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QUESTIONSHEETS

CHEMISTRY

AS Level

FORMULAE, EQUATIONS & MOLES

AS TOPIC 2

Questionsheet

FORMULAE AND MOLECULAR EQUATIONS

17 marks

Questionsheet

IONIC EQUATIONS

15 marks

Questionsheet

MOLES

14 marks

Questionsheet

EMPIRICAL FORMULAE

16 marks

Questionsheet

MOLECULAR FORMULAE

17 marks

Questionsheet

USES OF FORMULAE

16 marks

Questionsheet

YIELD CALCULATIONS

16 marks

Questionsheet

CALCULATION OF REACTING MASSES

17 marks

Questionsheet

CALCULATIONS INVOLVING GASES

13 marks

Questionsheet

10

TEST QUESTION

17 marks

Authors
Trevor Birt
Donald E Caddy
Andrew Jones
Editor
John Brockington

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John Brockington
Kevin Frobisher
Andy Shepherd

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urriculum

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The Curriculum Press Unit 305B The Big Peg 120 Vyse Street Birmingham B18 6NF

AS Level

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TOPIC 2 Questionsheet 1

FORMULAE AND MOLECULAR EQUATIONS


a) Explain why the formula of aluminium sulphate is Al2(SO4)3; not AlSO4.
...........................................................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................................................... [3]
b) (i)

Write down the formulae of the following compounds.


Copper(II) sulphate ............................................................................................................................... [1]
Sodium hydroxide ................................................................................................................................. [1]
Copper(II) hydroxide ............................................................................................................................ [1]
Sodium sulphate .................................................................................................................................... [1]

(ii) Write a balanced molecular equation, including state symbols, for the reaction between copper(II) sulphate
and sodium hydroxide in aqueous solution to give a precipitate of copper(II)hydroxide and a solution of
sodium sulphate.
....................................................................................................................................................................... [2]
c) (i)

Equations I and II relate to the Haber process and contact process, respectively. Both are incorrect. In
each case state the fault (or faults) and then write down the correct equation.
Equation I
N(g) + 3H(g) NH3(g)
Fault(s) ................................................................................................................................................. [1]
Correct equation ................................................................................................................................ [1]
Equation II

SO2(g) + O2(g) SO3(g)

Fault(s) ................................................................................................................................................. [1]


Correct equation ................................................................................................................................ [1]
(ii) The equations in c) (i) are each written with a sign instead of an arrow. What is the reason for this?
....................................................................................................................................................................... [1]
d) Iron and HCl react together according to the following basic equation: Fe + 2HC1 FeCl2 + H2
Depending on the reaction conditions the product may be (i) solid, anhydrous iron(II) chloride, (ii) an aqueous
solution of iron(II) chloride, or (iii) crystals of iron(II) chloride-4-water. Select suitable state symbols and
make any other necessary modifications to the basic equation to represent the formation of each of these
products.
(i) Passing dry hydrogen chloride gas over heated iron to give anhydrous iron(II) chloride.
....................................................................................................................................................................... [1]
(ii) Dissolving iron in hydrochloric acid to give a solution of iron(II) chloride.
....................................................................................................................................................................... [1]
(iii) Dissolving iron in hydrochloric acid and then crystallising the solution to give iron(II) chloride-4-water.
....................................................................................................................................................................... [1]
TOTAL / 17

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TOPIC 2 Questionsheet 2

IONIC EQUATIONS
Note State symbols should be included in all the ionic equations in this Questionsheet.
a) An extract from a textbook reads as follows: An ionic equation focuses attention on the essential chemistry,
because it shows only those ions or molecules which take part in the reaction. Spectator ions do not appear.
(i) What are spectator ions?
....................................................................................................................................................................... [1]
(ii) What is wrong with the following ionic equation?
Cl2(aq) + 2K+(aq) + 2Br (aq) Br2(aq) + 2K+(aq) + 2C1-(aq)
-

....................................................................................................................................................................... [1]
(iii) Rewrite the ionic equation in a) (ii) correctly.
....................................................................................................................................................................... [1]
b) (i) Write a balanced molecular equation (with state symbols) for calcium carbonate dissolving in hydrochloric
acid to give an aqueous solution of calcium chloride, water and carbon dioxide.
....................................................................................................................................................................... [2]
(ii) Rewrite the equation in b) (i) as an ionic equation.
....................................................................................................................................................................... [2]
c) (i) Write an ionic equation for sodium chloride and silver nitrate reacting together in aqueous solution to give
a precipitate of silver chloride and a solution of sodium nitrate.
....................................................................................................................................................................... [2]
(ii) What difference (if any) would there be in the ionic equation if sodium chloride were to be replaced by
potassium chloride?
....................................................................................................................................................................... [1]
d) (i) Write ionic equations for the following reactions.
I

Hydrochloric acid and sodium hydroxide in aqueous solution.

....................................................................................................................................................................... [1]
II Nitric acid and potassium hydroxide in aqueous solution.
....................................................................................................................................................................... [1]
(ii) In the light of your answers to d) (i), suggest why the enthalpy change (heat given out) is approximately
the same for both reactions.
....................................................................................................................................................................... [1]
e) The reaction between potassium manganate(VII) and iron(II) sulphate in the presence of dilute sulphuric acid
is represented by the following ionic equation:
MnO4-(aq) + 5Fe2+(aq) + 8H+(aq) Mn2+(aq) + 5Fe3+(aq) + 4H2O(1)
Use the appropriate spectator ions to expand the ionic equation into a molecular equation.
....................................................................................................................................................................... [2]
TOTAL /15

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TOPIC 2 Questionsheet 3

MOLES
a) Define the chemical term mole.
...........................................................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................................................... [3]
b) Calculate the mass of each of the following:
(i)

1 mol of atomic nitrogen.

....................................................................................................................................................................... [1]
(ii) 1 mol of molecular nitrogen.
....................................................................................................................................................................... [1]
c) How many moles are there in each of the following?
(i)

0.48 g magnesium.

....................................................................................................................................................................... [1]
(ii) 100 kg calcium hydroxide.
...........................................................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................................................... [1]
(iii) 2 tonnes sulphur.
...........................................................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................................................... [1]
d) Calculate the percentage by mass of tin in tin(IV) chloride, SnCl4.
...........................................................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................................................... [2]
e) 2 mol of a compound has a mass of 117.0 g. What is its relative molecular mass?
...........................................................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................................................... [2]
f) What is the total number of moles of particles (ions, molecules) present in 0.35 mol of
copper(II) sulphate-5-water, CuSO4.5H2O?
...........................................................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................................................... [2]
TOTAL /14

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TOPIC 2 Questionsheet 4

EMPIRICAL FORMULAE
a) Explain the meaning of the term empirical formula.
...........................................................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................................................... [2]
b) A compound contains 29.1 % of sodium , 40.5 % of sulphur and 30.4 % of oxygen. Calculate its empirical
formula.
...........................................................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................................................... [3]
c) 10.00 g of an oxide of lead, when reduced, produced 9.07 g of metal. Determine the empirical formula of the
oxide.
...........................................................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................................................... [4]
d) 4.00 g of sodium are burnt in excess oxygen, to produce 6.78 g of a yellow solid E. Find the empirical formula
of E.
...........................................................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................................................... [4]
e) Compound F contains 39.74 % carbon, 7.28 % hydrogen and 52.98 % bromine. Show that the empirical
formula is C5H11Br.
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....................................................................................................................................................................... [3]

TOTAL /16

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TOPIC 2 Questionsheet 5

MOLECULAR FORMULAE
a) (i)

Explain the meaning of the term molecular formula.

...........................................................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................................................... [2]
(ii) If the empirical formula of a compound is known, what additional information is required in order to
determine its molecular formula?
....................................................................................................................................................................... [1]
(iii) Calculate the percentages by mass of phosphorus, oxygen and chlorine in the compound POCl3.
...........................................................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................................................... [3]
b) A hydrocarbon D is known to have a formula CnH(2n+2). It is found to have a relative molecular mass of 156.
Deduce its molecular formula.
...........................................................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................................................... [2]
c) A salt of silver comprises silver, carbon and oxygen only. It contains 7.89 % carbon and 21.06 % oxygen by
mass and has a relative formula mass of 304. Determine the empirical and molecular formulae of this salt.
...........................................................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................................................... [4]
d) The empirical formula of a diprotic acid is CHO2 . 0.125 g of the acid was neutralised by a solution containing
0.111 g of sodium hydroxide. Calculate its molecular formula.
...........................................................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................................................
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....................................................................................................................................................................... [5]

TOTAL / 17

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TOPIC 2 Questionsheet 6

USES OF FORMULAE
a) Calculate the mass of combined strontium in a 125 g tube of toothpaste, which contains 10 % by mass of
strontium chloride-6-water, SrCl2.6H2O.
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....................................................................................................................................................................... [4]
b) What mass of tetraethyllead (TEL), Pb(C2H5)4, would have to be added to 1000 dm3 of petrol to give a lead
content of 0.1 g dm-3?
...........................................................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................................................
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....................................................................................................................................................................... [4]
c) How much sodium fluoride should be added to 10 tonnes of drinking water to provide a fluoride ion
concentration of 1 part per million?
...........................................................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................................................... [4]
d) A motorist can be prosecuted if the ethanol content of his/her blood is greater that 80 mg per 100 ml of
blood. How many moles of ethanol would there be in 1 dm3 of the blood of a motorist who was at the limit?
...........................................................................................................................................................................
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...........................................................................................................................................................................
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....................................................................................................................................................................... [4]

TOTAL / 16

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TOPIC 2 Questionsheet 7

YIELD CALCULATIONS
a) (i)

What mass of aluminium could theoretically be obtained by the electrolysis of 1 tonne of aluminium
oxide, Al2O3?

...........................................................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................................................... [2]
(ii) In a particular plant, the yield obtained is 90 %. What mass of aluminium oxide would be needed to
produce 1 tonne of aluminium?
...........................................................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................................................... [2]
b) In the preparation of nitrobenzene, C6H5NO2, one mole of product is obtained theoretically from one mole of
benzene, C6H6. In one particular experiment, a student obtained 43.0 g of nitrobenzene from 40.0 g of benzene.
(i)

What mass of nitrobenzene should, in theory, have been produced?

...........................................................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................................................... [3]
(ii) Calculate the percentage yield obtained in this experiment.
....................................................................................................................................................................... [1]
(iii) Give two reasons why the yield may have been less than that predicted.
...........................................................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................................................... [2]
c) An aqueous solution of sodium hydroxide, containing 35.0 g NaOH, was reacted with dilute sulphuric acid
containing 49.0 g H2SO4. The resulting solution was evaporated to dryness and strongly heated to produce
anhydrous sodium sulphate.
(i)

Write the overall equation for the reaction.

....................................................................................................................................................................... [1]
(ii) Calculate the number of moles of both sodium hydroxide and sulphuric acid and, by referring to your
equation, state which of these substances is deficient.
Moles of NaOH ..................................................................................................................................... [1]
Moles of H2SO4 ................................................................................................................................... [1]
Deficient reactant .................................................................................................................................. [1]
(iii) Calculate the theoretical yield of anhydrous sodium sulphate.
...........................................................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................................................... [2]
TOTAL / 16

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TOPIC 2 Questionsheet 8

CALCULATION OF REACTING MASSES


a) Calculate the mass of sodium hydrogencarbonate that must be heated to obtain 100 g of sodium carbonate:
..........
2 NaHCO 3
Na 2 CO 3 + H 2 O + CO 2

...........................................................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................................................... [3]
b) Copper could be recovered from copper(II) sulphate solution by a displacement reaction with aluminium.
(i)

Write the equation for this reaction.

....................................................................................................................................................................... [2]
(ii) What is the minimum mass of aluminium that would be required to recover 1 kg of copper?
...........................................................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................................................... [4]
c) During steel making, sulphur is removed from molten iron by adding magnesium:
..........
Mg + S

MgS

If a 100 tonne batch of molten iron contains 0.25% sulphur, how many kilograms of magnesium are needed
to remove it?
...........................................................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................................................
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....................................................................................................................................................................... [4]
d) Haematite is an ore of iron, containing 30 % by mass of iron(III) oxide, Fe2O3. In a particular blast furnace,
95 % of the iron is extracted. What mass of haematite is required to produce 10 tonnes of pure iron?
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....................................................................................................................................................................... [4]

TOTAL /17

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TOPIC 2 Questionsheet 9

CALCULATIONS INVOLVING GASES


a) 4.00 g of liquid bromine, when converted to vapour, occupy a volume of 562 cm3 at s.t.p. Calculate the
relative molecular mass of bromine, given that 1 mol of a gas occupies 22.4 dm3 at s.t.p.
...........................................................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................................................... [2]
b) Calculate the volume (in dm3) occupied by a mixture of 4 g methane and 35.5 g chlorine at 18 0C and a
pressure of 750 mm Hg. R = 8.31 J K-1 mol-1 (760 mm Hg = 1 atm = 101 000 N m-2)
...........................................................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................................................
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....................................................................................................................................................................... [4]
c) Write the equation for magnesium dissolving in dilute sulphuric acid. What mass of magnesium is required to
produce 1.12 dm3 of hydrogen gas, measured dry at s.t.p., from excess dilute sulphuric acid?
Equation ........................................................................................................................................................ [1]
Calculation ........................................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................................................... [3]
d) When sodium nitrate is heated, it decomposes into sodium nitrite and oxygen according to the following
equation:
2NaNO3(s) 2NaNO2(s) + O2(g)
What mass of sodium nitrate must be heated to produce 1dm3 of oxygen, measured at room temperature and
pressure? (Assume that the molar volume of a gas at room temperature and pressure is 24.0 dm3.)
...........................................................................................................................................................................
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TOTAL / 13

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TOPIC 2 Questionsheet 10

TEST QUESTION
Imagine that scientists have recently developed a new fuel, to be called Wondaburn. The main ingredient in
Wondaburn is compound X, which contains the elements carbon, hydrogen and oxygen only.
a) Combustion of 5.000 g of compound X yielded 11.379 g of carbon dioxide and a stoichiometrically equal
amount of water.
(i) Calculate the number of moles of carbon dioxide produced.
....................................................................................................................................................................... [1]
(ii) How many moles of water are produced?
....................................................................................................................................................................... [1]
(iii) Calculate the masses of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen atoms in 5.000 g of compound X.
Mass of carbon ..........................................................................................................................................
Mass of hydrogen ......................................................................................................................................
Mass of oxygen ...................................................................................................................................... [3]
(iv) Determine the empirical formula of compound X.
...........................................................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................................................... [3]
b) When 5.000 g of compound X was vaporised at a temperature of 450 C and a pressure of 1.01 x 105 N m-2,
it occupied a volume of 2.60 dm3.
(i) Use the gas equation to calculate the number of moles of compound X in 5.000 g. (R = 8.314 J K-1 mol-1)
...........................................................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................................................... [4]
(ii) Determine the relative molecular mass and hence the molecular formula of compound X.
...........................................................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................................................... [2]
c) Analysis of Wondaburn showed that it contained 0.490 g of carbon per gram of fuel. Calculate the percentage
of compound X found in Wondaburn. (Assume that Wondaburn contains no other carbon based compounds.)
...........................................................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................................................... [3]
TOTAL / 17