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0Unit5:AnatomyandPhysiologyforHealth andSocialCare.

Aimandpurpose
Thisunitaimstoenablelearnerstounderstandaspectsoftheanatomyand physiologyofhumanbodysystems.Learnerswillbeabletogainanoverviewof theorganisationofthehumanbodybeforelookingathowbodysystemswork togethertoprovideenergyforthebody.Learnerswillhavetheopportunityto investigatehowhomeostaticmechanismsoperateinthebody.

Unitintroduction
Thisunitintroducescoreknowledgeofcellularstructureandfunction,andthe organisationofthebodyasawhole,andthenbuildsonthistodevelopamore detailedknowledgeofthefineanatomyandphysiologyofthesystemsinvolvedin energymetabolism.Learnerswillexaminethehomeostaticmechanismsinvolvedin regulatingthesesystemstomaintainhealth.Learnerswillbegiventheopportunity toundertakepracticalactivitieswhichwillrequirethemtotakemeasurementsof thecardiovascularsystem,therespiratorysystemandofbodytemperature,using noninvasivetechniquestoinvestigatenormalresponsestoroutinevariationsin bodyfunctioning.Thisunitprovidesthecoreunderstandingofhumanphysiology thatunderpinsthestudyofthespecialistphysiologyunitswithinthisprogramme. Theunitalsoprovidesanoverviewofbodyfunctioningthatisvaluableforanyone workingorintendingtoworkinafieldrelatingtohealthandsocialcare.

Learningoutcomes
Oncompletionofthisunitalearnershould:
1. 2.

Knowtheorganisationofthehumanbody Understandthefunctioningofthebodysystemsassociatedwith energymetabolism Understandhowhomeostaticmechanismsoperateinthe maintenanceofaninternalenvironment. Beabletointerpretdataobtainedfrommonitoringroutineactivities withreferencetothefunctioningofhealthybodysystems.

3.

4.

P1Describethefunctionsofthemaincellscomponents
Cellsarethebasicunitsiforganismsinwhichalllivingthingsaremade.The appearanceofthecellsdependsoftheareaitislocatedatandthefunctionswithinthe organism.Acellconsistsofmanycomponents.Theseareplasmamembrane,the cytoplasm,theendoreticulum(roughandsmooth),Golgiapparatus,lysosomes, mitochondrionandthenucleus.Eachofthesepartsofthecell,playanimportantrole,if itdidnothaveallthesepartsthenthecellwouldnotworkinandwhatitismeantto.

Thecellmembrane(orplasma)isathinskinaroundthecell.Itgivesthecellits
shapeandcontrolswhatgoesintoandoutofthecell.Iftheplasmamembranewasto getdamagedinanyway,anditwouldn'tletanythingenterorexitit,thenwewouldnot beabletogetoxygeninandletcarbondioxideout.Thismeansthatwewouldn'tbeable tolive,aswehavetoneedoxygenandtoletoutcarbondioxideforrespirationwhich providesourbodywiththeenergytogothroughtheprocessesthatitneeds.

Thecytoplasmisthefluidofthecell,whichismostlymadeupofwater.Thisisalso
wherechemicalreactionstakeplace,likemetabolism,whichkeepsthecellalive.The functionofthecytoplasmistoprovidestructuretothecell,aplaceforallthe

componentsofthecelltositandtoalsoprovideaplaceforthingslikegrowthtotake place.Thejellylikematerialoutsidethecellnucleusinwhichtheorganellesarelocated. Itisrepresentedbythegelatin.

Thenucleusisthelargeststructurewithinthecell,containingmanyorganelles.Itis
usuallyfoundinthemiddleofthecell,butinsomeplantcellsitcanbefoundatthe bottom.Thefunctionofthenucleusisveryimportantbecauseitcontrolswhatthecell does,aswellascontaininginstructionsonhowtomakenewcells.ItisSphericalbody containingmanyorganelles,includingthenucleolus.Thenucleuscontrolsmanyofthe functionsofthecell(bycontrollingproteinsynthesis)andcontainsDNA(in chromosomes).Itisrepresentedbytheplum.

TheGolgiapparatusisaflattened,layered,saclikeorganellewhichlookslikea
stackofpancakes.ThemainfunctionoftheGolgiapparatusistoprocessandpackage proteinsandlipidsfordeliverytootherorganellesoroutwardsfromthecell.Itisalso responsiblefortheproducinglysosomes.TheGolgibodypackagesproteinsand carbohydratesintomembraneboundvesiclesfor"export"fromthecell.Itisrepresented byfoldedribbonsofhardcandy.

Themitochondriaareasphericaltorodshapedorganelleswithdoubledlayered
membraneswhicharescatteredroundthecytoplasm.Theinnermembraneisinfolded manytimes,formingaseriesofprojections(calledcristae).Themitochondrionconverts theenergystoredinglucoseintoATP(adenosinetriphosphate)forthecell.Theyare representedbyraisins.

Centrosomeasmallbodylocatednearthenucleusithasadensecentreand
radiatingtubules.Thisiswheremicrotubulesaremade.Duringcelldivision(mitosis), thecentrosomedividesandthetwopartsmovetooppositesidesofthedividingcell.It isrepresentedbyagumball.

Lysosomeitisalsocalledcellvesicles,anditsroundorganellessurroundedbya
membraneandcontainingdigestiveenzymes.Thisiswherethedigestionofcell nutrientstakesplace.TheyarerepresentedbyM&M's.

Nuclearmembraneitisthemembranethatsurroundsthenucleus.Itis representedbytheplum'sskin. NucleolusanorganellewithinthenucleusitiswhereribosomalRNAisproduced.


Somecellshavemorethanonenucleolus.Itisrepresentedbytheplumpit.

RibosomesmallorganellescomposedofRNArichcytoplasmicgranulesthatare
sitesofproteinsynthesis.Theyarerepresentedbycandysprinkles.

Roughendoplasmicreticulum(roughER)avastsystemofinterconnected,
membranous,infoldedandconvolutedsacksthatarelocatedinthecell'scytoplasm(the ERiscontinuouswiththeouternuclearmembrane).RoughERiscoveredwith ribosomesthatgiveitaroughappearance.RoughERtransportsmaterialsthroughthe cellandproducesproteinsinsackscalledcisternae(whicharesenttotheGolgibody, orinsertedintothecellmembrane).Itisrepresentedbysourgummyworms.

Smoothendoplasmicreticulum(smoothER)avastsystemofinterconnected,
membranous,infoldedandconvolutedtubesthatarelocatedinthecell'scytoplasm(the ERiscontinuouswiththeouternuclearmembrane).ThespacewithintheERiscalled theERlumen.SmoothERtransportsmaterialsthroughthecell.Itcontainsenzymesand producesanddigestslipids(fats)andmembraneproteinssmoothERbudsofffrom roughER,movingthenewlymadeproteinsandlipidstotheGolgibody,lysosomes, andmembranes.Itisrepresentedbygummyworms.

Vacuolefluidfilled,membranesurroundedcavitiesinsideacell.Thevacuolefillswith
foodbeingdigestedandwastematerialthatisonitswayoutofthecell.Theyare representedbyjawbreakers.

P2:outlinethestructureofthemaintissuesofthebodyandtheir roleinthefunctioningoftwonamedbodysystems.
Tissuesaregroupsofsimilarcellscarryoutspecificfunctionsinthinunit,anditis alsoanonlivingmaterialcalledintercellularmatrix,fillsthespacesbetweenthe cells. Thesearethetypesoftissues: Epithelial. Connective. Muscle. Nervous.

Epithelialtissues:theyperformavarietyoffunctionsthatincludesprotection
epitheliaaretheliningsofinternalandexternalsurfacesandbodycavities, includingducts(tubesorchannels)carryingsecretionsfromglands.Theymay becomposedofseverallayersofcells,calledcompoundepithelia,orjusta singlelayerknowsassimpleepithelia.Thewestorbottomlayerofcellsis attachedtoabasementmembraneforsupportorconnection.Therearenerve suppliestoepitheliabuttheyaresuppliedwithoxygenandnutrientsfrom deepertissuesbydiffusion.Astheyaresurfacetissuesandexposedto friction,theircapacityforgrowthandrepairisgreaterthanothertissuesand

usuallyoccursduringsleep.

Typesofepithelialtissues: Simplesquambous_ thistypeofepitheliumisfoundcoveringsurfacesthatare


notexposedtomuchirritation.Forexample,bloodvesselsarelinedbysimple squamousepithelium(whichismorespecificallycalledendotheliumwhenitlinesa bloodvessel).Thefluidfilledbodycavities(orpartsofthecoelom)arealsolined withsimplesquamousepithelium,herecalledmesothelium.Thisslideisawhole mountofsheetofmesotheliumanddoesnotcontainothertissues.However, rememberthatitisnotacrosssection,soyouarelookingdownoncells.

Simplecuboidal_areepithelialcellsinasinglelayerofcubelikecellswith
large,sphericalcentralnuclei.Simplecuboidalepitheliaarefoundonthesurface ofovaries,theliningofnephrons,thewallsoftherenaltubules,andpartsofthe eyeandthyroid.Onthesesurfaces,thecellsperformsecretionandabsorption. Thesecellsprovideprotectionandmaybeactive(pumpingmaterialinoroutofthe lumen)orpassive,dependingonthelocationandcellularspecialization.Theyare alsofoundinkidneytubules,glandularducts,ovaries,andthethyroidgland. Simplecuboidalcellsarefoundinsinglerowswiththeirsphericalnucleiinthe centerofthecellsandaredirectlyattachedtothesurface.Simplecuboidal epitheliumcommonlydifferentiatestoformthesecretoryandductportionsof glands.[1]Theyalsoconstitutethegerminalepitheliumwhichproducestheeggcells inthefemaleovaryandthespermcellsinthemaletestes.[2]Thesecellsoffersome protectionandfunctioninabsorptionandsecretion.

Simplecolumnar_Simplecolumnarepithelialcellsarelongerthantheyare
wide.Characteristically,theirnucleuiarefoundatthebaseofthecell.Thecells areconnectedbytightjunctions.Thecellsreceivenutrientsthroughthebasement membrane,whichseparatesthecellsfromthecapillarybasallayer.Themain functionofsimplecolumnarepithelialcellsisprotection.Forexample,the epitheliuminthestomachanddigestivetractprovidesanimpermeablebarrier againstanybacteriathatcouldbeingestedbutispermeabletoanynecessary ions.Thisfunctionisespeciallyimportantinthecolon.Simplecolumnarepithelial cellscanspecializetosecretmucusthatcoatsandprotectsthesurrounding surfacefromdamage.Becausetheepitheliumcanbeinnervated,simplecolumnar epitheliumisalsospecializedtoprovidesensoryinput.Thesecellsarefoundinthe cornea,innerear,andnose.Finally,simplecolumnarepitheliumsareverygoodat absorpingandtransportingnutrientsfromlocationslikethesmallintestine.

Stratifiedsquambous_astratifiedsquamousepitheliumconsistsofsquamous
(flattened)epithelialcellsarrangedinlayersuponabasementmembrane.Only onelayerisincontactwiththebasementmembranetheotherlayersadhereto oneanothertomaintainstructuralintegrity.Althoughthisepitheliumisreferredto assquamous,manycellswithinthelayersmaynotbeflattenedthisisduetothe conventionofnamingepitheliaaccordingtothecelltypeatthesurface.Inthe deeperlayers,thecellsmaybecolumnarorcuboidal.Thistypeofepitheliumis wellsuitedtoareasinthebodysubjecttoconstantabrasion,asitisthethickest andlayerscanbesequentiallysloughedoffandreplacedbeforethebasement membraneisexposed.Itformstheoutermostlayeroftheskinandtheinnerlining ofthemouth,esophagus,andvagina.

Stratifiedcuboidal_itis:

rare cubeshaped commonlycellsmakeuptwolayers protectionoflargerductscelllayerssurround/protectglandducts sweatglandsintheskin mammaryglandinthebreast salivaryglandsinthemouth maybeactive(pumpmaterialin/outoflumen)

Pseudostratifiedcolumnar_Pseudostratifiedcolumnarepitheliumislikesimple
columnarepithelium,onlyithasdifferentnuclearlayersmakingitlookstratified (hencethename).Somecellshaveacentrallylocatednucleusandothershavea morebasalnucleus.istypicallyfoundliningtherespiratorysystemandisalso foundinothertissuessuchastheepididymis.Threetypesofcellsmakeupthis epitheliumbasal,columnarandfusiformcells.Thefirsttwoareeasytosee,but fusiformcellsaredifficulttodemonstrateduetotheirshape.Allcellsrestonthe basementmembrane,butvaryinheight,and,asaresult,thenucleiareatdifferent levelsgivingtheappearanceofstratification.

Tissuesaregroupsofcellswithacommonstructureand

function

Inanimals,mostofthebodyscellsarearrangedintotissues Thestructureoftissuesrelatestotheirspecificfunctions Therearefourmaintypesofanimaltissues:epithelial,connective,muscle, nervous

Epithelialtissuecoversthebodyandlinesitsorgansandcavities

Epithelialtissue:sheetsoftightlypackedcellsthatcoverbodysurfacesandline internalorgansandcavities Thebase(basal)layerofepithelialtissueisattachedtoadenselayerof extracellularmatrix Containsfibrousproteinsandstickypolysaccharides Thefree(apical)surfacefacestheoutsideorinsideofasurfaceororgan Epithelialtissuesarenamedforthenumberoflayerstheycontainandforthe shapeoftheircells

Layers Simple(Onelayer)

CellShape Squamous(flat)

Location Capillaryandair saclinings. Kidneytubulesand thyroidgland. Intestinallining Skin Sweatglandsand mammaryglands. Pharynxandanus Upperrespiratory tract

Cuboidal(cube) Columnar(column) Stratified(Morethan onelayer) Squamous(flat) Cuboidal(cube) Columnar(column) Pseudostratified(one Columnar layerbutlookslike more)

Connectivetissuebindsandsupportsothertissues
Containsfewercells,scatteredthroughoutanextracellularmatrix Matrix: Secretedbythecells Containsaweboffibersembeddedinaliquid,jelly,orsolid Looseconnectivetissue:bindingandpackingmaterialtoholdorgansinplace Fibersaremainlylooselywovencollagenandelastic Fibrousconnectivetissue:tendonsandligaments Fibersaredenselypackedbundlesofcollagen Adiposetissue:padsandinsulatesthebodyandstoresenergy Storesfatwithincells Littlematrix Cartilage:shockabsorberinjoints,nose,andears Manycollagenfibersembeddedinarubberymatrix Bone:supportstructure Collagenfibersembeddedinahardmineralmatrixofcalcium,magnesium,and phosphate Blood:functionsintransportandimmunity Consistsofcellssuspendedinaliquidmatrix

Thesetissuesarethemostwidelydistributedinthebodyandlie beneaththeepithelialtissues,connectingdifferentpartsoftheinternal structure.Varioustypesofcellslieinabackgroundmaterialknowas matrix.Thematrixmaybeliquidasinblood,jellylikeasanareolar tissue,firmasincartilageorhardasinbone.Thematrixofatissueis usuallysecretedbytheconnectivetissuecells.Thefunctionsofthese tissuesaretotransportmaterial(asinblood),givesupport(asinareolar tissueandcartilage),andstrengthenandprotect(asinbone).Many tissuescontaindifferentfibressecretedbythecellstoprovidespecial characteristics.

Muscletissueconsistsofbundlesofmusclecellswhich encloselargenumbersofcontractileproteinsarrangedin parallel Skeletalmuscle

Attachedtobonesbytendons Responsibleforvoluntarybodymovements Stripedorstriatedappearance Cardiacmuscle Formstheheart Cellsarestriatedandbranched Cellsconnectatspecializedjunctionsforcoordinated contraction Smoothmuscle Lacksstriations Responsibleforinvoluntaryorganmotions Ex:intestinalmovements(peristalsis) Nervoustissue:sensesstimuliandrapidlytransmits informationfromonepartoftheanimaltoanother Neuron:structuralandfunctionalunitofnervoustissue Specializedtoconductelectricalimpulses Dendritesconveyinformationtowardtheneuroncellbody Axonsconveyinformationawayfromtheneuroncellbody Nervoustissuealsoincludessupportingcells

ThetwoorgansIchoseare:

Thelungs:Thelungstissuesaremadeupmainlyofsquamous
epithelialtissue(calledalveolarepitheliuminthelungs).Thistypeof tissueservesacriticalfunctionwithinthelungsbecauseitallowsthe transferandexchangeofgaseswithlittleornoresistance. TheadvantagesareashortdistancebetweentheOxygeninthe alveoliandthebloodinthecapillaries. Thelungsalsocontainciliatedepithelium.Afunctionofciliated epitheliumisstimulationofgobletcellstoproduceamucouslike substancethatnotonlylubricatesbutalsotrapspathogensand particlesinthebronchi.

Thekidneys:
Thekidneysarecomposedofvarioustypesofepithelialtissue. Theproximalconvulatedtubuleismadeupofsimplecuboidal epitheliumwithmicrovilli. Thedistalconvulatedtubuleismadeupofsimplecuboidal epitheliumwithoutmicrovilli. Thecollectingductismadeupofsimplecuboidalepithelium. Theascendingthinlimbismadeupofsimplesquamous epithelium.

Sources: http://www.bio.davidson.edu/people/kabernd/BerndCV/Lab/EpithelialInf oWeb/Stratified%20Epithelium.html http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Human_anatomy


http://ect.downstate.edu/courseware/histomanual/epithelia.html http://www.cytochemistry.net/microanatomy/epithelia/stratified_squamous.htm http://www.cytochemistry.net/microanatomy/epithelia/stratified_columnar.htm http://www.courseweb.uottawa.ca/medicinehistology/english/ss_basictissues/epithelia.html http://microanatomy.net/epithelia/pseudostratified_columnar.htm http://www.courseweb.uottawa.ca/medicinehistology/english/ss_basictissues/Connective_Ti ssue.htm http://www.courseweb.uottawa.ca/medicinehistology/english/ss_basictissues/Muscle_Tissu e.htm http://www.courseweb.uottawa.ca/medicinehistology/english/ss_basictissues/Nervous_Tiss ue.htm

P3:Outlinethegrossstructureofallthemainbodysystems
Introduction Asystemismadeupofdifferenttissuesandorgansworkingtogethertoperforma specificfunctioninthebody.

Skeletalsystem:
Skeletalsystemisthesystemofbones,associatedcartilagesandjointsofhuman body.Togetherthesestructuresformthehumanskeleton.Skeletoncanbedefined asthehardframeworkofhumanbodyaroundwhichtheentirebodyisbuilt. Almostallthehardpartsofhumanbodyarecomponentsofhumanskeletalsystem. Jointsareveryimportantbecausetheymakethehardandrigidskeletonallow differenttypesofmovementsatdifferentlocations.Iftheskeletonwerewithout joints,nomovementwouldhavetakenplaceandthesignificanceofhumanbody nomorethanastone. ComponentsofHumanSkeleton: HumanskeletoniscomposedofthreemaincomponentsBones,Associated cartilagesandJoints. Bones:Boneisatoughandrigidformofconnectivetissue.Itistheweight bearingorganofhumanbodyanditisresponsibleforalmostallstrengthofhuman skeleton. Cartilages:Cartilageisalsoaformofconnectivetissuebutisnotastoughand rigidasbone.Themaindifferenceinthecartilageandboneisthemineralization factor.Bonesarehighlymineralizedwithcalciumsaltswhilecartilagesarenot. Joints:Jointsareimportantcomponentsofhumanskeletonbecausetheymake thehumanskeletonmobile.Ajointoccursbetweentwoormorebones,bone andcartilageandcartilageandcartilage. DivisionsofHumanSkeleton:Humanskeletoncanbedividedintotwodivisions. AxialSkeleton: Axialskeletonformstheaxisofhumanbody.ItconsistsofSkull,vertebralcolumn andthoraciccage. Skull:Skullisthatpartofhumanskeletonthatformsthebonyframeworkofthe head.Itconsistsof22differentbonesthataredividedintotwogroups:bonesof

craniumandbonesofface. VertebralColumn:Itisaflexiblecolumnofvertebrae,connectingthetrunkof humanbodytotheskullandappendages.Itiscomposedof33vertebraewhich aredividedinto5regions:Cervical,Thoracic,Lumbar,Sacral,andCoccygeal. RibCage:Itisabonycageenclosingvitalhumanorgansformedbythesternum andribs.Thereare12pairsofribsthataredividedintothreegroups:Trueribs, Falseribs,andFloatingribs. AppendicularSkeleton: Itistheskeletonofappendagesofhumanbody.ItconsistsofShouldergirdle, Skeletonofupperlimb,PelvicgirdleandSkeletonoflowerlimb. ShoulderGirdle:Itattachestheupperlimbtobodytrunkandisformedbytwo bones:clavicleandscapula.Clavicleisamodifiedlongboneandissubcutaneous throughoutitsposition.Itisalsoknownasthebeautybone.Scapulaisapear shapedflatbonethatcontainstheglenoidfossafortheformationofshoulderjoint. Itpossessesthreeimportantprocesses:Spineofscapula,Acromionprocessand Coracoidprocess. SkeletonofUpperlimb:Theskeletonofeachupperlimbconsistsof30bones. Thesebonesare:Humerus,Ulna,Radius,Carpals(8),Metacarpals(5),and Phalanges(14). PelvicGirdle:Therearetwopelvicgirdles(oneforeachlowerlimb)butunlikethe pectoralgirdles,theyarejointedwitheachotheratsymphysispubis.Eachpelvic girdleisasingleboneinadultsandismadeupofthreecomponents:Ileum, IschiumandPubis. SkeletonofLowerlimb:Theskeletonofeachlowerlimbconsistsof30bones. ThesebonesareFemur,Tibia,Patella,Tarsals(7),Metatarsals(5),Phalanges (14). Functionsofhumanskeleton: Humanskeletonperformssomeimportantfunctionsthatarenecessaryforsurvival ofhumanbeings.
1. Strength, support and shape: It gives strength, support and shape to the

body. Without a hard and rigid skeletal system, human body cannot stand upright,anditwillbecomejustabagofsofttissueswithoutanypropershape.
2. Protection of delicate organs: In areas like the rib cage and skull, the

skeleton protects inner soft but vital organs like heart and brain from external shocks. Any damage to these organs can prove fatal, therefore protective functionofskeletonisveryimportant
3. Leverage for movements: Bones of the human skeleton in all parts of body

provide attachment to the muscles. These muscles provide motor power for

producing movements of body parts. In these movements the parts of skeleton acts like levers of different types thus producing movements according to the needsofthehumanbody.
4. Production of red blood cells: Bones like the sternum, and heads of tibia

have hemopoeitic activity (blood cells production). These are the sites of productionofnewbloodcells.

Muscularsystem:

MuscularsystemisthesystemofHumanBodythatprovidesmotorpowerforall movementsofbodyparts.Muscularsystemiscomposedofspecialtissuecalled musculartissue.Muscleshavetheabilitytocontractactivelytoprovidetheforce formovementsofbodyparts.Muscularsystemisanimportantsystemofhuman bodybecausewithoutit,lifewillcompletelystop.Musclesproducenotonlythose movementsthatareunderthecontrolofourwillandthatwecanseeandfeel,but alsothosemovementsthatareresponsibleforactivitieslikebreathing,digestionof food,pumpingofbloodetc. Muscles: Musclesarebodytissuesthatprovidetheforceforallbodymovements.Theyare madeofspecialtypesofcells. Typesofmuscles: MusclesarebasicallyofthreetypesSkeletalMuscles,SmoothMusclesand CardiacMuscles. 1.SkeletalMuscles: Skeletalmusclesformmostofthehumanbodyweight.Theyareunderthecontrol ofhumanwillandallbodymovementsoccurringbyourwillareproducedby skeletalmuscles.Theyarecalledskeletalmusclesbecausetheyarealmostalways foundattachedtotheskeletonandproducemovementsindifferentpartsofthe skeleton. 2.SmoothMuscles: Smoothmusclesformthesoftbodyorganslikestomach,intestine,bloodvessels etc.Theyarenotunderthewillofhumanbeingsandareresponsiblefor unconsciousbodyactivitieslikedigestionoffood.Theyarecalledsmoothmuscles becausewhenseenunderthemicroscope,theydonothaveanystriationin contrasttotheothertwotypesofmuscles 3.CardiacMuscles: Cardiacmusclesareexclusivelyfoundinhumanheartandnowhereelse.They areextremelystrongandpowerfulmuscles.Theyarenotunderthecontrolof humanwillandareinvoluntary.Thepumpingofbloodbyhumanheartisbecause

oftheforceprovidedbythecontractionofcardiacmuscles. FunctionsofMuscularSystem: Muscularsystemhasthefollowingimportantfunctionsinhumanbody


1. Movementofbodyparts:Skeletalmusclesareresponsibleforallvoluntary

movementsofhumanbodyparts.Theyprovidetheforcebycontractingactively attheexpenseofenergy.Inotherwords,musclesaremotorsofbodywhere chemicalenergyoffoodisconvertedintomechanicalwork.


2. Stabilityandposture:Skeletalmusclesstabilizehumanskeletonandgivea

properposturetohumanbeings.Somejointsofhumanbodyareweakand theyrequirethesupportofmuscularsystemtoachievestability.Skeletal musclesareveryimportantforsuchjoints.


3. Heatproduction:Alargeshareofbodysenergyisusedbymuscularsystem.

Asaresultofhighmetabolicrate,musclesproducegreatamountofheatinthe body.Heatproducedbymusclesisveryimportantincoldclimates.
4. Circulation:Cardiacmusclesprovidethemainforceforcirculationofblood

throughouthumanbody.Theregularpumpingofheatkeepsthebloodinmotion andnutrientsarereadilyavailabletoeverytissueofhumanbody.
5. Helpindigestion:Smoothmusclesoforganslikestomachandintestinehelp

thedigestivesystemintheprocessofdigestionoffood.

Nervoussystem:

Nervoussystemisthechiefcontrollingandcoordinatingsystemofthebody.It controlsandregulatesallvoluntaryandinvoluntaryactivitiesofhumanbody.There arethreecharacteristicpropertiesofnervoussystemofhumanbodySensitivity, ConductivityandResponsiveness Neuronistheunitofnervoussystem: Thestructuralandfunctionalunitofnervoussystemiscalledneuron.Itisaspecial typeofcellwithacellbodyandcellprocesses. Partsofnervoussystem: NervoussystemofhumanbodyisdividedbroadlyintotwopartsCentralNervous System(CNS)andPeripheralNervousSystem(PNS).

Centralnervoussystem:Centralnervoussystemincludesbrainandspinal

cord.

Peripheralnervoussystem:Peripheralnervoussystemincludesalltheparts ofnervoussystemexceptbrainandspinalcord.Itisfurtherdividedintotwo componentsSomaticnervoussystemandAutonomicnervoussystem.

Nerves: Nervesaresolidcordscomposedofbundlesofnervefibers(eachnervefiberis anaxonwithitscoverings)boundtogetherbyconnectivetissue.Nervesareoftwo typesSpinalnervesandCranialNerves.

SpinalNerves:Spinalnervesarisefromthespinalcord.Thereare31pairsof spinalnervesinhumanbody. CranialNerves:Cranialnervesarisefromthebrain.Thereare12pairsof cranialnervesinhumanbody.

Functionsofnervoussystem:
1. Controlofallbodyfunctions:Nervoussystemisthemastersystemofhuman

body.Itcontrolstheactivityofallothersystemsinsuchawaythatallthe systemscollectivelymakeahumanbeing.Withoutacontrollingsystem,thereis noconceptoflifebecauseinsuchcasetherewillbenocoordinationbetween differentbodyfunctionsandtheywillallactseparately.Nervoussystemnot onlycontrolsthevoluntaryfunctionsofhumanbodythataredirectedbyhuman will,butitalsocontrolsthosefunctionsthatarebelowthelevelofconsciousness ofhumanbeings.Controlofafunctionmeansthattheintensityofthatfunction canbeincreasedordecreasedaccordingtothedemandsofhumanbody.


2. Coordinationofdifferentbodyorgans:Nervoussystemnotonlyproduces

coordinationbetweendifferentsystems,butalsobetweendifferentorgansofa system.Toformanorgansystem,roleofthecomponentorgansmustalsobe coordinated.Sonervoussystemisnotonlyimportantforformationofan organismbydifferentorgansystems,butalsoforformationofasystemby differentorgansofhumanbody.

Respiratorysystem:

Respiratorysystemisthesystemofrespiratorypassages,lungsandrespiratory musclesofhumanbody.Respiratorysystemisresponsibleforexchangeofgases betweenthehumanbodyandthesurroundings.Intheprocessofexchangeof gases,humanbodygainsoxygenandgetsridofcarbondioxide.Othergasesof theatmospherehavenosignificantroleinhumanrespiratorysystem.Respiratory systemisextremelyimportantforhumanbodybecausetheprocessofrespiration cannotbestroppedevenforafewseconds.Iftheprocessofrespirationstops

evenforaminuteortwo,theconditionwillbecomeseriousandwillultimatelyend indeath. Organsofhumanrespiratorysystem: Themainorgansofhumanrespiratorysystemarelungsandrespiratorypassages. Musclesofrespirationalsoformacomponentofrespiratorysystembutthere importanceisratherlittleascomparedtolungsandrespiratorypassages. Lungs: Lungsaretheorgansofhumanbodywheregaseousexchangetakeplace.Human beingshavetwolungsknownastherightandleftlungs.Lungsaresoft,spongy andveryelastic. RespiratoryPassages:Respiratorypassagesorairwaysaretheconducting portionsofhumanrespiratorysystem.Herenoexchangeofgasestakesplace,but theyguidetheairtogotothelungsandnotanywhereelseinthebody. ConductingportionofthehumanrespiratorysystemconsistsofTraches, Bronchi,Bronchioles,AlveolarsacsandAlveoli. FunctionsofRespiratorySystem:
1. Gaseousexchange:Mainfunctionofrespiratorysystemisgaseous

exchange.Throughrespiratorysystemnewairisalwaysbroughtintothebody andusedairisexpelledout.Inthiswayoxygenisgainedandcarbondioxideis lostbythebody.


2. Excretionofcarbondioxide:Respiratorysystemisthemajorsystemfor

excretionofcarbondioxidefromthebody.Carbondioxideisproducedasa resultofmetabolicbreakdownofcarbohydratesinbodyandmustbe eliminatedquickly.Carbondioxideisbroughttothelungsbybloodandislost fromthelungsthroughgaseousexchangewithfreshairinlungs.


3. Oxygenationofblood:Oxygenisrequiredbythebodyforbreakdownoffood

andmustbecontinuouslysuppliedforcontinuoussupplyofenergy.Supplyof oxygenismaintainedbyrespiratorysystem.

Cardiovascularsystem:
Heart Hollowmuscularorganprovidingtheforceforflowofblood throughouthumanbody Pathwaysofbloodflowinhumanbody,hollowtubes,of3 types Arteries Carrybloodawayfromhearttootherbody parts,verymuscularandelastic

Blood Capillarie Microscopicbloodvesselswhereexchangeof s nutrientswithtissuestakeplace Vessels Veins Carrybloodtowardstheheartfromother bodyparts,theirwallsarethinneras comparedtocorrespondingarteries.

Component s

Specialtypeofbodytissuethatisinfluidform,consistsof thefollowingcomponents Bloodcells Blood Plasma WhiteBlood Cells RedBlood Cells Platelets

Functions

Providenutrientstobodyparts,RemoveexcretoryProductsfrom bodyparts,Protectsbodyagainstinfection,Distributionofheat.

CardiovascularSystem:

Cardiovascularsystemmeansthesystemofheartandbloodvesselsofhuman body.ThetermcardiovascularisacombinationoftwowordCardioand vascular.ThetermcardioisderivedfromcardiacmeaningHeartandtheterm vascularmeansbloodvessels.Sothenameitselfindicatesthatacardiovascular systemisthesystemofheartandbloodvessels.Cardiovascularsystemisalso knownasCirculatorySystem. ComponentsofCardiovascularSystem: CardiovascularsystemismadeupofthreemajorcomponentsHeart,Blood vesselsandblood. Heart:Heartisahollowmuscularorganmadeofstrongcardiacmuscles.Heart canpushthebloodthroughthecirculatorysystemwithgreatforce.Infactpushof theheartisthemajorforcethatcausescirculationofbloodthroughouthuman body.HeartismadeupofthreelayersPericardium,Myocardiumand Endocardium. Bloodvessels:Humanbeingshaveaclosedtypeofcirculatorysysteminwhich blooddoesnotcomeindirectcontactwithbodytissues.Insteadthebloodflowsin restrictedpathwayscalledbloodvessels.Materialsareexchangedbetweenblood andbodytissuesthroughthewallsofbloodvessels.Thusbloodvesselsare pathwaysofbloodflowinhumanbody.Therearethreemaintypesofblood vesselsArteries,CapillariesandVeins. Blood:Bloodisaspecializedtissueofbodythatexistsinfluidform.Itisoneof thefivebasictypesoftissuesofhumanbody.Bloodconsistsoftwomajor portions:BloodcellsandPlasma.Plasmaisthewateryportionofbloodthatmakes itafluid.90%ofbloodplasmaiswaterandremaining10%areproteins,inclusions andwasteproductsetc.Bloodcellsareofthreemaintypes:RedBloodCells (RBCs),WhiteBloodCells(WBCs)andPlatelets. ImportanceofCardiovascularSystem: Perfectlyfunctioningcardiovascularsystemissoimportantforhumanbody,thatif itstopsforaminute,rapiddeathwilloccur.Theflowofbloodisnecessaryfor existenceoflife.Iftheflowofbloodisstopped,lifewillstop.Heartisthemain organofcardiovascularsystemanditisresponsiblefordistributingbloodallover humanbody.Heartdiseasesarecategorizedastheleadingcauseofdeathin UnitedStates.

LymphaticSystemOutline:
Carrylymphfromtissuespacestothevenous system,startsblindlyaslymphcapillariesintissue Lymphvessels spaces,theirwallsarepermeabletosubstancesof muchgreatersize Producesallpluripotentlymphoidcells Bone (inadults),helpsindifferentiationof Marrow BLymphocytes Helpsindifferentiationof Thymus TLymphocytes

Central Lymphoid Tissues

Component s

Peripheral Lymphoid Organs

Smallnodulesoflymphoidtissue Lymph foundinthecourseofsmallerlymph node vessels,purifythelymphfromharmful agents Removesoldbloodcellsfrom circulatingpool,Keepsareserveof Spleen bloodforemergency,Synthesizes antibodies Epithelial Lymphoidnodulesinplaceslike ymphoid alimentarycanalandrespiratory tissues tracts,Worksasasecuritycheck againsalltheincomingagents.

MatureBandTLymphocytescirculatinginblood, Lymphocytes protectsthebodyagainstanyinfectiousagentthat enterstheblood Functions Removalofparticulatematter,Productionoflymphocytes,Generation ofimmuneresponses

Lymphaticsystem:

Lymphaticsystemisthedrainagesystemofhumanbodyandisaccessorytothe
venoussystem.Atarterialendsofcapillariesfluidleaksoutandatthevenousend, itisabsorbedbackin.Someofthefluidremainsinthetissuespaces.Thisfluidis calledlymphandthesystembywhichthislymphisreturnedbacktobloodiscalled lymphaticsystem.Inadditiontoitsdrainagefunction,lymphaticsystemisalsoan effectivedefensesystemofthebodybecausesomeorgansofthelymphatic system(lymphoreticularorgans)areinvolvedindefenseactivitiesofthebody. Componentsoflymphaticsystem: Lymphaticsystemiscomposedofthefollowingimportantcomponents. Lymphvessels:Lymphvesselsarepathwaysforflowoflympharoundthebody. Lymphvesselsbeginaslymphcapillariesthatbeginblindlyintissuespacesand leadtolargerlymphvessels.Lymphvesselsdonotarisefromavascularstructures, brain,spinalcord,bonemarrowandsplenicpulp.Largerlymphvessels anastomosefreelywithoneanotherandtheyultimatelydrainthelymphintothe venoussystem. Centrallymphoidtissue:Centrallymphoidtissueconsistsofbonemarrowand thymus. Peripherallymphoidorgans:Peripherallymphoidorgansarelymphnodes, spleenandepithelialymphoidtissues(lymphoidtissuepresentinepitheliume.g. lymphoidtissueofalimentaryandrespiratorytracts). Circulatingpooloflymphocytes:ItcontainsmatureprogeniesofTlymphocytes andBlymphocytes.Theyformthefirstlineofdefenseofthebodyduring antigenicemergencies. FunctionsofLymphaticSystem:
1. Removeparticulatematter:Lymphcapillariesabsorbandremovelarge

proteinmoleculesandotherparticulatematterfromtissuespaces.Inthisway cellulardebrisandotherharmfulparticlesarewashedaway.
2. Filterthelymphforforeignharmful:Lymphnodesactasfilterforthelymph

andinthiswaytheypurifythelymphflowingthroughthem.
3. Phagocytosis:Antigensareremovedfromlymphbyphagocyticactivityof

cellsoflymphnode.
4. Productionoflymphocytes:MatureBlymphocytesandmature

Tlymphocytesareproducedinlymphnodes.
5. Immuneresponses:Lymphaticsystemcaninducebothcellularandhumoral

immuneresponses.

Endocrinesystem:

Masterglandofthebody,Ithastwolobes, Pituitary Presentatthebaseofbraininformofa Gland protrusion,Secretes9differentmajor hormones Oneofthelargestglandsofbody,Found Thyroid inneckbelowthethyroidcartilage,Mainly Gland controlsbodymetabolism,Secretes3 differenthormones

Typical Endocrine Glands Parathyroi Fourinnumber,locatedbehindthe dGlands thyroidgland,produceparathormone Component s

Foundattachedtothekidneys,Consists oftwopartsCortexandMedulla,Adrenal Adrenal cortexproduces3differenthormonesand Glands adrenalmedullaproduces4different hormones

Organs Primarilyanorganofdigestivesystem, with Pancreas produces4differenthormonesincluding Secondary InsulinandGlucagon endocrine Primarilyorgansofreproductivesystem, function Gonads Testesinmalesproducetestosterone, OvariesinfemalesproduceOestrogens

andProgesterone Primarilyametabolicorganofhuman body,produces3differenttypesof hormones PrimarilyanorganofExcretorysystem, Produces4differenttypesofhormones

Liver

Kidneys

Functions

Generallyitparallelstheassociatesthenervoussystemincontrolof bodyactivitie,Eachhormonehasaspecificfunction,

EndocrineSystem: Endocrinesystemisthesystemofglandsofhumanbody.Eachoftheseglands secretesoneormoredifferenthormonesinthebloodfordifferentfunctions.The secretionsofendocrineglandsareknownashormones.Eachendocrinegland maysecreteoneormorehormonesinthebloodandthesehormonesmayormay nothaverelatedfunctions.Generallythehormonesregulatedifferentfunctionsof humanbodylikegrowth,mood,development,andmetabolismetc.Theperform theirfunctionbyattachingtothetargetcellsandthencommunicatingwiththem. EndocrineGlands: Endocrineglandsareductlessglandsofhumanbodythatpourtheirsecretions (hormones)directlyintotheblood.Theyhavethreecharacteristicfeaturesthat are:
1. Theyareductless 2. Theyarehighlyvascularized 3. Theypossessintracellularvacuolesorgranulesthatstorethehormones

EndocrineglandsofHumanBody: Endocrineglandsofhumanbodyaredividedintotwocategories1)typical endocrineglands,2)Organshavingsecondaryendocrinefunction. 1)Typicalendocrineglands:Theseglandshaveprimaryfunctionofproducing hormonesforhumanbody.Typicalendocrineglandsinclude


1. 2. 3. 4.

Pituitarygland. Thyroidgland. Parathyroidgland. Adrenalgland.

TypicalEndocrineGlands 2)Organshavingsecondaryendocrinefunction:Theseorgansprimarily belongtosomeothersystemofthebodybuthaveasecondaryfunctionof producinghormones.Theyinclude


1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Pancreas(HormonesofPancreas) Ovaries(Infemales)(HormonesofOvaries) Testes(Inmales)(HormonesofTestes) Kidneys(HormonesofKidneys) Liver(HormonesofLiver)

Functionsoftheendocrinesystem: Asstatedabove,endocrinesystemisaregulatorysystemofhumanbody.Infactit associatesthenervoussystemincontrollingbodyfunctions.Thecontrolofbody functionbythenervoussystemiscallednervouscoordinationandthecontrolof bodyfunctionsbytheendocrinesystemiscalledchemicalcoordination.The controlofbodyfunctionsbytheendocrinesystemisalongtermcontrolsystem. Allthenecessarychangesandadaptationsofthebody,requiredforthelongterm controlofaspecificfunction,areinfluencedbythehormonalsystem.

DigestiveSystem
Digestionistheprocessbywhichfoodisbrokendownintosmallerpiecessothebody canusethemtobuildandnourishcells,andtoprovideenergy.Digestioninvolvesthe mixingoffood,itsmovementthroughthedigestivetract(alsoknownasthealimentary canal),andthechemicalbreakdownoflargermoleculesintosmallermolecules.Every pieceoffoodweeathastobebrokendownintosmallernutrientsthatthebodycan

absorb,whichiswhyittakeshourstofullydigestfood. Thedigestivesystemismadeupofthedigestivetract.Thisconsistsofalongtubeof organsthatrunsfromthemouthtotheanusandincludestheoesophagus,stomach, smallintestine,andlargeintestine,togetherwiththeliver,gallbladder,andpancreas, whichproduceimportantsecretionsfordigestionthatdrainintothesmallintestine.The digestivetractinanadultisabout30feetlong MouthandSalivaryGlands Digestionbeginsinthemouth,wherechemicalandmechanicaldigestionoccurs. Salivaorspit,producedbythesalivaryglands(locatedunderthetongueandnearthe lowerjaw),isreleasedintothemouth.Salivabeginstobreakdownthefood,moistening itandmakingiteasiertoswallow.Adigestiveenzyme(amylase)inthesalivabeginsto breakdownthecarbohydrates(starchesandsugars).Oneofthemostimportant functionsofthemouthischewing.Chewingallowsfoodtobemashedintoasoftmass thatiseasiertoswallowanddigestlater. Movementsbythetongueandthemouthpushthefoodtothebackofthethroatforitto beswallowed.Aflexibleflapcalledtheepiglottisclosesoverthetrachea(windpipe)to ensurethatfoodenterstheoesophagusandnotthewindpipetopreventchoking. Oesophagus Oncefoodisswallowed,itenterstheoesophagus,amusculartubethatisabout10 incheslong.Theoesophagusislocatedbetweenthethroatandthestomach.Muscular wavelikecontractionsknownasperistalsispushthefooddownthroughtheoesophagus tothestomach.Amuscularring(cardiacsphincter)attheendoftheoesophagusallows foodtoenterthestomach,and,then,itsqueezesshuttopreventfoodandfluidfrom goingbackuptheoesophagus. Stomach ThestomachisaJshapedorganthatliesbetweentheoesophagusandthesmall intestineintheupperabdomen.Thestomachhas3mainfunctions:tostorethe swallowedfoodandliquidtomixupthefood,liquid,anddigestivejuicesproducedby thestomachandtoslowlyemptyitscontentsintothesmallintestine. Onlyafewsubstances,suchaswaterandalcohol,canbeabsorbeddirectlyfromthe stomach.Anyotherfoodsubstancesmustundergothedigestiveprocessesofthe stomach.Thestomach'sstrongmuscularwallsmixandchurnthefoodwithacidsand enzymes(gastricjuice),breakingitintosmallerpieces.Aboutthreequartsofthegastric juiceisproducedbyglandsinthestomacheveryday. Thefoodisprocessedintoasemiliquidformcalledchyme.Aftereatingameal,the chymeisslowlyreleasedalittleatatimethroughthepyloricsphincter,athickened muscularringbetweenthestomachandthefirstpartofthesmallintestinecalledthe

duodenum.Mostfoodleavesthestomachbyfourhoursaftereating. SmallIntestine Mostdigestionandabsorptionoffoodoccursinthesmallintestine.Thesmallintestine isanarrow,twistingtubethatoccupiesmostofthelowerabdomenbetweenthe stomachandthebeginningofthelargeintestine.Itextendsabout20feetinlength.The smallintestineconsistsofthreeparts:theduodenum(theCshapedpart),thejejunum (thecoiledmidsection),andtheileum(thelastsection). Thesmallintestinehastwoimportantfunctions.


1. Thedigestiveprocessiscompletedherebyenzymesandothersubstancesmade

byintestinalcells,thepancreas,andtheliver.Glandsintheintestinewallssecrete enzymesthatbreakdownstarchesandsugars.Thepancreassecretesenzymesinto thesmallintestinethathelpbreakdowncarbohydrates,fats,andproteins.Theliver producesbile,whichisstoredinthegallbladder.Bilehelpstomakefatmolecules (whichotherwisearenotsolubleinwater)soluble,sotheycanbeabsorbedbythe body. 2. Thesmallintestineabsorbsthenutrientsfromthedigestiveprocess.Theinnerwall ofthesmallintestineiscoveredbymillionsoftinyfingerlikeprojectionscalledvilli. Thevilliarecoveredwitheventinierprojectionscalledmicrovilli.Thecombinationof villiandmicrovilliincreasethesurfaceareaofthesmallintestinegreatly,allowing absorptionofnutrientstooccur.Undigestedmaterialtravelsnexttothelarge intestine. LargeIntestine ThelargeintestineformsanupsidedownUoverthecoiledsmallintestine.Itbeginsat thelowerrighthandsideofthebodyandendsonthelowerlefthandside.Thelarge intestineisabout56feetlong.Ithasthreeparts:thececum,thecolon,andtherectum. Thececumisapouchatthebeginningofthelargeintestine.Thisareaallowsfoodto passfromthesmallintestinetothelargeintestine.Thecoloniswherefluidsandsalts areabsorbedandextendsfromthececumtotherectum.Thelastpartofthelarge intestineistherectum,whichiswherefeces(wastematerial)isstoredbeforeleaving thebodythroughtheanus. Themainjobofthelargeintestineistoremovewaterandsalts(electrolytes)fromthe undigestedmaterialandtoformsolidwastethatcanbeexcreted.Bacteriainthelarge intestinehelptobreakdowntheundigestedmaterials.Theremainingcontentsofthe largeintestinearemovedtowardtherectum,wherefaecesarestoreduntiltheyleave thebodythroughtheanusasabowelmovement.

UrinarySystem Kidneysaretwobeanshapedorganslyingclosetothe Kidneys lumbarspineoneitherside,theyaremultifunctionorgan, formurineandcontrolitsconcentration Twohollowmusculartubesonearisingfromeachkidney Ureters andendingattheurinarybladder,connectkidneysto Component thebladder s Urinary Storesurinebeforeitisexcretedfromthebody,hollow Bladder muscularanddistensibleorgan,sitsonthepelvicfloor. Urethra Atubeconnectingtheurinalybladdertothegenitalsfor excretion

Functions Excretionofnitrogenouswastes,Osmoregulation,AcidBasebalance

UrinarySystem Urinarysystemisalsoknownasexcretorysystemofhumanbody.Itisthesystem ofproduction,storageandeliminationofurine.Formationandeliminationofurine isimportantforhumanbodybecauseurinecontainsnitrogenouswastesofthe bodythatmustbeeliminatedtomaintainhomeostasis.Nitrogenouswastesare formedbymetabolicactivitiesinthecells.Thesenitrogenouswastesalongwith excessofsaltsandwaterarecombinedinthekidneystoformurine.Urinary systemisimportantforkeepingtheinternalenvironmentofthebodyclean.Urinary systemmaintainsproperhomeostasisofwater,saltsandnitrogenouswastes. Componentsofurinarysystem: Humanurinarysystemconsistsoftwokidneys,twoureters,aurinarybladder,a urethraandsphinctermuscles.

Kidneys:Kidneysarethemajororgansofurinarysystem.Formationofurine takesplaceinkidneyswhicharetwobeanshapedorganslyingclosetothe lumbarspine,oneoneachsideofthebody.

Ureters:Thesearemusculartubesextendingfromthekidneystotheurinary bladder.Urineflowsinthesetubesfromkidneytotheurinarybladder.

Urinarybladder:UrinaryBladdercollectsurinebeforeitisexcretedfromthe body.Urinarybladderisahollowmuscularandelasticorgansitingonthe pelvicfloor Urethra:Urethraisatubethatconnectstheurinarybladdertotheexternal genitaliaforeliminationfromthebody. Sphinctermuscles:Therearetwosphinctermusclestocontroltheelimination ofurinefromhumanbody.Theexternalofthetwomusclesisstriatedandis undervoluntarycontrolofthebody.

Functionsofurinarysystem: Asstatedabove,urinarysystemistheexcretorysystemofhumanbody.It performsthefollowingimportantfunctions


1. Formationandeliminationofurine:Themainfunctionofurinarysystemis

formationandeliminationofurine.Urineisformedbythekidneysin3steps1) GlomerularFiltration,2)Tubularreabsorption,and3)Tubularsecretion.
2. Osmoregulation:Kidneysareimportantosmoregulatoryorgansofhuman

body.Theymaintainsaltandwaterbalanceofthebody.Iftheconcentrationof saltorwaterisincreasedabovenormal,kidneywillexcretetheexcessamount. Iftheconcentrationisdecreased,kidneyswillreducethelossofwaterand saltsinurine.


3. Acidbasebalance:KidneysareimportantregulatorsofpHofbodyfluids.

KidneyskeepthepHbalancedwithinaverysmallrangeandprovidean optimumenvironmentforallprocessesoflife

Theintegumentarysystem
TheIntegumentarysystemistheorgansystemthatprotectshumanbodyfrom damage.Itconsistsofskinanditsappendages,whichincludehair,nails,and sweatglandsetc.Itformsabout16percentoftheweightofhumanbody.

Functions: TheIntegumentarysystemhasavarietyoffunctions.

Itservesasawaterproofcushionthatprotectsdeepertissues. Itexcreteswastesandregulatesbodytemperature Itistheattachmentsitefordifferenttypesofsensoryreceptorstodetect pain,sensation,pressure,andtemperature. ItisalsoasourceofvitaminDsynthesiswhichisrequiredforhealthy humanbody.

Thereproductivesystem:
MaleReproductiveSystemOutline: Malecopulatoryorganhavingalongshaftandabulboustip, transfersthesemenintothefemalereproductivetract

Penis

Component s Teste Componentsofbothreproductivesystemandendocrine s system,producesementhatcontainssperms

Functions Fertilizationoffemalestoproduceoffspring MaleReproductiveSystem: Malereproductivesystemisthesystemofsexorgansofmalehumanbeingsthat areapartoftheoverallreproductiveprocessofhumanbeings.Reproductionis thecapacityofalllivingorganismstogiverisetotheirbabiesthataresimilarto them.Inhumanbeings,sexualtypeofreproductiontakesplaceandforthistypeof reproduction,maleandfemalereproductivesystemsarerequired.Male reproductivesystemismainlyconcernedwithproductionofsemen(whitish viscousfluidemittedfromthemalereproductivetractthatcontainsspermand fluids)andtransferringitintothefemalereproductivetract.

Organsofmalereproductivesystem: Theorgansofmalereproductivesystemarepenisandtestes.Theylieoutsidethe malesbodyinthepelvicregion.

Penis:Penisistheexternalsexualorganofmalehumanbeings.Itsmainroleis togetaccesstothefemalereproductivesystemduringsexualintercourse.In additiontothereproductiverole,italsoservesastheexcretoryorganthrough whichurineisexpelledoutofthebody.

Testes:Testesarecomponentsofbothreproductiveandendocrinesystem. Forreproductivesystemtheyproducespermandforendocrinesystemthey producemalesexhormonesliketestosterone.

Functionsofthemalereproductivesystem: Testes,thatareorgansofmalereproductivesystem,alsoproducemalesex hormonesthatdistinguishmalenessfromfemaleness.Reproductionistheprocess throughwhichlifecontinuestoexist.Everyindividualhasalimitedlifespanandno onecansurviveforever.Forthesurvivaloflife,reproductionisanecessary processbecauseotherwisenonewlifewillbeformedandoldlifewilldisappear. Sobothreproductivesystems,whethermaleorfemale,areimportantforsurvivalof life. FemaleReproductiveSystemOutline:

Internal Parts

Majorfemalereproductiveorgan,oneendcalled cervixopensintovaginaandotherendis Uterus connectedtothefallopiantubes,Developmentof foetusoccurswithinuterus Twoinnumber,Eggproducingfemale Ovarie reproductiveorgan,ovalinshapeandovaryof s eachsideislocatedintheovarianfossaof correspondingsideofpelvis

Component s Vulva Externalgenitalorganoffemales,containsthe openingofvagina

External Labia Structuresofskinandadiposetissuethat extendsonbothsidesofvulva Parts Clitoris Buttonlikeportionnearthelabiaminora,erects onsexualarousement

Functions

Receivethespermsfrommalereproductivesystem,Bearthe developingfoetusthroughtheentireperiodofgestation

FemaleReproductiveSystem: FemaleReproductiveSystem Femalereproductivesystemisthesystemofreproductioninfemalehuman beings.Thefemalereproductivesystemiscomplexascomparedtothemale reproductivesystem.Femaleshavetobearfetusduringfetalperiodof developmentwithintheirbodies.Modificationsandadaptationstobearthefetus makefemalereproductivesystemmorecomplex.Thefemalebodyalsoshows certainadaptationstobecomecapableofbearingthefetusforninemonths.Main roleoffemalereproductivesystemistoproduceeggsandallowtheprocessof fertilizationanddevelopmenttotakeplacewithintheirbody.Theorgansoffemale reproductivesystemare Organsoffemalereproductivesystem:Femalereproductivesystemconsists internalandexternalparts. Internalparts: Internalpartsarethefunctionalpartsoffemalereproductivesystem.Therearetwo maininternalpartstheuterusandtheovaries.

Uterus:Uterus(alsoknownaswomb)isthemajorreproductiveorganof females.Ithoststhedevelopingfetus,producessecretionsofthefemale reproductivesystemandallowsthepassageofspermstofallopiantubeswhere spermsfertilizewitheggs. Ovaries:Ovariesaresmallpairedorganslocatednearthepelviccavityof females.Ovariesproducethefemaleeggcells.

Externalparts: Externalpartsareaccessorypartsoffemalereproductivesystem.Theyhelpinthe processoffertilization,andparturitionetc.Theyare


Vulva Labia Clitoris

Functionsoffemalereproductivesystem: Theovariesproduceeggs,whicharefertilizedbyspermsandzygoteisformed. Thedevelopmentofzygotetoacompletehumanbabytakesplaceinfemale reproductivesystem.

Sources:

http://www.mananatomy.com/bodysystems http://www.mananatomy.com/bodysystems/skeletalsystem http://www.mananatomy.com/bodysystems/muscularsystem http://www.mananatomy.com/bodysystems/nervoussystem http://www.mananatomy.com/bodysystems/respiratorysystem http://www.mananatomy.com/bodysystems/cardiovascularsystem http://www.mananatomy.com/bodysystems/lymphaticsystem http://www.mananatomy.com/bodysystems/endocrinesystem http://www.mananatomy.com/digestivesystem http://www.mananatomy.com/bodysystems/urinarysystem http://www.mananatomy.com/bodysystems/integumentarysystem http://www.mananatomy.com/bodysystems/malereproductivesystem http://www.mananatomy.com/bodysystems/femalereproductivesyste m

P4:Explainthephysiologyoftwonamedbodysystemsinrelationto energymetabolisminthebody. M1:discusstheroleofenergyinthebody. D1:Analysehowtwobodysystemsinterrelatetoperformanamed function/functions. Energylaws:energycanbedefinedasthecapacytodowork. Theconservationlaw:Energycannotbecreatedordestroyed,butitcanbe


transferredortransformedfromoneformtoanother(includingtransformationinto

orfrommass,asmatter).Thetotalamountofenergyinaclosedsystemnever changes. Energyinasystemmaybetransformedsothatitresidesinadifferentstate. Energyinmanystatesmaybeusedtodomanyvarietiesofphysicalwork.Energy maybeusedinnaturalprocessesormachines,orelsetoprovidesomeserviceto society. Example:whenweeatarichmealwithcarbohydratesandsomevitaminsbefore exercisingitwillgiveyouenergytorunfasteretcdoitgiveusenergyand energycomesfromfood.

Energyforms:

Chemicalenergy. Heatenergy. Lightenergy. Soundenergy. Electricalenergy. Nuclearenergy.

Energymetabolism: Theroleofenergyinthebody

Energyisneedednotonlyformusclemovementbutformanybodyfunctions suchasblood,Lymphandtissuefluidcirculation,breathing,makingnewcells forbreathing,makingnewcellsforgrowthandrepair,transmittingnerve impulsesanddigestingfood.

Catabolicreactionsarethechemicalreactionswhichbreakdownmoleculesto releaseenergy.

Anabolicreactionsaretheoneswhosbuildingcomplexmoleculesfromsimple substancesandusingenergy.

Bodysystemsandenergymetabolism Theactivitiesinvolvedinsupplyingenergytothecellsincludetherolesofthe cardiovascular,respiratoryanddigestivesystems.

Digestivesystem:
Thedigestivesystemisresponsiblefortakinginfoodandwaterand,using enzymes,breakingupcomplexmoleculesintosimplesolublematerialsthatare capableofpassingintotheadjacentcapillariesofthecardiovascularsystem. Metabolismincludesallchemicalbreakdowns(catabolic)andbuilding(anabolic) reactionsneededtomaintainlife. Weneedcarbohydratesbecausethemostimportantpartonitisglucose,and glucoseisthebody'smajorenergyfuel.Whenglucoseisoxidized,carbondioxide andwaterareformed.Thesequentialpathwaysofglucosecatabolismare glycolysis,whichoccursinthecytosol,andtheelectrontransportchain(inthe mitochondria). Duringhyperglycemiawhichmeansthatthereistoomuchglucoseinthe bloodstream,anditconnectedusuallywithdiabetesmellitus.Glucoseisstoredas glycogenorconvertedtofat.Inhypoglycemia,glycogenolysis(itisthe Breakdownofglycogentoglucose),gluconeogenesis(itistheformationof glucose,especiallybytheliver,fromnoncarbohydratesources,suchasamino acidsandtheglycerolportionoffats),andfatbreakdownoccurtorestorenormal bloodglucoselevels. Thenfatsinsulatethebody,protectorgans,buildsomecellstructures(membranes andmyelinsheaths),andprovidereserveenergy.Whencarbohydratesarenot available,morefatsareoxidizedtoproduceATP(theATPistoprovideenergyand runotherprocessesinthebodyitsextremelyimportantinCellularRespiration). Excessivefatbreakdowncausesbloodtobecomeacidic.Excessdietaryfatis storedinsubcutaneoustissueandotherfatdepots. ThenProteinsformthebulkofcellstructureandmostfunctionalmolecules.They arecarefullyconservedbybodycells.Aminoacidsareactivelytakenupfrom bloodbytissuecellsthosethatcannotbemadebybodycellsarecalledessential aminoacids.AminoacidsareoxidizedtoformATPmainlywhenotherfuel sourcesarenotavailable.Ammonia,releasedasaminoacidsarecatabolized,is detoxifiedbylivercellsthatcombineitwithcarbondioxidetoformurea.

Theliveristhebody'skeymetabolicorgan.Itscellsremovenutrientsfrom hepaticportalblood.Itperformsglycogenesis(glucoseconvertedtoandstored asglycogen),glycogenolysis(glycogenbrokendownintoglucose),and gluconeogenesis(formationofglucosefromproteinsandfats)tomaintain homeostasisofbloodglucoselevels.Itscellsmakebloodproteinsandother

substancesandreleasethemtoblood.Fatsareburnedbylivercellstoprovide someoftheirenergy(ATP)excessesarestoredorreleasedtobloodin simplerformsthatcanbeusedbyothertissuecells.Phagocyticcellsremove bacteriafromhepaticportalblood.Mostcholesterolismadebytheliver cholesterolbreakdownproductsaresecretedinbile.Fatsandcholesterolare transportedinthebloodbylipoproteins.LDL'stransportcholesteroltobody cellsHDL'scarrycholesteroltotheliverfordegradation.Cholesterolisusedto makefunctionalmoleculesandforsomestructuralpurposesitisnotusedfor energy.

Adynamicbalanceexistsbetweenenergyintakeandtotalenergyoutput(heat +work+energystorage).Interferencewiththisbalanceresultsinobesityor malnutritionleadingtobodywasting. Whenthethreemajortypesoffoodsareoxidizedforenergy,theyyield differentamountsofenergy,Carbohydratesandproteinsyield4kcal/gram fatsyield9kcal/gram.Basalmetabolicrate(BMR)isthetotalamountofenergy usedbythebodywhenoneisinabasalstate.Age,sex,bodysurfacearea, andamountofthyroxinproducedinfluenceBMR. Totalmetabolicrate(TMR)isnumberofcaloriesusedbythebodyto accomplishallongoingdailyactivities.Itincreasesdramaticallyasmuscle activityincreases.WhenTMRequalstotalcaloricintake,weightremains constant. AsfoodsarecatabolizedtoformATP,morethan60percentofenergy releasedescapesasheat,warmingthebody.Thehypothalamusinitiates heatlossprocesses(radiationofheatfromskinandevaporationofsweat)or heatpromotingprocesses(vasoconstrictionofskinbloodvesselsand shivering)asnecessarytomaintainbodytemperaturewithinnormallimits. Fever(hyperthermia)representsbodytemperatureregulatedat higherthannormallevels. Thecardiovascularsystemtransportsthesesimplematerialstotheliverand bodycellsviathebloodstream,drivenbythepumpingactiontotheheart. Anabolism Thecardiovascularsystemprovidesthebody'scellswiththeoxygen,obtained throughtherespiratorysystem,andnutrients,thatareprovidedbythedigestive

CardiovascularSystem

system,theyneedtogenerateenergyandwiththebuildingblockstheyneedto makelargermolecules. Catabolism Thecardiovascularusesoxygenandnutrientstheyneedtogenerateenergy andadenosinetriphosphateinordertomaintainthehearttissuesandtissuesof thenetworkofarteries,veinsandcapillaries.

RespiratorySystem
therespiratorysystemconstantlyrefresheslungoxygenanddisposesofwaste products(carbondioxideandwater)throughtheprocessofbreathing. Dissolvedoxygenthroughthethinalvectorwallsintothebloodstreamandis transportedtocells.ThereareBodycellsthathaveaconstantdeliveryofraw materialssuchasglucoseandothernutrientsanddissolvedoxidation. Anabolism theRespiratorySystemprovidesaplatformforobtainingoxygenfortheusein cellularmetabolism.Throughtheuseofgaseousexchangeoxygenentersthe cardiovascularsystemfordistributionaroundthebody. Catabolism TheRespiratorySystemalsoprovidesaplatformforexcretingcarbondioxide oneofthewasteproductsofcellularmetabolism.Thisisalsocompletedthrough theuseofgaseousexchange.Theremovalofthiswasteproductensuresthat thereisspacefortheoxygentobecollectedtomeetcellulardemand. Howtwobodysystemsinterrelatetogether? Therespiratoryandcirculatorysystemsworktogethertodeliveroxygentocellsof thebody(thelungsthroughairexchange,andthecirculatorysystembydelivery ofhemoglobincontainingredcellstothecapillarieswhereoxygenisreleasedinto thetissues)andremovalofcarbondioxide.

Thecirculatorysystemdeliversnutrientsabsorbedthroughthewallsofthesmall intestinetootherorgans(suchastheliver,muscles,brain,heart),anddelivers oxygenatedbloodtothedigestivesystem.

Youbreatheinoxygenintoyourlungs.Theoxygendiffusesacrossthethinwallsof thealveoliinthelungsandthethinwallsofthebloodvesselsinthelungsintothe bloodstream.Hereitattachestothehaemoglobinmoleculesinsideredbloodcells. Theredbloodcellsarecarriedbythebloodvesselstoallpartsofthebody.The haemoglobinreleasesoxygenintheperiphery,andpicksupcarbondioxide (CO2).TheCO2attachedtothehaemoglobinmoleculesintheredbloodcellsis thentransportedtothelungs,whereitdiffusesacrossthewallsintothealveoli,and isbreathedout. Whenyourbloodgetstoyourlungs,theoxygenfromyourlungsgetputintoyour bloodstream.Thenitgoesbacktotheheart,withtheoxygenenrichedbloodbeing deliveredtoallpartsofyourbody. Essentially,therespiratorytakesintheair,andthecirculatorycirculatesitaround thebody.Webreatheinair,whichcontainsoxygen,andthisoxygeniscarriedby ourredcellsaroundthebody.Ifourrespiratorysystemispoor,ouroxygenwould notbeenough,wewouldbecomebreathlessetc.therespiratorysystemgives oxygentothebloodcellsinthecirculatorysystem.Also,theybothcontainthe lungsandgivesblood.Therespiratorysystemprovidesoxygentotheblood.The circulatorysystemcarriestheoxygenatedbloodthroughoutthebody,keepingcells (andyou)aliveandfunctioningwell.Whenyoubreatheinairitgoesinyourlungs andtheoxygendiffusesintothebloodstreamviathecapillaries.Thentheoxygen iscarriedthroughoutyourbodyasneeded.Therespiratorysystemwouldnot functionwithoutthecirculatorysystem,andviceversa.Thecirculatorysystem requiresoxygen,anditonlygetsthisoxygenwhenthebloodpassesthroughthe lungsandcollectsoxygentobringtotherestofyourbody.Therespiratorysystem usesbloodtoreplenishitselfwithinthelungs,continuingitsnormalfunction. Theheartpumpsbloodintothelungswherethebloodisoxygenated.Thebloodis thenreturnedtotheheartandthenewlyoxygenatedbloodiscirculatedtotherest ofthebody.
Sources:

Howarethedigestive,respiratory,andcirculatorysystemsJustAnswer http://www.justanswer.com/medical/25ibwdigestiverespiratorycirculatory systems.html#ixzz2Bii8ImZ4 http://wiki.answers.com/Q/How_are_the_respiratory_system_and_the_circul

atory_system_related#ixzz2BijDNDkX http://wiki.answers.com/Q/What_is_the_law_of_conservation_of_energy

P5:explaintheconceptofhomeostasis M2:Predictthehomeostatictothechangesintheinternal environmentduringexercise D2:evaluatetheimportanceofhomeostasisinmaintainingthe healthyfunctioningofthebody


Homeostasisisthetechnicaltermfortheprocessofmonitoringaconstantinternal environment(blood,tissuefluidbodycellcontentsandmetabolicprocesses) despiteexternalchanges.Homeostasisisamixtureoftwowordshomeomeans

bodyandstasismeansthesame.Simplyput,homeostasisisaboutkeepingthe bodyinbalance.

E.g.ifyouaretoohotyoumayremovesomeofyourclothing(avoluntary response)andyoumaysweat(anautonomicresponse)tohelpgetyourbody temperaturebacktonormal. Examplesofconditionsthatarebalancedbyhomeostasisincludetemperature, bloodsugar,bloodoxygen,carbondioxide,waterandurealevels. Negativefeedbacksystemsrequire. Receptorstodetectchange. Acontrolcentretoreceivetheinformationandprocesstheresponse(usually thebrain). Effectorstoreversethechangeandreestablishtheoriginalstate.

Thisisimportantbecauseiftheinternalconditionswerenotkeptinbalance,then theenzymesandotherchemicalswouldnotbeabletofunctionproperly.Wehave lotsofmechanismstokeepyourbodyinbalance_someofthesearevoluntary (youcontrolthem)andsomeofthemareautonomic(youhavenocontrolover them).E.g.ifyouaretoohotyoumayremovesomeofyourclothing(avoluntary response)andyoumaysweat(anautonomicresponse)tohelpgetyour temperaturebacktonormal. Examplesofconditionsthatarebalancedbyhomeostasisincludetemperature, bloodsugar,bloodoxygen,carbondioxide,andwaterandurealevels. 1.Howdoesbreathingratereferto?Thenumberoftimesyoubreatheinacertain amountoftime. 2.Whatisthehomeostatictemperatureinyourbody?bodytemperatureis controlledbythethermoregulatorycentreinthehypothalamus.Itreceivesinput fromtwosetsofthermoreceptors:receptorsinthehypothalamusitselfmonitorthe temperatureofthebloodasitpassesthroughthebrain(thecoretemperature), andreceptorsintheskin(especiallyonthetrunk)monitortheexternal temperature.Bothsetsofinformationareneededsothatthebodycanmake appropriateadjustments. 3.Whatarebloodglucoselevels?(Bloodglucoselevel)Thebloodsugar concentrationorbloodglucoselevelistheamountofglucose(sugar)presentin thebloodofahumanoranimal. 4.Howdoeshomeostasisregulateheartrate?Thesetprocessfortheregulationof theheartrateisrathercomplexandisasfollows.Asanindividualexercises,

specialreceptorslocatedwithinthemusclessendimpulsestothemedulla. 5.Howdoeshomeostasisregulatebreathingrate?Therespiratorycontrolcentre ofthebrainsensesthatthelevelsareincorrectandincreasesboththeheartrate andbreathingratetomakeupthedifference.Asyoustoptheactivity,the respiratorycontrolcentreslowstheheartandbreathingratebackdowntomaintain homeostasisinthebloodstream. 6.Howdoeshomeostasisregulatebloodglucoselevels?Bloodsugarlevelsare regulatedbyhormonalcontrolthroughanegativefeedbacksystem.Iftheblood sugarlevelincreasestomuchBetacellsintheisletsofLangerhansfromthe pancreaswillsecreteinsulin.Nowinsulinwillreducebloodsugarlevelsina numberofdifferentways,itwillbindtoinsulinreceptorsonthecellsurface membranewhichcausesvesiclesthatcarryextraglucosecarriermoleculesto fusewiththemembraneofthecell,thisinturnincreasesthepermeabilityofthe cellmembranetoglucoseandsothecellwillincreasetheuptakeofglucose. Negativefeedbacksystemsrequire: Receptorstodetectchange. Acontrolcentretoreceivetheinformationandprocesstheresponse(usually thebrain). Effectorstoreversethechangeandreestablishtheoriginalstate.

Negativefeedbackasaformofregulation: Negativefeedbackoccurswhenanimportantvariable,sometimesknownasakey variable,suchasthePHofbloodandtissuefluid,deviatesfromtheaccepted rangeorlimits,andtriggersresponsetocounteractornullifythedeviation.The liverglycogenisconvertedintoglucoseinordertotopupthosecrucialenergy levelsincells. Thebrainandnervoussystemplayavitalroleincontrollinghomeostatic mechanismsandtheyalsohelpustoanticipatewhenkeyvariablesmightriseor fallbeyondtheacceptedrange.Forexample,ifitisseveralhourssinceyourlast mealandyouarefeelingtiredandcold,youwilltrytoeatawarm,energygiving mealtocounteractthesefeelings,thiscanbetermedasfeedforward(ratherthan feedback),asyouaretakingstepstoavoidalowenergystatebeforeithas happened. Negativefeedbacksystemsrequire:

Receptorstodetectchange. Acontrolcentretoreceivetheinformationandprocesstheresponse. Effectorstoreversethechangeandreestablishtheoriginalstate.

Mostcontrolcentresarelocatedinthebrain.

Homeostaticmechanismsforregulationofheartrate:

Theheartiscontrolledbytheautonomicnervoussystemwhichhastwobranches, namelythesympatheticnervoussystemandtheparasympatheticnervoussystem.

Thesetwosystemsactratherlikeanacceleratorandabrakeontheheart.The sympatheticnervoussystemisactivewhenthebodyisundergoingmuscularwork, fearorstress.Itcauseseachheartbeattoincreaseinstrengthaswellascausing anincreaseinheartrate.TheparasympatheticnervoussystemCalmstheheart outputandisactiveduringresting,peaceandcontentment.Themain parasympatheticnerveisthevagusnerveandifthisisservedtheheartbeats faster.

Rolesofinternalreceptors:
Baroreceptors(aresensorslocatedinthebloodvesselsofseveralmammals.)detect changesinbloodpressureandarefoundinthewallsofaortaandpartofthe carotidarteriesdeliveringbloodtotheheadandneckandcalledtheaorticand carotidbodies.Asmallupwardchangeinbloodpressureinthesearteriesoften indicatethatextrabloodhasbeenpumpedoutbytheventriclesasaresultofextra bloodenteringtheheartonthevenousorrightside.Baroreceptorsdetectthe changeanddelaytheinformationinnerveimpulsestothecardiaccentres.Activity inthevagusnerveslowstheheartratedownanddecreasesbloodpressureback tonormal. ReceptorssensitivetotemperatureareknownastheThermoreceptorsandthese arepresentintheskinanddeepinsidethebody.Theyrelayinformationvianerve impulsestoapartofthebraincalledthehypothalamus,whichactivates appropriatefeedbacksystems.

Effectsofadrenalonheartrate:
Circulatingadrenaline,ahormonefromtheadrenalglandreleasedduringfear, stressandexertion,stimulatestheSAnodetoworkfaster,thudboostingthe effectsofthesympatheticnervoussystem.

Effectsoftheincreasedbodytemperatureonheartrate:
Thermoreceptorsindicatingariseinbodytemperaturetobraincausethe hypothalamustoactivatethesympatheticnervoussystemthisinturncausesthe heartratetoincrease.

Homeostaticmechanismsforregulationofbreathingrate:

Whenmetabolismproducesextracarbondioxide,forexample,breathingrateswill increaseslightlyuntilthissurplusisblownoffinexpiration.Similarlyaperiodof forcedventilation,suchasgasping,willlowerthecarbondioxidelevelsinthebody andhomeostaticmechanismswillstoporslowbreathingtemporarilyuntillevels

returntonormal. Rolesofinternalreceptors: Internalreceptorscanbestretchreceptorsinmusclesandtissuesthatrelay nervousimpulsestothebrainaboutthestatusofventilationfromthedegreeof stretchofmusclesandothertissues.Theintercostalmusclesarethesiteofmany stretchreceptors. Respiratorycentre,diaphragmandintercostalmuscles: Thebrainarearesponsibleforvoluntarycontrolofbreathingisintheupperpartof thebrainknownasthecerebralcortex.Theinvoluntarycentre,knownasthe respiratorycentre,isinthemedullaandtheareajustabove,knownasthepons. Thesearebothatthebaseofthebrain.Eachcentregetsinformationfrominternal receptorsregardingthestateofventilation.

Homeostaticmechanismsforregulationofbodytemperature:

Humanbeingsaretheonlyanimalsthatcansurviveinbothtropicalandpolar regionsoftheearth.Thisislargelyduetoefficientthermoregulatoryhomeostatic processesandtheuseofintelligence,whichmeansthatbodytemperature,varies onlyminimally.Thefundamentalpreceptistokeeptheinnercoreofthebodyat normaltemperatureswhileallowingtheperipherytoadapttochangingconditions ofexternaltemperature. Atverylowtemperaturessuchas30c,thewatercomponentofthebodywould freezeandathightemperaturessuchas+50c,enzymesandbodyproteinswould bepermanentlyalteredordenatured.Lifewouldnotbepossibleunderthese conditionssohomeostaticregulationofbodytemperatureorthermoregulationis vital. Majorfunctionsofskinare:

Toprotecttheunderlyingtissuesagainstfrictiondamage. Towaterproofthebody. Toprotectdeeperstructuresfrominvasionbymicroorganisms. Toprotectagainstultravioletradiation. Forthermoregulation(controlofbodytemperature). Torelaynerveimpulsesgeneratedfromthespecialisedskinsensoryreceptors forheat,cold,touch,painandpressure,thusinformingthemofchangesinthe environment. TosynthesisevitaminDfromsunlightactingontheadiposelayers.

Productionofheatbythebody: Heatisgeneratedbythemetabolicprocessestakingplaceinthebody.Although energyreleasedduringchemicalreactionsisusedtodriveprocessessuchas musclecontraction(heatpump,breathing,nerveimpulsesandmovement)someof italwaysreleasedasheat.Someheatisalsogainedfromhotfoodanddrinksand undersomecircumstances,fromthesunsrays. Lossofheatfromthebody: Skincapillariesformnetworksjustbelowtheouterlayerorepidermis.Whenyou arehot,youneedtoloseheatfromtheskinsurfacetocoolyourselfdown.There arefourwaysoflosingheatfromtheskin: Conduction:warmingupanythingthatyouAreincontactwith(likeclothesand seats)evenapenbecomeswarmfromyourhandwhenyouarewriting.# Convection:thisiswhenyouwarmupthelayerofairnexttoyourskinandit movesupwards(becausehotairislessdenseandrises),tobereplacedby colderairfromtheground. Radiation:heatwillpassfromyourskintowarmupanycolderobjectsaround youandconversely,youwillwarmupbyradiationfromanyobjectshotterthan yourself,likeafireorthesun. Evaporationofsweat:whenliquidwaterisconvertedintowatervapour(the technicaltermisevaporation),itrequiresheatenergytodoso.Whenyouare hot,sweatingwillonlycooltheskinsurfacetoconverttowatervapourand evaporate.

Althoughconductionandconvectiontakeplace,theycannotbechanged significantlytoalterbodytemperature.Themainmethodsofregulating temperaturearebychangingradiationandsweatevaporationprocesses. Effectsofshivering: Rhythmicinvoluntarycontractionsoftheskeletalmusclesareknownasshivering. Muscularactivitygeneratedheatsoinacoldenvironmentwemaystampourfeet, swingourarms,rubourface,handsandfeetandalsoshiver.Thisisveryeffective waytogenerateheat,asitallavailabletowarmthebodyup. Implicationsofsurfaceareatovolumeratiointhecareofbabies: Babieshavealargersurfaceareatovolumeratiothanadultsandcannoteffect changestogainorloseheatforthemselvesthismeansthattheyareatrisk developinghyperthermiaorhypothermia.Babiesdonotsweatmuchandnewborn babiesdonotshiver.Therefore,itisimportantincoldweathertowrapbabies

warmly,includingtheextremitiesandthehead,andtoguardagainstoverheatingin hotweather. Fever: Feverisonetypeofhypothermiaandismostusuallycausedbyinfectionother typesareheatstrokeandheatexhaustion.Factorsreleasedasaresultofdisease actonThermoreceptorsinhypothalamus,raisingtheuppersetpoint. Consequentlythesuffererfeelscold,curlsup,pullsoncovers,lookspaledueto vasonstriction(narrowingofthearterioles)andevenexperiencesintenseshivering.

Homeostaticmechanismsforregulationofbloodglucose levels:

Roleofthepancreas,liver,insulinandglycogen: Afterarichmealincarbohydrates(suchasrice,bread,pastaandcertain vegetables),bloodglucosewillstarttorise.Thisincreasedlevelofglucose stimulatestheproductionofthehormoneinsulinfromthebetacellsintheisletsof Langerhansinthepancreas. Insulinhastwomainfunctions: Toregulatetheconcentrationofglucoseintheblood. Toincreasethepassageofglucoseintoactivelyrespiringbodycellsbyactive absorption.

Intheabsenceofinsulin,verylittleglucoseisabletopassthroughthecell membranesandsotheplasmalevelofglucoserises.Individualswithuntreated diabetesmellitus(causedbyalackofinsulinsecretion)havehighplasmaglucose levelsandthisleadstootherbionomicalcircumstances.Inhealthypeople,the plasmaglucosehardlyvariesatallbecauselivercells,underthecontrolofinsulin, convertglucoseintoliverandmuscleglycogenforstorage. Whenbloodglucosestartstofallasaresultoffastingorbeingusedupby respiringcells,anotherhormone,glycogen,fromthealphacellsintheisletsof Langerhans,issecretedandthisconvertsliverglycogenbackintoglucosefro releaseintothebloodstream. Thesetwohormonesregulatetheamountofglucoseinthebloodplasmaby negativefeedbackmechanisms. Bothhavereceptorsattachedtotheirisletscellstoidentifyrisingandfallingplasma glucoselevels.Insulinalsopromotestheconversionofglucoseintofatanddelays

theconversionofaminoacidsintoenergy.Adrenaline,releasedbytheadrenal glandswhenthesympatheticnervoussystemisactiveunderstressfulconditions, actsantagonisticallytoinsulinandoverridesit,toconvertglycogenintheliverto glucose.Thisoutpouringofglucoseprovidesenergyformusclestobecomeactive underemergencyconditions.Inaddition,adrenalineconvertsfatstofattyacidsfor musclecontraction.Whentheemergencyisover,insulinwilloncebemoreactive andstoresanysurplusasbefore

Whathappenstoyourbodyduringexercise?
Duringexercise,yourskeletalmusclesmetabolizefasterhencetheyrequiremore oxygenandnutrientsthanwhentheyareintherestingphase.Asaresultofthis, theheartpumpsbloodfasterandhardertocompensateforthisdemand.In addition,sincetheheartworksdoubletimetosupplyblood,thelungsalsotakein moreoxygenandyourbreathingrategetshighsoyoutendtohyperventilatealso. Asidefromthat,yourenergyandfluidstoresalsogetsdepletedespeciallyduring intenseworkoutsoyoutendtofeelhungryandthirstyafter.Whenyouexercise yourheartbeatsfastersothatitcanpumpmorebloodtothemuscles,andyour stomachshutsdownduringexercisesoitdoesnotwasteenergythatthemuscles canuse.Themusclestakeinasourcewhenwerunweneedoxygenso,wecould runeasily.Thebloodcarriesoxygentoeverycellinthebody. Homeostasispreventthecardiovascularsystemtonotovercompensatingduring exerciseandwhenwearenotexercisingthehomeostasiscontroltheheartandlet itpumpnormallywhennotexercising. Thehomeostasiscontrolhormoneswhenexercising.Homeostasisinthe respiratorysystemhelpstoremovecarbondioxideandwaterfromthebodysoit allowsustobreatheeasilywhenexercising.Homeostasishelpsthehearttoforce bloodaroundthebodythroughasystemofbloodvessels,arteries,veinsand capillaries.Bloodcarriesdissolvedoxygentothebodycellsandatthesametime removesthewasteproductsorrespiration(carbondioxideandwater).However, bloodisalsoimportantindistributingheataroundthebody,alongwithhormones, nutrients,salts,enzymesandurea.

Explaintheimportanceofhomeostasisinmaintainingthehealthy functioningofthebody?
Temperatureregulationoffallandriseabovenormalranges Hypothalamus:thehypothalamusinthebrainbehavesasathermostatand changesinthebloodtemperature.Whenthetemperatureofthebloodcomesthe

hypothalamusfalls,thisdeliversimpulsestoorgansinthebodysettingtheheat reducedless.Theoppositehappenswhenthetemperatureofthebloodentersthe hypothalamusrises.Thehypothalamustendstoactivatethesympatheticnervous systemandincreaseheheartratewhenthebodygetshot.Thethermoreceptors pointoutanincreaseinthebodytemperaturedeliveringmessagestothebrain. Thebodyfaceshypothermiaisthebodytemperaturefallsorrisesabovetheir normalranges.Whenthebodytemperaturegetstoocoldortoohot,messagesare mailedfromthethermoregulationintheskinorfromthebloodtothebrainandthe hypothalamus.Thechangethatissensesbythebrainallowsapersontochange intheirattitudeforexample,whenapersonfeelscoldtheymaycloseawindow. DuringHypothermiawhenthebodytemperaturefallsbelowthenormaltemperature ofthebodycanbedangerousastheheatenergyislostfromthebodythanitis produced.Brainisthefirstfeatureaffectedmakingthepersonclumsyandslow. Hypothermia Hypothermiaisastatewherethebody'snormalbodytemperatureof37C (98.6F)dropsbelow35(95F).Whenthebodyisexposedtocoldthe mechanismsareunabletofillinheatthatislosttoorganismssurroundings. Hypothermiaiscausednormallywhenapersonisaroundacoldenvironmentor stayingoutsideforalongperiodoftimeinthecoldrainorwind.Whenthebody getstoocolditusuallyactsfastinordertobecomewarmandgivingamessageto thebrainallowingthepersontowearmorelayersofclothingorgoinginside. Howeverduringhypothermiaifthecoldtendstocontinuethebody'sautomatic defencewilltrytopreventanyheatlossthroughvariouswaysandthiscouldbe through... *Shiveringtomakesuremajororgansstayatnormaltemperature, *Limitingbloodflowtotheskin,and *Releasinghormonesinordertoproduceheat. Therearemanypossiblecausesofarapidheartbeat,including:

Exercise,heavyliftingorotheractivitythatrequiresexertion Fear,pain,anxiety,stress,anger,ornervousness Fever

Dehydration.Thismaybecausedbytoolittleintakeoffluids,lossofblood, diarrhoea,vomiting,ormedicationssuchasdiuretics,sometimescalled"water pills." Lowbloodpressure,alsocalledhypotension Hyperthyroidism,whichisalevelofthyroidhormoneinthebodythatistoohigh Congestiveheartfailure,aconditioninwhichtheheartcannotpumpblood effectively Irregularheartbeats,knownasarrhythmias,suchasatrialfibrillationor ventriculartachycardia.Thesemaybecausedbysaltimbalances,heartattack, andotherconditions.

Lowredbloodcellcountknownasanaemia Medicationsordrugs.Albuterol,whichiscommonlyusedtotreatasthma,as wellassomeoverthecounterandprescriptiondecongestantscancauserapid heartbeat.Cocaineabuseandalcoholwithdrawalare

Othercausesofrapidheartbeat.

Excessivecaffeineintake Someherbaltherapiessuchasephedra,alsocalledmahuang Infections.Thesemayincludesuchasaseriousbloodinfectioncalledsepsis


andpneumonia.

Nervedamage,knownasperipheralneuropathy,thataffectsthenerves
attachedtotheheart.Thisisoftenduetodiabetes,aconditionthatresultsina highlevelofbloodsugar.

Lowoxygenintheblood,alsocalledhypoxia.Therecanbemanycausesfor
this.Examplesincludeasthmaandemphysema. Sources: http://www.markedbyteachers.com/asandalevel/healthcare/explaintheimp ortanceofhomeostasisinmaintainingthehealthyfunctioningofthebodye

xamplesfromdiabetes.html http://www.chelationtherapyonline.com/anatomy/p53.htm

P6:followguidelinestointerptandcollectdataforheartrate, breathingrateandtemperaturebeforeandafterastandard periodofexercise. M3:presentdatacollectedbeforeandafterastandardofperiod ofexercisewithreferencetovalidity.

Hypothesis:heartrate,breathingrateandtemperatureincreasingwhen exercising. Equipmentneeded: Heartratemonitor. Thermometer Stopwatch.

Method:
1. Makesureyourpartnerhasbeenrestingfor5minutestoensurethattheyare

relaxed. 2. Measurethepulserate,temperatureandhowmanytimestheybreathe.These aretheresultsforbeforeexercise. 3. Yourpartnerwillundertakestrenuousexercisefor3minutesimmediately followingtheexercisetakethepulserate,temperatureandhowmanytimes theybreatheinoneminute.Thesearetheresultsfortheafterexercise. 4. Recordallresults.

Whatdotheresultsshow? Resting Heartrate Breatherate temperature 90 47 36 Afterexercise. 105 54 36

Ididprovemyhypothesisbecausetheresultsaboveshowsthatourheartrate, breatherateandtemperaturechangeswhenweexercise.Afterexercisingour heartrateincreasedto105andourbreathingrateincreasedto54,butthe temperaturestayedthesame. Someofthemeasurementswereinaccuratebecauseofrestingbeforetakingeach measurementwhichwillcausetheresultstobeinaccurate,whenyouare exercisingandyouwanttotakethemeasurementsyouneedapartnertohelpyou measureyoubreathing,heart,andtemperatureratestraightawayafterexercising sotheresultswouldbeaccurate.TheequipmentthatIusedintheexperimentwas accuratebutwhenIdidmymeasurementssomeofthemwereinaccuratebecause Ididntmeasureitstraightaway.

Aerobicrespirationandanaerobicrespirationtakeplace.Duringaerobic respirationbreathingrateincreasestobringmoreoxygenintothebody, maintaininghomeostasisasthecellareadequatelysuppliedwithoxygen.Also thereisincreasedperspirationtocoolthebodyandmaintainthebodytemperature astheheightenedmetabolicstate(duetotheexercise)producesheat.During anaerobicrespirationinthemusclesparticularly,lacticacidbuildsup.Thiscreates andoxygendebt,homeostasishopetocompensateforthisdebtandthereby removelacticacidfromthebody(asitistoxic),thusbreathingrateisalso increased.E.g.(theheartrateincreaseswhenexercisingsothehomeostasis controlsthebloodtopumparoundthebodysoyouwouldnthaveheartfailure.) Duringexercise,myskeletalmusclesmetabolizefasterhencetheyrequiremore oxygenandnutrientsthanwhentheyareintherestingphase.Asaresultofthis, theheartpumpsbloodfasterandhardertocompensateforthisdemand.Sincethe heartworksdoubletimetosupplyblood,thelungsalsotakeinmoreoxygenand yourbreathingrategetshighsoyoutendtohyperventilatealsobecauseofthatmy energyandfluidstoresalsogetsdepletedespeciallyduringintenseworkoutsoyou tendtofeelhungryandthirstyafter. Conclusion:insummarymyfindingswasthatthehomeostasiscontrolour breathingrate,heartrateandourtemperaturesowecoulddoexerciseeasilyand ifwedidnthaveitwewoulddie,sothatexplainshowmuchimportantthe homeostasisis. Sources: http://wiki.answers.com/Q/What_are_the_homeostatic_responses_to_changes_in_t he_internal_environment_during_exercise