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Dasar Teknik Elektro 2

Dasar Teknik Elektro 2

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Dasar Teknik Elektro

EL.112 (3 sks)
Enjang A.Juanda/ Lukmanul Hakim
Silabus Mata Kuliah
Secara garis besar disajikan:
1. Pengantar Teknik Elektro.
2. Dasar-dasar rangkaian listrik.
3. Respon rangkaian bolak-balik pada
kondisi steady state.
4. Pengantar system.
5. Dasar elektronika.
6. Dasar komponen elektronika
semikonduktor.
7. Pengantar analisa jaringan.
8. Dasar elektronika digital &
mikroprosesor.
9. Penguat OP-Amp.
Tujuan
Setelah selesai mengikuti mata kuliah ini
ma h a s i s wa d i h a r a p k a n ma mp u
menjelaskan dasar teknik elektro dan
sedapat mungkin mempraktekkan bagian-
bagian yang praktisnya tentang dasar
t e k n i k e l e k t r o .
Evaluasi
- Kehadiran
- Tugas Presentasi dan diskusi
- Makalah
- UTS
- UAS
Rincian Bahan
I). Membahas silabus perkuliahan dan mengakomodasikan
berbagai masukan dari mahasiswa untuk memberi kemungkinan
revisi terhadap pokok bahasan yang dianggap tidak penting dan
memasukkan pokok bahasan yang dianggap penting. Sesuai
dengan apa yang dikemukakan dalam silabus, pada pertemuan
ini dikemukakan pula tujuan, ruang lingkup, prosedur
perkuliahan, penjelasan tentang tugas yang harus dilakukan
mahasiswa, ujian yang harus diikuti termasuk jenis soal dan cara
menyelesaikan/ menjawab pertanyaan, dan sumber-sumber.
Terakhir, menyampaikan uraian pendahuluan tentang
DasarTeknik Elektro/ Pengantar Teknik Elektro.
II). Pengertian dan definisi-definisi yang terkait dengan dasar
teknik elektro.
III). Rangkaian-rangkaian listrik dasar: DC dan sistem DC.
IV). Rangkaian-rangkaian listrik dasar: AC dan sistem AC.
V). Pengertian sistem, piranti, komponen dan kaitan satu sama
lain dalam teknik elektro.
VI). Dasar elektronika
VII). Dasar semikonduktor dan komponen semikonduktor
VIII). UTS.
Lanjutan Rincian
IX). Pengenalan pesawat-pesawat elektronika
X). Pengantar analisa jaringan
XI). Dasar-dasar teknik dijital
XII). Komponen-komponen dijital dan dasar-dasar analisis
rangkaian dijital
XIII). Dasar-dasar rangkaian dijital
XIV). Sejarah dan dasar teknik mikroprosesor
XV). Dasar teknik mikroprosesor dan pemrogramannya
XVI). Dasar penguat Op-Amp
XVII). UAS
Daftar Pustaka
Sumber Utama:
Ralph J.Smith & Richard C.Dorf:
Circuits, Devices, and Systems,
John Wiley & Sons,1995.
J.R.Cogdell: Foundation of
Electrical Engineering, Prentice
Hall,1995.
David E.Johnson, Johny
R.Johnson, John L.Hilburn :
Electric Circuit Analysis, Prentice
Hall.
Referensi/Pengayaan
Referensi:
1. P.H. Smale, , Telecommunication System I, Pitman Publishing
Limited, London, 1978.
2. R.Margunadi, Pengantar Umum Elektroteknik, P.T.Dian Rakyat,
Jakarta, 1986.
3. Allen, Mottershead, Electronic Devices and Circuits, an introduction,
Prentice-Hall of India, New Delhi, 1976.
4. Enjang A. Juanda dan Jaja Kustija, Pengantar Elektro Teknik, JPTE-
FPTK-IKIP, Bandung, 1994.
5. A.P. Malvino, Electronics Priciples, Mc.Graw-Hill Company, London,
1985
6. Brian Moore and John Donaghy, Operational Amplifier Circuits,
Heinemann, London, 1986.
7. Archie W.Culp,Jr (Terjemahan: Ir. Darwin Sitompul M.Eng), Prinsip-
prinsip Konversi Energi, Penerbit Erlangga, Jakarta, 1985.
- Jurnal
1. IEEE, Telecommunication Transactions.
- Internet
Dosen dapat dihubungi melalui:
Alamat rumah dan telpon: Jl. Suryalaya IX No.31 Bandung 40265-
T.7310350
Alamat e-mail: eajtsk55@yahoo.com
Appersepsi
ARUS SEARAH
(DC)

(Arus dan Tegangan Listrik)
Arus Listrik
Q = 1.6 X 10
–19
coulomb
i = dq/dt
1 A = 1 coulomb/det
Tipe Besar Arus:
Stasiun Pembangkit : 1000 A
Starter Mobil : 100 A
Lampu Dop : 1 A
Radio Mini : 10 mA
Jam Tangan : 1 mikroA
DC Circuits: Review
• Current: The rate of flow of electric charge past a
point in a circuit
– Measured in amperes (A)
– 1 A = 1 C/s = 6.25 × 10
18
electrons per second
– Current direction taken as direction positive charges flow
– Analogous to volume flow rate (volume/unit time) of water
in a pipe
• Voltage: Electrical potential energy per unit charge
– Measured in volts (V): 1 V = 1 J/C
– Ground is the 0 V reference point
– Analogous to water pressure
• Resistance: Restriction to charge flow
– Measured in ohms (O)
– Analogous to obstacles that restrict water flow
A Simple DC Circuit





• Resistors have a constant resistance over a broad
range of voltages and currents
– Then with R = constant (Ohm’s law)
• Power = rate energy is delivered to the resistor =
rate energy is dissipated by the
resistor
IR V =
V
V
R
V
R I IV P
2
2
= = =
Hukum Ohm
Bahwa
I ·V (hub. linier)
Ditulis: V = I R
Atau : R = V/I

Bahan Non-Linier
i
v
0
Power (Daya):
energi yang diberikan pada elektron tiap satuan waktu
P = v dq/dt
= v I
1 watt = 1 volt x 1 A
Contoh Daya :
Generator : 300 MW
Radiator : 1000 W
Lampu Senter : 6 W
Jam Tangan : 10 mikroW




Ideal Voltage and Current Sources
• An ideal voltage source is a source of voltage with
zero internal resistance (a perfect battery)
– Supply the same voltage regardless of the amount of
current drawn from it
• An ideal current source supplies a constant current
regardless of what load it is connected to
– Has infinite internal resistance
– Transistors can be represented by ideal current sources
(Introductory Electronics, Simpson, 2
nd
Ed.)
Ideal Voltage and Current Sources
• Load resistance R
L
connected to terminals of a real
current source:
– Larger current is through
the smaller resistance


• Current sources can always be converted to voltage
sources
– Terminals A’B’ act
electrically exactly
like terminals AB
(Introductory Electronics, Simpson, 2
nd
Ed.)
(Introductory Electronics, Simpson, 2
nd
Ed.)
Contoh:
Berapa arus yang mengalir pada resistor???
a. VA = 6 V
VB = 2 V
VAB = 4 V
I = 4 A
b. ……………




Komponen Rangkaian DC
a) baterai, b) resistor dan c) kabel penghubung
Resistor standar:
Toleransi 10%
10,12,15,18,22,27,33,39,
47,56,68,dan 82

Short circuit (hubung
singkat: V =0 (R = 0)
Open Circuit (hubung
terbuka): I = 0 (R = ~)






Hukum Kirchhoff
I. Total arus pada
suatu titik
cabang = 0
E I = 0
II. Total penurunan
tegangan pada
rangkaian
tertutup = 0
E V = 0




Resistor Seri dan Paralel
Seri: masing-masing
dilewati arus
yang sama
RT = R1 +R2 +R3

Paralel: masing-masing
mendapat
tegangan yang
sama
1/RT = 1/R1 + 1/R2 + 1/R3
Penyederhanaan Rangkaian
Bagaimana resistansi
tergantung pada dimensi
R = µl/A
(tergantung
dimensi)

Seri?

Paralel?

Pembagi Potensial
(Potential Divider)
Voltage Divider
• Voltage divider: Circuit that produces a predictable
fraction of the input voltage as the output voltage
• Schematic:





• Current (same everywhere) is:
• Output voltage (V
out
) is then given by:
R
1

R
2

2 1
in
R R
V
I
+
=
in
2 1
2
2 out
V
R R
R
IR V
+
= =
(Student Manual for The Art of
Electronics, Hayes and Horowitz,
2
nd
Ed.)
Voltage Divider
• Easier way to calculate V
out
: Notice the voltage drops
are proportional to the resistances
– For example, if R
1
= R
2
then V
out
= V
in
/ 2
– Another example: If R
1
= 4 O and R
2
= 6 O,
then V
out
= (0.6)V
in
• Now attach a “load” resistor R
L
across
the output:




– You can model R
1
and R
L
as one resistor (parallel
combination), then calculate V
out
for this new voltage divider
R
1

R
2

R
1

R
2

R
L

R
1

=
R
2
,, R
L

Tugas :
Tentukan besarnya v3 !
Pembagi tegangan terbebani
Penyederhanaan Rangkaian
Voltage Division

v
1
=i
s
R
1

v
2
=i
s
R
2
and

v
s
= v
1
+v
2
=i
s
(R
1
+R
2
)

i
s
=
v
s
R
1
+ R
2

v
1
= v
s
R
1
R
1
+ R
2

v
2
= v
s
R
2
R
1
+ R
2
Applying KVL to the loop,
Combining these yields the basic voltage division formula:
and

v
1
=10 V
8 kO
8 kO+ 2 kO
= 8.00 V
Using the derived equations
with the indicated values,

v
2
=10 V
2 kO
8 kO+ 2 kO
= 2.00 V
Design Note: Voltage division only applies when both
resistors are carrying the same current.
Voltage Division (cont.)
Teorema Thevenin
Jika suatu kumpulan rangkaian sumber potensial dan resistor
dihubungkan dengan dua terminal keluaran, maka rangkaian
tersebut dapat digantikan dengan sebuah rangkaian seri dari
sebuah sumber potensial rangkaian terbuka dan sebuah resistor
Thevenin and Norton Equivalent
Circuits
Find the Thevenin Equivalent
Voltage
Problem: Find the Thevenin
equivalent voltage at the output.
Solution:
• Known Information and Given
Data: Circuit topology and
values in figure.
• Unknowns: Thevenin
equivalent voltage v
TH
.
• Approach: Voltage source v
TH

is defined as the output voltage
with no load.
• Assumptions: None.
• Analysis: Next slide…
Thevenin’s Theorem
• Thevenin’s Theorem: Any combination of voltage
sources and resistors with 2 terminals is electrically
equivalent to an ideal voltage source in series with a
single resistor



– Terminals A’B’ electrically equivalent to terminals AB
• Thevenin equivalent V
Th
and R
Th
given by:
) circuit open (
Th
V V =
(output voltage with no load attached)
) circuit short (
) circuit open (
Th
I
V
R =
I (short circuit) = current when the output is
shorted directly to ground
(Introductory Electronics,
Simpson, 2
nd
Ed.)
R
Th

V
Th

Thevenin’s Theorem
• Thevenin’s theorem applied to a voltage divider:




• Thevenin equivalent circuit:



– Note that R
Th
= R
1
,, R
2

• Imagine mentally shorting out the voltage source
• Then R
1
is in parallel with R
2

• Only works for constant (independent) voltage sources (batteries)
R
1

R
2

in
2 1
2
2 out Th
V
R R
R
IR V V
+
= = =
1
in
) circuit short (
R
V
I =
2 1
2 1 Th
Th
) circuit short ( ) circuit short (
) circuit open (
R R
R R
I
V
I
V
R
+
= = =
R
Th

V
Th

(Introductory Electronics, Simpson, 2
nd
Ed.)
(a load resistance R
L

can then be attached
between terminals A’
and B’, in series with
R
Th
)
Contoh:
Dengan menggunakan teorema Thevenin, hitung besarnya arus I
2

pada rangkaian di bawah ini
Menurut
Thevenin
Vo/c = 5,455 V
RP = 5,455 k Ohm

I2 = 0,397 mA
Example Problem #1.9
Solution (details given in class):
(a) 15 V
(b) 10 V
(c) V
Th
= 15 V, R
Th
= 5k
(d) 10 V
(e) P
L
= 0.01 W, P
R2
= 0.01 W, P
R1
= 0.04 W
(The Art of Electronics, Horowitz and Hill, 2
nd
Ed.)
Example Problem #1.7
Solution (details given in class):
1–V source: 0.667 V
10k–10k voltage divider: 0.4 V
THÉVENIN EQUIVALENT
CIRCUITS
The Thévenin voltage is equal to the open-circuit
phasor voltage of the original circuit.
oc
V V =
t
We can find the Thévenin impedance by
zeroing the independent sources and
determining the impedance looking into the
circuit terminals.
The Thévenin impedance equals the open-circuit
voltage divided by the short-circuit current.
sc sc
oc
I
V
I
V
t
t
Z = =
sc
I I =
n
CURRENT DEVIDER
(Pembagi Arus)
i
o
= i
I
(G2/G1+G2)
Current
Division (cont.)

i
1
= 5 ma
3 kO
2 kO+ 3 kO
= 3.00 mA
Using the derived equations
with the indicated values,
Design Note: Current division only applies when the same
voltage appears across both resistors.

i
2
= 5 ma
2 kO
2 kO+ 3 kO
= 2.00 mA
Current Division

i
s
=i
1
+i
2
and

i
1
= i
s
R
2
R
1
+ R
2
Combining and solving for v
s
,
Combining these yields the basic current division formula:
where

i
2
=
v
s
R
2

i
1
=
v
s
R
1
and

v
s
= i
s
1
1
R
1
+
1
R
2
= i
s
R
1
R
2
R
1
+ R
2
= i
s
R
1
|| R
2

i
2
= i
s
R
1
R
1
+ R
2
Norton’s Theorem
• Norton’s Theorem: Any combination of voltage
sources and resistors with 2 terminals is electrically
equivalent to an ideal current source in parallel with
a single resistor



– Terminals A’B’ electrically equivalent to terminals AB
• Norton equivalent I
N
and R
N
given by:
) circuit short (
) circuit open (
Th
I
V
R R
N
= =
(same as Thevenin equivalent resistance)
(Introductory Electronics,
Simpson, 2
nd
Ed.)
I
N

R
N

N
N
R
V
I
) circuit open (
=
• Norton’s theorem applied to a voltage divider:




• Norton equivalent circuit:




– The Norton equivalent circuit is just as good as the
Thevenin equivalent circuit, and vice versa
Norton’s Theorem
R
1

R
2

1
in
R
V
I
N
=
2 1
2 1
) circuit open (
R R
R R
I
V
R
N
N
+
= =
R
N
I
N

(Introductory Electronics, Simpson, 2
nd
Ed.)
(a load resistance R
L

can then be attached
between terminals A’
and B’, in parallel
with R
N
)
TRANSMISI LISTRIK
Konstruksi Transformator
Persamaan gelombang sinus:

) ( sin | e + = t a y




t y e sin 4 =
t y e sin 2 =
2 gelombang dengan amplitudo berbeda tetapi berfase awal sama
2 gelombang dengan amplitudo sama tetapi berfase
awal berbeda




t y e sin 4 =
) 4 / ( sin 4 t e + = t y




) 2 / ( sin 4
1
t e + = t y
) 2 / ( sin 4
2
t e ÷ = t y
2 gelombang dengan amplitudo sama tetapi berfase
awal berbeda
Bagaimana jika y
1
+ y
2
?
Superposisi dua gelombang
Diagram Phasor:
Rangkaian resistor murni




i dan v sefase
t I i
t V v
e
e
sin
sin
=
=
Rangkaian Kapasitor Murni







i mendahului v sebesar 90
o
C Xc
t
Xc
V
i
t V v
e
e
e
/ 1
cos
sin
=
=
=
Rangkaian Induktor Murni







v mendahului i sebesar 90
o
L XL
t XL I v
t I i
e
e
e
=
=
=
cos
sin
Rangkaian RC untuk
Tapis Lolos Rendah
v
i
= v
R
+ v
C
Sudut fase diambil dari input ke output
Perbandingan keluaran dan masukan:









2
2
) / ( 1 / 1 /
) / (
) ( / 1
) ( 1 / 1 /
o i o
o
o
i o
V V
tg
R XC saat RC untuk
C R V V
e e
e e |
e
e
+ =
÷ =
= =
+ =
o
o
o
i o
iii
ii
i
untuk V V Bagaimana
e e
e e
e e
=
>>
<<
)
)
)
/
Grafik v
o
/v
i
terhadap frekuensi
(di kertas semilog: linier-logaritmik
Frekuensi 3 dB
Besarnya Penguatan (Gain) biasa
dinyatakan dengan dB, dengan definisi:

Untuk :



( )
i o
V V dB / log 20
10
=
( )
dB frekuensi disebut atau
dB Gain diperoleh
R X saat V V
o
C i o o
3
3
2 / 1 /
e
e e
÷ =
= = ¬ =
Rangkaian RC untuk Tapis
Lolos Tinggi
v
i
= v
R
+ v
C
Sudut fase diambil dari input ke output
Perbandingan keluaran dan masukan:





2
2
) / ( 1 / 1 /
) / (
) ( / 1
) / 1 ( 1 / 1 /
e e
e e |
e
e
o i o
o
o
i o
V V
tg
R XC saat RC untuk
C R V V
+ =
=
= =
+ =




o
o
o
i o
iii
ii
i
untuk V V Bagaimana
e e
e e
e e
=
>>
<<
)
)
)
/
Grafik v
o
/v
i
terhadap frekuensi
Steady-State Sinusoidal Analysis

Sinusoidal Currents and Voltages
Phasors
Complex Impedances
Circuit Analysis with Phasors&Complex Impedances
Power in AC Circuits
Thevenin and Norton Equivalent Circuits
Balanced Three-Phase Circuits


SINUSOIDAL CURRENTS
AND VOLTAGES
V
m
is the peak value

ω is the angular frequency in radians
per second

θ is the phase angle

T is the period

T
t
e
2
=
f t e 2 =
( ) ( )

90 cos sin ÷ = z z
Frequency
T
f
1
=
Angular frequency
Root-Mean-Square Values
( )dt t v
T
V
T
2
0
rms
1
}
=
R
V
P
2
rms
avg
=
( )dt t i
T
I
T
2
0
rms
1
}
=
R I P
2
rms avg
=
RMS Value of a Sinusoid
2
rms
m
V
V =
The rms value for a sinusoid is the peak
value divided by the square root of two.
This is not true for other periodic
waveforms such as square waves or
triangular waves.
Phasor Definition
( ) ( )
1 1 1
cos : function Time θ t ω V t v + =
1 1 1
: Phasor θ VZ = V
Adding Sinusoids Using
Phasors
Step 1: Determine the phasor for each term.
Step 2: Add the phasors using complex
arithmetic.
Step 3: Convert the sum to polar form.
Step 4: Write the result as a time function.
Using Phasors to Add
Sinusoids
( ) ( )

45 cos 20
1
÷ = t t v e
( ) ( )

60 cos 10
2
+ = t t v e

45 20
1
÷ Z = V

30 10
2
÷ Z = V

 
7 . 39 97 . 29
14 . 19 06 . 23
5 660 . 8 14 . 14 14 . 14
30 10 45 20
2 1 s
÷ Z =
÷ =
÷ + ÷ =
÷ Z + ÷ Z =
+ =
j
j j
V V V
( ) ( )

7 . 39 cos 97 . 29 ÷ = t t v
s
e
Sinusoids can be visualized as the real-
axis projection of vectors rotating in the
complex plane. The phasor for a sinusoid
is a snapshot of the corresponding
rotating vector at t = 0.
Phase Relationships
To determine phase relationships from a
phasor diagram, consider the phasors to
rotate counterclockwise. Then when standing
at a
fixed point, if V
1
arrives first followed by V
2

after a rotation of θ , we say that V
1
leads V
2

by θ . Alternatively, we could say that V
2
lags
V
1
by θ . (Usually, we take θ as the smaller
angle between the two phasors.)
To determine phase relationships between
sinusoids from their plots versus time, find
the shortest time interval t
p
between positive
peaks of the two waveforms. Then, the
phase angle is
θ = (t
p
/T ) × 360°. If the peak of v
1
(t) occurs
first, we say that v
1
(t) leads v
2
(t) or that v
2
(t)
lags v
1
(t).
COMPLEX IMPEDANCES
L L
L j I V × = e

90 Z = = L L j Z
L
e e
L L L
Z I V =
C C C
Z I V =

90
1 1 1
÷ Z = = ÷ =
C C j C
j Z
C
e e e
R R
RI V =
Kirchhoff’s Laws in Phasor
Form
We can apply KVL directly to phasors.
The sum of the phasor voltages equals
zero for any closed path.
The sum of the phasor currents entering a
node must equal the sum of the phasor
currents leaving.
Circuit Analysis Using
Phasors and Impedances
1. Replace the time descriptions of the
voltage and current sources with the
corresponding phasors. (All of the
sources must have the same frequency.)
2. Replace inductances by their complex
impedances Z
L
= jωL. Replace
capacitances by their complex impedances
Z
C
= 1/(jωC). Resistances have impedances
equal to their resistances.
3. Analyze the circuit using any of the techniques
studied earlier in Chapter 2, performing the
calculations with complex arithmetic.


AC Power Calculations
( ) u cos
rms rms
I V P =
( ) u cos PF =
i v
u u u ÷ =
( ) u sin
rms rms
I V Q =
rms rms
power apparent I V =
( )
2
rms rms
2 2
I V Q P = +
R I P
2
rms
=
X I Q
2
rms
=
R
V
P
R
2
rms
=
X
V
Q
X
2
rms
=

Maximum Average Power
Transfer
If the load can take on any complex value,
maximum power transfer is attained for a load
impedance equal to the complex conjugate of
the Thévenin impedance.
If the load is required to be a pure
resistance, maximum power transfer is
attained for a load resistance equal to the
magnitude of the Thévenin impedance.
BALANCED THREE-PHASE
CIRCUITS
Much of the power used by business and
industry is supplied by three-phase
distribution systems. Plant engineers need to
be familiar with three-phase power.
Phase Sequence
Three-phase sources can have either
a positive or negative phase
sequence.
The direction of rotation of certain
three-phase motors can be reversed
by changing the phase sequence.
Wye–Wye Connection
Three-phase sources and loads can be
connected either in a wye configuration or in a
delta configuration.
The key to understanding the various three-
phase
configurations is a careful examination of the
wye–wye circuit.
( ) ( ) u cos 3
rms rms avg L Y
I V t p P = =
( ) ( ) u u sin 3 sin
2
3
rms rms L Y
L Y
I V
I V
Q = =
Y
Z Z 3 =
A

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