to them that his son was the son of the couple, who missed the child. So this story has the theme of Sacrifice. In the Tamil story, this Sacrifice is the same theme in Mann by Aykkan. Because, he presented the character Ramaye, instead of the character of Raicharan in My lord the

baby.Ramaye also sacrificed her Daughter to the foreign couple for their adaptation. Because, she is a poor family woman, who can took care of the three female children in the early Tamil Nadu, where the female babies are killed by their mothers also, to save the babies from the poverty. So the both stories have a same theme Sacrifice. Both main characters are given their child to the rich people for the goodness of the children. And the reason for their decision of sacrifice their children are same, that is poverty. THE SETTINGS: Tagore's short fiction is often set in rural Bengali villages and is peopled by characters from the underprivileged sectors of society, reflecting Tagore's commitment to social realism in prose and his ten years among such individuals. So that the short story My lord, the baby took place at the Bengali village side that was a district on the banks of the Padma. And the main character Raicharan is a poor and unfortunate one also. Aykkan was a social writer. He wrote everything with a message or content. And mostly he wrote about the village people. So, naturally, his setting also a rule village side of the early India. The people in his stories are mostly uneducated and they were filled with lot of blind believes. The same type of setting and characters are presented in the short story Mann. Because the story take place at the village named, Surappatti. The minor characters were illiterate and unknown people. So the both stories have a same type of setting. Both are from the rule side of the state. And both village people were come from the underprivileged sectors of society. So there is a similarity among the both stories settings. THE PROTAGONISTS:

The both stories protagonists have the same qualities. Raicharan from My lord, the baby and Ramaye from Mann are the most innocent characters. Because,when Richaran thought that his son was the rebirth of his masters son, the little master, and he grownup his son with all the richness. And he did everything for his son only. He never consider him as his son, instead of he see him as his little master. At last he gives his son to his master Anukul also. So these all things are showed his innocence. In the story Mann Ramaye is the most innocent and a courageous character. Because when she decided to give her child to the foreign couple, against the decision of the village people, then she showed her courageous. When she gives her child to the couple and refused to have money help from the couple, she exposed herself as a good hearted and traditional woman of the Tamil Nadu.So there are some similarities between the both protagonists of the short stories. THE PLOTS: The plot of the short story My lord, the baby is about the story of a father, who is willing to sacrifice almost anything just for the good of his beloved son. The plot of this story is a story of Raicharan. Raicharanwas a servant of the Anukul, then his son also. When he took Anukuls son for walk on the river side. Then he missed this little master in the river. As a mother Anukuls wife become very worry about the child, and she condemned on Raicharan that he was kidnapped the child. So he as return to his village, then he found that his wife gives birth to the baby and then died. He first not accepts the child, but he realized his activities are same as his little master. So he grownup the child with lot of richness, but in his old age he cant fulfil his sons needs. So, he decided to go back to Anukul and told him that his son was with him all along; But they were accepted the boy at first sight. But they didnt allow him to stay there. His son also believes that he kidnapped him. So he came out. Nearly a dead one.

The plot of the story Mann is the story about the poor mother Ramaye.Ramaye was a poor mother, already got two female child. In her village the mothers also killed the female children, because they are very poor and they has a fear about took care of the female children. So female child murders are happened often in the village, but Ramaye saved her two female children from the evilness.This time the village people are came to force her to murder the third female child. Then Govindraj came to her and asked for the adaptation of her child. But the village people condemned for adaptation. But as a mother Ramaye dont Want to kill her child, so she gives her child to the couple. She satisfied with that her child was not died, but it is living in the unseen place. After 21 years she returns to his parents and feel sad about their poverty. After 3 days she returns to England with her adapted parents Richard and Lishi. In the way Lishi said to Govindraj that she cant forgot the love showed by Ramaye family, even though they are very poor, Chinnathayecan help her family without their permission, but she cant do it. So, she was really proud about the Indian women culture and character. Then she took two lakhs from her hand bag, gave it to Govindraj, and said that give this money to Ramayes family. Then they went away. When Govindraj came to Ramayes house to give money to them, they are refused to have it. Ramaye says that they have a wealth of child, so she gave her child to the couples only, not for sales, so please return the money to them. When Richard and Lishi hear these words of Ramaye, them they felt much proved about her. Because even though they are poor, they not get money from them in the name of help. So there are some similarities among the both stories. But the plots of the stories are different from the other. The first story based on the mechanical life of the father and the son life. And the second story based on the fully emotional life of a mother and daughter. THE CULTURES:

The both stories are based on the Indian culture, but India is many cultured country, like Bengali, Tamilian, Orissian, etc. So in that manner these stories are taken from the different cultured based one. The First short story My lord, the baby is the Bengali cultured story. In the North Indian culture, there is not much importance for women characters. In the Mann story was based on the pure traditional Tamil culture. The both Bengali and Tamil culture are the most traditional and ancient cultures of the world. And the both cultures have some similarities, like a mothers love for her children. It is expressed by the characters of Anukuls wife and Ramaye from the both stories. But the feelings of the children in the both stories are different from each other. THE STRUCTURES: Tagore deviated from the tradition way of story- telling and devised for himself a new structure. The short story of Tagore begins abruptly, develops around a trivial and ordinary incident or situation and ends with a twist when the readers curiosity about the story is almost acute. He presents life as vignettes and not in its totality or completeness.So, My lord, the baby has the same structure given above. In the structure of the Tamil short story has a simple and proper structure. The structure of the Tamil story Mann have opening, middle and the falling scenes. So, that the structure of the stories are different from each other. THE DICTIONS: Naturally Tagores dictions have simplicity and musical quality. His diction became colloquial, close to the everyday language of man. The vocabulary is simple, easy, and familiar and the grammatical constructions are also easy. So he used this type of diction in his short story My lord, the baby. In Aykkans diction is the most familiar with the diction of Tagore. Because, he was used very simple and common language in his all works. So the

same diction was used in the shot story Mann by Aykkan. So the dictions of the both stories are similar with each other. THE NARRATIONS: There are many types of narrations. Those are first person narrative, then the story was narrated by the characters, and sometimes the story written in the form of story narrated by the writer also. So, in the story My lord, the baby was narrated by the writer himself, and the Tamil short story Mann was narrated by the writer also. So the both stories are narrated by the writers also. THE LENGTHS: When we going to compare the lengths of the both stories are different from each other.Because the story My lord, the baby nearly have 3,001 words in its text. In the same way the Tamil short story Mann have nearly 2,000 words. So both stories are different in its lengths. THE INFLUENCES: Tagores stories were original creations having no influence from any western writers, realism mixed with Romanticism insight in to human minds absence of excessive passion and absence of exaggerated situation, make his stories singular. So, this story also a own creation of the writer, Tagore. And,Aykkanwas an own creativity writer also. His works are became influencesfor the others works. Mann is also the original work of Aykkan. So the both stories have similarities among their influences. THE DIALOGUE:

The dialogues are the small part in the short stories. Its played a vital role in the plays only. But there is a need of Dialoguesfor revealing the emotions of character in the short stories./ but now-a-days short stories are mostly contain with the dialogue. The first short story My lord, the baby has some dialogue in it. Which are speak by Raicharan, Anukul, his wife, and Phailna. The dialogues from the month of Raicharan are mostly emotional and pitiable one. For example: His innocence was expressed in his dialogue, when he find his little masters activity in his sons action. Then she says: "Ah," he said to himself with amazement, "the mother's heart was right. She knew I had stolen her child." "Ah! my little Master, my dear little Master, you loved me so much that you came back to my house. You shall never suffer from any neglect of mine." His pitiable situation expressed in his dialogue. He says: "Where shall I go, Master?" said Raicharan, in a choking voice, folding his hands; "I am old. Who will take in an old man as a servant?" The dialogues of Anukuls wife are mostly hurt towards Raicharan, and emotional one, when she speaks about her child missing. Her motional words are: "Raicharan, give me back my baby. Oh !give me back my child. Take from me any money you ask, but give me back my child!" The words of phailna are much unbearable for his father Raicharan. Those are: "Father, forgive him. Even if you don't let him live with us, let him have a small monthly pension."

The second story of this comparison is Mann by Aykkan. He normally wrote many dialogues, to express the feelings of the characters in his works. In Mann, he wrote lots of dialogues, which are speaks by Ramaye, Chinnathaye, Richard, Lishi, and Govindraj. And some dialogues are speaks by some village people. When Chinnathaye speaks her dialogues, those are full of love for her parents. And, her sadness for her parents poverty. Her love for her parents is expressed in her dialogue: Aatha!Appa! Nalamaierukkirgala? Her love for her birth soil (mann) is expressed in her dialogues, and her sad feeling for poverty of her parents are clearly showed in her dialogues. Then her mother Ramayes dialogues are showed her love for her children and her qualities of an Indian woman, and her courageous. Then her adopted parents Richard and Lishi, their dialogues are expressed the good qualities of an Indian women and, they showed the interest of Tamil language among the England people. Govindrajs dialogues are presented the evilness of the female child murder. So the both stories are written with lot of dialogue, but the those dialogues are dissimilarities from other also. THE CONFLICTS: There are two types of conflicts are presented in the literary works. Those are inner conflicts, and outside conflicts. The inner conflicts mean the conflict within a single character. That means a character conflict with himself also. The outside conflicts mean a character conflict with other character in outside. So there are conflicts in the both stories also. In the story My lord, the baby there are lot of conflicts. The both conflicts are presented in the story. When Raicharani missed his masters child in the river side, then there is a conflict between Anukul

and Raicharan, which is called outside conflict. When Raicharans own son neglected his father, in the climax of the story he had inner conflict with himself. In the another story Mann also have inner and outsideconflicts, when Ramaye gave birth to her third female child, then the whole village people are came to forced her to kill the child. Then she had conflict with the village people that are called outside conflict. When Govindraj ask Ramaye for the adaptation of the child, then she had a conflict with herself. So that there are conflicts are similar with each other. But the reasons for the conflict are dissimilarities with each other. This is the comparison of the two short stories. My lord, the baby and Mann. Those stories are similar with influence, narration, diction, protagonists, settings, themes. And dissimilar with the conflict, dialogue, length, plot, cultures.


The comparative literature is a study in term of comparisons and contrasts of different kinds of literatures, cultures, customs and different countries. It contributes to the mutual appreciation of literary experiences of various people. It is a creative art. In this project I dealt about the comparison of the two short stories: MY LORD, THE BABY by RABINDRANATH TAGORE, and MANN by AYKKAN. The two texts bear too many differences concerning their structure, style and motives to call My lord, the baby and Mann. The aim of a literary critic studying the text is, consequently, that of analyzing the similarities and differences between the two short stories and providing plausible explanations for their occurrence. This, however, is not the aim of this thesis, which only strives to show the possible directions of future research and stresses the eventual points of controversy. In the first chapter I dealt about the introduction of the comparative literature. In that chapter I dealt about the definition of comparative literature, history and current situations of comparative literature, schools of comparativism, and dealt about the early works of comparative literature, study of influence, the famous comparatists, and the general principle of comparativism. In the second chapter I wrote on the title of introduction of the short story my lord, the baby by Rabindranath Tagore. In that chapter was contained with the biography of Tagore, and his works, Tagore as a short story writer, and the introduction of the story and the summary of the story. On the title of introduction of the short story Mann by Aykkan, I wrote a third chapter with the dealing of introduction of the author (Aykkan),

and his winning awards and the works of the author, and the characteristics if the writer on writing short story, and the summary of the story of Mann. The main part of the project is the fourth chapter, which is dealt with the comparison of the two short stories: My lord,the baby by Rabindranath Tagore and Mann by Aykkan. In that chapter I dealt about the comparison among the themes, settings, protagonists, plots, cultures, dictions, narrations, structures, lengths, and influence, conflicts, and dislogues of the two short stories. In my point of view comparative literature is used to readers to choose the best work. Because,by comparing the works, the works have its own values. So that it used to analyse the works. Now a days comparative literature is developing in the literary field. Be cause in the present time the comparative literature also taken as a syllabus for the schools and colleges also.The curriculum in comparative literature has two major objectives: while training students in one literary tradition, it also requires them to be seriously interested in at least two other literatures as well as in the historical, critical, and theoretical problems raised by the study of literature. The course of study prior to the general examination reflects these objectives. It generally requires four semesters, depending on the student's preparation, background, and performance, and includes course work in comparative literature and the student's major and minor literatures.The terms "Comparative Literature" and "World Literature" are often used to designate a similar course of study and scholarship. Comparative Literature is the more widely used term in the United States, with many universities having Comparative Literature departments or Comparative Literature programs. In principle, the discipline of Comparative Literature is in toto a method in the study of literature in at least two ways. First, Comparative Literatures means the knowledge of more than one national language and literature, and/or it means the knowledge and application of other disciplines in and for the study of literature and second, Comparative Literature has an ideology of inclusion of the Other, be that a marginal literature in its several meanings of

marginality, a genre, various text types, etc. Historically, it is true that Comparative Literature demonstrated a focus on European literatures and later on European and American literature, and thus the current criticism of the discipline's Eurocentrism makes sense to a point (see Bernheimer). At the same time, however, the discipline paid more attention to "Other" literatures than any of the national literatures. My designation focuses on the two main aspects of these compatible frameworks, namely on the "systemic" and the "empirical." These two theoretical and methodological elements and principles are enlarged by and merged with the framework of Comparative Literature I suggested with my Strategy of Comparative Literature which, in all, results in my proposed New Comparative Literature. Thus, the proposed type of Comparative Literature and the chiefly methodological framework of The Systemic and Empirical Approach to Literature and Culture result in a combination where there is mutual enrichment of compatibility in theory and, as I will demonstrate, in application. There is current development in comparative literature. There is a movement among the comparatists in the US and nation- based approach with which it has previously been associated towards a cross- cultural approach that pays no need to national borders, works of this nature include AlamgirHashmis the commonwealth comparative literature and thf world, GayatriChakravorthySpivaks death of a discipline, David Damroschs what is world literature?, Steven Totosy de Zepetnek concept of comparative cultural studies and Pascale casanovas The world republic of letters. It remains to be seen whether this approach will prove successful given that comparative literature had its roots in nation based thinking and much of the literature under study still concern issues of the nation- state. Given developments in the studies of globalization and interculturalism comparative literature, already representing a wider is well suited to move away from the paradigm of the nation state. While in the west comparative literature is experiencing institutional constriction, there

are signs that in many parts of the world the discipline is thriving specially in Asia, Latin, America, the Carbbean, and the Mediterranean, current trends in translational studies also reflect the growing importance of postcolonial literary figures such as GianninaBraschi, J.M.Coetzee, MaryseConde, Earl Lovelace, V.S.Naipaul, Michal ondaetige,WoleZoyinka. ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------