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FACULTY OF CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT OF GEOTECHNICAL & TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING ENGINEERING GEOLOGY & GEOPHYSIC LABORATORY

REPORT
SUBJECT CODE TEST CODE & TITLE COURSE CODE TESTING DATE STUDENT NAME SECTION/GROUP GROUP MEMBER NAMES BFC 21303 LAB 2 GEOLOGICAL MAPPING BFF 10 JANUARY 2011 MUHAMMAD RIDHWAN BIN KAMARUDIN (DF100038) SECTION 1 1. MUHAMMAD IKHWAN BIN ZAINUDDIN (DF100018) 2.MUHAMMAD ZAMIR BIN SAMEON (DF100065) 3. MUKHLIS BIN ADAM (DF100080) 4. MUHAMMAD NUH BIN AHMAD ZAIRI (DF100093) 5. HANISAH BINTI HAMZAH (DF100052) LECTURER/ INSTRUCTOR/ TUTOR NAME REPORT RECEIVED DATE MARKS 17 JANUARY 2011 ATTENDANCE, DISCIPLINE & INVOLVEMENT DATA ANALYSES RESULT DISCUSSION CONCLUSION TOTAL EXAMINER COMMENT /20% /20% /25% /20% /100% RECEIVED STAMP /15% IR. AGUS BIN SULAEMAN

1.0

TOPIC : HORIZONTAL BEDDING ( LAB 2A)

1.1

OBJECTIVE To plot ground profile and rock formations from geological map - horizontal beddings. LEARNING OUTCOMES a) Students should able to plot subsurface profile. b) Students should able to understand the geological structure in subsurface profile. c) Students should able to understand a history of the geological area. THEORY A geological map is one which shows in the first place, the occurrence and distribution of the rocks at the surface of the ground. Conventional sign may show certain facts of observation about them. The geological map allows the geological structure of the country to be inferred. Beds of rocks are bounded by bedding surfaces, which may be horizontal, tilted or bent in any form or direction. A series of beds which have been laid down regularly one on the other, and which may be treated as a whole, form a conformable series. It follows that the lower beds are the older. In such a series of bedding surfaces are parallel. Each bedding surface is usually common to two beds of rock, being the top of one and the bottom of the one next above. In the simplest case, these surfaces are planes: bedding planes.

1.2

1.3

1.4

EQUIPMENT AND MATERIALS i. Geological Map ( Map 3 Appendix A ) ii. Graph paper/drawing paper - A4 size iii. Ruler iv. Pencils v. Colour pencils (optional)

1.5

PROCEDURE 1.5.1 Plot the cross-section with the horizontal and vertical scales accordingly to the scale of the geological map on a piece of graph paper or blank sheet. Refer Figure 1.1. The vertical scale is normally exaggerated to improve visibility of the profile. 1.5.2 Draw a line to join the line of cross-section on the map, says A - B. 1.5.3 Using a blank piece of paper, mark the points of intersection accordingly between the lines with the contours respective to its heights. 1.5.4 Transfer the points to the cross-section profile respective to the heights of the contours. 1.5.5 Join the points to form the profile of the ground elevation.

1.6

RESULT AND ANALYSIS By referring to Map 3, Complete the outcrop of each rock-type on the given map. Plot the outcrop of each rock - type on the cross-section profile.

Height (m) 500 400 300 200 100 0


X
Figure 1.1 Plotting format for X-section

1.7

QUESTION AND DISCUSSSION Based on the theory of geological contact, write a summary (not more than 150 words) about the geological history of the area. When sediment is initially deposited, it is laid down in horizontal layers called strata. The study and correlations of these layers is called stratigraphy. In any sedimentary succession that has not been overturned, the oldest strata occur on the bottom. This may seem blatantly obvious, but as you will see shortly, this is an important and terribly useful rule for interpreting geological maps and perspective diagrams of areas where bedding has been tilted, folded or faulted. You must always determine where the oldest rocks are in a sedimentary succession (a thick sequence of sedimentary rock). In other words, you have to determine which way is "up." Horizontal bedding usually indicates that little or no structural deformation has occurred to a sedimentary succession. These situations are quite common in sedimentary basins and in regions flanking active mountain belts. Sediment derived from the erosion of the mountains is laid down in successively younger layers according to the Law of Superposition. Horizontal bedding may give rise to very simple geological maps or rather complex ones. The controlling factor of map complexity is intensity of erosion and depth of incision along river valleys. In general, deeper and steeper river valleys give rise to more complex geological maps.

1.8

CONCLUSION Structural features are most readily recognized in the sedimentary rocks. They are normally deposited in more or less regular horizontal layers that accumulate on top of each other in an orderly sequence. Bedding planes are of great importance to military engineers. They are planes of structural weakness in sedimentary rocks, and masses of rock can move along them causing rock slides. Since over 75 percent of the earth's surface is made up of sedimentary rocks, military engineers can expect to frequently encounter these rocks during construction. Undisturbed sedimentary rocks may be relatively uniform, continuous, and predictable across a site. These types of rocks offer certain advantages to military engineers in completing horizontal and vertical construction missions. They are relatively stable rock bodies that allow for ease of rock excavation, as they will normally support steep rock faces. Sedimentary rocks are frequently oriented at angles to the earth's "horizontal" surface. Therefore, movements in the earth's crust may tilt, fold, or break sedimentary layers. Structurally deformed rocks add complexity to the site geology and may adversely affect military construction projects by contributing to rock excavation and slope stability problems. Vegetation and overlying soil conceal most rock bodies and their structural features. Outcrops are the part of a rock formation exposed at the earth's surface. Such exposures, or outcrops, commonly occur along hilltops, steep slopes, streams, and existing road cuts where ground cover has been excavated or eroded away. Expensive delays or failures may result when military engineers do not determine the subsurface conditions before committing resources to construction projects. Therefore, where outcrops are scarce, deliberate excavations may be required to determine the type and structure of subsurface materials. To interpret the structure of the bedrock, the military engineer must measure and define the trend of the rock on the earth's surface.

2.0

TOPIC : INCLINED BEDDING - FOLD ( LAB 2B )

2.1

OBJECTIVE To plot ground profile and rock formations from geological map inclined beddings. LEARNING OUTCOMES a) Students should able to plot subsurface profile. b) Students should able to understand the geological structure in subsurface profile. c) Students should able to understand a history of the geological area. THEORY A geological map is one, which shows in the first place, the occurrence and distribution of the rocks at the surface of the ground. Conventional sign may show certain facts of observation about them. The geological map allows the geological structure of the country to be inferred. Beds of rocks are bounded by bedding surfaces, which may be horizontal, tilted or bent in any form or direction. A series of beds which have been laid down regularly one on the other, and which may be treated as a whole, form a conformable series. It follows that the lower beds are the older. In such a series of bedding surfaces are parallel. Each bedding surface is usually common to two beds of rock, being the top of one and the bottom of the one next above. In the simplest case, these surfaces are planes: bedding planes.

2.2

2.3

2.4

EQUIPMENT AND MATERIALS i. Geological Map ( Map 7 Appendix B ) ii. Graph paper/drawing paper - A4 size iii. Ruler iv. Pencils v. Colour pencils (optional)

2.5

PROCEDURE 2.5.1 Plot the cross-section with the horizontal and vertical scales accordingly to the scale of the geological map on a piece of graph paper or blank sheet. Refer Figure 1.1. The vertical scale is normally exaggerated to improve visibility of the profile. 2.5.2 Draw a line to join the line of cross-section on the map, says A - B. 2.5.3 Using a blank piece of paper, mark the points of intersection accordingly between the lines with the contours respective to its heights. 2.5.4 Transfer the points to the cross-section profile respective to the heights of the contours. 2.5.5 Join the points to form the profile of the ground elevation.

2.6

RESULT AND ANALYSIS By referring to Map 7, Highlights the rock boundary to focus for determination of strike line. Select two pints within the marked boundary of similar heights. Draw the line between the two points to indicate the first strike line. Its value corresponding to two value of the contour. Select another point (of ascending @ descending contour value). Draw a line that touches the parallel the select point to the first strike line. Measure the distance (say, d1) cut at right angles to the parallel lines. Determine the angle of dip of the fold. Similarly, repeat similar procedure to the other wings of the fold. Identify the thickness of the outcrop.

2.7

QUESTIONS Explain types of fold (with the aid of diagram) and discuss how this structure occurred.

The term fold is used in geology when one or a stack of originally flat and planar surfaces, such as sedimentary strata, are bent or curved as a result of plastic deformation. Sedimentary folds are those due to slumping of sedimentary material before it is lithified. Folds in rocks vary in size from microscopic crinkles to mountainsized folds. They occur singly as isolated folds and in extensive fold trains of different sizes, on a variety of scales. Folds form under varied conditions of stress, hydrostatic pressure, pore pressure, and temperature - hydrothermal gradient, as evidenced by their presence in soft sediments, the full spectrum of metamorphic rocks, and even as primary flow structures in some igneous rocks. A set of folds distributed on a regional scale constitutes a fold belt, a common feature of orogenic zones. Folds are commonly formed by shortening of existing layers, but may also be formed as a result of displacement on a non-planar fault (fault bend fold), at the tip of a propagating fault (fault propagation fold), by differential compaction or due to the effects of a high-level igneous intrusion.

Monocline A monocline is a step-like fold in rock strata consisting of a zone of steeper dip within an otherwise horizontal or gently-dipping sequence. Monoclines may be formed in several different ways: i. By differential compaction over an underlying structure, particularly a large fault at the edge of a basin due to the greater compatibility of the basin fill, the amplitude of the fold will die out gradually upwards. By mild reactivation of an earlier extensional fault during a phase of inversion causing folding in the overlying sequence. As a form of fault propagation fold during upward propagation of an extensional fault in basement into an overlying cover sequence. As a form of fault propagation fold during upward propagation of a reverse fault in basement into an overlying cover sequence.

ii. iii. iv.

Anticline In structural geology, an anticline is a fold that is convex up and has its oldest beds at its core. The term is not to be confused with antiform, which is a purely descriptive term for any fold that is convex up. Therefore if age relationships between various strata are unknown, the term antiform must be used. On a geologic map, anticlines are usually recognized by a sequence of rock layers that are progressively older toward the center of the fold because the uplifted core of the fold is preferentially eroded to a deeper stratigraphic level relative to the topographically lower flanks. The strata dip away from the center, or crest, of the fold. If an anticline plunges, the surface strata will form Vs that point in the direction of plunge. Anticlines are typically flanked by synclines although faulting can complicate and obscure the relationship between the two. Folds typically form during crustal deformation as the result of compression that accompanies orogenic mountain building.

Syncline In structural geology, a syncline is a fold, with younger layers closer to the center of the structure. A synclinorium is a large syncline with superimposed smaller folds.[1]. Synclines are typically a downward fold, termed a synformal syncline (ie. a trough); but synclines that point upwards can be found when strata have been overturned and folded (an antiformal syncline). On a geologic map, synclines are recognized by a sequence of rock layers that grow progressively younger, followed by the youngest layer at the fold's center or hinge, and by a reverse sequence of the same rock layers on the opposite side of the hinge. If the fold pattern is circular or elongate circular the structure is a basin. A notable syncline is Wyoming's Powder River Basin. Folds typically form during crustal deformation as the result of compression that accompanies orogenic mountain building.

Dome In structural geology, a dome is a deformational feature consisting of symmetrically-dipping anticlines; their general outline on a geologic map is circular or oval. The strata in a dome are upwarped in the center; if the top of a dome is eroded off, the result will be a series of concentric strata that grow progressively older from the outside-in, with the oldest rocks exposed at the center. Many geologic domes are too large to be appreciated from the surface, and are apparent only in maps. Well-known regional structural domes include the Llano Uplift and the Ozark Dome. Localized domes may be formed when magma forms a shallow intrusion warping the overlying strata. Salt domes are formed above a diapiric intrusion of low density evaporite rocks.

Basin A structural basin is a large-scale structural formation of rock strata formed by tectonic warping of previously flat lying strata. Structural basins are geological depressions, and are the inverse of domes. Some elongated structural basins are also known as synclines. Structural basins may also be sedimentary basins, which are aggregations of sediment that filled up a depression or accumulated in an area; however, many structural basins were formed by tectonic events long after the sedimentary layers were deposited. Basins appear on a geologic map as roughly circular or elliptical, with concentric layers. Because the strata dip toward the center, the exposed strata in a basin are progressively younger from outside-in, with the youngest rocks in the center. Basins are often large in areal extent, often hundreds of kilometers across. Structural basins are often important sources of coal, petroleum, and groundwater.

2.8

CONCLUSION Conclude your results especially by rate its effect on outcrop layer in relation to the civil engineering or construction industry etc. Base on the map sketch, we can see every layer of rock effect from folding. We must follow step by step every each procedure to sketch true line of fold. Folds are a bend of flexure in layered rocks. It is the most common kind of deformation in layered rocks usually well collusion of developed in great mountain systems due to collusions of tectonic plates. The map also showed layer anticlines and synclines where upward fold is an anticline and downward is syncline. Anticline is an up-arched or convex upward fold with oldest rock layers in its core, whereas a syncline is down-arched or concave upward fold in which the youngest rock layer in its core. Lempung upward from origin structure when we saw from x y cross section. Geological maps graphically communicate vast amounts of geologic information. A geological map represents the projection on a flat piece of paper of the intersection between geological 3D features with the surface topography with added benefit of depicting the relative age, composition and relationships among rocks and sediments at and near the earths surface. Therefore, based on the ground profile and rock formations, there is occurring of inclined bedding which bent in any from and direction. The bedding of shale forming a shape seems like a cane. On the shale, there is bedding of sandstone (represented by yellow colour). Sandstone is the youngest among three of these rocks. Clay stone is the oldest among the rocks because it is located and covering the lowest area or position of the contour.

LINE X Y (APPENDIX B)
ROCK BOUNDARY DIP DIRECTION STRIKE 0.8cm CB 700m 100m 90 0 / 360 DIP ANGLE 160m CALCULATION IN GRAPH At X-axis, 1cm = 200m 200m

CB 600m

CB 700 CB 600

1cm : 200m 0.8cm x 200m = 160 m Dip Direction = 90 Dip Angle = Tan = 100 160 = 32

32
Tan 32 =

At Y-axis, 1cm = 50 m y 200 y = 250 m y = 250 m 50 m y = 2.5 cm

0.9cm BA 700m 100m

180m

At X-axis, 1cm = 200m 200m

BA 600m

BA 700 BA 600

1cm : 200m 0.9cm x 200m = 180 m 90 0 / 360 Dip Direction = 90 Dip Angle = Tan = 100 180 = 29

29
Tan 29 =

At Y-axis, 1cm = 50 m y 200 y = 111 m y = 111 m 50 m y = 2.2 cm

LINE X Y (APPENDIX B)
ROCK BOUNDARY DIP DIRECTION STRIKE 0.8cm DIP ANGLE 160m CALCULATION IN GRAPH At X-axis, 1cm = 200m AB 500m 200m AB 400m


AB 500 AB 400 270 180 1cm : 200m 0.8cm x 200m = 160 m Dip Direction = 270 Dip Angle = Tan = 100 160 = 32 100m

32
Tan 32 =

At Y-axis, 1cm = 50 m y 200 y = 250 m y = 250 m 50 m y = 2.5 cm

0.9cm 100m

180m

At X-axis, 1cm = 200m BC 500m 200m BC 400m

32
Tan 29 =

BC 500 BC 400 270 180

1cm : 200m 0.9cm x 200m = 180 m Dip Direction = 270 Dip Angle = Tan = 100 180 = 29

At Y-axis, 1cm = 50 m y 200 y = 111 m y = 111 m 50 m y = 2.2 cm

LINE X Y (APPENDIX B)
ROCK BOUNDARY DIP DIRECTION STRIKE 0.8cm CB 400m 100m 90 0 / 360 DIP ANGLE 160m CALCULATION IN GRAPH At X-axis, 1cm = 200m 200m

CB 300m

CB 400 CB 300

1cm : 200m 0.8cm x 200m = 160 m Dip Direction = 90 Dip Angle = Tan = 100 160 = 32

32
Tan 32 =

At Y-axis, 1cm = 50 m y 200 y = 250 m y = 250 m 50 m y = 2.5 cm

3.0

TOPIC : FAULT BEDDING (LAB 2C)

3.1

OBJECTIVE To plot ground profile and rock formations from geological map faulted bedding.

3.2

LEARNING OUTCOMES a) Students should able to plot subsurface profile. b) Students should able to understand the geological structure in subsurface profile. c) Students should able to understand a history of the geological area. THEORY A geological map is one, which shows in the first place, the occurrence and distribution of the rocks at the surface of the ground. Conventional sign may show certain facts of observation about them. The geological map allows the geological structure of the country to be inferred.

3.3

Beds of rocks are bounded by bedding surfaces, which may be horizontal, tilted or bent in any form or direction. A series of beds which have been laid down regularly one on the other, and which may be treated as a whole, form a conformable series. It follows that the lower beds are the older. In such a series of bedding surfaces are parallel. Each bedding surface is usually common to two beds of rock, being the top of one and the bottom of the one next above. In the simplest case, these surfaces are planes: bedding planes.

3.4

EQUIPMENT AND MATERIALS i. Geological Map ( Map 14 Appendix C ) ii. Graph paper/drawing paper - A4 size iii. Ruler iv. Pencils v. Colour pencils (optional)

3.5

PROCEDURE 3.5.1 Plot the cross-section with the horizontal and vertical scales accordingly to the scale of the geological map on a piece of graph paper or blank sheet. Refer Figure 1.1. The vertical scale is normally exaggerated to improve visibility of the profile. 3.5.2 Draw a line to join the line of cross-section on the map, says A - B. 3.5.3 Using a blank piece of paper, mark the points of intersection accordingly between the lines with the contours respective to its heights. 3.5.4 Transfer the points to the cross-section profile respective to the heights of the contours. 3.5.5 Join the points to form the profile of the ground elevation.

3.6

RESULT AND ANALYSIS By referring to Map 14, Determine the dip and strike of the coal seams. Determine the thickness of sandstone outcrop. Determine the dip and strike of the fault. Plot the rock outcrop and fault on the cross-section profile.

3.7

QUESTIONS AND DISCUSSION Explain types of fault (with the aid of diagram) and discuss how this structure occurred. Normal Fault A normal fault occurs when the crust is extended. Alternatively such a fault can be called an extensional fault. The hanging wall moves download, relative to the footwall. A downthrown block between two normal faults dipping towards each other is called a graben. An upthrown block between two normal faults dipping away from each other is called a horst. Low-angle fault with regional tectonic significance may be designated detachment faults.

Reverse Fault A reverse fault occurs primarily across lithological units whereas a thrust usually occurs within or at a low angle to lithological units. It is because of this that it is often difficult to recognize thrusts because their deformation and dislocation can be difficult to detect when they occur within the same rocks without appreciable offset of lithological contacts. If the angle of the fault plane is low (generally less than 20 degrees from the horizontal) and the displacement of the overlying block is large (often in the kilometer range) the fault is called an overthrust. Erosion can remove part of the overlaying block, creating a fenster (or window) when the underlying block is only exposed in a relatively small area. When erosion removes most of the overlying block, leaving only island-like remnants resting on the lower block, the remnants are called klippen (singular klippe)

Lateral Fault A fault in which slips in such a way that the two sides move with a predominantly lateral motion (with respect to each other). There are two kinds of lateral slip: rightlateral and left-lateral. They can be distinguished by standing on one side of the fault, facing the fault (and, of course, the other side), and noting which way the objects across the fault have moved with respect to you. If they have moved to your right, the fault is right-lateral. If the motion is to the left, then the fault is left-lateral.

Oblique-Slip Faults A fault which has a component of dip-slip and a component of strike-slip is termed an oblique-slip fault. Nearly all faults will have some component of both dip-slip and strike-slip, so defining a fault as oblique requires both dip and strike components to be measurable and significant. Some oblique faults occur within transtensional and transpressional regimes, others occur where the direction of extension or shortening changes during the deformation but the earlier formed faults remain active. The hade angle is defined as the complement of the dip angle; it is the angle between the fault plane and a vertical plane that strikes parallel to the fault.

3.8

CONCLUSION Conclude your results especially by rate its effect on outcrop layer in relation to the civil engineering or construction industry etc. As the result, we can describe from this experiment is at the end of this, we will knew a categories of fault was happen in our earth. From the diagram in the graph, we can see more details about the fault were occurred in the earth crust. Faults are fractures which have had displacement of the rocks along them. A detailed geological map shows what it is you are standing on, where similar rocks or sediments may be found, how old they are, what they are composed of, how they formed, how they have been affected by faulting, folding or other geological processes and what existing or potential mineral resources and geological hazards are nearby. Geologic information shown on maps is necessary for countless reason, from finding natural resources (water, minerals, oil and gas) to evaluating fundamental part of the environment that controls distribution of plants and animals. General purpose geological maps address all of these themes. The adjacent rock masses slipped past one another in response to tension, compression of shearing stress. Fault plane is the plane of dislocation along which movements occur during faulting. Fault commonly create zones of broken ground weaker and lass stable than the adjacent rock. Sudden movements along fault may cause earthquakes. The creation and behaviors of faults, in both an individual small fault and within the greater fault zones which define the tectonic plates, is controlled by the relative motion of rocks on either side of the fault surface. Because of friction and the rigidity of the rock, the rocks cannot simply glide or flew past each other. Rather, stress builds up in rocks and when it reaches a level that exceeds the strain threshold, the accumulated potential energy is released as strain, which is focused into a plane along which relative motion is accommodated.

LINE X Y (APPENDIX C)
ROCK BOUNDARY DIP DIRECTION STRIKE 1.2cm ABC 800m 100m 180 + 10 =190 90 + 10 =100 DIP ANGLE 240m CALCULATION IN GRAPH At X-axis, 1cm = 200m 200m

ABC 700m

AB 800 AB 700

22.6

1cm : 200m 1.2cm x 200m = 240 m Dip Direction = 190 Dip Angle = Tan = 100 240 = 22.6

At Y-axis, 1cm = 50 m Tan 22.6= y 200 y = 83.25 m y = 83.25 m 50 m y = 1.7 cm

0.3cm SS 500m 100m

60m

At X-axis, 1cm = 200m 200m

SS 400m

59
Tan 59 =

ABC 500 ABC 400

180 + 10 =190

90 + 10 =100

1cm : 200m 0.3cm x 200m = 60 m Dip Direction = 190 Dip Angle = Tan = 100 60 = 59

At Y-axis, 1cm = 50 m y 200 y = 332.9 m y = 332.9 m 50 m y = 6.7 cm

LINE X Y (APPENDIX C)
ROCK BOUNDARY DIP DIRECTION STRIKE 1.2cm BC 400m 100m 180 + 10 =190 90 + 10 =100 1cm : 200m 1.2cm x 200m = 240 m Dip Direction = 190 Dip Angle = Tan = 100 240 = 22.6 DIP ANGLE 240m CALCULATION IN GRAPH At X-axis, 1cm = 200m 200m

BC 300m

BC 400 BC 300

22.6

At Y-axis, 1cm = 50 m Tan 22.6 = y 200 y = 83.25 m y = 83.25 m 50 m y = 1.7 cm

1.1cm BC 300m 100m

220m

At X-axis, 1cm = 200m 200m

BC 200m

24.4

AB 300 AB 200

180 + 9 =189

90 + 9 =99

1cm : 200m 1.1cm x 200m = 220 m Dip Direction = 189 Dip Angle = Tan = 100 220 = 24.4

At Y-axis, 1cm = 50 m Tan 24.4= y 200 y = 90.7 m y = 90.7 m 50 m y = 1.8 cm

LINE P Q (APPENDIX C)
ROCK BOUNDARY DIP DIRECTION STRIKE 0.3cm BC 500m 100m 180 + 10 =190 90 + 10 =100 1cm : 200m 0.3cm x 200m = 60 m Dip Direction = 190 Dip Angle = Tan = 100 60 = 59 DIP ANGLE 60m CALCULATION IN GRAPH At X-axis, 1cm = 200m 200m

BC 400m

BC 500 BC 400

59
Tan 59 =

At Y-axis, 1cm = 50 m y 200 y = 332.9 m y = 332.9 m 50 m y = 6.7 cm

1.2cm BC 400m 100m

240m

At X-axis, 1cm = 200m 200m

BC 300m

22.6

BC 400 BC 300

180 + 10 =190

90 + 10 =100

1cm : 200m 1.2cm x 200m = 240 m Dip Direction = 190 Dip Angle = Tan = 100 240 = 22.6

At Y-axis, 1cm = 50 m Tan 22.6 = y 200 y = 83.25 m y = 83.25 m 50 m y = 1.7 cm

LINE P Q (APPENDIX C)
ROCK BOUNDARY DIP DIRECTION STRIKE 1.1cm BC 300m 100m 180 + 9 =189 90 + 9 =99 1cm : 200m 1.1cm x 200m = 220 m Dip Direction = 189 Dip Angle = Tan = 100 220 = 24.4 DIP ANGLE 220m CALCULATION IN GRAPH At X-axis, 1cm = 200m 200m

BC 200m

AB 300 AB 200

24.4

At Y-axis, 1cm = 50 m Tan 24.4= y 200 y = 90.7 m y = 90.7 m 50 m y = 1.8 cm