Anda di halaman 1dari 72

TRAINING FOR CONTRACTORS WELDING SUPERVISOR

PREPARED BY : J. B. PATEL

INTRODUCTION AND OVERVIEW

(A) SHOP WELD PLAN (SWP)

SHOP WELD PLAN (SWP)


SEAM NUMBERS: These are sequential numbers used for identification of weld seam for NDT purpose. BASE METAL: P-Numbers: These are materials having similar properties which are grouped in order to reduce number of PQR and WPS. JOINT DETAILS: This is shown at the bottom of SWP. It gives a brief idea about weld joints. WELD PROCESS: SAW: Submerged Arc Welding SMAW: Shielded Metal Arc Welding FCAW: Flux Cored Arc Welding GMAW: Gas Metal Arc Welding GTAW: Gas Tungsten Arc Welding

SHOP WELD PLAN (SWP)


LAYERS: Overlay Barrier and Subsequent layers. Groove 2-Run and All. WPS NO.: e.g. 130-174 (45316) Welding must be done in accordance with the specified WPS no. along with the project no. unless otherwise specified by the welding engineer. WELDING MATERIAL: Flux, electrodes, strips, wire spools as specified. FILLER MATERIALS: F-Numbers: These are materials having similar properties which are grouped in order to reduce number of PQR and WPS.

SHOP WELD PLAN (SWP)


PQR No.: e.g. 3398. These are specified numbers which support the WPS. PREHEAT TEMPRATURE AND ITS IMPORTANCE: It is the temperature prior to start welding. INTERPASS TEMPRATURE AND ITS IMPORTANCE: It is the temperature of the base metal prior to start consecutive bead. POSITION: Flat, Horizontal, Vertical and Overhead. NOTES: The Serial No. is to be referred thoroughly from the lower-right corner of SWP. REVISION IN SWP: Refer revision shown in category.

WELD PROCEDURE SPECIFICATION (WPS)

WELD PROCEDURE SPECIFICATION (WPS)


This is a welding procedure specification containing all welding parameters that are to be maintained during welding. For e.g. flow rate of shielding and purging gas, current and voltage range, travel speed, bead length, type of polarity. SIGNIFICANCE OF WPS WITH JOB NO.: WPS with job no. shown in SWP must be used on job unless otherwise instructed by the welding engineer. WELDING POSITIONS: Groove positions Plate Pipe 1G: Flat 1GR: Flat with Job 2G: Horizontal 2G: Horizontal 3G: Vertical 5G: Welder 4G: Overhead 6G: 45 degree W

WELD PROCEDURE SPECIFICATION (WPS)

WELD PROCEDURE SPECIFICATION (WPS)

WELD PROCEDURE SPECIFICATION (WPS) Fillet positions: Plate

45o

1F:

2F:

3F:

4F:

WELD PROCEDURE SPECIFICATION (WPS)

MEASUREMENT OF ODD PREHEAT AND INTERPASS


IMPORTANCE OF TEMPERATURE STICKS & HOW TO MEASURE?

PREHEAT TEMPERATURE

Preheating is decided on basis of thickness of material,type of material and process. Reason to preheat: To slow down cooling rate. To reduce Thermal indifference. To control moisture and Hydrogen which will may create problem of crack and porosity. It is measured on base material T thickness from seam.

MEASUREMENT OF ODD PREHEAT AND INTERPASS


IMPORTANCE A)TEMPERATURE OF PREHEAT MUST BE ON HIGHER SIDE OF GIVEN PREHEAT. B)TEMPERATURE OF INTERPASS MUST BE ON LOWER SIDE OF GIVEN INTERPASS.

e.g:If interpass temperature is 275c temp stick available with welder is 250c He can use or not? Answer :Yes

MEASUREMENT OF ODD PREHEAT AND INTERPASS


e.g:If preheat temperature is 150c temp stick available with welder is 125c He can use or not? Answer :No.
Note: For preheat measure with higher temp stick. For interpass measure with lower temp stick.

MEASUREMENT OF ODD PREHEAT AND INTERPASS

Note :check interpass before starting another consecutive bead.Apply Temperature chalk t:thickness apart from weld seam on Base metal.

PARAMETER SLIP IMPORTANCE

Parameter slip :It is a Slip given to welder containing welding parameters to be used during welding . Barcode (LEMF):Ensure Issue of barcode to each welder must be given of that particular seam only. For SMAW/GTAW:Bead Length For SAW/FCAW/GMAW:Travel Speed

IMPACT/NON IMPACT WPS.

Weaving :Allowed 3times diameter of Electrode. e.g : 3.15mm diameter electrode used 3.15x3=9.45mm allowed.

IMPACT/NON IMPACT WPS.

Bead length:It is the length of weld metal deposited on base metal by one single electrode. Dia(length):3(75mm),4(125mm) e.g:

IMPACT/NON IMPACT WPS.

Weaving and Bead length control must be there during welding joints having impact WPS. As more heat input will be there due to crossing above parameter which will leads to coarse grain structure, which is very hard and brittle in nature and at the end it fails in IMPACT TEST.

TEST PLAN

All Joints of jobs have seam no: for NDT identification. From test plan we can able to see each and every stage for NDT of particular seam. Note :move to further stage after completing NDT of above stage. BaaN system is available through we can offer seam for NDT to Inspection.

TEST PLAN

PTC:Production Test Coupon. Mentioned in Drawing and TEST PLAN. It is to be weld along with seam .

TEST PLAN

PTC is only mean to know properties by doing Destructive Testing. Note:Ensure PTC to be welded along with JOB. Failure of PTC is Failure in Job which will leads to cutting of that seam by raising NCR.

WELDING QUALIFICATION

Welder Qualification Qualification done as per ASME SEC IX. ASME SECTION IX:Welding and Brazing Qualification. WML:Welder Master List It is list of Qualified Welders working in organization through which we can get full information of welder.

WELDING QUALIFICATION
WML CONTAINS. a)STAMP NO:It is identification number given to welder. b)NAME:Name of the welder. c)TEST DATE:Date on which welder welded test coupon. d)SPOT CHECK DATE:Date on which spot check was done by L&T person.

WELDING QUALIFICATION
WML cont e) VALIDITY DATE:Date on which welders validity to weld on JOB vanish.Duration is of 6 months from the test date or Spot check date. f) WELDING PROCESS: e.g.SMAW/SAW/GMAW/FCAW etc. g) WPS NO:Welding Procedure Specification followed during welding test coupon. h) POSITION:Position of welding during welding test coupon (Specified above).

WELDING QUALIFICATION
WML cont i) THICKNESS OF TEST COUPON: Pipe or plate thickness to be mentioned that welded during welding test coupon. j) 1st P NO:Parent material no to be specified. k) 2nd P NO:Parent material no to be specified. l) DIAMETER(mm):Diameter of Pipe welded during welding Test coupon. m)1st F NO:Filler no used in welding qualification. n) 2nd F NO:Filler no Qualified with.

WELDING QUALIFICATION
WML cont

o) P NO: P no qualified with. p) POSITION:Position qualified with. q)THICKNESS:Thickness of weld metal qualified with.(GROOVE)/Thickness of base metal qualified with.(OVERLAY). r) DIAMETER(mm):Diameter qualified with. s) INSPECTION AGENCY:Name of inspection agency. t) CONTRACTOR: Name of contractor.

WELDING QUALIFICATION
A Mandatory Requirement from Codes /Stds / Regulations Qualification Tests in accordance with the Applicable Code / Standard / Regulation. Acceptance Criteria of Test Results as per the Code of Construction Qualification Records and Test Results to be Documented

WELDING QUALIFICATION

Qualification Requirements For Equipments to be Made as per ASME Boiler & Pressure Vessel Code
ASME Sec IX + Applicable Design Code (Sec.VIII Div I or II, Sec. I, Sec. III)

WELDING QUALIFICATION

Welders or Welding Operators Performance Qualification

WELDING QUALIFICATION
Ascertain the skill of a welder or a welding operator to Produce defect free/Sound weld Makes A Weld Coupon Using an Approved WPS of a Qualified Procedure. Weld Coupon Undergoes Soundness Test Each Qualified Welder Shall be Assigned by A Unique Welder Number Welders Qualifications Records Are Documented Performance Qualification limited to the essential variables of the Specific Process

WELDING QUALIFICATION
How To Qualify Groove Butt Weld Procedure? 1) Read & Understand ASME Sec. IX - Welding Data - Essential, Non Essential & Supplementary Essential Variables. - Test Requirements - Testing Procedures ASME Sec.II Part C. - Classification of Welding Consumable - Properties of Consumables

WELDING QUALIFICATION
CONT.. 2) Write A Welding Procedure Specification - WPS Provides Direction for A Specific Welding - WPS Shall Include All Essential, Supplementary Essential & Non Essential Variables - WPS Format Available in ASME Sec. IX. - Each WPS Shall be Assigned with A Unique Number.

WELDING QUALIFICATION
CONT 3) Prepare A Test Coupon As Per WPS - Coupon Size: Pair of 300 mm X 150mm Plate Or as Specified in WPS - All Other Details as per Written WPS - Complete the Welding by Reasonably Skilled Welder - All Welding Variables Shall be Used Within the Limit Specified in WPS. - All Variables Actually Used Shall be Documented as Annexure to PQR ( Procedure Qualification Record)

WELDING QUALIFICATION
CONT

4) NDT Of Weld Coupon - Optional X-Ray / Radiograph the Weld Joint ( Not a Code Requirement ) Mark Transverse Tensile & Guided Bends As Per QW461 Eliminate Defective Weld Portion If Any, while Marking the Test Specimens Preserve RT Report & X-Ray Film as Annexure to PQR

WELDING QUALIFICATION
CONT 5) Mechanical Tests Qw 451, Groove Weld. Up to 10 mm Thickness - Root Bend :- 1No - Face Bend :- 2No 10-19 mm Thickness - Side Bend :- 2No - OR Root Bend :- 1No Face Bend :- 1No Over 19mm Thickness - Side Bend :-2No

WELDING QUALIFICATION
Cont 6) Acceptance Criteria for Test Results. Bend Test (Qw 163) - Opening Not More Than 3.2 mm in Any Direction on Convex Surface Within the Weld & HAZ RT(Qw 191.2.2) - Read from code. ASME SEC IX

WELDING QUALIFICATION
Performance limits.(QW452.1b)GROOVE
Thickness t of Weld Metal in the Coupon in mm ( in) All Thickness of Weld metal Qualified

2t

13 (1/2) and Over With Minimum Three Layers

Maximum To Be Welded

WELDING QUALIFICATION
GROOVE POSITIONS :QW461
Sr No.
1 2 3 4 5

Groove Position
1G Flat 2G Horizontal 3G Vertical 4G Over Head 5G

Base Metal Position Plate


Horizontal Vertical Vertical Horizontal NA

Pipe
Pipe Axis Horizontal in Rotation Pipe Axis Vertical NA NA Pipe Axis Fixed Horizontally Pipe Axis Fixed 45 inclined

Inclination of Axis in
0 -15 0 - 15 80 90 15 - 80 0 - 80 0 -15

6G

NA

+ or - 5

WELDING QUALIFICATION
Position & Dia Limits-: QW461.9
Qualification Test Position & Type of Weld Qualified Plate & Pipe Over 24
F F, H F,V F,O ALL SP & F

Weld

Position
1G 2G 3G 4G 2G, 3G &4G Spcl. Position

Pipe 24
F F&H F F F&H SP & F

Fillet Plate & Pipe


F F,H F,H,V F,H,O ALL SP & F F F,H ALL ALL ALL SP&F

Plate Groove

Pipe Groove

1G 2G 5G 6G 2G &5G Spcl. Position

F F,H F,V,O ALL ALL SP,F

F F,H F,V,O ALL ALL SP,F

WELDING QUALIFICATION
Groove-Weld, Pipe Dia. Limits :QW 452.3
Out Side Dia. Qualified Out Side Dia. Of Test Coupon in mm ( in) Min. Less Than 25 (1) 25 (1) to 73 (2-7/8) Over 73 (2-7/8) Size Welded 25 (1) 73 (2-7/8) Max. Unlimited Unlimited Unlimited

Notes:1) Type & Number of Tests as per QW-452.1 2) 73 mm OD is equivalent to 2-1/2 NB Pipe 3) Welders Qualified on Groove, Are Also Qualified for making Fillets of all Sizes on Any Thickness & Any Pipe Dia.

WELDING QUALIFICATION
OVERLAY QUALIFICATION THICKNESS LIMITS

Thickness t of Base Thickness of Base metal metal in the Coupon in Qualified mm ( in)
Less than 1 in.(25mm)T T qualified to unlimited

1 in.(25mm) and over T

1 in.(25mm) to unlimited

WELDING QUALIFICATION
INSTRUCTION DURING WELDING ON JOB

Welder Stamp punch: Stamp to be punch at 3feet OR 900mm interval of welding seam. Where to use punch and where to Engrave. ASME SECTION VIII DIV A. QW:37. Ferrous Non ferrous P >6mm >13mm E <6mm <13mm

WELDING QUALIFICATION
INSTRUCTION DURING WELDING ON JOB

Seam wise welders record to be kept by qualified contractor welding supervisor. Spot checks to be done at particular interval. Discrepancy must be reported to W.E. LEMF.

WELD CONSUMABLE RELATED

Welding Electrodes:Storage,Baking & Issue. Done as per procedure HED-HZW-WEL-P-007 Baking of Electrodes and Flux done as per procedure for electrodes Example:LOW HYDROGEN ELECTRODESE70XX E80XX Baking :250-300c for 2-2.5hrs Holding:100-120c till issue

WELD CONSUMABLE RELATED

Welding Flux: Normal e.g. UV420TTR FOR CS/LAS -Baking done at 300-325cfor 2 to 2.5hrs -Holding temp 130-170c till issue -Issue shall be held at 130-170c only after baking

WELD CONSUMABLE RELATED Issue: a) SMAW maximum 15nos electrodes at a time. b) SAW flux max 10kg at a time. c) ESSC/SASC flux maximum 25kg at a time. d) Filler wires and strips to be issued as required. Note: Electrodes to be issue in portable oven or vacuum packed condition only.

WELD CONSUMABLE RELATED Return: a) Return each and every weld consumable to issue stores.Dont keep it any where lying. b) Try to recover flux by flux recovery unit and return it to store. c) Stores:If flux particle size to be observed very small or lumps shall be discarded and the matter shall be informed to welding engineering.
Note:If any consumable found in contractors stores than Discrepancy will be given to contractor with penalty.

GENERAL PARAMETERS FOR FOLLOWED PROCESSES


1.SMAW PROCESS
e.g.:E7018,E8018 B2
ELECTRODE DIA

CS/LAS ELECTRODES
AMPERES VOLTS

2.5MM 3.5MM 4.0MM 5.0MM 6.0MM

70-90 100-140 150-180 200-240 270-350

22-28 22-28 22-28 22-28 22-28

GENERAL PARAMETERS FOR FOLLOWED PROCESSES

e.g.:E309,E347,E316L etc. SS ELECTRODES


ELECTRODE DIA AMPERES VOLTS

2.5MM 3.5MM 4.0MM 5.0MM 6.0MM

50-60 60-90 110-140 150-180 200-230

20-26 20-26 20-26 20-26 20-26

GENERAL PARAMETERS FOR FOLLOWED PROCESSES

e.g.:ENiCrFe3,ENiCrMo3 ELECTRODES `
ELECTRODE DIA AMPERES VOLTS

2.5MM 3.5MM 4.0MM 5.0MM 6.0MM

50-70 70-100 100-120 120-140 150-180

20-26 20-26 20-26 20-26 20-26

GENERAL PARAMETERS FOR FOLLOWED PROCESSES

2.SAW PROCESS
e.g.: CS/LAS/SS/INCONNEL WIRE SPOOLS
AMPERES VOLTS T.Speed(mm/min)

ELECTRODE DIA

1.6MM(F43) 2.5MM(F6) 4.0MM 5.0MM 6.0MM

200-250 350-450 450-550 550-650 650-750

32-36 28-30 28-32 28-32 28-32

300-350 350-450 450-550 550-650 650-750

GENERAL PARAMETERS FOR FOLLOWED PROCESSES

3.FCAW PROCESS
e.g. E308L,E309,ENiCrMo3
ELECTRODE DIA AMPERES VOLTS T.Speed(mm/min)

1.2MM(F6/F43)

160-200

20-32

290-400

GENERAL PARAMETERS FOR FOLLOWED PROCESSES

4.GTAW PROCESS

e.g.ER70S2,ER80SB2.
ELECTRODE DIA AMPERES VOLTS T.Speed(mm/min)

1.6MM 2.4MM

80-110 110-140

10-15 10-15

50 50

e.g.ER 308L,ER NiCrMo3


ELECTRODE DIA AMPERES VOLTS T.Speed(mm/min)

1.2MM 1.6MM 2.4MM

70-150 70-150 70-150

15-22 15-22 15-22

55 55 50

GENERAL PARAMETERS FOR FOLLOWED PROCESSES

4.GMAW PROCESS e.g. ERNICRMO3 ,E309L


ELECTRODE DIA AMPERES VOLTS T.Speed(mm/min)

1.2MM (F6/F43)

230-270

30-36

400-500

LARSEN & TOUBRO LIMITED WELDING ENGINEERING HAZIRA WORKS


ACHIEVABLE WELD DEPOSITION RATE FOR VARIOUS WELDING PROCESSES (Kg PER Arc hour) PROCESS MATERIAL DIA CURRENT (mm) (Amps) DEPOSITIONRATE (Kg per Arc hour)
0.7 1.1 1.5 2.4 3.3 3.4

NO. ELECTRODES PER ARC HOUR


56 44 38 34

SMAW

CS

2.5 3.2 4.0 5.0

80 130 180 240 200 200

FCAW

CS SS

1.2 1.2

ACHIEVABLE WELD DEPOSITION RATE FOR VARIOUS WELDING PROCESSES (Kg PER Arc hour)

PROCESS NOELECTRODES

MATERIAL DIA
(mm)

CURRENT
(Amps) 550-580

DEPOSITIONRATE
(Kg per Arc hour) 6.5

SAW

CS

4.0

TWIN WIRE
SAW TANDEM ESSC

CS

2.4X2 550-580
2.4X2 750 570-600

6.6
8.9 14 22 33 42

CS SS

4.0

60X.5 1200 90X.5 1800 120X0.5 2200

SMAW PROCESS WITH E7018 TRIAL RESULT


ELECTRODE CURRENT CURRENT SR NO LENGTH OF SR NO EECTRODE TIME REQ FOR CONSIMING BEAD TRAVEL Avg (mm/min) (mm/min) HEAT INPUT RANGE(Amps) (Amps) LENGTH SPEED Travel speed (KJ/mm) CONSUMED(mm) ELECTRODE(Sec) (mm)

70-90 2.5mm ultimate-18

70 80 90

1 2 3 1

3.15mm

100-140

100

120 140

2 3 4 1 2 3 1 2 3

4mm

150-180

150 165 180

5mm

200-240

200 220 240

290 290 290 310 300 300 385 390 400 375 385 395 385 400 385 390 400 397 390 390 390 390 385 385 390 390

85 75 75 77 70 67 100 100 90 85 90 75 73 75 105 100 95 95 90 90 150 150 120 120 115 120

180 127 135 108 135 108 145 112.98 110 94.3 120 107.5 175 105 185 111.1 175 116.6 135 95.3 125 83.3 80 64 90 73.9 161 128.8 150 85.7 160 96 145 91.57 135 85.26 145 96.66 155 103.33 240 96 270 108 165 82.5 230 115 170 88.69 185 92.5

117.5 110.5 100.9 110.9

0.894 1.086 1.338 1.352

89.3 88.9

2.016 2.36

90.85 88.42 100 102 98.75 90.59

2.476 2.799 2.7 2.94 3.34 3.973

GENERAL /GOOD ENGINEERING PRACTICES

NCRs:NON CONFERMATIVE REPORT. It is defined as deviation from code standards,customer requirements for the job. NCRs can be given on: a)Base metal repair: for Welding please issue repair plan from welding engineering and repair. b)Arc-strike/NDT requirements after touch ups. NDT is must after touch ups(PT/MT) c)Un cleaned weld joints: Weld joints must be cleaned properly

GENERAL /GOOD ENGINEERING PRACTICES

Temporary attachment joints must be welded as per WPS specified in SWP. Buttering: e.g: Buttering must be at least 5mm. LAS buttering on CS moon plates for spiders. NDT to be perform properly on Temp joints to avoid defect in Base metal.

GENERAL /GOOD ENGINEERING PRACTICES

DEFECT MARKING a) Match the RT spot punch to tracing. b) Transfer Defect marking : Mark 100mm on both side of the defect. Start grinding as per marking. Ensure that Grinding must be in Proper direction with help of 100mmreference line marked on both side.

GENERAL /GOOD ENGINEERING PRACTICES As per code, required reinforcement for different thickness required UW:35
material nominal thk mm Less than 2.4 2.4-4.8 4.8-13 13-25 25-51 51-76 76-102 102-127 127 and above max reinforcement category B &C other 2.4 0.8 3.2 1.6 4.0 2.4 4.8 2.4 5.0 3.2 6.0 4.0 6.0 6.0 6.0 6.0 8.0 8.0

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

GENERAL /GOOD ENGINEERING PRACTICES Importance of removal of slag and interpass cleaning. Cleaning between two consecutive bead should be done properly otherwise Slag inclusion will be there in weld metal which will not be permitted. Run in Run out: It is required as in starting and ending of arc chances of defects like: Pore/Improper bead overlap/Slag is more as there is much more variation in current and arc gap during starting and ending which leads to defects.

GENERAL /GOOD ENGINEERING PRACTICES

DHT :De-hydrogenation heat treatment. It is post heating of the LAS job where weld metal is >50mm to avoid hydrogen cracking in weld metal. It is generally done at 300-350c for 3.5 to 4 hrs.

GENERAL /GOOD ENGINEERING PRACTICES


DCEP:DIRECT CURENT ELECTRODE POSTIVE Electrons flow ve terminal to +ve terminal. Electrodes : Metal burning ratio is 7:3. Used in all welding process.Except:GTAW process. DECN: DIRECT CURRENT ELECTRODE NEGATIVE. Electrode: Metal burning ratio is 0. 5 : 9. 5 Used in GTAW process as tungsten is used as electrode.

GENERAL /GOOD ENGINEERING PRACTICES


AC Alternative current Used in SA387 GR22 CL2 which requires 1.6 kj heat input for 29c impact Used in Al welding,Al film removed by AC welding. Due to alternative variation in current is more so chances of LF is more in AC welding . DC Direct current Used all over Penetration is good Less chance of LF

GENERAL /GOOD ENGINEERING PRACTICES

Overlay to be properly overlap >=50% of bead for proper dilution to achieve chemistry.

GENERAL /GOOD ENGINEERING PRACTICES

DWT :Double welder Technique DOT :Double welding operator technique. Both method to be used for TSR Tray support ring or fillet weld for minimization distortion. L&T qualification requires :fillet welded Fracture test to be done.

GENERAL /GOOD ENGINEERING PRACTICES Categories of Weld Joints. A: All L/S in Nozzle,Dends,Shell,Cones (Hemispherical Dend # Shell) B: All C/S Nozzle# shell,Nozzle #Flange,Corner joints Dends(Ellipsoidal Dend # shell. C: Flange to Forgings D: Nozzle # Shell Lip type(butt)