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# BOLTED AND WELDED CONNECTIONS 1) What is bolt value?

2) Define modulus of elasticity 3) Define Poissons ratio 4) Draw a neat sketch of ISMB 400 and mention its properties 5) Define the terms gauge distances ,pitch, edge and end distance of bolt holes 6) Define staggered pitch 7) Define clip angle 8) What are the types of bolts used to connect structural members? 9) Why black bolts are used only for static loads not for dynamic loads? 10) What are the possible modes of failure of bolted connection? 11) Write interaction formula to check the critical bolt 12) How strength of weld can be calculated? 13) Draw the neat sketch of moment connections

14) What are the disadvantages of welded connections? 15) Draw a neat sketch of a built up column with laced connection connections and name the parts 16) Compare unstiffened connections and stiffened connections 17) What are the different types of bolts? 18) Define effective length and minimum length of weld connections 19) Draw a neat sketch of a unstiffened seated connection 20) List the advantages of welded connection 21) Name the components used in stiffened seated connection 22) What are the advantages of bolted connection? 23) List any four common defects in the welds 24) Draw a neat sketch of an unstiffened seated connection ,indicating all the aparts 25) Compare framed connection and moment connection 26) List out any two merits of welded connection 27) Draw a double angle stiffened seated connection

28) Explain stiffened seated connection 29) Write the expression for investigating the safety of an eccentric bolted connection, when the applied moment is normal to the plane of connection 30) Sketch the beam to beam seated connection 31) What are the deformations against which the resistances are offered by the bolts connecting the bracket plate and the flange of the column, when the applied moment is in the plane of the connection? 32) Sketch the unstiffened seated connection of beam to column 33) Explain unstiffened seated connection 34) State the advantages of welded connection over bolted connection 35) Determine the bolt value for 20mm diameter common bolts connecting 12mm thick plates if it is in a) single shear b) double shear 36) What do 4 and 6 imply for bolts of grade 4.6?

37) Write the expression for calculating the nominal capacity of black bolts. 38) Why does the bolt bearing capacity not often control the design? 39) What do you mean by prying forces? 40) Write the expression for calculating the force R in a bolt subjected to a moment M and located at a distance d from the centre of rotation.

COLUMNS 1) What is meant by strut? 2) Draw the diagram of buckling of column. 3) What are the assumptions made in Eulers analysis?

4) What is meant by Effective sectional area? 5) What are the buckled modes for different end conditions? 6) Define position restraint 7) Define Effective length 8) What are the different effective lengths for different boundary conditions? 9) What is meant by actual length? 10) How the effective length of column is determined? 11) Define single lacing and double lacing 12) What are the forces acting on lacing system? 13) How axially loaded compression members shall be calculated as per code? 14) How the splice plate is located in column? 15) What is purpose for providing anchors bolt in base plate? 16) What are the types of base provided for connecting the column to the base? 17) Under what circumstances gusset base is used?

18) What are the classifications for determination of size of plate? 19) Draw the double and single laced system combined with cross numbers 20) How Euler buckling stress can be calculated as per code? 21) Draw batten column section 22) What is the purpose of column splices? 23) What is the various designing procedure for battens? 24) Define slenderness ratio 25) Draw a neat sketch of sectional elevation of gusseted base indicating all the elements and parts .How load is transferred to the pedestal in a gusseted base? 26) Write an expression for a safe compressive stress of a column 27) Draw the neat sketch of splices for columns 28) What is the purpose of lacing in a built up laced column? 29) What is column splice? When it is preferred? 30) What is double system of lacing? 31) Distinguish between slab base and gusseted base

32) Draw a neat sketch of a slab base 33) When is a column flange splice preferred? 34) What is meant by built-up compression member? 35) Write the interaction equation to be satisfied for an eccentrically loaded column 36) When will you prefer built up columns? 37) Classify the column bases 38) Write the relationship between the effective length of unbattened column and that of battened column 39) Mention the practical situations of providing column splices 40) What is a batten? When it is used? 41) What are the structural functions of lacing and battens? 42) Distinguish between the two types of column bases 43) What are lacings? 44) Draw the pressure distribution under a base plate of a column subjected to an axial load and an eccentricity for (i) eccentricity at the middle third point (ii) eccentricity outside the middle third point

45) A single angle discontinuous strut ISA 70x70x8mm of a roof truss is connected by two rivets at end .Determine the safe load if the permissible axial compression is 92 N/mm2 .Take yield stress as 250 MPa

BEAMS 1) What are the steps to be followed in the design of built-up beams?
2)

The slenderness ratio of a laterally unsupported beam of ISHB 300@58.8 kg/m is 120.find the moment of resistance of the beam

3) What are the points to be considered in the design of beam? 4) Compare: laterally supported beam and laterally unsupported beam 5) Why a laterally unsupported beam buckles? 6) When will you recommend built-up beam sections? 7) Distinguish between laterally restrained and unrestrained beams 8) What is web splice? What are its types? 9) What is web crippling?

10) What is web buckling? 11) Explain beam with unrestrained compression flange 12) What is lateral torsional buckling of beams? 13) Name various ways of providing torsional restraint of steel beams 14) Why the permissible bending compressive stress is less in the case of a laterally unsupported beam when compared to laterally supported beams? 15) Explain the behavior of beam in flexure 16) What is meant by elastic critical moment? 17) Write the expression for elastic critical moment 18) How rotation about the longitudinal axis and rotation of the flange in plane of beams are prevented? 19) Draw the failure of beams due to buckling and crippling for Isection 20) What are the factors affecting lateral stability? 21) What is meant by shear lag effect? 22) Under what conditions can lateral buckling occur?

23) Under what conditions can a beam member be assumed as laterally restrained? 24) What is the difference between column buckling and beam buckling? 25) Differentiate between local and lateral buckling of beams 26) How can the lateral buckling behavior be improved in a beam member? 27) Under what conditions a beam should be checked for shear? 28) What is meant by effective length of beam member? 29) A beam subjected to transverse loads experience two types of shear .what are they? 30) Web crippling in steel beam occurs due to failure of web under concentrated load .why?

PLATE GIRDERS 1) What are the differences between a beam and plate girder? 2) Where is plate girders used?

3) What are the main characteristics of a plate girder? 4) State some advantages and disadvantages of plate girders over trusses. 5) Sketch the different types of cross section used as plate and box girder 6) What are the different modes of failures of plate girder? 7) List the different elements of a welded plate girder 8) Explain the tension field action that is developed in the thin webs of plate girders? 9) What are the various types of stiffeners? 10) State the minimum web thickness provisions of a IS 800-2007 11) What are the design concepts of a plate girder? 12) When do we need to consider the shear buckling of the web? 13) How does plate girder derive post buckling strength? 14) When do we provide splicing of webs and flanges? 15) What is meant by curtailment of plates and how this done in plate girders?

16) What is meant by patch loading? 17) What is an end post? 18) How does the design of an end post differ from that of an intermediate stiffener? 19) What are longitudinal web stiffeners and how are they provided? 20) What are the main functions of a longitudinal stiffener? 21) How is the behavior of a plate girder affected by the holes in the web? 22) What are the elements of the plate girders? 23) Why are bearing stiffeners provided? 24) Why is Load bearing stiffeners provided? 25) Why are intermediate transverse stiffeners provided? 26) Why longitudinal stiffeners provided? 27) What are the steps involved in the design of plate girders? 28) Write about box girders 29) Under what condition box girders preferred over plate girders?

30) Draw a neat sketch of a longitudinal section of a welded plate girder and name its components 31) Write an expression for economic depth of plate girder when cover plates are absent and resistance of web to bending is considered and neglected. 32) How plate girder is different from an ordinary girder? 33) What are bearing stiffeners? 34) What are the reasons behind splicing in plate girder? 35) How the flange area of a plate girder is designed?

INDUSTRIAL BUILDINGS 1) List the items that are to be considered while planning and industrial building? 2) List the items to be considered while selecting a cladding/decking system? 3) Name some of the cladding/decking materials that are used in practice? 4) What are the purposes of structural decking? 5) Under what condition will the decking provide lateral stability to the top flange of purlins? 6) What are the advantages and drawbacks of the following (a) Aluminum decking (b) GI sheeting (c) Asbestos sheeting

(d) Ferrocement sheeting 7) State the difference between through fastened roofing and standing-seam roofing? 8) What are the advantages and disadvantages of standing seam roofing? 9) Why it is necessary to design cladding and fixtures for higher pressure coefficient than that used for the design of structural works? 10) What is the most economical bay width of buildings without cranes? 11) Sketch a braced and unbraced frame and point out the difference in their structural behavior? 12) What are the different types of bracings used in braced building? 13) What is the function of a bracing? 14) State the advantages of using a knee brace? 15) Why is it necessary to analyze the entire braced system, including columns, when knee braces are provided?

16) List the advantages and disadvantages of an unbraced frame over a braced frame? 17) Is it necessary to provide bracings in a portal frame? Why? 18) What is the ideal slope for the rafter of portal frame roofs? Why have smaller slopes been adopted in recent portal frames? 19) What is the disadvantage of using a solid web rafter? How it is overcome? 20) What are two methods of framing the end frames or gables of the portal frame structure? Which one is preferred? 21) What are the necessary checks to be performed while using plastic design for portal frames? 22) State the difference between a purlin and girt? 23) When is open-web girders used as purlins instead of hot rolled or cold-rolled sections? 24) What are the sections that are normally used as purlins or girt? 25) What are wind columns? 26) What are the functions of an eave strut?

27) How can one determine whether a given truss forms a stable configuration? 28) Why it is necessary to design truss members for both compression and tension forces? 29) Distinguish between determinate and indeterminate trusses? 30) When are bending moments to be considered in the design of the top chord of trusses? 31) State the different truss configurations that are often used in practice? 32) Distinguish between fan and fink truss? 33) Why are Pratt trusses more advantageous compared to Howe trusses? 34) What are the advantages of parallel chord trusses? 35) How is the loading applied to a vierendeel girder resisted? 36) What are the requirements that are considered while fixing the upper chord slope of trusses?

37) State the advantage of north light roof trusses over other forms of trusses? 38) What is the economical depth of a simply supported and continuous truss? 39) What is the economic range of spacing a truss? 40) How is the spacing of purlins fixed? 41) What are the load combinations that are usually considered for truss analysis? 42) List the various steps involved in the design of truss members? 43) Why are the minimum sections recommended and adopted for truss members, even though a lighter section may be indicated by the design? 44) Describe the behavior of top and bottom chord members of a truss when lateral purlins/ties are not provided at each node? 45) What are gusset plates used in truss having T-section for rafters and bottom tie members? 46) What is an open-web joist?

47) What is the difference between a chequered plate and a plain plate? 48) Why is it necessary to provide connections that will allow movement in the supports of trusses? 49) What is gable wind girder? 50) What are the forces acting on water tanks? 51) What are the various important factors which govern the planning of an industrial building? 52) What are the requirements of an industrial structure?

GANTRY GIRDERS 1) What is gantry girder? Where is it used? 2) What is the main purpose of a gantry girder? 3) List of few types of cranes. 4) What are the components of a crane runway system? 5) What are the requirements to be considered by the designer while selecting a crane and designing a crane supporting structure? 6) List the loads that should be considered while designing a gantry girder. 7) Why should rails should not be welded to the gantry girder? 8) What is the difference between surge load and drag load of cranes?

9) When is surge load assumed to act on one gantry girder and when can it be assumed to be resisted by two opposite gantry girders? 10) Write down the expressions for maximum shear force

,bending moment and deflection at mid-span for a simply supported beam with two moving loads, each with a value W 11) Write down the expressions for maximum shear force

,bending moment and deflection at mid-span for a simply supported beam with four moving loads, each with a value W 12) List the different profiles of cross sections which are used for

gantry girders. 13) Why are simply supported girders preferred to two span

gantry girders? 14) 15) 16) What are the problems created by excessive deflection? How can the effect of rail eccentricity be counteracted? What are the possible ways to reinforce the compression I-beam to resist lateral loads?

flange of an 17)

## Write short notes on the following

a) Columns to support gantry girders b) Bracings of columns supporting gantry girders c) Crane stops 18) List the various steps involved in the design of a gantry

girder. 19) What are the forces acting on a circular girder in a water

tank?

CHIMNEY

1) What are the factors which governs stability of steel chimney? 2) What are the forces acting to be considered for the design of chimney? 3) Name the different types of chimneys. 4) Name the commonly adopted types of foundation for self supporting steel chimney.

5) Why the lining is provided in steel chimneys? 6) List the load types for the design of a self supporting chimney. 7) What is the effective height of steel chimney? 8) Give the expression for calculating the section modulus of a self supported steel chimney ring with no breech opening. 9) Explain self supporting chimney. 10) Why massive foundation is required for a self supporting steel chimney?