SECOND EDITION
S.K.V.S.Sriramachary
M.A., M.Phil., B.Ed. Professor & Head (Retd.) Department of Mathematics University College of Engineering (Autonomous) Osmania University Hyderabad
M. Bhujanga Rao
M.Sc., Ph.D. Professor, Dept. of Mathematics University College of Engineering (Autonomous) Director of Centre for Distance Education Osmania University Hyderabad
BSP BS Publications
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i
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Hyderabad.
ISBN: 9788178001517
Contents
CHAPTER 1 Ordinary Differential Equations of First Order and First Degree ..................................................... 1 CHAPTER 2 Linear Differential Equations with Constant Coefficients and Laplace Transforms ...................... 69 CHAPTER3 Mean Value Theorems and Functions of Several Variables .............................................. 111 CHAPTER4 Curvature and Curve Tracing ................................................ 213 CHAPTER5 Application of Integration to Areas, Lengths, Volumes and Surface areas ........................ 313 CHAPTER6 Sequences of Series .............................................................. 385 _ CHAPTER7 Vector Differentiation ............................................................. 475 CHAPTER8 Laplace Transforms ............................................................... 623
1
Ordinary Differential Equations of First Order and First Degree
1.1 Introduction
Differential euqtions play an important role in many applications in the field of science and engineering, such as (i) problems relating to motion of particles (ii) problems involving bending of beams (iii) stability of electric system, etc. For example, Newton's law of cooling states that the rate of change of temperature of a body varies as the excess temperature of the body to that of its surroundings. If 8(t) is the temperature of the body at time 't' and 8 0 is the temperature of the room in which the body is kept, then dt gives the rate of change of temperature with time.
de
de
dt
= K(8  8 0) ; K is constant
Similarly Newton's second law of motion for a particle of mass m moving in a straight line can be written as
d 2x
m dt 2
=F
Where m is the mass, x is the distance of the particle at time 't' measured from a fixed origin and F the external impressed force.
Engineering Mathematics  I
A differential equation is an equation involving an unknown function and its derivatives. Ifthere is only one independent variable and one dependent variable the equation is called (Ill ordinary differential equation. If there are more than one independent variable the equation is called a partial differential equation as this involves partial derivatives. For example:
d3y dx
3
+3x
dy dx
_ y=e(
.... (a)
.... (b)
.... (c)
.... (d)
.... (e)
.... (t)
.... (g)
The first four equations (a), (b), (c) and (d) are ordinary differential equations and the remaining three are partial differential equations.
Order 0/ a differential equation: The order of a differential equation is the order of the highest ordered derivative appearing in the equation. Degree
The degree of a differential equation is the power to which the highest ordered derivative appears in the equation after clearing the radicals if any.
0/ a differential equation:
1.1(a) is a differential equation of order 3 and degree I. 1.1(b) is of third order and fourth degree differential equation. 1.1(c) is a second order, first degree differential equation. 1.1(d) is a second order, second degree ditferential equation.
1.2
Example
Formation of an ordinary D.E : The differential equations ar~ formed by eliminating all the arbitrary constants th~t are involved in the functional relationship between the dependent and independent variables. For example:
.... (I)
dx
c.2x+ 0
_I dy x2+ 2x d\: 4x 2
_1_(dy )2
d);
=
d ~ ( dx
)2 + 2x 3 2 d
dx
 4x2y
is the required D.E and y = cx2 + c 2 is called the solution of the D.E.
Note:
Depending on the number of constants in the given equation differentiate it as many number oftimes successively. Then the elimination of the arbitrary constants from the resulting equations and the given equation gives the required differential equation whose order is equal to the number of constants.
1.3
Example
Eliminate the arbitrary constants a, b from xy + x 2 = aeX + beX and form the differential equation.
Engineering Mathematics  I
Solution:
The given equation is xy + .x2 = ae'" + bex
..... ( I)
The number of arbitrary constants is two. Differentiating (I) w.r., to 'x' two times successively.
dy
x dx
+ Y + 2x = ae'  bex
=
.....(2)
d2y
X 2
aex + bex
.... (3)
From (I), (2) and (3) el imination of a, b gives the D.E. from (I) and (3) we get
?
1.4
Example
a.x2 + by =
Solution:
Differentiating ax2 +
by =
I w.r.t 'x'
=
.... (I)
dy 2ax+ 2bydc
.... (2)
d 2y dy dy +2b. =0 dxdx dx
.... (3)
i
yYl (Y.h + yl2
I
0 =0 0
2 y x d y +x(d )2 2 dx dx
_ y(dY)=o
dx
1.5
Example
Form the differential equation by eliminating the constants from
a secx + b tan x
Solution
Given equation is
y= asecx + btanx
Differentiating w.r. to 'x'
.... (I)
dy dx dy dx
= =
.... (2)
.... (3)
d 2y
, 2
(X
= a sec x tan 2x
I.e.,
1
d Y
dx
asecx tan x
I.e.,
Substituting
d 2y
dx 2
asecx + btanx
=y
from (I)
atanx + bsecx
= secx
[f)
d2
dx
i.e.,
d 2y dy  tanx   ysec2x 2
dx
Engineering Mathematics  I
1.6
Example
Form the differential equation of all circles passing through the origin and having their centres on the x  axis.
<
Solution
Take any tangent to the circle as yaxis, the centre lies on xaxis. Let 'a' be the radius of the circle. Then centre is (a, 0) :. Equation of the circle is (x  a)2 +
y
.r
a2
.... (1)
y'
Fig. 1.1 Differentiating (I) w.r. to 'x'
2(x  a)
+ 2y dy ydx dy dx
dy dx
x a
.... (2)
[x(x+
.r
(:r +.r
+ x2 
= x2
+.r
(:r +
2XY ( : )
2XY :
1.7
Example
Form the differential equation of all central conics whose axes coincide with the axes of coordinates.
Solution
The equation of all central conics whose axes coincide with the axes is ax2 + Differentiating (1) w.r.t., x
bl =
.... (1)
dy 2ax+ 2by dx
Differentiating (2) w.r.t., 'x' again
.... (2)
2 y )2 d y a+by  2 +b =0 dx dx
(d
.... (3)
x2 X
2
y2 dy ydx
y~+ ~ d 2 (d dx dx
o =0
0
=>
Exercise  1(a)
1. Eliminate the arbitrary constants from the following and find the corresponding differential equation :
(i) y
(ii) y
a e2x + b e2x
d2
Engineering Mathematics  I
(iii)
ax + bx 2
d2 [ADS: x 2
(iv)
dy ? 2x d + 2y dx x
0]
(v)
d 2y 2dy [ Ans:  2 + +Y
dx dx (vi)
OJ
d 2y
+ Y = 0]
2. Find the differential equation of all circles with centre on the line y = x and having radius' I '.
3. Form the differential equation of all the circles with centre on the line y passing through the origin.
[ADS. : (xl + y)
x and
(:
1) =
2(y 
x) (x + y:)]
dy 2xy dx
4. Find the differentiall equation of all the parabolas with vertex at the origin and foci on the x  axis.
[ADS:
0]
5. Find the differential equation of all parabolas with the origin as focus and axis along xaxis.
dy [ADS: 2x dx + Y
dx) Y
dy 
0]
Methods to Solve
1.8
The differential equations of the first order and of the First Degree:
dy dx
can be written as
q(x, y)
f(x) dx + g(y)dy = 0
.... (I)
if the variables can be separated. Integration of (1) gives the solution of the equation. i.e.,
Jf(x)dx+ Jg(y)dy=c
1.8.2 Example
Solve et"tany dx + (1~sec2ydy
=
Solution
The given equation
IeX
tany
Integrating
J I_eX
e 
10
Engineering Mathematics  I
1.8.3 Example
dy Solve  = 1 + xl + dx
Y + xly
Solution
The given differential equation can be written as dy dx
=
(1 +xl) (1 + y)
1.8.4 Example
dy Solve dx  2xy = x, where YCO) = 1
Solution
 =x(1+2y) dx dy I+2y =xdx On integration
dy
"2 Iog(1+2y) = 2 +c
Giveny= 1 when x = 0 Substituting in (1)
x2
.... (1)
"2 Iog(3) = 0 + C
C=
~ log3 = log(v'J)
2
11
1.8.5 Example
dy Solve  =(4x+y+ If dx
Solution
dy = (4x + y + 1)2 dx Substituting 4x + y + I = t in (I)

.... (I)
dy 4+dx
i.e.,
=
dt dx
dy dx
dt 4 dx
dt  4 = t 2 dx
Integrating
i.e.,
I t tanI=x+c
tanI (4X+;+ I) = 2(x + c) The solution can also be written as 4x + y + I = 2tan(2x + c) where C is an arbitrary constant.
Exercise 1(b)
1.9
1.
=~Y
[ADS:
+ eY
=
=
c]
c]
2. (2  x)dy  (3 + y) dx = 0
[ADS (3 + y) (2 x)
12
Engineering Mathematics  I
[ ADs: yc
= (a + x) (I  ay) ]
dy
6. (xy)2 dx
= a2
= x + c]
7.
8.
If
[ ADs:
x +c]
9.
dy dx = tan (x + y)
10 dy = 2 . dx (x+2y3)
[ADs: (x + 2y  3)  410g (x + 2y + I)
=x + c ]
dy dx
f(x,y) g(x,y)
where f, g are homogeneous functions of same degree in x, y is called a homogenous differential equation. Such a differential equation can be written as
.... (I)
Substitutingy = vx dy dv  =v+xdx dx
13
; + v~(v)\lf(v)
Integration yields the solution
dx
~(v)dv
dx
X
1.9.2 Example
Solve
(xl +
dy I) dx
=xy
Solution
. dy dv S U bstltuttngy = vx, d = v + x x dx
dv v + xdx
xvx
=
x +v x v 1+ v 2
dv v+ x dx dv xdx
=
=
v  2 v
1+ v
dv _v 3 x=dx 1+ v 2
dx J I JIdv=c + ~+ J X v3 v
14
Engineering Mathematics  I
2
logxv 
e e ~ 2ylogy  xl
2V2
logx  ~ x 2y
i.e.,
(y)
X2
2ey
2ylogy
2ey + x 2
1.9.3 Example
Solve
Solution
dy y2 x+=y dx x
dy xl+y=xy dx
i.e.,
+=0 X v2
Integration yields
V2+1
dx
dv
logx+   =e 2+1
~logx
=c
15
x logx  y
c cy
or
ylogx x
ylogx
x + cy
1.9.4 Example
Solve [x+ YSin(Yx)]dx = xSin(Yx)dy Solution The given differential equation can be written as
dy
= __
x+ ysin(X)
,.0.,..:
dx
xSin(j~)
dy dy  = v + x. dx dx
= 
Substitutingy = vx
dv v+x dx
x+ vxsinv xsinsin(v)
16
Engineering Mathematics  I
Exercise  1 (c)
1.10
l.
[ADS : y = ceix ]
2. (2  2xy)dx
(x 2  2xy)dy
3. 2xy + ~  r) dy = 0 dx
r + y = cy ]
5. xdy  ydx = ~ x 2 + y2 dx
y [ ADS: cos  = logcx ] x
8. (ry  x 3 )dy  ~
+ xy) dx
[ ADS:
y~ x + y = cx.e
2 2
tan
I(YI) Ix
9. (r + y) dx
= 2xydy
( ADS: (r 
y) = xc ]
10.
dy dx = y[logy  logx + 1]
( ADS : y = xecx ]
1.10.1
dy dx
ax+by+c Ax+By+C
.... (J)
17
Case (i) If
::;:.
Solving these equations, values of h, k are obtained. The given D.E then reduces to a homogeneous D.E.
dY dX
aX +bY
AX +BY
x  hand Y
y  k in the solution.
B
dy _ (ax + by)+c dx  m(ax+by)+C
Differentiation gives
a+bdy=dt dx dx dt a dy dx =dx b
i.e.,
~=b mt+C
a
dt
t+c
18
Engineering Mathematics  I
1.10.2
Example
Solve
dy dx
...  (I)
.... (2)
dX
X2Y 2X+Y
dY
dV
XdV =1V
dX
2+V
19
Y X +10
I.e.,
Vx X
3 )
X=loge
10g(Y  X)3 + XY = Xloge log(y  \  x + \)3 + (x  \) (y  I) = (x I) loge log(y  x)3 = (x  1) (loge  y + \)
1.10.3
Example
Solve (2x + 3y + \) dx + (2y 3x + 5)dy = 0
Solution
dy dx 2x+3y+ 1 2y3x+5
= :
Substituting x = X + h, y = Y = k, :
= 1
dV dX
2X+3Y 3X2Y
Substituting Y=YX
dV dV =Y+XdX dX dV Y + X dX
2X+3YX = 3X  2YX
X dV dX
= 2(1 + y2 )
32Y
20
Engineering Mathematics  I
32V)dV= 2dX ( 1+ V2 X
fdX
= 210gX + c
3tan
B~
X=xh=xI Y=yk=y+1
3tan1 (~::
1.10.4, Example
Solve
210g(x
I) + c
dy =xy+l dx 2x2y
Solution
dV_ dx
V+l_V1 2V 2V
2V dV=dx VI
21
Integrating
2 JVI+I dV=x+c VI 2[V + 10g(Vl)]
=
x+c
=
x+c
2y  x + c
or
(x  y 1)2
= e2j~x
1.10.5
Example
Solve
dy dx 4x+6y+1 2x+3y 5
Solution
=(~V
d'(
2(2x+3y)+ I (2x+3y)5
Substituting
2x + 3y = V dy (N 2+3=dx dx dy dx
=~[dV
3 Ix
2]
V5
IO2V+6V+3 5v
13+4V 5V
dV
= 
22
Engineering Mathematics  I
Integrating
fl 1J~
4V + 13
) dv = _ 4 Idx + e
33
4(6x+3ye)=33Iog[4(2x+3y)+ 13]
Exercise 1(d)
1.11
[Ans:tan J
2.
dy x+2y3 dx  2x+3y5
[Ans: (2+Ji) IOg[y1 xI ,,3
~] 
~]+ ,,3 ~
logx= loge]
r]
23
5.
dy dx
loge]
6.
dy _ 3y+2x+4 dx 4x+6y+5
:9
(14x+2ly+22)=x+c]
8.
dy dx
= 2x 
xy+3 2y + 5
[ ADS: (x  y) + log[2 + x  y ]
x
= 
+ C]
alone or constants is said to be a linear differential equation offirst order. Multiplying both sides of the equation by el pta [called the integrating factor (I.F)] we get,
.... (i)
l pcb:
d(y.e
Integrating
1ptlr
qe 1ptlr
24
Engineering Mathematics  I
Note:
In some cases a differential equation can be reduced to the linear form by taking 'y' as independent variable and x as the dependent variable. The D.E is written as
eJ
Pldy
Solution is
x.e
JPldy
fqle
Jpl"Y
+c
1.12.1
Example
Solve (I + x 2 )

dy + 2yx  6x2 = 0 dx
Solution
Rearranging the given differential equation to the form
dy dx + py = q
We have
2x
p=
I+X2
6x 2
,q=
I+X2
I.F= e
Jpdx =e J I+x2
=
~dx
log(I+X2 )
(1 + x 2 )
y(1. F) =
fp(I.F)dx + c
25
1.12.2
Example
Solve
xlogx
dy  +y=2Iogx dx
Solution
dy y 2 +=dx xlogx x I 2 p=   andq=xlogx x
Here
Solution is
ylogx =
J~ logxdx + c
(IogX)2
2 +c
ylogx=2
1.12.3
Example
Solve
dy Y ( . ) =I xsmx+cosx xcosx + dx
Solution
xsin+ cosx dy +y.dx xcosx
xcosx
p=
xsin x + cosx
xcosx
I ,q=
xcosx
26
Engineering Mathematics  I
I.F
~Slll X~.COS~ dx
XCDSX
= e(log(xsecx)
I. F
= e1og(x sec x) =
xsecx
Solution is
y(xsec x)
f_lxcosx
2
x sec x dx + c
xysec x xysecx
= =
1.12.5
Example
Solve
0 where x
~,
3
2tanx sinx ef
2 tan xd!:
IF
~
= e210gsecx
ylF=
JqxIF.dx+c
2
27
ysec 2x
ysecx
')
= =
Given that y
0 when x =
1C
;7j
C =
o=
sec  + c => 3
2
Substituting c = 2 in (I)
ysec 2x
secx  2
1.12.6
Example
dy Solve (x + 2.v) ,
(X
=
Solution
X
2.v
x y
y yd dx
 =
dx dy
2.v
is in the form of
= 
1
'
2,1
Y
28
Engineering Mathematics  I
1 x
f2y
1 xdy+c y
 =y+C
Y
1.13.7 Example
Solve
(x + y+ I) 
dy dx
Solution
dy dx X =y+l PI=lq\,=y+1
IF =
=
f1dy
e Y
Solution is given by
x(IF)
= fql(/F)dy+c
f(y + I)eY dy + c
xeY
i.e.,
or
x +y + 2
ce Y
Exercise 1(e)
dy 2. cos2x  + Y
dx
= tanx
[ADS: Y = cetanx  tanx 1]
29
dy 3. x  +2yx2 1og=0 dx
(ADS: y
c
=
?
x
4.
dy dx + ycot x = 4x cosec.x, if y
n/ 0, when x = ~2
n2 (ADS: ysinx = 2x2  2
5. yeYdx
(y
+ 2x&)dy
( ADS : xy~2
=c
e~Y
6. (x + 31) dy dx
( ADS : x
21 + cy ]
7. (xy I )
dy dx+ y
3
+ y3
= 0
I ADS: x
dy dx
= ce Y
+  + II Y
8.
= x 3  2xy if y = 2 when x =
[ADS: 2y  x 2 + 1 = 4 el~~ ]
c  ] 2
x2
30
Engineering Mathematics  I
llyn
.... (I)
where p, q are functions ofx alone is said to be a Bernoulli's differential equation. Dividing (I) throughout by yn
.... (2)
1 dy dv (1n)   = y" dx dx
(2) reduces to
I dv    +pv=q
(In)dl'
dv  + (1n)pv = (In)q dx
which is linear in v. The avove D.E can be solved by using the method given in 1.12.1 example.
1.13.2 Example
Solve dy  ytanx = ysecx dx Solution
dx  ytanx = ysecx
dy
.... (I)
y =v,
31
+=/ dx dx
1 dy
dv
(1) reduces to
dv dx + vtan x
=
sec x
is linear in v. Here p
=
tanx, q
e e
secx
IF
fpd<
flanXd<
= elogsec x =
secx
v(lF) = Jq(IF}dx + c
v. secx
Jsecx.secxdx + C
2
v=Y
  sec x y i.e.,
tan x + c
=
y(tan x + c) + sec x
1.13.3 Example
Solve (3xy + .0) dx  3i2dy = 0
Solution
dy 3x2   3xy dx
=
.0
32 is in Bernoulli's fonn 1 dy _ dx  xy  3x 2
Engineering Mathematics  I
"7
1
y
Substituting
=v
D.E reduces to
dv I 1 v=dx xy 3x 2
which is linear in v Here
p=~,
.... (1)
1 q= 3x 2
IF = e
=
Jpdx
x
J!d\
=x
Solution of the D.E (1) is
v(lF) = fq(lF)dx+c
..!..x= f_l_. xdx + c y 3x 2
x 1 =Iogx+c Y 3
i.e.,
y(110g x + c) + x = 0
1.13.4 Example
dy Solve dx + (2xtan 1 y .x3) (1 + y) = 0
Solution
dy 1+ y2 dx
dv = dx
33
dv
dc
+ 2xv=x3
.... (1)
IF
2xdx
=e
x2
v(lF) =
Writing
Jq(IF}dx+ c
1
x2 = t
xdx
= 2dt
2
v.e x = {e 2+c
dt
= cosy cos3x
= cosy cos 3x
dy secy tany dx
dv d'C
34
Engineering Mathematics  I
dv
is linear in v Here
dx + v . tal1.X = cos3x
.... (I)
p = tal1.X, q = cos3x
IF =
f pdt
flallXdy = secx
= fq(IF)dx + c
=
v. secx
fcos xxsecxdx+c
=
secy secx
secx secy
fcos xdx + c
I
2
I +cos2x 2 +c
1.13.6 Example
Solve d
dy x
= (SII1.X 
Solution
dy dv cosy=dx dx
The gIven equation reduces to
dv . dx + vcosx = SII1.XCOSX
.. .. (I)
35
is linear in v Here
p
IF
COSX,
q = SIl1 X cos X
=e
= e
~1Il X
J. xcosx.e m"'. I + c
SII1
(X
write
siny
e;lIlt
= [te t =
el] + c
sinyeSlI1\"
eSItlX [sinxl] + c
Exercise  4(f)
1 (Ans: y
2.
1 + logx + ex )
dy .  cosx + YSlnx = dx
...; ysecx
r.::::::::
(Ans :2y y
12
Jsecx
tanx + 2c )
( Ans :
dy tany Ix l+x
~
y
= 
4.
(I+x)
~secy
36
Engineering Mathematics  I
dy 5. x  + ylogy = xyeX dx
I
dy 2 x3 6. 3+y=) dx x+ I y
+c
I ADs:
7.
dy + ytanx dx dy dx
=
(x +
Iii =
x6

+
2x 5
+ +C 5 4
X4
isecx
I ADs:
8.
X
2
cos2x
y(c + 2sin x) J
Y +xy
.... (I)
du = dr:+dy ax ay
From (I) and (2) we get M= ax'
au
au
.... (2)
au
N=
au
ay
Now
=
aM
ay
a2u
ayax
37
aM
oy
= 
AX
N~v =
. 'f aM aN IS exact I  = 
oy
ax
+
(treatingyas constant integrate w.r.t x) (integrate w.r.t y those terms that are independent of x)
Note:
IfN has no term independent ofx then the solution is fMdx
=
1.14.2 Example
Solve (x + 2y  3) dy  (2x  Y + \ )dx = 0
Solution
(x+2y  3)dy  (2x  Y + I) dx = 0 M = (2x  Y+ \) N = (x + 2y  3)
=\
aM
oy
=\
aN
ax
fe x + 2y  3)
=
(ry =
e
_2X2 2i  2 + yx  x + 2
 3y =
=>
I  x 2 + xy 
x  3y
38
Engineering Mathematics  I
1.14.3 Example
Solve (x 2+ y.)dr: + 2xy dy = 0
Solution
0
N
=
2xy =2y
aM av
aM ax
}h + f2xydy = c
1.14.4 Example
Solve (I + e
,:~, )dx + /Y
[I.'... ;
1
(
dy = 0
Solution
Y (I + e'x Y ) dx + e x'
J ;;, ) dy = 0
t Y x'y M = J + e: , N = e,i
J Y
x)
=
aM
~
x
,y'
e'Y
oM oN
oy ox
The given differential equation is exact
39
Solution is
+ e
(y)
= C
hi
+ fy
I ADS
1.15.1 Integrating factors
: x4 + 2x21
 2a2x2  l  2b 2;l =
4c
If the differential equation Mdx + Ndy = 0 is not exact, it can be made exact by multiplying it with some function of x, y. Such a function is called an integrating
jactor.
Rule!t' for fillt/illg the illtegrtltillg factors :
1. Integrating factors found by inspection:
Example
Solve x dy ydx
=
Solution
xdy ydx
40
Engineering Mathematics  I
Dividing by x2
',==
xdy ydx
x
2
On integration
Yx
Mx + Ny
7:
=c
First method /0 find an integrating jac/or : If the differential equation Mdx + Ndy is not exact, but is homogenous and
0, then the integrating factor is 1 . Multiply the differential Mx+Ny
1.15.2 Example
Solve
(x 2y  2xy2)dx  (x 3
3x2y)dy
=0 =0
(x 3

Solution
(x 2y  2xy)dx  (x 3

3x2y)dy
.... (I)
M 
= x 2y 2xy
=x24xy
N

= 
3x2y)
aM
oy
aN
ax
=3x2 + 6xy
Mx + Ny = x 2y
IF
=
7:
) 1 Mx+ Ny  x 2 y2
y2 X2Y 2X
2
.... (2)
41
write
M
I
= 
x 3 N =+I y2 Y
then
==
aMI
aNI
ry
ax
y2
x   210gx + 3logy + c y
i.e.,
x
or
j(xy)ydx + g(xy)xdy
and then
Mx Ny * 0
1 Mx _ Ny is an integrating factor
1.15.4 Example
Solve (x 2 y2 + xy + 1)ydx + (x2y2  xy + 1)xdy
=0
.... (1)
Solution
Hence the
42
Engineering Mathematics  I
Multiplying (I) by IF
2 (X y 2 +xy+ 2x 2y2
1)+ (X
y 2 xy+ 2x 2y2
I) = 0
dy=O .... (2)
 y++dx+ x   + 1 2 x x 2y 2 y xy
I{ I 2} I{ II}
Jl
x y
Jl
xy
 xy + log x    logy = c 2 xy 2
1 [
I] I
1.15.5 Example
Solve (xysin xy + cos xy)ydx + (xysin xy  cos xy)xdy = 0
Solutiou
(xysin xy + cos xy)dx + (xysinxy  cosxy)xdy = 0 M .... (1)
Mx  Ny
2xycosxy
=F
IF=
Mx NY
2xycosxy
~(ytanXY+~)dX+~( xtanxy ~) dy
.... (2)
43
= Ay
Exercise  4(h)
+ x 2y2 + xy + 1)ydx + (x 3;
xli  xy +
1)xdy
0
1   210gy = c xy
r ADS: xy 2.
(xli + xy +
I )ydx + (xli
xy + 1)xdy = 0
r ADS:
1 xy + logx  logy  xy
c]
4. (x4y4 + x 2
I ADS : ~ x 2i
2
 _I xy
logx  logy
c ]
aM
If Mdx + Ndy = 0 is not exact and
aN N
is a function of x alone say fix),
_a=~_ _ ax_
then the IF
=e
j (x)dr
44
Engineering Mathematics  I
1.16.2 Example
Solve
Solution
..... (1 )
M = x2 +
Y + 6x
N = yx
aM aN ay= 3y, fu = y2 aM aN
ayili
N IF = e f~
2tJx
3y2  y2
y x
2
2
X
is a function of x alone
= x2
..... (2)
aMI
ay
=3x2y
f(x + x
+ 6x 3 }tx + fy x dY = c
2 2
1.16.3 Example
Solve
(x2 + y) dx  2xydy = 0
Solution
(x2 +
y)dx  2xydy = 0
..... (1 )
45
aM
ay
2y, ox
2y
aM aN
ax
N
ax
2y+2y 2xy
2 x
is a function of x alone
IF
= e
f ~dx 1 x =x2
1
MuItiplyingthe DE by
IF= 
x2
[ l)
x
2y 1+dx,.dy=O 2
x
..... (2)
a 2' y X
(2) is exact
aM, _ 2y
=
oN,
2y
Solution of (1) is
l+dx+ Jdy=c x2 x
y2
2y
x 
y2
x
=c
aN aM
If the differential equation Mdx + Ndy
ax M By
is a
[
function of y alone, say fly)
46
Engineering Mathematics  I
Then
IF
t(y)<ly
1.16.5 Example
Solve (xy + y) dx + 2(.x2.0 + x + y4)dy
=
Solution
(xy + y)dx + 2(.x2.0 + x + y4)dy = 0
M =
.xy3 + y
3xy + 1
N = 2(.x2.0 + x + y4)
 =
oM 8y
oN
ox
=4xy2+2
y
is a function ofy alone
F=e
f~d)'
Y
=y
(xy4 + .0) dx +
2(.x2Y + xy + yS)dy = 0
oNI .,3 =4xy +2y
..... ( I)
ox
i }:Lx + 2 f(x 2 i
+ xy + yS) dy
47
1.16.5 Example
Solve (3x 2 y4 + 2xy)dx + (2x 3_Y'
x2)(~V = 0
Solution
aN _ aM _ (6x /
ax
ay 
is a function of y alone
IF
J~
Y
dy
I
=?
Y
Multiplying the DE by
~, the DE reduces to
y
ax
:. DE (I) is exact Solution of the DE is
x3 2 2 x 3y+=c 3 y 2
48
Engineering Mathematics  I
Exercise  4(i)
933
I ADs: y
 x 2 + I = ex I
0
2x .1 I ADs: xy + ) +Y = e ]
.... (l)
is not exact and is of the form xliyb(mydx + nxdy) + Xf y(pydx + qxdy) when a, b, r, s, m, n, p, q are constants Then the IF
= =
xlII
where h k are constants such that the equation (I) after multiplying with IF becomes exact.
49
1.17.2 Example
Solve xy\ydx + 2xdy) + 3ydx + 5xdy) = 0
Solution
xy3(ydx + 2xdy) + (3ydx + 5xdy)
=
..... (1 )
The
IF
x"1
xhl it must become exact
=
Multiplying (I) by IF =
(xh+1 1+1 + 3x" 1+1)dx + (2x ilj .? + 1+3 + 5xil f/ I){~Y
..... (2)
is exact if
aM

ay
aN
ax
1)x"1
aM
aN
ax
ax
0 and Sh  3k = 2
Solving
h = 2, k= 4
.. Solution is
50
Engineering Mathematics  I
1.17.3 Example
Solve (3x + 2y)ydx + 2x(2x + 3y)dy = 0
Solution
(3x + 2y)ydx + 2x(2x + 3y)dy = 0
.... (1)
IF
0/,

MUltiplying (1) by IF
(0/,+2 + 30+2 /,+I)dx + (2x h+3/,
0+ 1/,+I)dy
.... (2)
ox oN ox
oM
oM
ON
ox
ox
%k = /i
k + 2 =  (h + J)
and 2(k+ 1) = 2(h + 3) => h =
,% k= /i
_ X /2 y72
3/
5/
3/
II) dy = 0
.... (3)
x
3
2/
3/
13 yl2
+ 4X 72 y72 = c
II
II
51
Exercise  4(j)
I Solve the following differential equations
I. x(3ydx + 2xdy) + 8y4(vdr + 3xdy = 0
I Ans:
3x
4
3+l
10 +1 3
3.
+1
y 10   +I 3
X 1
=c]
xy)dy
0 ( Ans : 4x 2 y
I I
2 __ X
2Y 2 =
ex ]
(Ans: 5x
 36, 13
y 13_12x
24
_10 '
I]y
15
I]
=c]
1.17.4 Applications to geometry, law of natural growth and Newton's law of cooling:
When some action is applied on a quantity the changes and the action affects all the parts equally. The rate of change depends on the original quantity. For example the total population 'p' of a country increases with respect to time 't', say, then its rate of change with time is
change of the population will be proportional to the total population at any given time and is called the law of natural growth. The growth of the population satisfies the differential equation 
dp =kp dt
= cekl
52
dx =kx dt
= cekl
dO
de  oc(O  0 ) dt 0
or
dt

dO
= k(O 
dO
dt
k (0  0 )
0
10g(0  00) =  kt + c
1.17.4 Example
or
0=0 o + Cekl
The mass of crystalline deposit increases at a rate which"js proportional to its mass at that time. The deposit has started around a crystal seed of 5 grams. Find an expression of its mass at time 't'. Ifin 30 minutes the mass of the deposit increases by'l' gram, what will be the mass of the deposit after 10 hours.
Solution
Let m be the mass of crystalline at time 't' then by law of growth
dm=k' dt '
dm =dt
km
53
on integration
log m = kt + c
.... (I)
initially when t = 0, m = 5
(1) =>
log5 = 0  c c=log5
I.e.,
kt= 10g(
~)
.... (2)
1 "2 (hours), m =6
Substituting in (2) log(1Y t= 109; Now to find the mass after 10 hours (i.e t = 10) from (3) we get
.... (3)
m = 5"5
6)20
grams
54
1.17.5 Example
Engineering Mathematics  I
The rate at whi~h a certain substance decomposes in a certain solution at any instant is proportional to the amount of it present in the solution at that instant. Initially, there are 27 grams and three hours later, it is found that 8 grams are lett. How much substance will be left after one more hour.
Solution
If m grams is the amount of the substance left in the solution at time 't', then the rate at which it decomposes is dm , which is proportional to m. dl By law of decay
dt
dm
= 
km (k> 0)
f~
=k fdt+c
.... (I)
=>
c= log27
10g(;; )= 
kt
.... (2)
8 k= log ( 27
2 k=log3
)X
55
10g~ =IOg(%}
when t = 4
... (3)
III
log 27
= log ( "3 )
m=
16
grams.
1.17.6 Example The number x of bacteria in a culture grow at a rate proportional to x. The value ofx was initially 50 and increased to 150 in one hour what will be the value ofx after 12" hour. Solution
dx =/0:
dt
dx =kdt x
.... (I)
..
or
(1) =>
56
Engineering Mathematics  I
= k.I
k= log3
5O) = flog3
=
"2
50
X
=
3
(3)2
= 50 (3)2 grams
1.17.7 Example The rate of cooling of a body is proportional to the difference between the temperature of the body and the surrounding air. If the air temperature is 20C and the body cools for 20 minutes from 140C to 80C, find when the temperature will be 35C. Solution If 8 is the temperature of the body at time '1' then from Newton's law of cooling
d8 a(820) dl
= f~ 820
 =k(820) dl
de
k rldl + c
J'
.... (I)
57
c = log( 120), (I) reduces to log(140  20) =  kt + log 120 or +kt = log( 120)  10g(S  20)
.... (2)
0= 35c
0 20 10g( \25 ) log2
Exercise  4(k)
I. In a certain reaction, the rate of conversion of a substance at time "t' is proportional to the quantity of the substance still untransformed at that instant. At the end of one hour 60 grams while at the end offour hours 21 grams remain. How many grams of the first substance was there initially? ( ADs: 85 grams approximately I The rate of growth of a bacteria is proportional to the number present. If initially there were 100 bacteria and the amount doubles in '1' hour, how many bacteria will
2.
58
Engineering Mathematics  I
3. Under certain conditions cane sugar in water is converted into dextrose at a rate which is proportional to the amount unconverted at any time. 1f75 grams was there at time t = 0.0 and 8 grams are converted during the first 30 minutes find the amount
I converted in 12 hour.
[ADS: 21.5 gms]
4. The rate of cooling of a body is proportional to the difference between the temperature of the body and the surrounding air. If the surrounding air is kept at 30c and the body cools from 80c to 60c in 20 minutes. Find the temperature ofthe body after 40 minutes.
[ADS: 48c J
5. If the air is maintained at 30c and the temperature of the body cools from 80c to 60c in 20 minutes. Find the temperature of the body after 40 minutes.
[ ADS: 48c]
6. The rate at which a heated body cools in air is proportional to the difference between the temperature of the body and that of the surrounding air. A body originally at 80 cools down to 60c in 20 minutes the temperature of the air being 40c what will be the temperature of the body after 40 minutes from the original temperature.
[ADS: 50c J
7. The rate at which bacteria multiply is proportional to the instantaneous number present. If the original number doubles in 2 hours in how many hours will it triple.
[ ADS: 210g3 J
log2 8. Water at temperature 100C cools in 10 minutes to 80C in a room of temperature 25C. Find the temperature of water after 20 minutes.
[ ADS: 65.5c]
9. A cup of coffee at temperature 100C is placed in a room whose temperature is 15C and it cools to 60C in 5 minutes, find its temperature after a further interval of 5 minutes. [ADS: 38.8c ]
59
Orthogonal Trajectories
1.18.0 Definition (1)
A trajectory of a family of curves is a curve cutting all th.e members of the system according to some law. For example a curve cutting a family of curves at a constant angle is a trajectory.
Definition (2)
If a curve cuts every member of a given family of curves at right angles, it is called an orthogonal Trajectory. The orthogonal trajectories of a given family of curves _ themselves form a family of Curves. If the two families of curves are such that each member of either family cuts each member of the other family at right angles then the members of one family are known as the orthogonal trajectories of the other. In two dimensional problems in the flow of heat, the curves along which the heat flow takes place and the isothermal curves or loci of points at the same temperature are orthogonal trajectories. In hydrodynamics, the flow of water from a lake into narrow channel produces a family of streamlines which are orthogonal trajectories to the curves of equal Velocity Potential. In the flow of electricity in thin conducting sheets, the paths along which the current flows are the orthogonal trajectories of the equipotential curves and vice  versa.
f(x,y,c)=O
..... (1)
be a family of curves, where c is a parameter. We can form a first order differential equation by eliminating 'c' from (1) \ i.e.,
F(X,y,:)=o
..... (2)
is the differential equation whose general solution is (1 ) If the two curves are orthogonal (curves intersecting at right angles) the product of the slopes of the tangents at their point of intersection must be equal to I. Suppose
(x, y)
trajectory .
60
Engineering Mathematics  I
At this point slope of the tangent to the curve (I) is dy and dx is the slope of
dx
dy. dx
dy
, the equation thus obtained is the differential equation of the family of orthogonal trajectories of the family(l) .
. . (
Suppose
xJI,
:)=0
...
(3)
is the differential equation of the system of orthogonal trajectories, and its solution is the fami Iy of orthogonal trajectories of (I) .
f(r,O,c) = 0
..... (1)
is the family of curves where c is the arbitrary constant. We can form a differential equation
F(r,o, :~ )= 0
..... (2)
of the family (I), after elimination of the constant 'c'. Let be the angle between the radius vector and the tangent at any point on a member of the family of curves. Then
(r, 0) .
.... (3)
dO tan=rdr
Let I be the angle between the radius vector and the tangent at any point (lj, ~ ) on the trajectory. Then tan;/, Y'I
dB = r, _I 1 dr,
I
..... (4)
lj=r,
From (3) and (4),
lj
01 =0
Hence tan1
= cot
dOl dr l
= ; dO
1 dr
1 dr
i.e., ; dO
= lj dlj
dOl
61
..... (5)
gives the differential equation of orthogonal trajectory of the family of cllrves(l) Solution of (5) is the orthogonal trajectory of the family of curves.
1.18.3 Example
Find the orthogonal trajectory of the family of curves a/ parameter.
= x 3 , where a is variable
Solution:
Given family of curves is
a/ = x
..... ( I)
dx
= 3x 2
..... (2)
.. 2 /
. (X3) .y dy _ dx 3x
2x
dy =3y dx
..... (3)
by  : in(3),
dy
23 2 2~ = L + c . Therefore 2 2
62
Engineering Mathematics  I
1.18.4 Example
Find the orthogonal trajectory of the family of parabolas y2 parameter.
= 4ax
Solution:
y2 =4ax
differentiating (I) w.r.t. 'x';
..... (1)
y dy dx
= 2a
y2 = 2X(Y:)
..... (2)
.. y=2x
dy dx
..... (3)
dy by _ dx in(3) dx dy
Y=2X( : J
is the differential equation of the orthogonal trajectory to (I). Integrating (4)
..... (4)
a +A
Solution:
+ =1 a2 a2 +A
Differentiating (I) w.r.t. 'x';
X2
y2
..... (1)
2x + 2y dy a 2 a2 +A dx
=0
..... (2)
63
:. ( x
a 2 ) : = xy
Y ) = xy (2 X a 2)( d dx
is the differential equation of the family (I) dy.111 (3) dx  fOor S ub stltutmg
;
dy
dx
2
. I.e,
dY~( x' x a
)dx
2
2
Y 2
2+c
x +l
2
= 2a
the
1.18.6 Example
Find
2
orthogonal
trajectories
of
the
family
of
coaxial
circles
x 2 + y2 + 2gx + C = 0
dy 2x+2y+2g+0=O dx x + y2  2x ( x + y : ) + c = 0 y2 _ x 2 _ 2xy dy + c = 0 dx
2
..... (3)
dy
dx dx y2 _ x 2 + 2xy  + C = 0 dy
..... (4)
64
Engineering Mathematics  I
dx 1 2 c+ / 2xx =   dy y y
..... (5)
is a linear equation of the Bernoulli's form (non  linear differential equation of first order and first degree) Substituting x 2 = t,
2x dx = dt in (5) dy dy
(c+ / ) y
..... (6)
dt t = dy
is linear in t.
:.I.F=e
I 1 Idy Y =
Y
General solution of(6) is
t.! = y
t
f +yy2 .!dy+k y
C
=y++k.
y y
x 2 + Y  ky 
=0
( since t = x 2 )
1.18.7 Example
Find the equation of the system of orthogonal trajectories of the parabolas
Solution:
..... (1)
65
1 dr tanB/2 = 0 r dB
Substituting r 2
..... (2)
?dB)  rtanB/ 2 =0 r dr

1(
r
dr
cotB/2dB
..... (3)
log r
log(~) = logsin
c .
2 / (
B/2
=sm B 2=''r 2
1 cos B)
rill
= alii
Solution:
Given
rill = a cosmB
ln
mdr =
r dB
cosmB
( msmmB . )
~ dr
r
dB
tan(mB)
..... (2)
dr
dB
by r 
dB . m(2) d,.
66
Engineering Mathematics  I
..... (3)
family (I)
Exercise 4 (s)
1.
Find the orthogonal trajectories of the following family of curves, where a variable parameter.
(i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi)
IS
=e ]
= kx
=  y2 log ( ;
)]
x 2 _ y2 = a2 X2 /3 + y2/3 = a2/3
2.
4a (x + a)
is self
3.
3 Find the orthogonal trajectories of the curves 3xy = x 3  a , a being the parameter.
4.
x 2 + y2 bx =0
Ordinary Differential Equations of First Order and First Degree 5. Find the orthogonal trajectories of the following family of curves.
67
(i) (ii)
(iii)
r=aB
r =e aO
[ ADS:
[ADS: r
= ce 2 I (log)2 + B2 = c I
I
0' 
rn sinnB = a"
r = a(l +eosB)
= esinO I
?
= C Sin 20 )
2
Linear Differential Equations with Constant Coefficients and Laplace Transforms
2.1.1 Let
(i) the differential operator" ~" be donoted by 'D'
dx
(ii) PI' P2' P3' ............. Pn be either functions of x or constants (iii) R be a function of x then the general form of a linear differential equation (L.D.E) of order n is given by
.... (I)
or simply (Dn + ppnI + ............ +Pn)Y = 0, If PI' P2' ..................., Pn are constants then (I) is called a L D E with constant coefficients. Denoting the differential operator (Dn + PI Dn  I + .............. + Pn) by f (D), (I ) can be written as
f(D)y
=
.... (2)
70
Engineering Mathematics  I
Integration yields logy= fp(x)dx => y =Ce fp(x)dx + logc Solution isy= Ce
..... (3)
fpdx
= Cernx
.... (4)
Suppose p is a constant = m, say, then solution is y (i.e.) the solution of (D  m)y = 0 is y = Ce rnx
2.1.3
In this chapter the attention is mostly confined to L.D.E.S with constant coefficients. If R = 0 then equation (2) becomes
f(O)y
=
=0
= o.
(ii) m\, m 2 are real and equal (iii) m\, m2 are complex and distinct (iv) m\, m2 are complex and equal
= 0 or (D  m2 ) (0  m\) y = 0
.... (7)
Call (0  m l ) y
From (4) it follows that Y = Ce D12X From (7) (D  m\)y = Ce D12X I.F.
=
y.ern\x=
C
m 2 m!
C
m 2 m!
as C 2 .
71
(i.e.,) y
Similarly ifm" m2, .......... I11n are real and dinstinct roots off(l11) = 0 then y = C, e'n,~ I C 2 el11 2x I .............. + C n elllnx
.... (I)
(I) is the solution of f(O)y = 0 where C" C 2, ........... , C n are arbitrary constants.
m2,
:. y
= (Cx
+ C,) elll,x
=
0 is ..... (II)
2.1.7 Case (iii) : Ill" m2 are complex, say (a if3) Then solution of(6) is given by
IfJJX
(i.e.,) y
=
2.1.8 Case (iv) : If (a ifJ) are repeated say's' times then the corresponding solution (follows from case (ii) and (iii) is given by
y = ~[(C, + C 2x + C 3x2 + ........................ + CsXS ' ) ] cosf3x
.... (IV)
d2 y
dy
dx
dx
72
Engineering Mathematics  I
Example 2.1.10
Solve dx 2 11 dx +30y = 0
d2y
dy
Sol. A.E is m2  11 m
+ 30 => (m 
5) (m  6) = 0
Solution is y = Ae 5x + B e6x
Example 2.1.11
Solve2 dx 2 +5 dx 12y=0
d2y
dy
Example 2.1.12
d 3y d2y Solve +46y=0 dx3 dx 2
Sol. m3 + 4m2 + m  6 = 0
(m  I) (m + 2) (m + 3) = 0 :. Solution is y = cl~ + c 2 e2x + C 3 e3x
Exercise  2(a)
Solve the following differences:
1.
d 2y dy +23y=0 2
dx
2
dx
Ans : y
= A~ + Be3x
A~
2.
d y _ 3y = 0 dx 2
Ans: y =
+ BeX
3.
d 3y d2y dy +256y=0 2 3
dx dx dx
4.
5.
d2 y dy 9 +1816y=0 2
dx dx
d2y dy +3+2y=O 2
dx dx
Ans : y
= AeX + Be2x
73
Solved Examples
Example 2.1.13
Solve~+~=O 2 3
dx dx
d3
dZ
Sol. A.E is m + mZ =
3
=> m (m
+ I) =
Solve
 4 + 181
d4y
dx
dZy
dx~
+ 81y=0
:. m = 3, 3, 3,3
Solution is y
=
(A + Bx) e3x + (C + xD)e 3x = (C(x + Cz)e3x + (C 3x t C 4 )e 3x Exercise 2 (b) d2y dy +10 +25y=0
dx
I.
Solve
Z
dx
2.
3.
Ans : y
(Ax + B) + (Cx +
D)~
4.
Ans : y =
(M + Bx + C) et
74
Solved Examples Example 2.1.16 Solve
Engineering Mathematics  I
d2 y
2
dx
+4 +9y=0
dx
dy
Sol. A.E. is m2 + 4m + 9 =0
m=2i/5
a
=
2 and
f3
/5
=
e2x (Acos x
/5 + Bsin /5 x)
d 3y Solve dx 3 + y= 0
1+J3i :.m=I,m=2
d4 y
d3 y
d2 y
dy
:. m=
1J3i 2
1J3i 2
75
Exercise 2 (c)
I.
Ans: y
= Acos
J7x
+ Bsin
J7x
2.
3.
4.
.... (I)
I f(O) R
or y = f(O) R This solution is called the particular Integral of(l) while the solution off(O) y = 0 is called the complementary function (C.F.) Suppose y\ is C.F and Y2 is P.I for (I) Thenf{O) y\ andf{O) Y2
..... (2)
= 0 from (2)
=
= R from (1)
f(0) y\ +f(O) Y2
=O+R=R
76
Engineering Mathematics  I
Which shows thatYI + Y2 is also a solution of(l)'Yl + Y2 (i.e.) C.F. + P.I is called the most general solution of(l).
2.2.2 Calculation of
I
DI11,
D _ nl, R = y, say, Operating both sides with (0m 1), we get (0m 1) Y = R
(i.e.)
dy
dx  m1y= R
fmjtU
=O~ '0
R= fRdx
Example 2.2.3
Sol. D 5
5
+('
Example 2.2.4
02 _50+6 eX
Sol.
= (D2){D3) .(eX)
I 3x (02) . e
77
Example 2.2.5
Solve (02+a 2) y
tan ax
P.I =
J tanax
2ai [e lax J e
a/\
r Je 
alX
tanaxdx
J. . sinax (lcos ax) (cos ax Ismax)   dx = JSin ax i dx cos ax cos ax cosax a
i isin ax \og(sec at' + tan ax) +  a a
=   
lilly
Je
an
tanax
dx
II
a,
= C 1 cos ax + C 2 SIl1
ax 
  2
78
Engineering Mathematics  I
Example 2.2.6
Solve (0250+6)y = ~
= C)e 2x + C2 e3x
I
=
eX
(from 5.2.4)
= C.F. + P.I.
Exercise 2 (d)
I I. 0 cosx I 4. 02 sinx
3. 0 (x 2 )
x3
(4)
(2sinx+ cos x)
dy 4 dx + 3y = e2x
7.
d2 y
2
dx
+y=5x+3
dy 3 dx + 2y = e2x
8.
d2 y
dx 2

9.
10.
79
II.
cos ax
2
log cos ax
C1cos 3x + C 2sin 3x
feD)
 I
feD)
[f(D)e a,]
=  ()
I f D
[f(a)elU]
(i.e)
eax
(or)
1 a, e feD)
I 3 I 3 9 _ 6 + I = e x = "4 e x
80
Engineering Mathematics  I
2.3.2 Case ii) If./{a) = 0 then it is possible to write./{O) as <1>(0) (Oay where <I>(a) i: 0 Suppose r = 1 then
P.1. =   eax =    f(O) Oa <1>(0)
e(lX
.... (I)
1 1 I 1 ax ax ifr=2then f(O) e = (0a)2 <1>(0) e = <I>(a) (0a)2 ea~ 1 1   [xeax] $(a) Oa
P.1. =
Sol:
I PI (13e3x) .. = 0 2 +40+5
replace '0' by '3' 13e3x 9+ 12+5
13e3x
eh 2
26
81
e 2
d2 y
dy
J.
dy
e 2x 2
:. Complete solution is y = C.F. + P.1. = e2x(Acosx + Bsinx) + 2e2x Now yeO) = I, (given) Substituting in (4)
yeO) = I(A) + 2; A =\.
yl(x) = e2x(Asinx + Bcosx) 2e2x (Acosx + B sinx) 4e2x
:. 2 = B2A4, => B = 0
:. y(x) = e2x (cosx) + 2e2x
Solve
Sol.
d3 y d2 y dy  3 +2+  =e 2x 2 dx dx dx
A.E. is m3 + 2m2 + m = 0 ; m(m+ 1)2 = 0
m = 0, I, I.
C.F. = C1eOx + (C 2 +C 3x)eX
I e 2x 2x P.l. = 03 + 202 + 0 e = 18
82
Engineering Mathematics  I
Example 2.3.6_
Solve
 , 3 dx
d2 y
dy
dx
+2y=e~
Sol.
0
I
(using 5.3.2.(3)
= CteX + C2 e2x  xe n
(_a2)3 sin ax
:;i:
1 (0 )
2
j(O )
2'
SIl1
ax 
1 2 . (,)j(a )SIl1 ax
0
Qr sin ax =
1(02 )
I.
j(a
sin ax sinax
1(02 )
SIl1
ax
f(a 2 )
I 2 cos ax ax = I, cos ax f(O ) 1(a)
83
j(O)
[sin ax] =
j(O)
1 . = I.P of   e 1ar
j(D)
1
Similarly
j(O)
[cosar] = R.P. of
j(O)
e 'ar
Solve
Sol.
d2 y
dx
2
3 
dy
dx
+ 2y = sm3x
84
Engineering Mathematics  I
Example 2.4.3
Solve (D3 D) Y = sillX
Sol.
A.E. is m 3 m m=O, m =1
=0
C.F. is C1e.x +
c2eX + C3ex =
C 1 + C2e x + C3ex
Sol. A.E. is m2  m + 1 = 0 ~ m =
~~
1J3i 2
fi
2
fi
2
I P.I. = D2 _ D + 1 cos2x =
 4 D+1
I
cos2x =
3  D
cos2x = 
(3D)
9  D2
cos2x
(3  D )cos2x
13
x
=
13 (2sin2x + 3cos2x)
C.F. + P.1. = e 2
fi BSIl1x . fi ( Acosx+ 2 2
Example 2.4.5
Solve D2(D2+9) = sin2x + 5 A.E. is m2(m 2+9) = 0 ~ m = 0, 0, + 3i C.F.
Sol.
85
P.1.
= _ sin 2x
20
+ 5x 18
Example 2.4.6
Solve
(D 4 2D 3 + 2D2  2D + 1 ) y 2D 3
= eX + sin2(x/2)
Sol.
= (ml )2 (m2+1) = 0
:. m= I, I,m=i,i
C.F. is (C t +C 2x)eX + (C 3cosx + C 4sinx) 1 1 P.1. =   eX +   sin2(x/2) f(D) f(D)
_1_ f(D)
.
Sin
(x/2) 
_
?
(DIt D +1
(2
~~
= 
[(0_1),1(0' + I) (ICOSX)]
.
~ ~ [I 20~
(0'
1)(0' + I) COS X
1 2
1
1 1 (cosx)  4D D2 + 1
lID (D2) (cosx)
"2 + "4 . D2 + 1 .
2
= ~+~._l_.~(sinx)
4 D2 + 1 (I)
1 1
86
Engineering Mathematics  I
[)2
ex
= I.P of 2i
XCiX
:. P.1.
Y =(C +C
I
x)~+C
(2)
J3
(3)
(D6 + 1) y
Ans.
. x
.fh
. x
(4)
Ans.
16
cos2x
I   xm feD)
[f(D)rl.x m
87
Now expand [f(0)r 1 in ascending powers of 0 and retain as far as 0 111 and then operate on xl11
P.1.
1 0 2 + 5D + 6 x
="6
1 (I
0 + 50)_1 + 8 x
= 
= 
I 50 I 5 [1] x=  [x] 6 6 6 6
I 2

6
x
5 36
36
Example 2.5.3
Solve
d3 v dy _ .  3  2y=x2 dx' dx
=
Sol. A.E is m3  3m 2
C.F. is C 1e 2x + (C 2 + C3x)eX
P.1.
x 0 302
,
(1_(D 3D1,.2 2 .,
=
~ (2x 2 4
6x
+ 9)
Exercise 2(f)
I. Solve (03  302 +2)y = x
88
Engineering Mathematics  I
2.
146x
27
3.
Solve (D2 + 2D + I) Y
cos2x + x 2
=
Ans. y 4. (D2  4D + 4) y
=
(y + C e> ~(3COS2X 2
x 2 + sin2x + e3t"
Ans. y
2.6.1
(C I +
, C2x)c~X
To find   (e<txy) where Y is a function of x feD) c<l\D(Y I) + aelU"Y I Similarly D2(ea:.V I) = e aY (D+a)2y I D3(elU"Y ) = e<tt"(D+a)3YI
=
D(elU"Y I)
ea\"(D+a)YI
Dn(elU"Y I)
ea\"(D+a)nYI
=
e<tt"f(D+a)Y I
f(D+a)
=
Y]
elU"Y or elU"
_I_ elU" Y
elU"
feD)
2.6.2 Note
I Y f(D+a)
1.
While finding _1 elU" when f(a) = 0 we can employ the above method for feD)
000
89
2.
Further _1_,_ [cos ax or sin ax] when f( a2) /(0) _1_2 [cos ax or sin at]
f(O)
0 we can write
1
=
dy  4y = tfcosx dx A.E. is m2  2m + 4 = 0
\
dy dx
m=
fJi
tf cosx 0 2 20+4
\ 1
= eX?
(0+\)"2(0+\)+4
cosx
tf 02 + 20 + 1 20 _ 2 + 4 (cosx)
~X
t;  
I ) x cosx eo' cosx (cosx = e . =0 2 +3 _12 + 3 2 :. Complete solution is y = CoF. + P.1.
e'cosx 2
Example 2.6.4
Solve (022)y
Sol.
tfcosx
A.E. is m2  2
=0 m=
J2
1 tf. 0 2 + 201 . cosx
C .F , is C I e.fix + C 2 e~.fix
1
P.1.
(0 2 tf. tf .
202
= (Sin X 
eX
cosx)
90
Engineering Mathematics  I
Solve
Sol.
d d .E. _7~  6y = e 2x + xe 2x dx 3 dx
:.C.F.
P.1. =
(1+x) 2x e 706
=e2x
= e2x
0 60 +5012
_e2x
12
= 
_e 2x
12
3x 2x x Y = C I e + C2e + C3 e 
e 2x
12
17 [x +  ]
12
Example 2.6.6
Solve
Sol.
dx
dx
dx
xl + C2 x + C3 )eX
91
P.1.
(0 _ 1)3 . (x + I) ~
x3 ~ + ~ (24 + (;)
X4
Example 2.6.7
Solve
Sol.
 ,  4 +y = e2x sin2x de dx
d~y
dy
A.E. is m2  4m + I = 0, m = 2 c.F.
= C,e(2+J3)(
J3
+ C e(2
z
,)1)(
PI ..  OZ40+1
e 2x 0 3 Complete solution is
e2x sin2x
eh = sin2x (D+2)24(0+2)+1
= 
=  sin2x = 2
e 2x sin2x 43
1"
eX sin2x
Exercise 2(g)
I.
e 8
3x
(al 
4x + 3)
1 2 +x+) 5 169 Ans:y= C 1ex +C 2e 2x+C 3e 3x_e 2X_(x 12 6 72 3. Solve (0 2  20 + 4)y = eXcos 2x Ans: y =
~(C, cos3Fx + C
sin3Fx)+le
~sin 2x
92
Engineering Mathematics  I
O(xv l) = xOv l + vI 02(xv l) = O(xDvl + vI) = x02v I + 20v I = x0 2v I + (0 2) vI Similarly 03(xv l ) = x03v I + (03) vI in general on((xv l ) = xOnv l + (on) vI (here 1 indicates differentiation w.r.t '0') Thus, f(O)(xv l ) =o.x(O)vl + fl(O)vl now let f(O)vl = v ..... (1)
1 vI = I(O)'v
From(1) j(0)
_I_
93
2.7.2. Note: For finding [xlll.(sinax or cosax)] when m > 1 the above method becomes very lengthy. Hence we can take it as [Xlll. (R.P or I.P of e/a,"] and apply the method (2.6.1 ). Solved Examples Example 2.7.3
Solve (D 2 + 9) y = xsinx
3;
8"
x. 2 Stox  8"
x. 1 SltlX  32 cosx
_I cosx 32
Complete solution is y
Example 2.7.4
; Jj
and
1 P.1. = D2 + 9 (xcos2x)
D2 +9
21x (
e R.Pof 
1 D2 + 4iD) x 5
94
Engineering Mathematics  I
5 [xcos2x + 5 sin2xJ
=
C ,cos3x +
. 3x + c 2sIn
4 Sin . 2X ] 1 [xcos2x + 
Example 2.7.5
Solve (0 2  40 + 4)y Sol. A.E is m2 4111 + 4
=
8e2x x2sin2x
~ m
=0
= 2, 2
x2sin2x = 8e2x _1_ ') sin2x 0 2 x
2i
= 8e2x [I.P of
1
(02i)
x2 ]
= 8e2x [I.P
I,)
x
r
2
x2
= 2e2x
2 + (4iO + 0 )2]x2
4
=_2e2x [J.P ofe2 ix [x 2 + 8ix+2 + 16i
2
4
02
(x 2 )]
4
2.<
= 
= 2
e
2.<
= e2x[4xcos2x + 2x2sin2x 
95
General solution is y
C.F. + P.1.
1.
10 (x 2eos3x 
2.
"4 ["2
+ sin2x]
3.
12
4.
5.
6.
Solve (04
::::
xfj
x
d2 y
sinx)
96
Engineering Mathematics  I
=X
.... (I)
Where kl' k2' ........ kn are constants and 'X' is either a constant or a function of x To solve such equations it is convenient to transform them into linear equations with constant coefficients with the substitution x = eZ i.e. z = logx.
dy d\:
= dy
dz dz' dr
= ~ dy
x dz
.... (2)
dy ( .: dz
= x)
..... (3 )
__ , d2y dy  2(d 2  d )
x
..... (4)
dy dz
= Oy
..... (5)
Xll
dn dx"
By substituting (5) in the given equation (') it transforms into a linear differential equation with constant coefficients.
97
Solved Examples
2.8.2 Solve x
d2 y
m"2
dy x d~" + 4y = 0
(i) reduces to
dz
= =
0 :::) m = 1 fi i
(C 1cos,,'3z+C
2 sinfiz)e
Y= Clcos (J3logx) + C~sin (J310gx) e logx y = [C ICOS (fi log x) + C 2 sin (fi logx )lx
2.8.3 Solve
x2_~ 
d 2y
dx
3x"  4y dx
dv
2x2
..... (i)
Sol. Writing x = e Z
(D 2  D
(i) reduces to
[D(DI) + 3D 
4lY =
2e 2/ ,
+ 3D 
4)y = 2e 21.
J5
(h'5)L)
(C1e
2
(I.JS)L
+ C 2e
")_
2_  =
2e 2z e 2z 4 = 2
= (
e(Il /"S)Z
+C
e (I JS)7
+ e~z
98
2
Engineering Mathematics  I
2.8.4 Solve.xl
Sol.
d ?2y = x d\'
+
e 2x + eZ
=
A.E. is m2m2
0 ~m
= 2,1
:. C.F. is y P.1. =
1
C l e2x + C2ez
e2z
(D2)(D+l)
I (D2)(D+l)
eZ
1 (D2)(2+1)
e2z
1 (12)(D+I)
e Z
I
3(D+I)
__ e
ez
.!. (1 )
D
= 
ze2x   zez
3
 eZ )
e1ogX)logx
= C
1 1 1 x 2 + C  +  (x 2   )Iogx 2 x 3 x
(D 3D 2+2)y
IO(ez+eZ )
99
I i
IO z e= + D3 _ D2 + 2 e
10
P.1.
D'  D +2
Complete solution
=
= C.F. + P.1.
3
= 
C1
d 2y
= i
C.F. is y
= C1cosz + C2 sinz
1
P.I.
= 2
o +1
zsmz
2
I.P. of
+1
ze 'Z
J.P. of e'z
1
(0+i)2 +1
100
Engineering Mathematics  I
I.P. of e=
I
D2 +2Di
1 ( I P of e1z 1+ . 2Di 2i
0)'1
I.P. of e1z
_I_(z_~)
2Di 2i
IZ
=IPof   Iz
. 2 2
2i
_e .i(z2
J
. . Z
= Imaginary part of
Z2
2 +2 [2 .(cosz + ISInZ) [2
I
.J]
=   cosz
 ZSInZ =
4
I.
  (SInZ
z. 4
+ 2zcosz)
C,cos(logx) + C2sin(logx) 
lo;X
Example 2.8.7
Solve(x2 02xO+4)y = cos(logx) + xsin(logx)
P.I. =
COSZ
D 2D+4
I . Z
e smz
101
.cosz+
1 320
e
1
(D+I)2(0+1)+4 eZsinz 3
=
smz
eZsinz 3
cosz+   =
9+4
(3+20)
3cosz2sinz 13
+
C.F. + P.1.
13 [3cos(logx) 2sll1(1ogx)] +
xsin{logx) 3
Example 2.8.8
Legendre's Linear equation: An equation of the form (ax+b)11 dx~ + K1(ax+b)nl dx n  I + ...... + koY
d ll dll1y
=
Where K's are constants and X is either a constant or a function of x is called Legendre's linear equation. To solve such an equation we transform it into linear equation with constant coeficients by the substitution. ax + b = eZ or z = log (ax +b) Now
dy dx
dy dz dz'dx dy dx
= _a_ = ady dz
dy ax+b'dz
(ax + b)2 
= aOy
where 0 = dz
d f dx
a3 D(Ol) (02)y
by substituting these values the given equation reduces to linear equation with constant coefficients.
102
Engineering Mathematics  I
.... (I)
Sol. Write
Dy, (I+x)2
d2y
?
dx
= D(Ol)y where D =
d dz
Substituting these values (1) reduces to (D2_D+D+ I)y = sin2z; (i.e) (D2+1)y = sin2z A.E. is m2 + I C.F.
=
0 => m =
i
~4+1
= C ICOSZ + C2sinz
1 0 +1
sin 2z
P.1. =  sin2z = 2
= ~3
sin 2z
"
.J
Sol. Writing 2x+3 = eZ or z= log(2x+3) the given equation reduces to [2 2.D(01) + 6.2D + 6]y = z
i.e.
(4D 2+8D+6)y = z
where D =
d dz
=l+J2i
eZ [Acos
~ z + Bsin ~ z]
000
103
Pol. =
I 1 z= 40 +80+6 6
1
40
:m 2
= 
1 6
40 r1]z= 3
 [z  ] =  
1 6
z 6
2 9
e x+..;2..;2
')
Exercise 2(h)
Solve the following differential equations I. (x 202  3xO + 4) Y = 2x2 Ans. (C I + C2logx~ + x 2 (Iogx)2 (x 2D2  3xD + 5)y = sin(log(x Ans. x 2(C Icoslogx + C2sinlogx) + (coslogx + sinlogx) (x 2D2  xD +2)y = xlogx Ans. x(Clcoslogx + C 2sinlogx) + xlogx (x 2D23xD+5)y = x 2 sinlogx Ans.
5.
2.
3.
4.
x2(C)coslogx +
C2sinlog~)  ~
x
x2 1ogxcoslogr
(x D 3xD+l)y
Ans.
2 2 ( _,s_in_l,og~x.:.)_+_1 = 
Ans.
104
Engineering Mathematics  I
8.
Ans. 9. (2xI)2
d 2y
dx
dy (2xl)  +2y = 0
dx
Ans.
y= C 1(2xl)+ ~ 2x+ I
10.
Ans.
C (5+2x)2+.fi + C (5+2xi t fi _ 3x _ 45
I 2
11.
dx 2
dx
Ans. 12.
Ans.
C 1(2x+3)2 +
Ci2X+3f~
 2x +
d Y
dx 2
+ P dy + Qy = R
dx
be
y=Au+ Bv
dx2 + P dx +Qy = R
dy
.... (I)
105
be
Au + Bv
.... (2)
.... (3)
1I2
+ PU I + Qu = 0 and v2 + PV I + Qv = 0
d 2u dx 2
'
tl2 =
ul
du dx etc.
In order to obtain the solution of the equation (I) the arbitrary constants A and Bare treated as arbitrary functions of x and are chosen in such a way that
.... (4)
.... (6)
(or)
Alu, + Biv i = R (u and v are solutions of(3) Solving (5) and (7) we get dA vR dB uR
.... (7)
dx
=A =
I
uv, u, v
and 
dx
= B = I
1/V,
II, v
integrating we obtain
A(x)=
uR +C 2 lIV, u,v
.... (8)
where C I and C 2 are arbitrary constants Substituting (8) in (4) we get the complete general solution of the equation (I)
106
Engineering Mathematics  I
1I
y = Au+Bv where A and B are arbitrary constants. Treating A and B as functions of x, we have the solution of (1) as y = AI(x) 1I + BI(x) u where A(x) and B(x) are given by (8)
d2
2
x
1+c
+ Bcx
dy
dx
dA
dB
= A~
 Bex
.... (I)
dA
dB
.... (2)
.... (3)
dA
dx
+ex 
dB dx
=
l+c x
.... (4)
dA
x
_c_ eX + I
.... (5)
.... (6)
=
eX + I
107
y=[ex+log(ex +
(or)
1)x+C,1~+[C2log(1 +~)]eX
Remarks: If(i) I
IP+Q=Otheny=e'x
Example 2.9.3
Solve by the method of variat ion of parameters
 \ + (I 3
d 3y (ix"
cOlt") ~ dx
cotx = sin 2x
.... (I)
Sol:
d y dv dx 3 + (I  cotx)
dx  cotx = 0
Q = cou comparing with original eqn.
.... (2)
C.F.P
I  cott
:. I  P + Q = I  I + colx  cotx = 0
showing that v = eX is a solution or (2) To find another independent solution of(2) let
11
= eOx . w
or
d2w dw  2 = (l+cotx)dx dx
i(~) dw
dX
= I
+ cou
log  = x + logsinx dx
dw
dw or  =eTsinx dx
:. w= JeXsinxdx= e; (cosxsinx)
u = ex [(cosxsmx)] =   (cosx  Slnx)
eX .
108
Engineering Mathematics  I
A (COS X
silu) + Bex
i.e. y = A(x) (cosx  sinx) + B(x).ex is the solution of (I) where A(x) and B(x) are obtained by solving (cosx  sinx) A I + ex . BI and
dA solving (4) and (5) ~
= =
2 sinx
''4
and
dB sin2x = ~ex
dx
4
(Icos2x)
integrating we get
I A = 
.... (6)
.... (7)
Example 2.9.4
Solve by the method of variation of parameters
(I 
x)
d y + x dy _ Y dx 2 dx
= (I
_ x)2
+ Ix
x
Ix'
dy I dx  lx Y = Ix
I
.... (I)
p= _ . Q= Clearly P + Qx = 0 Hence y
Ix
andX= Ix
= x IS asolutIon of  2 +
dx
d2y
I
x
dy I dx  y = 0
Ix
.... (2)
109
To obtain the second independent solution of(2) take y = vx Then (2) reduces to '} + dx (+.1)
dxIx
d 2v
dv
  =    =+( )  =+1d,,1 x x I x x I x x
IxI
dx
xI
(I)
x
:. v
= e"'" .x
The second independent solution is xv = e"'" solution of equation (2) is Y = Ae"'" + Bx To find the solution of (I) treat A and B as functions of x such that
.... (3)
dA dB e"'"  + x dt"
dx
0 I x
.... (4)
and,
dA dB e"'"  + x dx dx
.... (5)
A e"'" + B.x
110
Engineering Mathematics  I
Exercise (i)
Solve the following by the method of variation of parameters
I.
d 2y dx 2
+ a2y
sec ax
2.
d2 y
dx 2 + Y = tanx
=
Ans. y
3.
d2 y
4.
d2
dy
dx
dx
Ans. y = C, xe 2x + C
r  4"4
x2
3
Mean Value Theorems and Functions of Several Variables
3.1.0 This chapter deals with (i) Rolle's theorem (ii) Lagrange's mean value theorem also called as first mean value theorem. (iii) Cauchy's Mean Value theorem (iv) Higher Mean Value theorems. (v) Curvature (vi) Centre of curvature. (vii) Evolutes (viii) Envelopes 3.1.1
Rolle's Theorem
Ifj{x) is (i) continuous in [a, b], (ii) differentiahle in (a, b) and (iii)j{a) = j{b), then there exists a'c'E(a,b) Proof: Suppose (i)
3f'(C)=0
(ii)
f (x) is a constant function throughout the interval [ a, b ], then f' (x) = 0 VX E ( (I, h) Hence theorem is proved ... f (x) is not a constant function in [ (I ,h ]. As f(x) is continuous in [a,b],
there exists a maximum value say, at 'c' sayat'{f (a~d~h) for
(a ~ C ~ b)
f(x)
in(a,b).
112
Engineering Mathematics  I
f ((l) == f (b)
f( c) 7: f( a)
then
/(c+II) /(c)
h
0 when II> O.
.... ( 1)
and Further
/(c+I1) /(c)
Iz
.... (2)
f(x)
0 and
;::: 0 respectively.
i.e.,
1'( c) $; 0
and
x=a P f(a)
y=a
Q
.i(b)
x'
y'
113
x=c
y
Q
f(a) f(d)
f(b)
y'
j(b)
x=c
y
x=a
x=b
f(a)
f(c)
f(d)
o
y'
j(c)
:F j(a)
andj(d)
j(a)
j(b)
x=a
y
x=b
x'
0
y'
j(d)
114
Eng~neering
Mathematics  I
3.1.3
Lt
=
2
Lt
+h~O
Lt
hl
(x 2 +ah)
1
+h~O x 2 + ab
Lt [2X
1 ] +O(h) x
X)
2x  ~ x +ab x
2
I (x)
2
= log 1 = 0
) = 0. Thus
I (b) = log
(b +ab) b a+b
(
I (a ) = 0 = I (b)
All the conditions of Rolle's theorem are satisfied. Hence 3c( a < c < b) such that
I(
C)
=0
II () C =0
. gIves
c +ab
2c
=O~c
E
1 c
=ab or c=ab
Clearly c
= +ab
(a, 1)
115
3. .4 1
(0 ,Tl )
f(x) =~lIl<x in e
(O,Tl)
Sinx] = Lt 1 [Sin(x+h) h.O
Lt
h... O
f(x+h) f(x) h
e( ail)
e'
ex+1I .e
}HO
LI h
Sin(x+h)Sinx{l+ h + h + .. ..1 1 I! 2!
e
.f!
X+il~x~
=h.O Lt h
~~~extII
S1l1
. (h)
2
f (x) f
is differentiable in
(0, Tl)
Further
(0) = 0 = f
and clearly e =
116
Engineering Mathematics  I
3.1.5 Example
Verify Rolle's theorem for the function.f{x) = Ixl in (1, I). Solution Here
.f{x) =  x for I < x < 0
= 0 for x = 0
/'{x}
=1
1
for for
1.:sx.:sO
/'{x} =
~~x
y'
117
Exercise  3(A)
I. Verify Rolle's theorem for the following functions :
1. lex)
= x (x + 3)exI2
m m
(3.0)
(O.n)
2. j(x) = sin x
3. j(x)
(:.?~)
(2,3)
[Ans : c = n]
4. j(x) = log
[Ans : c =
J6]
]
5. fix)
6. fix)
b), m > 0,
11 > 0
[Ans : c =
[Ans : c = 5/2]
3.2.1
f'{c)
= f{bi f{a)
a
=
fix) + A.\
..... ( I)
j>(a) = j>(b)
=
fia) + A (a)
fib) + Ab
= _
..... (2)
..... (3)
..... (4)
..... (5)
j>(b)
118
Engineering Mathematics  I
(3), (4), (5) show that ~(x) satisfies all the conditions of Rolle's theorem.
~' =
(x)
f' (x) + A
~' (c)
= f' (c) + A = 0
f'(c)
..... (6)
= 
curve between P and Q corresponding to x = c, so that f'{c) is the slope of the tangent line at R [c,j(c)].
f'{c) =
f{b) f{a)
b_a
y
f(a)
f(c)
f(b)
x'
0
y'
x=a
x=c
x=b
Fig. 3.2 Hence this theorem tells that there is at least one point R on the curve PQ where the tangent to the curve is parallel to the chord PQ.
119
3.2.3 Example
Verity Lagrange's theorem for the functionf(x) = (x  I) (x 2) (x 3) in (0, 4).
Solution j(x)
=
0, b
f'{c)
..... ( I)
f'{x) = 3 x2  12 x + II
f'{c) = 3c2  12 c + 11
From (I)
3c2 _ 12 c + II 3c2  12 c + 8 =
c=
62fj
3
6  ( 6) 40
The point
c = 6 2fj
W h ICh CIear Iy
IIe . 111 ( ,4 .
)
= ~
3.2.4 Example
Verify Langrange's Mean Value theorem for the functionj(x) in (0, I) :
Solution j(x) = ..
~
is differentiable in (0, I) and continuous in [0, I] :3 atleast one value 'c' in (0, 1) such that
3
l'{c)
..... ( I)
'{ ) f c
..... ( 1)
j(0) = eO
I, f(l) = e
f'{x)
~ gives
f'{c)
120
Engineering Mathematics  I
From (I)
eC =
3.2.5 Example
Verify Langrange's Mean Value theorem for the functionj(x) in (3,4).
= 5x2 + 7x + 6
Solution
j(x) is an algebraic polynomial and the interval (3,4) is finite, j(x) is differentiable in (3,4) and continuous in [3,4]. . . 3 atleast one value c r.(3, 4) such that j'(e) = f(ll)  f(3) 43
3
..... (1 )
f'{c}
43
(3, 4)
c = 3, 5
E,
Exercise  3(8) I. Verify Langrange's Mean Value theorem for the following functions :
I. j{x)
=
x(x  I) (x  2) in (0,
X)
2. j(x)=logxin(1,e)
3. j(x) 4. j(x)
=
x 2 _ 3x _
in ( ~
1, I;)
= a2  7x + lOin (2, 5)
3.3.1
f'{c} g'{c}
f{b} f{a}
= g{b}g{a}
121
Proof:
Define a new functionj(x)
= j(x) + A g (x)
.....( I)
Where A is a constant such that 4>(a) + 4>(b) j(a) + A g (a) = j(h) + A g (h)
..... (2)
[j{b} j{a}]
A= [g{b}g{a}]
j{x), A g (x) are continuous in [a, b)
..... (3)
Hence 4>(x) is continuous in [a, b) j(x), A g (x) are differentiable in (a, h) Hence 4>(x) is differentiable in (a, b) and 4>(a) = 4>(b) ..... (4) ..... (5)
..... (6)
(4), (5), (6) show that 4>(x) satisfies all the conditions of Rolle's theorem
3 atleast one value c in (a, b) ;) 4>' (c)
=
But
=>
A= 
..... (7)
g(h} /(o)
3.3.2 Example
Verify Cauchy's Mean Value theorem for j(x)
=
?
1 and g(x) x
= 
1 in (0, h) x
Solution
j(x), g(x) are differentiable in (a, b) and continuous in [a, b)
122
Engineering Mathematics  I
f'{c)
f{b) f{a)
=
g'{c)
Here
g{b) f{a)
f'{x) = ~ X3
g'{x)
=7
I
2
C 3
=IT
//c 2
1
b
c c
a+b ab 2ab a+
c E(a, b)
3.3.3 Example
Verify Cauchy's
Mea~
e, g(x) =
eX in (3, 7)
Solution
fix), g(x) are differentiable in (3, 7) and continuous in [3, 7]
f'{x)
g'{x)
= =
e
ex
c = 5 E (3, 7)
123
Exercise  3(C)
I. Considering the functionsj{x):::: x 2 , g (x):::: (x) in Cauchy's Mean value theorem for (a, b) prove that 'c' is the arithmetic mean between a and b. 2. Verify Cauchy's Mean Value theorem for j{x):::: sin x, g(x):::: cos x in (a, b) 3. Verify Cauchy's Mean Value theorem for j{x)::::
fx, &>(x):::: fx
in (a, b)
3.4.1
Higher Mean Value Theorem with Lagrange's form of remainder (Taylor's theorem with Lagrange's form of remainder):
If a functionj{x) is such that
fW{x} exists in (a, a + h), then :3 at least one number '8' between '0' and' I' h hn  ' h" 3j{a + h):::: j{a) + ,f'{a} + ..... +  ( \"f(nI)(a) + F (ll + 9h) 1. n I,. n!
..... (1 )
where A is a constant
cp (a) :::: cp (a + h)
2
but
Thus
124
Engineering Mathematics  I
h J!
j(x), I'(x) , I" (x ), ... .fnI(x) and (a + h  x) (a + h  x)2 etc continllolls in [a, a + 17] and differentiable in (a, a + h)
Hence
~(x)
is continuous in
..... (6)
(4) and (6) show that ~(x) satisfies all the conditions of Rolle's theorem.
:.
:.
:3
e E (0,
I) ;)
~'
(0 +
e 17) = 0
..... (7)
.,.
+ [(a+hx)"J
(nI)
InJ/(x)j_ n(a+hxtF;'n!
A ..... (8)
+ e 17) =
(h  eh),,J
(nI)
[rea + eh]
=0
..... (9)
"
(a) + ...
(0 < e < 1)
125
3.5.1
Higher Mean Value Theorem with Cauchy's form of remainder (Taylor's theorem with Cauchy's form of remainder):
If a functionf{x) is such that (i)f(x), f'{x) , r{x) ..... fll(X) arc continuous in
[a, a + 11] and (ii),f'1(x) exists in (a, a + h) then 3 atleast one number '0' between '0' and' 1' such that
2
f(a + h)
I!
(a + h  x)"
+
where A is constant
{nl}!
3 ~
flll(x)+(a+hx)A
..... (1)
..... (2)
(a + h) = ~ (a)
From (1)
(a + h)
= f(a + 11)
h .
'I
{a} +
f 2!
h2
"
n .
..... (4)
.f{a) + "
h " j
,J
(0) + ,
n f"
2.
(a) + .......
.. ... (5)
f(x), f'{x) , r(x) ..... jil I (X) and (a + h  x), (a + h  x)2 ...... are continuous
in [a, a + h] and differentiable in (a, a + 1/)
126
(a
+ 0 h) = 0
..... (8)
to 'x'
<I>'{x) = I'{x) + [(a+hx) IW{x)  f'{x) (a+hx f I"'{x) 2(a+hx) f"{x)] 2! 2 + ... + ... +
llu1 )
+ [(a+hx
(111).
(n I).
I.e., <I>'{x) =
..... (9)
{hOh)"I
<1>'
(a + 0 h)
{n I}.
fll (a + 0 h) 
A=0
..
A =
..... (10)
flo + h)
h"{IOY1
(
nI!
127
3.5.2
< B<1,
=a + h
f'(c)
= f(a+h) f(a)
....... ( I)
f'(a + Bh) = f(a+ h) f( a) => f( a + h) = f(a)+ hf'(a+Bh) a+ha 3.5.3 Example:
If f(x+h)=f(x)+hf'(x+Bh), O<B<l, find the value of B when f(x) is any quadratic expression.
Solution:
Let
f (x) = ax 2 + bx + c , then
f(x+h)=a(x+h)2 +h(x+h)+c
= f(x)+h(2ax+b+ah)
.......(1)
It is given that
B=
1;2
( a, a+ h ) , then there exists at least one number B , 0 < B < 1, such that
f'(a+Bh)
f(a+h) f(a)
by
g'(a+Bh)  g(a+h)g(a)
Note: Lagrange's Mean Value theorem can be deduced from C . M . V theorem replacing g (x) with x in the interval ( a, b )
128
Engineering Mathematics  I
We get g ( b)
Example: Using Cauchy's Mean Value theorem, show that sin b  sin a < b  a given that 0 < a < h <
Jr
2
Solutio,,:
Taking
f (x)
sin x and g (x) = x and applying C.M. V theorem we get that, sinbsina
3e
such that
(0 Jr) 2
;
ba
:.
= cos
Jr
2
ba
l' .
I
a<e<b.
Now
g( x) = h( x) _(b  X)2 h( a) where ba h(x) = f(b) f(a) (b X)f'(X) ........(1) g(a)=h(a)h(a)=O and g(b)=h(b)O=O from (I) and L.M.V
such that
g( x)
theorem.
g(a)=O=g(b) .
It is given that f'ex) is continuous in [ a, b] and differentiable inC I, b) .
h(x) and g (x) . :. g (x) satisfies all the conditions of Rolle'stheorem.Hence 3e (a<e<b) 3g '(C)=0
Hence, so are
........(2)
I (
X)
= h' ( X ) + 2 (b  C! h ( a) (ba)
from (I )
129
or
(bc )f"( c) = 2( b [f(b)  f(a) (b  a)f'( a)] (ba) (b  a)2 f(b)=f(a)+(ba)f'(a)+ 2! f"(c) ........(3)
(' = a + Biz where
C!
h = b  a and
3.5.6 Example:
f (x), g (x)
and
h(x)
Solution:
=0
........ ( I )
Clearly Also :.
(a) = 0 = (b)
and
f( x),g( x)
h( x)
(a,b)
such
that ' ( c ) = 0
(i.e.,)
........ (2)
130
Engineering Mathematics  I
Taking
g(x) =x
and
h(x)
0
1 1
=O=>f'(c)(ah)[f(a)f(h)J=O
f'(e) =
where
e E (a,b)
........ (3)
(3) shows that L . M . V theorem can be deduced from (I) Taking only h (x) 0 1
=I
we have,
= 0 where
E (
a, b)
f'(c)
f(b) f(a) ()
g h  g a
where c
(a,b)
which
. .
IS
C. M . V theorem.
3.5.7 Example: Apply Maclaurin's theorem with Lagrange's from of remainder for the function
f (x) = eX
~ e ~ 1 + x + ~ eX for every x ~ 0 . 2 2
t
nI
X + X eX = 1+ X + T=)
~
lJ
nI
= 1+ X + ~ eOx
X2
........ (2)
131
1+x+e S +x+e
x
Ox
x
II
2
........ (3)
Further e
Ox
l+x+sl+x+e
fh
II
II
II
II
II
3.5.8 Example
h2 h" I I I( a+h) = l(a)+11 1'( a)+ ~ f"(a) + ... + Inl f" (a)+ R" h
where
Rn
h" (10),," ~ n .p
I" (a+Oh)
, 0<0<1
h"
~ f" (a+Oh)
(n = p)is Rn =
2
nI
II
I (x ) = log x, I" (x ) =
x
3
(_1)"1 Inl
n
x2 .. 10g(l+x)=O+x+
II 3(l+Bx)
30<O<I(Takingonlyupto3terms)
Foranyx>O, (1+0x1
132
Engineering Mathematics  I
3.6 3.6.1
Students are quite familiar with functions of a single independent variable. Functions which depend on more than one independent variable are called Functions of Several Variables. (i) Volume V = nr2h ofa cylinder, r = radius, h = height, curved surface area (ii) Area of a triangle A = A = 2prh.
(iii) Volume of a rectangular parallelopiped v = xyz, where x = length, y = bredth z = height are all examples offunctions with more than one variable. (i) and (ii) are examples offunctions oftwo variables and (iii) is a function of three variables. Let z =j(x, y) is a function of two independent variables. Here x, yare independent variables and z is the dependent variable and let the function f(x, y) be defined in a region R. Suppose (x, y) be a movingpoint and (a, b) a fixed point in the region R ofthe xyplane. The point (x,y) may approach (a, b) along different paths (see figure) PI' P2' P3 etc.
< 0 be given.
133
E,
Lt
x~a
j(x, y)
'I
y~b
or as
Lt
(x,y)~(a,b)
I(x, y)
3.6.3 Example
Consider
x~2
Lt
y>!
x2 + y2
E =
x2
+ y2
5
 8 <
E
4 xy
lv 
0.02
satisfies
x +,v)
)
4xy
"8
Lt
5
< 0.0 I. Hence the desired limit is
"8 .
m
Note: 1
Let then
,y)>(a,b) .
f(x, y)
Lt
I and
(X,Y)'(a,b)'
Lt
g("(, v)
(i) (ii)
(x,y)>(a,b)
[f g]
[fg]
=
Im
Lt
(x,y)>(a,b)
/m
and
(iii)
Lt
(x,y)>(a,h)
1
III
Note: 2
(x,y) LI ~ (a, b) exists iff
LI [ LI
(x~a) y~b
I(x,b) ==
Lt
Lt
(y~b) x~a
f(x,h)
134
Engineering Mathematics  I
3.6.4 Example
f(x, y)
=
(2, I)
Solution
y~ x~2
LI [Lt
x +y LI + 5 2X+;2 . = y~ 4+ y2 =5=1
..... (i)
1 [4
Lt
=
y]
x~2 y~l
Lt [Lt
+y ]
2x+ y2
x~2
[X2 +
2x+1 =5=1
I] 5
..... (ii)
Henee
(x,y) ~ (2,1) 2x + y2
3.6.5 Example
f(x, v)
.
(0, 0)
Solution
Thus
L/ x  Y J ') [ X ~ 0 Y ~ 0 x + y
I,I
2 2]
7:
~ 0 ly ~ 0 x + y
?
LI
I [""'
I,/
x]  Y
2]
)
3.6.6
Example
Lt
Find
~
xy
(x,y)
(0,0) y  x
')
135
Solution
Puty =
11/X
2
Lt
(X,y)~(O,O)
xy
Lt
X2
mx
__
X~O m 2 x 2 __
X2
It is clear that limits will be different for different values of m i.e., the limit depends upon the slope of the path along which (x. y) approaches (0,0). Hence the limit does not exist.
Exercise  3(0)
I. Examine whether the following limits exist. Find them if they exist.
Lt
(i)
(x.y)
~
x 2 ~ y2 + 4
Lt
(ii)
(x, J~
~
x 2 + 4y2
(2,1)
3xy2
yx~2y
(0,0) y2
X
~ 2X2
Lt
(iii)
(x.y)
~(2,2) xy~2x
(iv)
Lt
(v)
xy
(x,y) ~ (0,0) x 2 + y2
3.7.1
Concept of Continuity
Suppose
(i)
Lt
(~,y) ~(a,b)
j(x. y) exists
and
(ii)
Lt
(x,y)~(a,b)
f(.~, y)
j(a, b)
Note: 1
Ifj(x. y) is said to be continuous at every point of a region R, then it is said to be continuous in R.
Note: 2
Letj(x. y) and g(x, y) be continuous at (a, b) then f g,fg, and are all continuous at (~ b).
(g :t 0)
136
Engineering Mathematics  I
3.7.2 Example
Consider the function/ex, y)
Lt
= x 2 + Y  2x when (x,
y) 7= (0, 0) and.l( I, I)
=0
(x,y)
~(I,I)
f(x,y) =
Lt [Lt
x~
1 y
(x 2
J + y 2x) ]
=/(I, I)
Hence the function is continuolls at (1, 1)
3.7.3 Example
Consider the function f(x, y) = ~ y J when (x, y) 7= (0,0) and.l(O, 0) = 0 . . x + yLet (x, y)
~
2 2
mx Lt
2 2
(0,0)
f(x,y) =
~y 2 (x, y) ~ (0,0) x + y
Lt
x 2 m 2 y2
=.1(0 0)
,
3.7.4 Example
Consider the function.l(x, y)
Lt
=
xy
xy
x2 _ y2 (x, y 7= 0, 0), .1(0, 0)
Lt
mx
(x, y) ~ (0,0) x 2 (I  m 2 )
=   7=
III
1JIl
III
137
3.7.5 Example
Consider the functionj(x, y) =
=
X
~X2 _ y2
at (x, y)
(0, 0)
rsinO.
x 2 y2
r4cos20sin2B
0 + sin 20)
(sin 2 20) 4
4
=
{x2 + y2
4
y2
Now
thus when
/x  0/ <
I i3
and
lY  0/ <
E3
..... (i)
Hence
Lt
x 2 y2
;===== =
(x,y)~(0,0)~X2 + y2
frol11 (i)
=j(O, 0)
j(x, y)
=
Jxx Y +y
2
2 2
2
is continuous at (0, 0)
138
Engineering Mathematics  I
Exercise  3(E)
I. Investigate the continuity of the following:
(i)
j(x, y)
2x + ),2
(x, y) t= (2, 3)
(x, y) = (2, 3)
at (2, 3)
(0, 0)
3.8.1
Partial Differentiation
Consider z = j(x, y) where x and yare independent variables and z is the dependent variable. Keeping one of the two variables x and y as constant and allowing the other to vary we get a partial derivative of 'z' with respect to the variable that is varied. Keep 'y' constant and allow x to vary, then partial derivative of z w.r. to 'x' is obtained and is denoted by az or f (x, y) or Dj{x, y) or 8f ax x ax az So Similarly ax az
= =
Lt
ax~o
Lt
ay~o
By
Note: 1
z = j(x, y) represents a surface in the cartesian coordinates (x, y, z) system. The section of the surface z = jex, y) with the plane x = k (parallel to yz plane) is a curve. (Similarly the sections with planes parallel to xy  plane and zx  planes also will be curves).
139
Note: 2
az) ( Ox
[
~
~z 1
y=k
k.
3.8.2 Example
z = x3
+ x2y + I
(i) To find
partial derivative w.r. to x of x 3 = 3x2 partial derivative w.r. to x of x 2y partial derivative w.r. to x of I
=
2xy
..
(ii) To find
ax
az
3x2 + 2xy
ax
3.8.3 Example
az
ay
=x2 + 2y
af af
ay
=2y2x
140
Engineering Mathematics  I
= x  y + x + 2y = 2x + y

aj
ay
(x  y) (0 + 2) + (x + 2y) (0  1) 2x  2y  x  2y = x  4y
3.8.5 Example
y Iff= x2 , Find af and aj x+y ax ay Solution
aj
ax
aj
ay
= (x + y)2
3.8.6 Example
Iff
=
aj
ax
= cos(ax + by) x =
ax
(ax + by)
= acos(ax + by)
ay
3.8.7 Example
Consider f Then
=
cos(ax + by)
ay
ax2 + hxy  by
ax
aj
at
The expressionix = 2ax + hy is itselfa function ofx andy. We could therefore find its partial derivative with respect to x or y.
141
(i)
~ [Of] ax ax
and this is
a a [ , =  (2ax + hy) = 2a
axax
This is called the second partial derivative of 'f \V.r. to 'x'. If we differentiate Of partially w.r. to 'y' we get
I]
ax
!L (a~)
ay ax
and this is 
written as  
ail ayax
Thus
al ax
= 2ay
+ hy,
8f ay
hx  2by
8f ay
a~
2
ay
2
~ (8f) ~ ay
al ax
~
2b
aI axay
(8f)
142
Engineering Mathematics  I
3.8.8 Example
Iff= ax + hx y + bl, find
3 2
2 2 2 2 al 8f a 1 a f a 1 a 1 ''2'2,,ax ay ax ay ayox axay
Solution

af
ax
=3ax2+2hxy~ 
8j
ay
') =hx2+3by
ayax axay
a21 a2 f
3.8.9 Example
Iff= log(x2 + y), prove that
a21
Solution
a21
axay ayax
8j
=
2x
axay ayax
3.8.10 Example
Ifu(x + y) =x2 + y~ then prove that (    ) 2 =4( 1    )
au au ax ay
au au ax ay
143
Solution
Since
u= au ax
au _ au 2 ax ay )
..... (ii)
3.8.11 Example
If z = 2(ax + byi  (x 2 + y) and a2 + b2 = 1, then prove that
2 +2 =
a2 z a2 z
ax
ay
Solution
ax

az
4(ax + by) . a  2x
ax 2
a2 z az
=
4a2 ') ~
ay
4(ax + by) . b  2y
144
Engineering Mathematics  I
3.8.12 Example
If z
Xl] f (y
Solution
x az + 2y az =f'(Xl][2X2 _ 2X2]=0 ax ay y y y
..... (i)
..... (ii)
..... (iii)
But
3.8.13 Example
145
Solution
...... (i)
Now
au
ax
all
~y
x + y +z 3xyz
(3y23xz)
au
az
au
 + +ax ay OZ
3
au
au
= ',',.'
x+y+z
(.: (x + y + z)
+ y2 + Z2  xy  yz  zx)
= x 3 + y' + Z3  3xyz)
Hence from (i)
LHS
(!
~ + ! J( x + : + z 1
1 _
{x + Y + Z )2
=3(
{x + y + Z )2
{x + Y + z
=:
9 {x+ y+ Z)2
146
Engineering Mathematics  I
3.8.14 Example
If II
r'
Solution
au _ nen ae
r' 40
I' ( ? On 40~
.e
4e
1
..... (i)
also
== 2e r 20 + 3ru
1[4lt
?]
..... (ii)
3
2e
Hence
n==
3
2
147
Alternative method :
r
40
..... (I)
au
11
r2
u ae
u0 2
r2)1l  = 11+
au (
ae
40 8
..... (2)
au  r
ar
20
11.,.3
au  u. r or 28
r=
) au
ar
28
ar
a( au) _I [ u. 3r
I .2 
ar

28
+r
.1(1/1")] 20
..... (3)
r2
_3
r2
11+=+
48
40
.... 11=2
3
3.8.15 Example
If x yY zZ
?
z,  
a2 z
axBy
= [x log exr I
J48
Engineering Mathematics  I
Solution
Applying logarithms to.r y zZ =
k,
Differentiating this implicit function partially w.r., to 'x'. x+logx+ z.+Iogz )az =0 x z ax
(I + logx) + (1 + logz).
(I
ax = 0
az
..... (i)
az
ax
/Illy
(I + logy)
l+logz
az
ay
(I + logy)
1+ logz
z, we get
2
a I =0 (I + logx)_z_+axay x
I
I x{loge + logx)
or
 (xlogex)
Exercise  3(F)
x+4y OJ of 1. If f= 4x _ y' find 8 and 7)
x
2.
If z
az az
(ADS: 2q.x +
~y,
bx + 2by]
149
a x '0 y
[ADS: asec 2(a," + by), bsec 2(ax + by)
OZ
{)z
oz oz
xy
find
[ADS: [
Y2 )
a2 u
a211
x  y
ayax
8. If u = tan
I
J + y
XY
~X2 + y2 + I
9. If u =
10. If 11
au ) a2u =cat ax 2 = .I(x + Ky) + g(x  Ky) then show that a2u = K2 a2u
ay2 ax 2
150
Engineering Mathematics  I
II. If
1I
=~
z +  prove that
x
x au + y ay + z
ax . uy
au =: 0
oz
12. I f
II =
log(x3
t
y3
f :;3 ~3xyz),
prove that
+t=:~
all au
UII
ax
=
~)I
az
x+y
t :;
13. I f
1I
=.I(r)
W Ilere
I,,)
14. [1' 11 =
~
y+z
lADs: I)
16. If u = xyf (;
l'
=
prove that
au
all
19. lf 11
az
151
20. If u = .x3 +
h+a=2abu
au
all
0;
ax
22. If
 ?
2( all ax
If u is a function of two variables x and yare themselves functions of an independent variable I. then
=.+.'
au au ax au av at ax at ay al
..... (i)
Suppose now that 'u' is a function of the variables x and y, and x and yare themselves functions of two other variables rand s. then
au au ax au ay ar ax ar ay ar all au ax au 0; =.+.'as ax as 0; as
=.+.
..... (A)
..... (8)
II Ily if u is a function of rand s, where rand s are themselves functions of x and ythen
au au or ax as ax ar ax as ax au au or au as =.+.0; ar ay as ay
=.+.
..... (C)
The second and higherorder partial derivatives of'u' can be obtained by repeated application of the above formulae. Also, the formulae can be extended to functions of three and more variabl~s.
152
Engineering Mathematics  I
3.9.2 Example
If z = fix, y), x = ell + e v, y = el/ eV then show that
az az az az =xyau av ax ay
Solution =+=e e
e
az Oy.
az  az)_(   e (au av
+e
3.9.3
Example
If u
=
j(x, y), x
rcos(J, y
au = au. ax + all .ay = au cosO + au sin 0 ar ax ar Oy ar ax Oy au au ax au Oy au . au  =  .  +  .  = (rsll1 0) + (rcosO) as ax as ay ae ax ay au lau au +2cosOsmO.+ . auau ()2 =cosO.()2 (Or )2+2 rae ax axOy
1
153
au 2 .
au ~ 0() ax
2cosOsIIlO.+ COS 2
. au au ax ay
au )2 (0
c3y
3.9.4 Example
If u
=
au + au + al~ = 0 ax c3y az
Solution
Let X = x  y, y = y  z, Z = z x then u
=
f(x, Y, Z)
=.+.+.=
lilly
3.9.5 Example
If
z = j{u,
v) Where
(a)
prove that
(b)
Solution
154
Engineering Mathematics  I
..... (i)
..... (ii)
at at 2 2 aZ x   y  = 2(x + y ) ax ay au
From (i) and (ii) we obtain
(J
ax
az 7
az +( By
3.9.6 Example
If x = reos Bandy = rsill B, prove the following:
ax 1. =eose as '
2.
ax . e. =rsll1
as
,
'
ar ax
~X2 + y2
ar By
~X2 + y2
as
ax
=
y x + y?
?
'
as
By
x x2 + y2
3.
(:r +(: r
=1
155
Solution
I. We have x we get
=
..... (i)
Dr Differentiating (iii) paliially w.r.t., 'x' and w.1:l. ), 'we get 0 ;0 x y
This gives
or
or y or x x 2 ox r Jx + y" '
y
..... (v)
y( __ 1 ) = sec" 0 ao ,
x2 ox
which gives
~ = sec" 0 ao
x
~v
ox
rx
x + y
..... (vi)
==
00
cos" 0
x
oy
,.2
.... (vii)
(::l\(:r~1
=< =<
..... (viii)
156
Engineering Mathematics  I
..... (x)
Adding (ix) and (x)
a2 ,. a2r ax ay2
I r
..... (xi)
..... (xii)
Differentiating
ay
ar = Y
r
..... (xiii)
157
Note:
I. The variables (I', 0) related to (x, y) through the relations x = rcosO, y = rsinA are the polar coordinates of the point whose cal1esian coordinates are (x. y). 2. In obtaining the resllits in (i) rand 0 are regarded as independent variables and x and yare regarded as dependent variables. 3. In obtaining the results (ii)  (vi), x andy are regarded as independent variable~ and rand 0 are taken as dependent variables. 4. After partial differentiation is carried out, the final expression for the partial derivatives are to be expressed in terms of the independent variables. 5. From the expressIOn for  ,  ;  ,  , It may be observed that 
or ax ax ao ax ar as ax
ar is not the ax
. I reclproca
ao ox'
Exercise  3(G)
I. If u = x + y, v = xy and f = feu, v), show that
az az az az =xyau av ax 0'
158
Engineering Mathematics  I
3. If z = ttu, v) where
II
'=
OZ x  
ox .voy == 2(x
+ y )OU
()z
4. If II
(!"siny. v
5. If Z
/og(u 2 + v).
U =
eX' +/.
V =
x2
f
y, show that
2
!!..~ _ 2.\"(21/ 2 + I)
ox 
/1
2+V
OZ _ 4Y1l + 1 ~v 1/ + v
6. If w =.f(u. v) and u = x 2
olr
~v
7. Ifu
= ;V='
V and w =zandf=}(u, v, z
ll~
show that
Of Of Of Of x+y+z=w
ox
oy
oz
ow
8. If z = }(x, y), x
= 11
cosh v, y =
1I
9. If z = }(u, v),
It =
Ix +
II~Y, l' = ~v
I11X,
show that
x2
~v
I,
1 x 2 show lhat
OZ oz x+ y=O
ox
159
II. If x
lADS: 0
I(
x y
II
12. If w
.f(x2 
13. If w
j(x, y),
11
0=
e\ v
eY show that
D2 w
:=
3x~v
.(111')
3 2 \1'
ouvv
j;;,z = J;;;,
Prove that
ax . ~Y
oZ
all
ov
all'
Definition
A functionj(x, y,
Z, II .. .)
is said to be homogeneous in x, y,
Z, 11 .....
11.
if it can be
Ex.
I. z = sinI
(~ ) + tan 1(~)
Z=xO[sinI(~J+tan
2
Z
I:]
= x
xy
. IS
160
Engineering Mathematics  I .
3.
lJ
Theorem :
ffz is a homogeneous function ofx andy with degree '11' then x+ y=nz
ox .
~y
oz
oz
..... (i)
Proof :
Since Z is a homogeneous function of degree '11' we can write 'z' in the form.
z=
xllf(~)
I1X 1f (
Now
~: = Il  ~) + x l /(:)( ~;)
=
nxlllf(~)_xll 2y/(~)
and
= nxllf(:Ix)
=nz
[.:Z=Xllf(;)]
Thus
x+ V=IIZ
uz
oz
oX .
~V
3.10.3
Ir z is a homogeneous functions of x and y with degree 'n' then
X
2 ]OZ
J )
11 II 
1z
..... (ii)
Pr(}(l:
Diflerentiating (i) pUl1iaily w.r., to x, we obtain
ox'
oxoy
ax
.... (iii)
02 Z 02 Z oz y+x=(n1)oyJ oyox oy
Multiplying (iii) by 'x' and (iv) by 'y' and adding we get
..... (iv)
02 Z 02 Z ) 02 Z (OZ Oz) x? +2xy+ y? =(nI) x+y =n(nl)z ox' oxuy oy' ox ry
?
x oj + y OJ + Z oj ax ry oz
= nj
..... (v)
In general, for a homogeneous functionj(xl ....x,,) of degree 'n' in 'k' independent variables x\ .... x k the theorem reads
xl 
OJ
OJ
oj
..... (vi)
162
Engineering Mathematics  I
3.10.4 Example
1/ 1I :~. cosec
Solution
We note that from the given cxpression for' u' we can write cosecll
= "il
'Y.\"
..... (i)
Then
~,
..... (ii)
I.e.,
163
au
II
I cosecu
6
au + yau 1  =   tanlt
ax
ry
3.10.5 Example
x y z Ifu= j o( ,,yzx
Solution
11=
ry
az
y j ,,y z x
o(x
z)
1; + tan 1 ~
prove that x ax + Y ry = 0
au
all
Solution
164
Engineering Mathematics  I
x+ y=o.u=o
au
ali
0'
ax
Alter:
Sill
,x  = v, y
tan  
,y
=w
u=v+w
=+
au avow ::::+au av Ow ax ax ax' ay 0' 0' x . 1 av :::: Sill V,  = cosvy y ax y  y ? aw  = tan w, } = sec w.x xax x av I ) aw :::: cosv  = sec"w.y2
0"
0'
=0
3.10.7 Example If
ZI =
tan'  __ ( x+y
0 
X3 + 1'3)
prove that
(i)
x  + y  = s1112u
J
?
(ii)
Solution
Proof:
For the given expression for 'u' we have tanu = ' = f, say x+y
x3 + y3
165
Ilere
~f'
By Euler's thcorem
.\"' Ox +Oy
I.e.,
at" of
:"\ vII
vx
+ ysecII
= ,,
all
~v
 2tanll S1l1211
x  + y~~~
au
aX
all
(~y
2 tan 11
ceo
sec ~
..... (i)
Next dirterentialing bL)th sides of the resull (i) partially \Y.r., to 'x' and 'J" wc get
x ~, + ~ + v .~ = 2 cos 211 alII
all
D.\
alII
Ou
ax
. axD)'
Dx
..... (ii)
(Iy
~v
..... (i i i)
Multiplying the result (ii) by x, the result (iii), by 'y' and adding the results we get
,a"II +
~:,~
'1
ay
~xy =
a"II
OXG)'
= (2cos211 =
I ) sin211,
(from i)
sin411  sin211
3.10.8 Example
Solution
Let and
166
Engineering Mathematics  I
Then v and ware hOl1logeneous./llllclioll.\' (!ldegree '2 '. Applying 3.10.3 to 'v' and 'w' we get
..... (i)
!Illy
..... (ii)
Note:
Letj(z) be a homogeneous function ofx and y of degree Il ; then from Euler's theorem
x_:'l
('JI"
i.e.,
..... (ii)
[/2/2 jt' 1
az ay
..... (iii)
Il[j '2
j2
~ f( ][x.az + y_~~]
OX~}I
..... (iv)
167
..... (v)
llere
x+ v =3
a=
ax . ry
f
oz
Hence
t!, f'
c=, f"
e= and
1/
=3
x+ v=3 Dx . ~v
lOZ az 2a'z " x  , +2xv+y ,=3.29=_, ax' . axoy ~v'
1 ) ,
az
u=
3.10.10
Example
Verify Euler's theorem for the function 1/(x, y, z)
=
Jx',z ; +y
Solution
1I
=J.
2
..... (i)
So that
uu
, _,
168
Engineering Mathematics  I
2u~=z(x
au
oy
+ y)  .2y
).)
gives
au y~+z=au ou x+
ax
oy
oz
z[
211
x + y2
) I )
1
by (i)
2 U I    :;: 1/
211
3.10.11
Example
J
If f
cos
+Y 
"X 1 t )'4  Z4
Solution
..... (i)
So that
coif=
11 11
By Euler's theorem
x~+ y~+Z=ll
all
all
~
au
ax
az
...... (iii)
.f[
x~
Of + y'of + z'
ox
ay
Of Of Of x + y  + z~ = cotf
ax
~v
oz
169
3.10.12
Example
,
2 2 2 . 1all au ,all ... Fmd x  , + 2xy + y  , ,If u = sm I ax' axoy ~~!.
[Xl + y2
, ,
x' + y3
' ,]1
Solution
,
~ + y31 x3 Taking z = , , [ Xl + y2
I degree   = n
12
]~
=     = tan II
12
. 1
1 ) ,"
I sin II 12 cosu
Again
1I
sin 11)
3.10.13
Example
2 1 _ Y )a u a 2II 1 alI If u = tan' ( = ) ,find x' + 2xy+ y2 X ax axay ay
Solution
Let z =
x+ y=o ax ay
az
az
=sec'u
az ax
au
ax
 =sec'uoy ~v
af.
,all
170
Engineering Mathematics  I
..... (i)
x 02~ +
. uxoy oy
(i) x + (ii) y gives
au + y
02U =
~l
..... (ii)
) 0\'
OlU
0\.
(au au)
Exercise  3(E)
I. Verify Euler's theorem for the following functions:
(a) z=
xy x+y
(b)
(d)
z = SIl1
1 X} (
Y1 ) xy
( e)
ZSIl1
_.
I
X 3
3}) Y
+Y
3
(I)
Z = (x
?+ z?) + y
2. If z = xyf
x OZ + Y OZ = 2z ax ~
3 3) ( xy
ax
~y
171
4. If z = tanI ( x + /
lx+y 5. Ifz =
l'
then x uz + y OZ = sin 2u
8x
'~y
ox
6. If z is a homogeneous function of x and y with degree' 11' and z = f(u), prove that
x+
all
ux . ~
y=n'
au
2
(u)
/(11)
7.
If z = x 3
ax
axay
a
2
~y
8. If z = tanI ~ X4 + y4
show that
(i) x  + y  = sm2z
2 z 0 2z , 2z . . ii) x) + 2xy + v) = s1I14:::  Sill 2z (
az ax
oz oy
,a
ax'
ax~v'
~v'
az ax
ay
\
II. If z = cosecI
x2
+ y2
172
Engineering Mathematics  1
a2 z
2
ax
aX~Y
ay
tan z 1 J ] =   +tan z 12 12 12
ll3
12.lfz=tan 1 x +y
xy
I X4
+ y4I
!
j
then show that
14. If z = sinI
x5 _ y5
az
')
~ x 2+ y2]
15. If z = log (
x+y
GX2
3.11.1 Jacobian
Ifu and v are functions of two independent variables x and y then the determinant
au au
ax Ov ax
~ i.e.,
ux
v,
uy
Ov
au
and is denoted by
a(u, v)
a(x,y)
If u,
l~
or
.J(~) x,y
173
lI(
UI'
1I,
V( W(
vI'
Wy
Vz
lV,
V,
w with respect to x.
)~
z and is denoted by
a{/I, v, w) a{x,y,=)
Similarly
or
)(U,\" w)
x,y,z
aUI
uU I
(J/I~
J = a{lI,
a{x,y)
vI and
.J
_ a{x,y)  0(11, v}
Proof:
Let u = u(x. y) and v = lI(x. y) so that u and v are functions of x and y. Then differentiating these partially each with respect to II and v, we get I :=
au . ax + all . 0'
ax all ay au
174
Engineering Mathematics  I
O=  .  +  . 
av ax av ay ax au ay au
1=
av .ax + av .ry ax av ay av au ax av ax

Now
all oy av ay
ax ax all av ry ay au av

au au ax ay av av ax ay
ax au ax av
ry
all
ry
.+. +
ali ax au oy ax au oy au av ax av ry .+.au au ry au
=I~ ~1=1
3.11.3 Property
Proved
Proof
By differentiation offunction ofa functions, partially; we get
=.+.;
au au ar au as ax ar ax as ax
175
=~
ou
au +'_. or oy OS
or .~ as oy ,
..... (i)
and
oval'  + avos _. ox or .ox os ox ' Ov 01' or 01' as = +_. ~y or .oy os ~y ,
=~
01'
=?=
all au
uv
i"lr
(lr
os elv us
(lr (Ix us
(!y.
ilyl
(Is (Iy us
Oll
or as or os x ax ax ov oV (II' as or as oy oy
all
.+. .+.
or ou os or ox os ox Ov or OV os .+.or ox os ox
all
or Oll as or oy os oy ov or ov as .+.or oy as ~
ou
using (i)
3.11.4 Property
If u, v are functions of two independent variables x and y thell u, v, are independent if
Similarly if
II,
v,
a(x,y,Z ) oF
176
Englneenng Mathematics  I
Theorem
If the functions 11 1, 1I::...... 1I11 of the variables xI' x 2 .... xn be defined by the relations Il, ==.ll'",), 112 =flx ,. x 2), 113 = .li x ,. x 2 x 3 ) ..... 1/11 .I;,<x,. x 2 ..... x).
cc
Then
OU, UU] OU 3
OU II
OXII
We know that
Similarly lor
Oil,
Oil 2
ox,
0111
ox,
Oil,
Then
oX1
all,
OXII
~1I2
aU
Ii
OXII
OXII
OU,
Oll]
OU"
ox ,
0
ox ,
Olll.
ox ,
Ollil oX1 OU, Olll ox , . oX 1 OU II OXII
oX 2
o
o
3.11.5 Example
If x
= 112
vl . Y
_ o(x,y)
Solution
We have
u2  v2
ox
all
2lI.
=2v OV
ox
177
cYv
0)1
:=
) 4(u+ 1'
V(x, y) V r,O
a( t,
a x,y
Solution
x = reosq,
rsinO
=>
~ =
(It
cos()o
(1,.
ax = rsiIlO, of)

0(1
ov = rc()sf)
ao
~v
Then
o(x,y) _ or or
ax ax
_Icoso
0(1',0)  ~v
 sinO
tal1 1 ~
rsinol . r Sill 0
= r
ao
x
Again
12 = x 2
+ y2 ; 0 =
2r = 2x
or
ox
(l()
 y
ax
r+y

y 0 r
or
ax
Dr ay
= 
+x
I'
,.
(1()
y x2
+)'2
y
ilx
178
Engineering Mathematics  I
lar
ar
x
Y ~ y
a(,., 0) ~ ax aCy,y) ~ ao
lay
ao vy
~}!
3.11.7 Example
If x
=
uv, y
11 
Solution
We have
=V,
ax
=11
at
all
~F
al'
ay
VII
aI'

11
But
')
lr =
xy
2u =
VU )I, ax .
21'=
ay
DII 2u=x
ay
and
=, 2v
x
y
ax y'
y
av =!...
2u
I
aI'
x
?
y.
J =
II"
lly
211
~x
Vr
v)'
2vy
X
21:J!
X
4uvy
411vy
2uv Y
I? =v211v
2u
179
 3.11.8 Example
Prove that JJ
=
1 for x
e V secu, y
e V tanu
Solution
=
ax av
e V secli
v
oy
au
eV sec 2 u;
 = ('
0;
av
tanu
2"
I'
x" Yv
Now
e secutanu
e secI' )
"
e secu
I
1I =
II
e" tan 11
e secu = xe
sec 2u  lan 2
x 2 e 2v
ye2v =
y, also
1
e" secll
eVtanu
e2v = x 2 
Y
x
SlIlli = X
1 = Sill ;
))  Y
Du
i1x
X~X2
x x 1
,
 /
all
(Jy
y
x  y? ?
X~X2 y 2
av ax
Dv
y
? '
i1y
Y
J
lIx
lIy
X~X2
X
_ y2
~X2
_ y2
Vt
VI'
Y
1 x
x2 _ y2
y
180
Engineering Mathematics  I
xe
3.11.9 Example
VIV Wlt lIV I I I O(X, y, z) If x=,y=,z= t Jen SlOW tlat  (  ')=4
II
01l,V,\I'
Solution
ax
o(x,y,z) _ oy
0(1/, V,H') Oil OZ 011
 VlI' VlI' VlI'
Oll
ox ov oy ov oz
OV
oX oy ow
VI\'
lI'
It
v
1/
II
all'
u
11'
Wit
oz
V V IV
II
uv
ow
Wli ltV
IV
 Wli
lIW
I I I
=1(11)1(11)+ 1(1+1)=4
Exercise  3(1)
I. If y + x + Z = 1I, Z + Y
=
[ADS:
(1I
v) J
lSI
2.
If
II
= x+
o(u, v, w) o(x,y,z)
3.
If x==rcosB,}J==rsinB, find
.
and
!JS!~~~
8(x,y)
'.
o(r,O)
o(x,y)
o(r,O) o(x,y)
4.
XOXI
5. 6.
If
YI ==1XI'Y2
= (1)3  XI 2 x"
o(x, v)
7.
Oell, v, w)
0(X I ,X2 ,X3 )
8. If
X
=' oX ox} 2 i
011 Ov
uw
ox
= r S1l1 r.
. 1')
do 0 . do 0 I oC X, y, z) ). 0 cos 'I', Y = r Slll S1l1 or, Z = r cos  S lOW that    = ,. S1I1
o(r,a,)
ox
ox 00 oy
uy
or
o
uy
Solution:
o(x,y, z) o(r,O,)
ay
or
sinOcos reosOcos

UO tJ
= sin Osin
cosO
r cos Osin
rsine
OZ
or
=
OZ oz oe
+( r sin esin )[ r sin 2 Osin  r cos 2 esin ] == r2 sin 3 Oeos 2 + r2 sin Ocos] Oeos 2 +,.2 sin 3 Bsin 2 + r2 cos 2 Osinesin 2
== r2 sin 3 0 + r1 sin () cos 2 () = ,.2 sin O.
182
Engineering Mathematics  I
8(r,B) 8(x,y) 8(r,B) Note 1: Ifu,v are functions ofx,y we may regard x,y as functions ofu,v.
= 8(u, v) . 8(x,y)
(from 3.6.3)
Taking r
= ll, e = v
au
8u 8v
8u 8v

8(u,v) 8(1I, v)
1 0
0
1
av
8v
=1
811
..
1 => .1.1 1 = 1
8(x,y)
8(1l, v)
Note 2:
8(u, v, w) 8(r,e,)
r, B, .
J./' = 1; where J= 8(1l, v, w) , .II
8(x,y,z)
II =
= 8(x,y,z)
8(u,v,w)
3.12.1 Example: If
8(1l, V, w) 8(x,y,z)
since u,v,w
yz zx xy
functions of x,y,z.
.II
= 2x
1
2y 2x
= 2(x we have
y)(y  z)(z  x)
1
1
= 1,
183
Exercise  3(G)
I.
2.
C(ll, v)
If x =
where II = r sin OcosrjJ, v =,. sin Osin rjJ, W = rcosO, show that
If x =
= ,.
1 4
Slll
0
(1IV)2) (A liS : ''
3. 4. 5. 6.
ltV )' ,
ll+V
fll1d   o(x,y)
v(u,\')
411v
II II = 
D( ll, 0)
v(u,V,lI') 8(x,y,z)
x 2' x3
so that r= 1,2,3
= 0 and so on
jJu"
Then
1I2' 113'
x" x2, x3 ) = 0,
oj; + a.t; .aU I + a.t; .aU 2 + a.t; .aU 3 aX I aUI oX I oU 2 aX I aU 3 oX I a(.t; ,j~ '/1) 0(11" u), uJ a(u"U 2 ,1I))' a(X I ,X2 ,X3 )
then
aj~ . all,. I oj~ . OUr I a.f! . Ollr au, oX2 all, oX3 all,. ax! I af2 . OUr I of2 . all,. I a.f~ . all r au,. aX 3 OUr aX 2 Ollr ax! I a.t:l }ur I 'fJj~ . OUr I af3 . au,. all, aX3 au,. oX2 au,. ax!
184
Engineering Mathematics  I
_ aJ; ax,
_ ~f2
_ aj~
QU 1
aj; aX2
= (_ I)' a(J;,j2''/;)
a(x"X2 ,X3 )
Hence
aCt; ,j~,f,)
3.12.3 Example
y;
r
=
? =
II
(1/ 2 )
x2 +
r+
z2
Solution
we have
=x2
=>
Similarly
II(u, v,
W, x, y,
z)
= u2 (I _x2 
_z2) 
x2 = 0
./; == v2 (1  x 2 ~
r  z2)  r
13
== w2 (1  x 2 ~
r
0 0
z2)  z2 =
.... (i)
(see 3.13.2)
185
 2u 2 x 2x 2v x 2w 2 x
2
 2112 z
 2v 2 z  2w 2 z 2z
?
2
u2 + 1
=
u
11V
(2x) (2y)(2z)
vw)
v +1
11')
w2 +1
? u
8xyz I
0
I
v
w2 +1
by C 1 C 2
C2 C 3
=
8xyz(u2 + v2 + w2 + I) 8xyz
J
X2
y2
Z2
=8xyz 8xyz
=2
x + y + z + 1
1'
,.,
1r;also.
_Z2)
Ir
2u(lx2  /
8U;,.I;, .I;)
8(ui' v2 , w3 )
o
2u(l_x2 y2 _Z2)
o
0
_ yl _ Z2 )
o o
_ y2 _ Z2 )3
o
.
z
2u( 1 Xl
8l1vw(l Xl
JI?
(l_r2)3=8~yz(l_r2)112
.J1r 1
=
_. 8(11, V, w) 1)3 8xyz ~ Hence trom (I), we have     = (  , 8 (I 2)1/2 8(x,y,z) Irxyz r
X Y Z Cor: Given U= V= W=k' k' k
r:?
',"1_1'2
where k
II =V
186
Engineering Mathematics  I
Exercise  3(H)
I. Ifx+y+z = u ,y+z = uv, z = uvw, then prove that
2 2 2
'=~
8(x,y,z)
= II
8(u, v, w)
~)
8(u,v) xy2. Ifx + l + u _v = O,uv + xy = 0, prove that 8(x,y) u 2 + v 2 then 3. If u1 =x1 +X2 +x3 + x,pU 1U 2 =x2 +X3 +X4 ,1lIU2113 =x4 8(X p X2 ,X3,X4 ) 3 2 =1I1 .il2 113 8(u l , 112 , u3' 114) 4. If u 3 +V3 +W3 =X+ y+z,u 2 +V2 +W2 =X3 + / +Z3, 8(1I,v,w) (yz)(zx)(xy) t Ilen SlOW t Ilat = "'''..'''"I 8(x,y,z) (v w)(wu)(u  v)
functions.
prove
that
Let u and v be two functions of x and y connected by the relation v = f(u), then we say that u and v are functionally dependent. We shall prove that the condition for functional dependence is
o(u, v) = 0 o(x,y)
Consider
w = v  feu) = 0
Now w is a function of u and v where u, v are functions of x and y. w is a composite function of x and y
ow ow au Ow Ov =.+.
ax ax ax ov ax ow ow au ow Ov =.+.ax au ax ov ax
But w considered as a function of x, y is identically zero. i.e.,
..... (i)
..... (ii)
Ow =0
ax
'
187
Ow
all ow ov au ax av ax au
~v
..... (iii)
and
.+.=
D1'
Dw
all ow av
0 ..... (iv)
ay
Eliminating
=0

au au ax ay ou au =0 ax Oy
=>
a(x,y)
a(u,11=o
The concept of functional dependence can be extended to any number of variables. Thus if u, 1\ 11' are functions of x. y, z the 1I, v, w will be functionally dependent (i.e., there will exist a relation between ll. 1\ 11') if
Q~!_,V, w) = 0
a(x,y,z) 3.14.5 Example
Are x I y  z, x  y + z, x 2 + y2 + z2  2yz functionally dependent? I f so, find a relation between thelll.
Solution
Let
lI=x+yz
1'=xylz
11' =
..... (i)
..... (ii)
Xl
I
I
i2 
2yz
..... (iii)
188
Engineering Mathematics  I
Then
o(U, v, w) = o(x,y,z)
\
\
\
\
2x
2y2z
2z2y
=
2x
\
\
=0
2y2z
2y2z
+ v = 2x,
U 
v = 2(yz)
From (iii)
If 11 = x + Y + z, v = x 2 + y2 I z2, W = x 3 + + z3  3xyz then prove that l~ ware not independent and find the relation between them.
Solution
CondItIOn or lunctlOna
..
ti
c:
Id d . epen ence IS
o(u, v, w) 0 ( ) =
o x,y,z
Now
=6 x2
X

yz
189
=6
yz
)
y  z(x + y + z) z xy
o
=
o
z
x+ y+z z xy
6(x  y) (y  z)
x+ y+z
=0
11, V, IV
are functionally dependent. We shall now find the relation between them
we have Now
(x + y + z) (.x2 + I + z2  xy  yz  zx)
V =
..... (A)
u2 
(x + y + z)2  (x 2 + I + z2)
= 2(xy + yz + zx)
We write (A) as
W=U
UV] [v 2
Thus
3.14.7 Example
x+ y xy
Solution
Treating'lI, vas functions of x, y the condition for functional dependence is
a(u,v) =0
a(x,y)
11=,
x+y xy
V=~c
xy
(x y)2
190
Engineering Mathematics  I
We have
ux
II
==
y
'~'''~'''
V
x
_ {(X y)y2xy)
(x y)
xy  y2  2xy _  y{y + x)
{x y)3
lilly
Vy={
 (X YY
X(X+ y) xy )3
lIx ll"
Vy
a{u, V)
a(x,y) = Vx
=UV  v v x y x y
x+y xy
xy x+ y
1+u
Ili
191
Now
xy
o X
v = (x  y)' = (;
1+11
llt
by (A)
'V=C~:~2 J
u2(4v+ 1) = I
The required relation of functional depedence between
lI,
v.
3.14.8 Example
Examine for functional dependence of u = sinI x + sin1y
v=x~ly2 +y,JIx 2
and find the relation between them, if it exists.
Solution
We have
u ====
~1_x2
lilly
a{u, v)
a{x,y)
1I (
It )'
Vx
Vy
192
Engineering Mathematics  I
:. ll, V
are functionally dependent we shall now determine the relation between u and v Let A=sin1x,B=sin1y; =>x=sinA y=sinB The given function can then be written as u = A +B v = sin A)1sin B +sin BJlsin A = sin(A+B)= sinu Hence the required relation of functional dependence between u and v is v = sinu
2 2
3.14.8(a) If u
= eX sin y, v = eX cos y,

au ax
au ay av
e smy e cosy
eX
av
ax
cos y
_ex
sin y
_ex
* o.
ay
:. x, v are functionally independent. 3.14.9 VerifY whether u =   , v =   are functionally dependent, and if so find
the relation.
xy x+z
x+z y+z
a(u, v) a(x,y)
=0
,
Now  =
au ax
x +z (Y+Z)2
193
B(u,v) B(x,y)
y+z (x + Z)2
1

=0
y+z
u, v are functionally dependent.To lind the relation between u and v, we eliminate 'x' between the given relation viz:
u
=  (A),
X+Z
xy
v = (B)
x+z
y+z
liZ
+Y 111
+Y
+z
y+z
Iu
Hence the required functional relation between 'u' and 'v' is v( I u) = I.
Exercise  3(1)
I. Verify whether the following are functionally dependent and if so, lind the relation between them.
II)
=1)
3.
= x + y "v = y + z
Z x
= y(x + y + z) ,
xz
functional relation.
194
Engineering Mathematics  I
4.
xy lxy
5.
II
=Y + z, v = x + 2z 2 , W = x 
(Ans: V=W+2l?)
3.15.2 Taylor's theorem for a function of two variables: We know that Taylor's theorem for a function f(x) of a single variable 'x' is
~~ /I(X)+ ...... .
Now, consider f(x,y), a function of two independent variables. Keeping 'y' constant and following (I) we get
j(x+h,y+k) = f(x,y+k)+hf(x,y+k)+J j (x,y+k)+ .........(2) ax 2! axKeeping 'x' constant and by applying (I), we get
h2
a.
ea
a.
ea
2 ]
a [ f(x,y)+kj(x,y)+) a. e a f(x,y)+ ...... .] + hax ay 2! ay 2 2 112 a [ a. a ] + 2T al f(x,y)+k iY j (x,y)+2T al f(x,y)+ ....... +..... .
195
f(x + hy + k)
+ .....
aj
2 2
< 2 ay
[aj
ax
axay
+[~ a <2 ax
Thus
+ . . .]
f(x, y) + (h! + k
f(x + h. y + k)
~ )f
1 +~hax+kay
(a
a)2 f+
..... (iv)
Expression (iv) if known as Taylor's expansion for functions of two variables. Writing x
=
a, y
a)2
ira,b)
[a
+(yb)~)i((j'b)
196
Engineering Mathematics  I
ax
ay'
j(0, 0) + (x
~+y;
)./(0,0) + ......
.. ... (vi)
Solution
We have
f(x, y) = ~2 + y2
=> f{I,I) = e 2
=
Ix (x, y)
2xe x
2+ 2
Y
=> Ix (I, I)
2e
fyy (x, y)
X2 + y2
+ 4Y eX
+Y
6e2
3.15.4 Example
Expand
Solution
f(x, y)
= ~siny
=> j(0, 0) = 0
,=>Ix(O, 0) =>J;,(O, 0)
= =
Ix(x, y) J;,(x, y)
= ~siny = ~co,';y
0
1
197
=>fxy(O, 0) = I
0)
"=
~siny =>/y/O,
= ~siny =>fxy/O, 0) = 0
=
fy;./x. y)
~C()sy =>1;'JY(x, y)
= 1
x
y
x
x y =y+xy++ ..... 2 6
3.15.5 Example
j(x. y)
=
Solution
j(x, y)
=
21 (x 
Here a
1, b = 2
f(x. y)
=
x 2 + 3y  2 => j{ 1, 2)
10
fJx. y) 2xy => J,x (I, 2) = 4 x /y(x. y) =x2 + 3 => 1;,(1, 2) lxix. y)
= =
1+ 3 = 4
198
Engineering Mathematics  I
f'
/x y,) = 0 /
x 2y + 3y  2
= 
Cv + 2)
Solution
f(x + h. y + k)
IOg( (x +
= 
I)
x = 1, y
1, II
= =
0.03, k
F(x+h, y + k)
oF
OF)
of ox
I x 3
of oy
I 
1 3/ y 4

x 3 + y4 _I
x 3 + y4 1
F(x, y) + h
199
F(I, I) + 0.03
(aF)
ax
+
(1,1)
(_O.02)[aF)
ay
(1,1)
approximately
(: F(l,I) =
0)
I. xy2 +
cos(xy) at
(I'~)
I ADS:
3. sinx. siny in powers of
xY = 1
~+~(x_~)+~(V_~)_~(X_~)2
444
4.
200
3
Engineering Mathematics  I
=x +Y
( x+
y)
2
<3
+ .....
7. Expandf(x, y)
1t [ ADs I 
2 (x  1)2  1t(x 1 \
2
.... (i)
Similarly, F(x, y) is minimum at (x, y) iffor all small positive or negative values of hand k; we have
F(x + h, y + k)  F(x, y)
aF aF) h +k ay
ox
f
..... (iii)
Assuming h, kto be sufficiently small; the sign of the expression on the left can
201
 = 0 and  = 0
of ox
=
of oy
of
I.e.,
0 and q
where p = ox'
of q = oy
2 2
I
k)  j(x y)
I[
I
= 
2!
r rh 2 + 2shk + tk2 ]
02F s=ox8y'
, =r  [ h2!
z= 0
~y
~l
s t ,] + 2hk+K
=
2!
[(
h+k r
II
=~[(h+~k)2 +(rt.~.2)k:l 2! r rIt has the same sign for all h, k if and only if (rt  s2) is positive. When (i) (ii) (rt  s2) positive,j(x, y) is maximum for negative 'r' and minimum for positive 'r'. (rt  s2) is negative, we have neither a maximum nor minimum and such stationary points are called saddle points.
=
Solvingp = 0, q
Extreme value :
Solution
We have
J(x, y)
x 3 + 3xl 3x2
fy
31 + 4
f)y = 6x 6,
= 6xy  6y,
1;)' = 6y
202
Engineering Mathematics  I
We now solve
Ix = o,f;, =
I.C.,
0 simultaneously
..... (i)
x2+y~2x=0
and
xy
~Y =
..... (ii)
xy ~ y = 0 => y = 0 or x = I
From when
x 2 + y ~ 2x
0 we get
y = 0, .~ ~ 2x = 0
x = 2 or x = 0
when
x= l,y~1
0 i.e.,y= I or~1
Thus the points are (0, 0), (2, 0), (I, I), (I, ~ I) (a) For
36 ~ 0 > 0
j(x, y) is stationary at x = 0, y = 0
But
r=/xx =
=4
~6
<0
x = 2 , .y
= 0,
rt ~s2 > 0
j(x, y) is stationary at x
But
2, Y
r =/ xx = 6 > 0
j{x, y) is minimum at x = 2, y = 0 and minimum value j(2, 0) = 0 x
=
(c) At
I, Y = I or at x = I, Y = ~ I
rt ~ s2 > 0 and we can reject these points as they are not stationary points.
3.16.9 Example
Discuss the maximum and minimum of f('(,y)
=
x2 ~
Y + 6x  12
~
y =0
203
Stationary point is (3, 0); and here r = 2 >0; and rls~ == 40 == 4 > 0 ) )  1,... x .V + 6x  .!. is minimum at (3,0) thc minimum valuc is
j'(3,O)==21.
Exercise 3(k)
I. I.
....
')
Find the maximum and minimum valucs of: x' + 3x/  3/ + 4 jAns : (0,0) max. its valuc 4,(2,0) min. its value 'W] 3 )  3.c ) 7 x'+ xy 3 Y)+ [Ans :max . value 7 at (0,0) min.value '3' at (2,0))
x~ + /
3. 4. 5. 6.
+6x+ 12
l Ans : max.value
+x/ + / + / _ x2 _
+1
~ ~)]
7.
8.
9.
jAns: max.valuc at , ] 324 2 2 ) ) ) 3 Discuss the stationary values of II == xy3x  2y 4y + [Ans: u is a maximum at(O,I). The maximumvalue is 5, u is neither maximulll nor minimum at(4,3) Find the maximulll and minimum values ofthc following functions. (a) x'/(123x4y) jAns:maximulllvalucat(2,1)]
X
Y x Y x Y
1 (1 1)
(b)
Xl
+ /  3axy( a > 0)
27
Determine the values of x,y for which the following functions are maximum or mllllmum .. (a) x ' y 2(1x y) l Ans: maximum for x = 112 , Y = I/3 j
(b) (x 2
+ y2)"
2a\x~
 /)
(c) sinx siny sin(x+ y) (d)a[sinx+siny+ sin(x+y)] [Ans: maximum for x = y =7[ /31
(e) x/(3x+6y2)
[Ans: minimum for x == a,y = OJ [Ans : maximum for x = y = 7[ /3] [Ans: minimum at x = y = 1/6J
204
Engineering Mathematics  I
Lagrange's method of undetermined multipliers: 3.17.0Theorem: Find the maximum and minimum values of
where x" x2 ' x 3 ' XII are connected by the following m equutions.
relations, only nm of the variables are independent. The maximum and minimum values ofu can be found by the method of Lagrange's method of undetermined Multipliers .For u to be max or min of u , du i.e.
=
..... ( 1)
multiplying the above equations by 1, ~, ~, ....Am respectively and adding, we get
+.................................... .
au a, ~ a2 1 am) _ + ( +~+"'2+ ........ +AI/I dxn 0. ax" aXil aXil Ox
ll
. .... (2)
The values ~,~, .... Am are at our choice .We can, therefore choose them so as to satisty 'm 'linear equations .
.. .. (3)
I(is immaterial which n  m of the n variables are regarded as independent. Let these bexl/I+"x"H2' .......x".Then since the n  m quantities dxm+"dxm+2, .......dx" are all independent, their coefficient must be separately zero. This gives additional equations.
205
..... (4)
au axil
A, atA aXil
~ a2
 axil
+ ........ + Alii
am = 0 aXil
= 0, 2 = 0, .......III = 0
The equations (3) and nm equations (4) are sufficient to determine the m + n quantities
A,,~, .... AII/ and
x"x2 ' x
lI
discuss the
=0
Also from
j; = 0 andJ; = 0
'" .. ( 1)
FaJ; dx+ aJ; dy+ a.t; dz=O ax iY az aJ; dx+ aJ; dy+ aj; dz = 0 ax iY az
Multiplying these equations by 1, A" ~ respectively and adding
a + A, aJ; ( ax ax
...
~ ... (2)
liY
iy
iy
fu
fu
fu
A"
206
Engineering Mathematics  I
.... (4)
=0
(5)
3.17.0(b) Theorem: If u
minimum values ofu.
II
,we have du
0
.... ( I)
o ox
o oy
o oz
=0
.... (2)
.... (3)
o +A ~l =0 ox ox
.... (4)
and
o +A ~l Oy oy
=0
.... (5)
o +A ~l =0 oz oz
The equations (4),(5),(6) and
.... (6)
1 (x,y, z) = 0
A "x,y,z for
207
Exercise  3(1)
3.17.1 Example
ax+by+:::=p
') . .2
J
~:::= ~~
paxhy e
J (
..... (i)
)
Again
$=
x~
+ .V"" + z
= r
')
+ ), +
17  ax  bV)c
ox = 2.x uy
2a (p _ ax  by) = 0
e2
(p _ ax  hy) = 0
~$ = 2y 2~
e
From (8)
~=
paxhy
) c
~=
plLrhy c2
y
.
h
x a
b X) =0 x 2a ( P  l I X e 1I
c 2x  (lP
+ a2x + b2x
x( a 2 + b2 + ( 2 ) = (lP
Then,
and
Engineering Mathematics  I
x y p = =:=::c2 2 2
a +b +c
Also
Z =
paxby c
=~[p_
c
a p
a2 + b2 + c2
I.e.,
Hence 3 a min. at
==
y Z abc
P 2 a +b 2 +c 2
4> . =.xl + y2
mm
+ z2 =
a 2 p2 + b 2 + p2 +C2p2
',...:....:'
(a 2 + b2 + c2 r
3.17.2 Example
Divide 24 into the three parts such that the continued product of the first, square of the second and cube of third is maximum.
Solution
Let 24 be divided into parts x, y, z then x + y + z Given then or
=
24
..... (i)
4>(x, y, z)
x 2 y2z
Differentiating, we get
= ~! = n.xly2 2
4~y2 
3x2 y3
                            and
S
209
a 1
a~ = 0 => ox
72x 2y"2 _ 4x 3
i  3x2y3 =
..... (ii)
o~ = 0 => 48x3.v ~
2x4y  3x3 v2
.
x = 0, y = 0
..... (iii)
= 12 and y = 8 etc
r=48(12)3_2(12)4_6(12)3.8
= (12)3 (48  24  48) s = 144( 12)2 . 8  8( 12)3 . 8  9( 12)2 (8)2
==
:. rt  s2
l (12)"2.8.
(24)]2
(12)4.8 2 .242> 0;
Since rl  s2 > 0 and r < 0, therefore ~ (x, y) is maximum at (12, 8). Putting x
==
12, and y
==
8 in (i), we get z == 4
The values of x, y, z are 12, 8, 4 respectively. This is the division of 24 for maximum ~(x, y, z).
3.17.3 Example
A rectangular box, open at the top, is to have a volume of 32 c.c. Find the dimensions of the box requiring least material for its construction.
210
Engineering Mathematics  I
Solution
Let I, band h be the length, breadth and height of the box respectively. Then, wc have
v
=
Ihh
= I
32 ; surface
2(1 + h) h + Ih
S (say)
.....(i)
2(1
b)h + Ih and b
32
= 
III
~~
2/(:;)
as =0= as
al
0/
ah
as = 0 ~ 2h _ 64 = 0 h = 32 2
1
' 12
and
ah
as = 0 ~ 2/ 32 = 0
h2
and
8h
82~ = +2
1= 4,b = 4,h = 2.
211
=   , y =
a
a+h+c
a+h+c
h
,,""    c
..... ( I )
a+h+c
=0
y :::
~~ + l + l = 1
1 1 1 ) dx+) dy+) dz = 0
x~
..
..... (2)
Equating the coefficients of dx , dy ,dz from (1)+ A(2) separately to zero We get a x + ) = 0, h x + ) = 0, c x + , = 0 .
xI
A y
A 
or
. j'or x, y, Z SU hstltutll1g
abc k k k :. k = a+h+c
1 + 1 + ~~ 1=I Y z
++= 1
..... (4)
a+b+c
II
,y=
I. 2.
Find the maximum and minimum distances from the ongll1 to the curve 5x" + 6xy + 5 y2  8 = O. [Ans : max. 4, min .16,6,3]
Fin~the dimensions of the rectangular box, with out a top of maximum capacity rAns:6",6",3" J whose surface is 108 Sq. inches.
212
Engineering Mathematics  I
3.
If
f = u 1 +j'1 +W1
1
where
11
+ v + w = 1, show that
IS stationary when
U=V=W=~
3
4.
Use Lagrange's method of multiplies to determine the minimum distance from the origin to the plane x + 2y + 3z = 14. [Ans:
Jl4"1
5.
6.
Find the maximum value of / = xyz when xy + yz + zx = k. [Ans: (k / 3)3/?] If the distance from the origin of any point
3x+2y+z12 =
7.
is P
=~X2 + y2 +Z1
of a
volume
parallelepiped
a sphere
2 ]
8r [Ans:
h
3J3
8.
Find the volume of the largest rectangular parallelepiped that can be inscribed in
b
c
8a c] [Ans: 3 (:;3
V j
9.
If
r2
Z2
IS a
mll111nUm
[Ans: x = y = z = 10]
Find the dimensions of a rectangular box without a top of maximum capacity whose surface area is 108 square inches. [Ans: 6,6,3 inches] Find the dimensions of a rectangular box with open top, so that the total surface area S of the box is a minimum, given that the volume 'V' of the box is constant. fAns: x = y = 2z = (2\,)1/3]
Show that the rectangular solid of maximum volume of that can be inscribed in a sphere is a cube I f the total surface area of a closed rectangular box is 108 sq.cm. Find the dimensions of the box having maximum capacity [Ans:
.Ji8,.Ji8,.Ji8]
Perimeter of a triangle is constant, prove that the area of this triangle is maximum when the triangle is equilateral. If u=(x,y)where/(x,y)=O, find the maximum and minimul.1 values of 11 using Lagrange's multipliers Method
4
Curvature and Curve Tracing
4.1.1
Curvature
The curvature of a curve (bending of a curve) varies from point to point on the curve. Let P be a point on the curve and Q be
c.l
Let tangents at P and Q make angles, \.11, and \.11 + 0\.11 with the X axis.
LT R T' = d\jJ is the angle through which the tangent at P turns as a point moves along the curve form P to Q through a distance os along the curve and hence 0\.11 depends on the arc length
os.
8s
0\.11
Now os
0 as Q ~ P
=
&s~O uS
Lt
~\.11
by K.
Thus
d\.l1 K=ds
214
Engineering Mathematics  I
x'
Fig. 4.1
Radius of Curvature
The reciprocal of the curvature of a curve at any point' P' is called the radius (?f curvature at that point and is denoted by 'p'. Thus p = d is called the radius of curvature of the curve at the point P. \1' .
ds
4.1.2 Theorem
If 'r' is the radius of a circle then the radius of curvature of the circle is same as its radius.
Proof:
Let 'c' be the centre and 'r' be the radius ofa circle. P be any point on it and Q be a neighbouring point, arc PQ = ds. The tangents at P and Q make angles \If and \If + 8~, respectively. From the figure
LT R T' = 8 \If
LP R Q' LP C Q'
~ =
u
~,
= 180  8\1f
= 8\jf,
8s
r and as Q ~ P, 8s
215
01>0
Lt 8 \1' = ~ 8s r
I.e.,
P
p=r
x'
y'
dy tan \lJ = dx
Differentiating w.r to 'x'
We know that
ds dx
216
Engineering Mathematics  I
... ,..
y 1 +(d )2 dx
[I+(~~)' I+(~)' 1
p=
[ + y( ) '2 . _I I.e.,pwhereYI
3/
y~
= d 'Y2=2
X
dy
d 2Y dx
dl
' dl
y'
i.e.,
x'
= /'(t),
= gl(t),
dy dy dl =dx dx
dt
'.,
=I
X
,
dy dx
y'
217
{X')3
dy
X
d'y
ex .
[l+(~)T
d2
Y dx 2
3/
[l+(Hr
p=
x'y"  y'x"
''..,..
{X')3
[(XI)2 + {y')2 y~
P=
x'y"  y'x"
I
where
I dx x =
dt '
y=
dy dt
LXOP =0
The tangent at P makes an angle \I' with the initial line.
218
Engineering Mathematics  I
From figure
\If=e+cj>
d\lf de d<l> =+ds ds ds
=
1 p
de d<l> de +.ds de ds
= de + d<l>]
ds de
[1
..... (1 )
Fig. 4.3
We know ds de tan
<I>
r2+
(dr)2 de
..... (2)
and
= r
de
dr
i.e.,
tan cj>=dr de
Differentiating w.r. to
219
(1 + tan
<1
de
d~
=
d~
de
d<l> de
The value of
I+
~~
de
d,h
I + r' +
t~
r2
+ de
(dr)2
r~~
r
2
1+
'I'
de de = '':
r r2 +2(_dr)2 _rtl_2 _ r2
de
ds Substituting the value of de'
+(:r
,
..... (3)
I+
de
d~
220
Engineering Mathematics  I
..... ( I)
Differentiating w.r. to s
d\jJ de d~ =+d\' ds ds

I p I p
I de d~ dr .r +  r ds dr cis I r
+ dr
I p
= 
=  (sin~)
d~
cos~,
We have
sin~=r, ~
de
I d(r sin ~) r dr
:. p
=
p = r sin ~
_ = ~dp
p
r dr
dr rdp
4.1.7 Examples
2
Solution
y
=
a cosh (x/a)
221
dy
dx d 2y
2 =
dx
dy d 2 y
Substituting the values of  ,   ? in p = dx dx
[ I + ~j;
d2
( dy)2l~2
Y
dx 2
[ + sinh  x / a P =1 cosh{x / a ).~ ?
]3 2
p
p
= aeos h2(x/a)
~ a( ~:),
as y
~ cosh(x/a)
p~ ( : )
4.1.8 Example
Prove that for the rectangular hyperbola xy = c2 the radius of curvature at any point
r3
is given by p =
2
2c
Solution
Differentiating xy = e 2 w.r. to 'x'
x  +y=O dx
dy
222
Engineering Mathematics  I
..
dy d y .
2
[1+ ( ~b:
dy)2l~~
/2 ( Y
dx 2
p=
as ,.2 = x 2 + rand xy = c 2
4.1.9 Example
Prove that the square of the radius of curvature at any point on the parabola
y=4ax
..... (1 )
dy
dx

~ f~
= 
d 2y dx 2
223
Hence
p=
x'
y'
Fig. 4.4
p=
~"a
1 r ~~ x 2
..... (2)
1a(x+a)~
~(xaY +(yoy
= ~X2 +a 2 2ax+ y2
=
~ x 2 + a 2  2ax + 4ax
using(l)
sp=
~(x+aY
..... (3)
SP = focal distance = (x + a)
224
Engineering Mathematics  I
2
p2 =  [Focal distance]3
p2
4.1.10 Example
00
Show that the radius of curvature at an end of the major axis of the ellipse
Xl
a2
+;;: =
y2
latu~rectum
of the ellipse.
Solution
i ..e.,
Differentiating (1) w.r. to 'x'
..... (1 )
dy dx
d y b dx 2 =  ;;
2fyxdyl dx
y2
225
x'
A'(a,O)
(0,0)
A(a,O)
y'
Fig. 4.5
2 
d 2y dx
b2 2
[1+(:)']"
p=
d 2y dx 2
Hence
[ l+~ h" 4 a i p= _b 4 2 a
r;
(a 4i+b 4x2) a 4b 4
..... (2)
The coordinates of the ends of the major axis are A (a, 0) and A' (a, 0) Taking the end A (a, 0) we have from (2)
pl(a,o)
b2
= ;; =
226
Engineering Mathematics  I
4.1.11 Example
Prove that p at any point of the curve x;; 3 + y/3 =a 3 is three times the length of the perpendicular from origin to the tangent at that point.
J J'
5<
Solution
The parametric equations of the curve are
acos 3e,
y = asin3e
,,   = 
dy dx
de
=
dy dx
tan e
de
and
= 2
d 2y dx
e)
Hence
gives
p=
(I + tan 2e
I
f2
..... ( I)
3a cos 4 e sin e
p
=
3a cos e sin e
dy yxp
= ;===dx==
I+(:J
2 JI + tan e
P = a sin e cos e
..... (2)
227
4.1.12 Example
Find p at any point for the cycloid
x = a (8  sin 8)
y = a(1 cos 8) and also find p at 8 = 90
8 dy = cotdx 2
d y
dx
cosec   2 2 dx
2 8 1 d8
d 2y dx
2
1 28 2cosec 2
=
1
a(1cos8) ,
..
[1+(:)'r
p=
d 2y
dx
2
p=
( at
1+cot
2
1
4a sin4 ~ 2
=  4a sin
2 212 a
~.
4.1.13 Example
Find p at (r, 8) for the curve r = a (1 + cos 8) and also find at 8 =
Solution
r
= a (1 + cos 8)
228
Engineering Mathematics  I
[2a .2cos
2
~~]7i
2
a + 2a + 3a cose
at
3a .2cos ~~
.iacos e/ 3 /2
e=~
4 P = acos 45 3
=
2 r;:; ,,2a
3
4.1.14 Example Find p for the curve r'" = if! cos me Solution r'"
= if! cos me
1 cos me
1 dr m . r de
r)
(
m sin m e)
..... ( I)
= r
tan me
..... (2)
3 {r 2+ r2 tan 2me)2 r2 + 2r2 tan 2me + mr2 sec 2me  r2 tan 2me
229
{m + J)cos me
r
m
am
a
{m+J( m
For the curve ,In = d" cos m
P=
4.1.15 Example
(m + J)r m 1
Solution
p2
ar
..... ( 1)
2p dp dr dp dr
p
=
a
a
2p
r dr
dp
= r.
2p a
From(l)
p=j;;;
a
2r
4.1.16 Example
1
Find the radius ofcurvature at the point (p, r) on the ellipse
2
= 2 + b2 a
r2 ~b2
230
Engineering Mathematics  I
Solution
Differentiating 2 dp p3 dr 2r a 2b 2
2
=>
dr a 2b r=dp
p3
4.1.17 Example
if
..... ( I)
r=cot28 dr tan <\> = r dr tan <\> = tan <\>=2 20 We have P = rsin<\> => p = r sin P = r cos 28 Substituting cos28 = a2
2 1t
d8
d8
=
cot 28
(~  28 )
(~28)
from (1)
231
dp = dr
~
,.2
dp ,. p=r=) dr (r
2!
d2 q = )
x=O
y
x=o
y=o
dx
y=o
p (at ongll1) =
..
(I + p).i
q
(ii)
Newtonian Method: If a curve passes through (0, 0) and the tangent at (0,0)
IS
= (yo)
+ (YI)O +
Xl
(Y2)O
+ . +
x
x2 q  +... 2!
232
3
Engineering Mathel\latics  I
P = (at ongln)
p = 0 at (0,0)
.,
= '=<q
(I + p)2
2y
Lt 2 q = x~Ox
I
P (at origin) =
p (at origin) = Lt
x~o
(~) 2y
2 )
(iii) Similarly, if a curve passes through (0, 0) and the tangent at (0, 0) is Yaxis then
p (at origin) = Lt (Y2
x~o
(iv) Curvature at pole: If the initial line is the tangent to the curve at the pole then
Lt  r )
(as Lt  . ~ 1.cos28 ~ I)
e~osm8
4.1.19 Example
Find p at the origin of the curve y4 + xl + a (xl + y)  a2 y method.
= 0 by Newtonian
Solution
Equating to zero the terms of the lowest degree in the equation of the curve
 a2y
=?
y= 0
i.e., Then
x2 p= Lte~o2y
..... (1)
233
I
Let So that and
+ x 
J x
+ a.  + ay = y y
x2
a2
x~O
y~O
=2p
From (1)
o + 0.2p + a2p
"2
4.1.20 Example
Find p at the origin for the curve x = a (8 + sin 8), y = a (I  cos 8) by Newtonian method.
Solution
x = a (8 + sin 8),
y = a( 1  cos8) is a cycloid
p at (0, 0) = Lt
x+o 2y
(~l
2 Lt a (8 + sin 8)2
0+0 2a(1 cos 8)
0+02 sm8
a [8] 2 P = 4a

234
Engineering Mathematics  I
4.1.21 Example
Find pat (0, 0) for the curve 2x4 + method.
31 + 4x2y + x Y  y2 + 2x = 0 by Newtonian
Solution
Equating to zero the terms of the lowest degree in the given equation of the curve 2 x = 0 => x = 0 yaxis is the tangent to the curve at (0, 0)
2
P at (0, 0) = Lt L x>o2x
So that Dividing the given equation by 'x'
2x3 + 3y2. L
2 y2
..... ( I)
+ 4x y + Y  
+2
Taking
x~O,y~O
Exercise  4(A)
I. Find p for the following curves :
1.
4 sin x  sin 2x at x
2"
(Ans:
I
4
515 ..
[Ans:   ] 16
3J2a
235
5.
E +JY =J;
at
%,~
a
lADs: J21
6.
7.
= 1t
lADs:  4 al
8.
9.
? = a 2 cos20
[ADS: );]
a2
10.
r =
(\
+ cosO) at
(~,~)
J2 [ADS a] . 3
lADs:
{n + 1)rn1 1
an
4.2
236
Engineering Mathematics  I
x'
o
y'
Fig. 4.6
4.2.1
Centre of Curvature
Let P (x, y) be any point on the curve and C (X, Y) be the centre of curvature at 'P' which is on the normal PC at P. Then PC =: p = radius of curvature at 'P'. The tangent P T at P to the curve makes an angle \jJ with X  axis. P B, C A are perpendiculars to X  axis, and P R is perpendicular to C A. L.PTX=L.RPT=L.PCR=\jJ I cos \jJ =  sec \jJ
dy dx
..... (2)
237
and we have
..... (3)
(i.e.,)
x = 0 A = 0 B  A B = OB x = x  P C sin \jJ
X
=
PR
(From
~
P R C, PR = PC sin \jJ)
x  p sin
\jl
X=
X=x
dx
d~[1 +(tfl)2] dx
d 2y dx 2
238
Engineering Mathematics  ,
x'
o
y'
at
p (x, y) is C
xi + (y  Yi = p2
4.2.2 Example
Find the centre of curvature of the curve
Y
Solution
dy = 3x2  12x + 3 dx
239
dy
dX(I,I)
6
=6
dX2 (1,_1)
X=
X 
YI (I +
2
yn
Y
X= I
I+ YI2
(6XI+36)
6
6
43 X =  36 and Y = 6 43) The coordinates of the centre of curvature are (  36, 6
4.2.3 Example
Find the centre of curvature for the cycloid x
Solution
=
ace  sine),
Y = a(1  cos e)
. 4 4aSIn

e
2
240
Engineering Mathematics  I
4a SIO
e
2
X=
ace 
. e
2
Y=y+Y2
1+ YI
Y=a(lcose)
(l+cot2E!) 12 . 4  4 a SIO

e
2
[ace + sine),
4.2.4 Example
a(1 
cose)]
Find the centre ofthe curvature at any point (x, y) on the eIlipse.
Solution
..... (1 )
241
2b 2x + 2Q2y dy dx
..... (2)
..... (3)
X= x _ YI (1 + yO
Y2
ij
fx + fY
fa
at the point
(~, ~)
..... (1)
Solution
242
Engineering Mathematics  I
2
dy
dx
..... (2) ..... (3)
JY
ai
dx.r;
and
:10/
d 2y dx 2
d 2y
14' /4
~1
X
[
=
4
0/ (//
/4' )14
dx
..... (4)
p = [1 + Y2
y~ = [1 + 1]% = ~
i
.fi
a
..... (5)
X= x _ YI (1 + YI2 )
Y2
a 1(1+1) 3a X=+=4 4 4
a
Y=y+
a
(1 + y2)
1
Y2
Y="4 + 4 =
(I + 1)
a
3a
3a 3a)
243
=
p2
3a)2 3a)2 + ( y _ ( X 4 4
(~)2 Ji
Exercise  48
I. Find the coordinates of the centre of curvature of the curve y = x J at the point
7 31 IAns:   ) 64' 38
2
x x+ 9 at
(3,
6) is
(3, I;)
3. Show that the centre of curvature at the point 't' on the ellipse x = a cos t,
. .
y=bSllltlS
[(
a  ba
a  b 2) . 2 , )cosI, () b Slll'
1 1
1
3
4.
+I
3a xy
x y
= =
(I  aO) cos 0
+ a sin 0
IAns : a sin 0,  a cos 01
6.
7.
= 111X
+I
= a2
(I + 1112) (v  I1lx).
244
Engineering Mathematics  I
4.3
4.3.1 Evolutes
Definition .' Corresponding to each point on a curve we can find the curvature of
the curve at that point. Drawing the normal at these points we can find centre of curvature corresponding to each of these points. Since the curvature varies from point to point, centres of curvature also differ. The totality of all such centres of curvature of a given curve will define another curve and this curve is called the evolute of the curve. Thus the locus of centres of curvature of a given curve is called the evolute of that curve.
Notes:
(i) Elimination of x, y from the coordinates of the centre of curvature (X, Y) gives an equation in terms of X, Y which is called evo/ute of the given
curve y = fix).
(ii) When the equation of the curve is given in the parametric form (say t) elimination of '1' from the coordinates of the centre of curvature (X, Y) gives an equation in terms of X, Y which is called evo/ute of the curve x = fit), y = get).
4.3.2 Example
Find the evolute of the parabolay = 4 a x
Solution
Differentiating
4ax
=
w.r. to 'x'
2ydy dx dy dx d y dx2
2
=
4a
Fa Fx
..... (1)
Fa
=3
..... (2)
2x2
X= X _
YI
(1 + yl2 )
Y2
X=x
~(1 +~) Fx
Fa
3
2x 2
I + Cl ) 1 + y2 X Y = Y+ _ _ I = Y+ ~=c'y)
IFa
,
2x 2
..... (4\
Squaring y2
=
4 .x3
a
X2a
3
y2= _ a
27 ay2 27 a
4(X2a)'
= =
4(X  2 a)3
4.3.3 Example
Solution
..... ( I)
dy dx
b x
02y
..... (2)
246
Engineering Mathematics  I
_b 2 a 2b2 a 2 y2 a 2;. _b 4 a 2y 3
..... (3)
d 2y dx2
X
=
x _ YI + yl2 )
Y2
(I
x  (a4y2 4 2
a b
+ b4;x2)
Substituting c?y2
..... (4)
=y+
b4 x 2 1+4""2 ay
_b 4
247
y  ~ (0 4; a 2b 4 a 2;
+ b4x 2 )
Substituting b2x 2
= 02b 2 =
from (I)
[a 4;
+
a b4
b4
2 2
a (a 2
;)]
a 2 _b 2
y3
..... (5)
X3 +y3 +a 3
Solution
= de
dx
de
dy  =tan S dx
d2y de  2 =sec 2 S dx dx
248
Engineering Mathematics  I
30 cos 4 esin e
..... ( I)
(I + tan
1
e)
..... (2)
{X+yt3 +{XY)"'3
=
2
2a 3
is the evolute of the given curve.
y)~ == 2a:1
a(cose + sine), y
a(sin e  e cose) is
x 2 +y=a2 Solution
x
=
a(sin e  e cose)
249
dx
= a( Sll10 +
=
..
dy 10
dx dO
dy dx
ely
, = (X
d 2y dx 2
..... (2)
X = x .
0)
..... (3)
Y2
X
y
=
aOcos 1 e
a cos 0
I+ y2 y + '_I Y2
(I
a(sin 0  0 cosO) +
(I + tan 2 0 )
I aOcos '0
sin 0
X2 + y2
:.
= (/2
4.3.6 Example
Show that the evolute of the curve
x
t is
y
Solution
a cos h
t '2 )y =
1I
sin t
250
Engineering Mathematics  I
r.
j [.
dx dt dy dx
= a cost
.J!L
dx dt
= tan t
..... ( 1)
1+ yf
Y2
y
=
a sin t+
1+ tan 2 t sin t
y=sin t
From (1) From (2)
..... (2)
t tan 2
.
SIn t=
= eX/a
a
251
2 tan t 2 (i.e.,)
1+ tan 2 t . 2
x
2e
I+e
a a
([
2X
Y
a
y
y
=
~( /
+ e  X,,)
= ((
cosh
(%)
a cos II
c t and y
c
= 
2.
x2
I is (ax)2/3  (by)213
a (q  sin q) y
a (I  cos q) is another
4.4
4.4.1 Envelopes Family of curves:
Let us consider the equation of a straight line x cosa + y sina = p. Where a is a parameter. For different values of a, x cosa + y sina = p gives different straight lines but all of them are at a constant distance 'p' from the origin. The set of all of these straight lines is said to form a family of straight lines and 'a' is called the parameter of the family. For a given p, different values of'a' give different straight lines which touch the circle x2 + .Y = p2. The circle x2 + 1 = p2 is called the
252
Engineering Mathematics  I
A curve, which touches each member ofa given family of curves and each point is the point of contact of some member of the family is called the envelope of the family of curves.
Letj(x, y, a)
a/(x,y,a) aa
If the given equation of the family ofcurvesj(x,y, a) = 0 is the quadratic in 'a', say of the form Aa2 + Ba + C = 0 where 'a' is the parameter and A, B, Care functions of x, y. Then the envelope of the family of curves is B2  4AC = o.
4.4.2
Example
Find the envelope of the family of straight lines y parameter.
= mx + ~
m
Solution
y=mx+ III
..... ( I)
is the parameter
o=x2
m
111=
..... (2)
2.[;;;
Squaring we gety = 4
253
Aliter:
mx + 111 Y
III
m2x 
+a= 0
i  4(a)(x) = 0
i
4.4.3 Example
= 4 ax is envelope.
Solution
y=mx+ vlrm+b(y  I1lx)2 = ([2m 2 + b 2
I
J J J
m 2(x 2  a 2) + m( 2 y x) + (V
is quadratic in parameter '111'
 b2) =
The envelope of the family of curves (2 x y)2  4(x 2  a 2)(1 b2) = 0 b 2x 2 + a 2 = a 2b 2
Solution
Given x cos 3 8 + y sin 3 8 = c Diff. (I) partially w.r. to '8'  3 x cos 2 8 sin 8 + 3y sin 2 8 cos 8 = 0 Hence tan8= y (8 is parameter)
..... ( I)
254
Engineering Mathematics  I
[ ~ X2 Y+ y2
= C(X2
3 ]
+y
x ~ X2 + y2
13
j=c
x 21 4.4.5 Example
I where
=
c2
2+ 2
a
x2
y2
=]
..... (1 )
..... (2)
a2 +b2 =c2
Assume that' a' and' b' are functions of' t' Diff. (]) and (2) w.r. to '1'
2 (
2) da + I a3 dt
y2
2)db ( 3
b dt
+ =0 a 3 dt b 3 dt
Diff.
x 2 da
db
..... (3)
a2 + b2 = c2 w.r.
to '1'
(i.e.,)
da db 2a +2b =0 dt dt da db a + b = 0 dt dt
..... (4)
255
=~=2
a
(i.e.,)
[/4
c2
(14
=x2c2
(12= XC
=
= ("2
x 2c2 + Ic 2
c2
xl + J,z = I
4.4.6 Example
~ + Eh
{/
= I where (I,
b are parameters
Solution
Given
~+E a b
ab
..... ( I)
= ('2
..... (2)
Assume that a, b are functions of 't' Diff. (1) and (2) w.r. to 'I'
 I )+ da y.(I)= db O x (a 2 dt h 2 dt
   +2   =0 (/2 II h dl
x da
y db
..... (3)
Diff.
ab
= ('2
w.r. to 'I'
..... (4)
db da a+b=O dt dt
256
Engineering Mathematics  I
+!L.=lL~.!L=JL=~
2 2 
ab
ab
2ab
y a
=~=2
b 2c
a = 2c
ab
Using (2) c2 ~= 2c 2
X
..... (5)
a=2x
a
=
ab 2c 2
Using (2)
b=2y
Substituting a, b values from (5), (6) in (2)
c2
..... (6)
(2 x)(2 y)
257
Exercise  4 (0)
1. Find the envelope of the family of curves: (a) y
= mx + a ~I + m 2 when
=
111
is parameter.
(b) ;
2; =
01
(d)
~ +~
a
I when a + b = e
(a, b parameters).
(Ans : (e)
fx
.JY = !c ]
~ + ~ = 1 when a2 + b2 = e2
a
b
(a, b parameters).
IAns:
fx
.JY = !cl
(f)
ff H
+
=
I when a + b = e
(a, b parameters).
2 2 2
(Ans : x 3 + y3
In
=c 3 ]
(g)
(h)
~+~
(Ans :
xn+1
+ yll+1
= C"+ I ]
258
Engineering Mathematics  I
4.5
Curve Tracing
Generally a curve is drawn by plotting a number of points and joining them by a smooth line. If an approximate shape of the curve is sufficient for a given purpose then it is enough to study certain important characteristics. This purpose is served by curve tracing methods. The points to be observed for tracing of plane algebraic curves are given below.
1. Whether the curve is passing through the origin, if so the equations of the
tangents to the curve at the origin. Suppose F(x,y) = F(O,O) =
=>
no
constant term in F(x,y) then origin lies on the curve. The equations of the tangents to the curve are obtained by equating the lowest degree terms in F(x,y) to zero. If at 0(0,0) the tangents are: (i) real and coincident then '0' is called a cusp (ii) real and different then '0' is called a node (iii)imaginary then '0' is called a conjugate point 2. Whether the curve is symmetric about an axis or about other any line. If (i) F(x, y) = F(xy) (ii) F(x, y) =F(x, y) (iii) F(x,y) =F(x, y)
=> curve is symmetric about xaxis => curve is symmetric about yaxis => curve is symmetric in opposite quadrants.
(iv) F(y, x) = F(x, y) curve is symmetric about y = x (v) F(y,x) =F(x, y) curve is symmetric about y =x
259
+~~x
y' =4ax
~~~.. x
(i)
y
(ii)
y
~~~~x
~~~~x
3
+y'
~~V
(iii)
(iv)
..;:::.~"'~x
(v)
3. Weather the curve intersects the axes, if so the tangents to the curve at these points. 4. Find the region in which the curve exists (i.e.) the curve is defined. The values of x for which y is defined gives the extent parallel to xaxis and the values of y for which x is defined gives the extent in a direction parallel to yaxis. If y is imaginary for values of x in a certain region then the curve does not exist in that region.
260
Similarly with respect 10 values ofy . 5. Finding the asymptotes.
Engineering Mathematics  I
An asymptote is a line that is at a finite distance from (0, 0) and is tangential to the curve at infinity (i.e.) the curve approaches the line at infinity. (i) Sum of the coefficients of the highest degree terms in x equated to zero gives the equations of the asymptotes parallel to x  axis. (ii) Sum of the coefficients of the highest degree terms in y equated to zero gives the equations of the asymptotes parallel to yaxis. (iii) To find the asymptotes that are neither parallel to xaxis nor parallel to yaxis (i.e.) oblique asymptotes, the following method is suggested. Substitute y =mx + c equation in 'x'as
111
(m)x
n +$
n
l(m)x
nI + .... +$ =0 n
The slopes of the asymptotes are given by $I/(m) = O. Let the slopes be
The values of'c' can be obtained trom $I/I(m) Let the corresponding values of c be c1' c2 ,
= 0,$1/_2(m) = 0
(if necessary).
Note: if $1/ (m) is a constant then there are no oblique asymptotes to the curve. 6. Obtain dy from F(x,y) = 0 by differentiation.
dx
and :
dx
261
~o+~X
dy dx
o. gIves
2
XI,X)
If in an interval for x
(i)
el
~
~ ~
(ii)
el
llx
< 0 the curve is concave downward (XI' xw .... in the figure) and has a
(iii)
If at a point
X)
dx
of inflection and at that point the curve changes it concavity to the opposite direction.
4.5.1 Example
Trace the curve y
X2
=
+2x
.... ( 1)
x+ 1
Solution:
Substitution of
X
=0
in (1) gives y
2x = 0
.... (2)
= 2x .
262
:. The curve crosses x axis at (0,0) and (2,0)
Engineering Mathematics  I
I.
Hence
it
IS
discontinuous.
{I}
IS
Coefficient of highest degree term in x i.e.) of Xl) Hence there is no asymptote parallel to x axis.
I which is a constant.
Coefficient of highest degree term in y is x + I. :. x + 1=0 is the asymptote parallel to y axis. From (2)
dy dx
which
is >
0 always except
at
= 1
< x < 2, 2 < x < 1, 1 < x < 0 and 0 < x < 00
\ \
\~
\ \ \
\..
\j.:,
\ \ I \ \ /
/
Fig. 4.7
4.5.2 Example
Trace the curve
y
x +1
 Xl
1
Solution:
....... ( I)
263
r (x,y) = r (x,y)
y=
gives x
+ 1= =>
x axis.
Coefficient of highest degree term in x is yI llence y = I is the asymptote parallel to x axis Coefticient of highest degree term in y is to yaxis
(from( I
x2 ]
dy =
dx
Hence y
=0
gives x
=0
and Yx=o =
:. The maximum point on the curve is (0,1) and there are no points of inflection.
1_ I
I I I
I
I I
Ix
I'J
I I
I I I
rI
l~Y.,
I I
I
I 1I I I I
I I I
I I I
Fig. 4.8
The curve is decreasing in the interval
<
00
as dy is ve there
dx
.. an d IS IIlcreaslllg 111
00
4.5.3 Example:
Trace the Folium x
3
+ / == 3axy
264
Engineering Mathematics  I
Solution:
Clearly (0,0) lies on the curve .No intercepts on yaxis.
F (y,x)=/+x'3ayx=0=F (x,y)
Coefficient of highest degree term in y is I. a constant, and hence no asymptote parallel to yaxis. Lowest degree term equated to zero gives xy = 0, x = 0, y = 0 (i.e) the axes are the tangents to the curve at the origin.
y = x in (I) gives 2x'  3ax 2 = 0 x = 0, 3;1 (ie) the line y = x meets the curve
at (O,O)and F (x,  y)
(3~, 3~)
= x'  /
+ 3axy
= mx + c in (I) and
2
rewriting in terms
VI
x+y=3a
Fig. 4.9
(e) c=a(:m=l)
y=xa or y+x+a=O
.... (2)
~~
265
4.5.4 Example:
Trace the curve a 2 y 2 x 2( a 2 x 2) = 0 ........ ( I )
Solution:
x
F
=0
(x, y)
Lowest degree terms, in (I), equated to zero gives a are the tangents to the curve at (0.0). y
=
= 0 ~ y = x
in (I) gives x
= a
(a, 0)
and
((1,0)
Ixl > a
is negative (ie) the curve does not exist for
Ixl > a
YI
gives
2y ) d dx ( 2 at x
a . . = J2 IS negative.
a . . = J2 IS a maxImum
in 0< x <.i2
while decreasing in
the first quadrant, the symmetry about both the areas can be utilized for tracing the complete curve. Substituting y
= mx + c
in (I )gives
X4
+ a 2 (mx + c
r a
2 2
=0
266
Engineering Mathematics  I
4 (m) = 1 which is a constant. Hence there are no oblique asymptotes to the curve.
y
~(_a~,O~)~~+~~X
,
Fig. 4.10
= 0 => x = a
:. x = a are asymptotes parallel to yaxis. Highest degree terms of x equated to zero gives x 2(y2 + a 2) = 0 => x = ia ... No asymptotes parallel to xaxis.
Equating lowest degree terms to zero we get a 2(y2  x 2) = 0 => y x are tangents at (0, 0) writing y
= mx + c
2a 2mcxc 2a 2 =0
267
( 1) can be written as
when Ixl > a :. The curve exists only in the region a < x < a.
y
Fig. 4.11
l (2  x)  x2 (1 + x) = 0 ....... ( 1)
y=O
:.(0,0) lies on the curve
Solution:
x=Oin (1) gives
F(x,y)
=
F(x,y) :.curve is
0 in (\) gives 1,0
2l x 2 = 0 => y =
12
curve passes through (1,0) in addition to (0,0) Coefficient of highest degree terms of y equated to zero gives 2  x = 0 (ie) x = 2 is an asymptote parallel to yaxis No asymptote parallel to xaxis as coefficient of x is 1,a constant
2
268
Substituting Y
Engineering Mathematics  I
= mx + c
2 2 2 2 2 m + 1) + x ( 1+ 2mc  2m ) + ( c  4mc ) x  2c
=0
~~~~~x
...
~...,
x
I I
2y 2x
= 0 => x = 0, x =
5J5j
4
51 =4
[1,0]
4.5.7 Example
Trace the curve /
(x2)(x4)2 =0
.. , .. (1)
Solution:
y = O. (I) gives x = 2, 4 Curve intersects the xaxis at (2,0) and (4,0)
269
F(x, y) = F (x,y) :. curve is symmetric about xaxis For x < 2 , / is ve :. therefore curve does not exist for x < 2
From (I) it can be seen that x = 2 is a tangent at (2,0) Coefficient of x 3 = l,a constant :. No asymptote oarallel to xaxis Differentiating (1) w.r.t 'x'
dy _ (x4)(3x8)
dx
At (4.0) dy
2y
= Lt (x4)(3x8)
H4
dx
2.J x  2 ( x  4)
H4
Lt 3x8 = J2 2.Jx2
4)
J2(x 
dx
~~~~~~~x
(2,0)
,,
Fig. 4.13
dy = dx
gives x = 8/3. Thus the tangents at x = 8/3 are parallel to xaxis. For the
dx
dx
dx
dx
below
270
Engineering Mathematics  I
4.5.8 Example
Trace the curve y ( x + 4a
2 2 ) 
8a 3
=0
.... (1)
Solution:
* 0 when x = O.
(x,y)=F (x,y)
y is +ve for all real x :. Curve completely lies above xaxis. Substituting y = mx + c in (I)
m3 + cx 2 + 4a 2 mx + 4a 2 c  8a 3
3 ( m ) = 0 => m = 0 and
=0 2 ( m ) = 0
gives c = 0
dy
dx
=  
16a 3 x
(X2 + 4a2
dx
IS
dx
decreasing. dy
o at (0, 2a). y s
maximum at
(0, 2a) .
~~x
Fig. 4.14
4.5.9 Example:
Trace the curve y c cosh x / c = 0 .... (1)
Solution:
271
:. Curve does not pass through (0,0) and intersects yaxis at (0, c). F
dy . h = Sill
dx
for x <0.
y
Y=c
(D,c)
~~~x o
dx
4.5.10
Example
(x / a )2/3 + (y /a )2/3 1 = 0
x =
.... ( 1)
Solution:
:I;
0 when
:.
272
Engineering MathematicsI
~+~~x
(0,  b)
Fig. 4.16
Ixl> a or IYI >b. :. Curve completely lies in the region Ixl ~ a and Iy ~ bl
:. Curve does not exist for From (I) dy
dx
dy < 0 for dx
O<x<a.
4.5.11 Example
Trace the curve y2 (a x) _x 3 = O,a > 0
.... (1)
Solution:
Clearly y F
= 0,
=
(x,  y)
273
dy
= 
Fx (3a  2x )
3jJ
dx
2 (ax) 
dy dx
1(0,0) =
o.
= mx + c
m 2 + 1) + x 2 ( 2mc  am 2 ) + x ( c 2  2ame )  ac 2
=0
fA (m) = m 2 + 1=> m = i .
I I x=a
PI
I I I
~~.~x
(a,O)
Fig. 4.17
Hence there no oblique asymptotes. From (I) YI
= (
3x2 + y2
2 ax y
. 4.5.12 Example
Trace the curve x
2 (a
 x) = l
(b + x)
.. .,(\ )
274
Engineering Mathematics  I
Solution:
Clearly curve passes through origin F ( x,  y ) = F
= ~.x
x2 ( a  x) = 0 => x = 0, a
3
=0
in (1) gives
(a, 0)
y
I I
I I
~I~~~~~~~~x I
I I l X=b I
= mx + c
x 3(1 + bm
275
~
Hence the curve completely lies in the region b < x From (I)  =
dy dx
(ax)
1/)
dx
The tangent
(0,0)
=0
and
(a, 0) .
....(\ )
4.5.13 Example:
Trace the curve x 2(y2  a 2)  b2/
Solution:
F(X,y)= F (x,y) = F (x, y) :. Curve is symmetric about both the axes. x 2+ b y2 Lowest degree terms equated to zero gives a 2
showing that there are no tangents to the curve at
=0
(0,0)
276
The asymptotes are y =
Engineering Mathematics  I
~ ~
by
y2
a2
IYI < a , x
is imaginary
Similarly for
Ixl < b,
Ixl < b,
Iyl<a.
Since the curve is symmetric about both the axes, it is enough to study the curve in the first quadrant.
J
(0,0)
y=a
"x=b
x =b
y=a
From (I) Y = /
"x
"
ax
2
(
Fig. 4.19
..... (2)
2
b
ax
x 2 _b 2
111
:. Yl = first quadrant.
a 2b2
(x 2
_b 2 )2
4.5.14 Example
Trace the curve
y2
(x  a)  x2 ( X + a) = 0
.... (1)
277
Lowest degree terms equated to zero gIves a x :. There are no tangents to the curve at (0,0) coefficient of highest degree terms in y (i.e.) of
(2 + y 2) = 0 => x + y = 0
J J
IS x  a
= mx + c
in (I)
=0
2m
/\/y=x+a
I I
V'.Sl
~.~~x
/ I (a,2a) // I 1 I
(a,O)
I 1
"
:. The oblique asymptotes are y From (I)
~~+a=o If""
=0
Fig. 4.20
=x + a
and y + x + a
d 2
dx
x axa (x a).J x 2  a 2
dx
When x ~ a, dy
~ 00
:.
dy = o. gIves
dx
x 2  ax  a 2
278
Engineering Mathematics  I
x axis.
0< x < a
a<x<oo a<x<O
 00
< x <a
(i.e.) The curve does not exist in the region a < x < a. For x =   a there is no tangent to the curve (since the curve itself is not
1Fs
2
defined there).
4.5.15 Example
Trace the curve /(a 2 _x 2)_x 2(a 2 +X2) = 0
.... ( 1)
Solution:
x
=0
The curve is symmetric about both the axes sinceF(x,y) = F(x,y) Lowest degree terms equated to zero gives y
(i)
= F(x,y).
can be written as y 2
=X a 2 +x 2
a x
2(2
2)
Th"IS
that y
~ _00
as x
a.
Ixl < a.
in (l) gives
X4
= mx + c 4 (m ) = m 2 + 1 = 0
=
(m 2 +1) + ... = 0
gives m = i
dx
In the first quadrant: dy > 0 for 0< x<a (i.e.) y is increasing in this region.
279
Fig. 4.21
4.1.16 Example
Trace the curve
l (a 2 + x 2 ) 
x2 ( a
=0
.... ( I)
Solution:
x = 0 gives y = 0,0 :. origin is a double point on the curve.
F(x,y) = F(x,y) = F(x,y) shows that the curve is symmetric about both the axes.
there are no asymptotes parallel to xaxis, since coefficient of highest degree terms in x ((ie) of X4 )is constant. The coefficient of highest degree terms in y (ie) of :. there are no asymptotes parallel to y axis. From (1)
y
=
is x + a 2
a 2 x 2 x 2 2 a +x
For
Ixl > a,
y IS Imaginary
280
Engineering Mathematics  I
dy = 0 gives x = dx
a~ 1 J2
the tangents to the curve are
x=a~J2 1 ,where
2 2 4
..... (2)
(a,O)
Fig. 4.22
Y) (d dx
(0,0)
a:
= 1 from (2)
The curve thus forms a loop between (0,0) and ( a ,0) and another loop between
(a,O) and (0,0).
4.1.17 Example
Trace the curve Solution: F (x,  y) = F
a/  4 x2 ( a  x) = 0 ..... ( t)
281
in (1) gives x = 0, a (i.e.) the curve cuts the xaxis at (0,0) and (a ,0)
2
Equating the terms of lowest degree to zero we get al 4ax = O::::? Y = 2x Thus Y 2x = 0 are the tangents to the curve at (0, 0)
).00
= mx + c
fA (m) = 4 constant.
For
Ixl > a.
________
~~~~~x
Fig. 4.23
4.1.18 Example:
Trace the curve a
2 1
= x 2( 2a  x) ( x  a)
Solution:
F
(+ x,  y)
282
Engineering Mathematics  I
y = 0 in (1) gives x
= 0,a,2a.
The curve intersects the xaxis at (a ,0) and (2 a ,0) Terms of lowest degree are curve at (0,0) .
(y2 + 2X2
= 0 gives
= J2ix imaginary)
Proceeding as in 3.1.17 it can be seen that the curve has no asymptotes y is imaginary for x < a and x> 2a(i.e.) the curve exists only in the region
a:::;x:::;2a.
Further dy
dx
:. x
~ 00 as x ~ aor x ~ 2a
=a
and x
x
(0,0) 0
x=a
x = 2a
Fig. 4.24
4.1.19 Example
Trace the curve x( x 2 + y2) = a( x 2  y2 ),( a> 0) ........... (1) (2001 s) F (x,  y) = F (x, y) curve is symmetric about xaxis
Solution:
y = 0 in (I) gives x
y2 _ x 2 = 0 => y
283
dy dx
~ 00
as x
~a
For x > a (1) shows that y is imaginary No part of the curve exists for x> a.
~ 00
as
Fig.
4.2~
4.1.20 Example
Trace the curve
l (a 2+ x 2) = x 2( a 2 x 2)
..... (1)
Solution:
F(O,O) = 0 curve passes through origin F (x,y) =F (x,y) =F (x,y) curve is symmetric about both the axes. Lowest terms equated to zero gives a 2y2  x 2 a2 = 0 to the curve at (0,0)
(:)
00
as x
~ a
:. x
x~a
284
y
Engineering Mathematics  I
x
(a,D)
Fig. 4.26
4.1.21 Example
Yrace the curve
Solution:
Let F( x,y)= y( a
2
+ x 2 )  a2x
=0
F( x,y) =I: F(x,y) =I: F(x,y), Hence the curve is not symmetric about both the axes. The powers ofy are odd. Therefore the curve is symmetric In opposite quadrants. F(O,O)=O. So the curve passes through the origin. The coefficient of highest power of x i.e~ of x 2 is y So y=O is an asymptote parreJ to xaxis. The coefficient of highest degree of y is x 2 + a 2 Hence the extreme points are A(a,aJ2) B(a,aJ2) Thus the tangents at A and B are parallel to xaxis. The shape ofthe curve is as shown below.
= 0 => x = ai
285
Exercise  4(E)
Trace the following curves
3. 5.
2 x2 y =2 x 1
4.
x 3 + / = ax 2
x> 0
9ai
y3
= x(x3a)2
8.
7.
9.
=a 2 xx 3
8a 3
i(ax)=x 3
;a>O
y= x 2 +4a 2
10.
i(a+x)=x 2 (bx)
3
11. i
13. i
= (xa)(xb)(xc) = x (3ax)
x+a
2
; a,b,c>O
12. y=x
15. y2 =(X2)2(X5)
F (r,B)=O
,r=F(B),
B=F(r)
A study of the following points will simplify the tracing I. curve is symmetric (a) About initial line B = 0 if F(r,B)
= F(r,B)
286
Engineering Mathematics  I
(b)
= F(r,B)
or
F(r,J[ + B) = F(r,O)
e = 1[/2
0=0 Pole 0
Fig.4.27(a)
(c)
About 8
= J[
2
if F(r,J[8)
= F(r,8)
(d)
(e)
2.
(a)
=0
(b) (c)
F(r,O) = 0 gives the points of intersection of the curve with the initial line J[ F(r, ) = 0 gives the points of intersection of the curve with the line 2 8=J[ 2
287
3.
(a)
If 'i and r2 are the least and greatest values of r then the curve lies in the annulus between circles of radii Ii and r2
(b)
B is imaginary
4.
.. I ' h e1r > 0 I r I mcreases dr < 0 I r I decreases . h . In t Ile region 111 w lIC 111 t at regIOn dB dB () =rr/2
y
__
~~..J...
o _________
0=0
~ .
.
o
Fig.4.27(b)
Fig.4.27(c)
5.
Let
p(r,B)
tan
=r
dr
. gives tangent
1./(/r. ..
to Il1Itla I I'me
If the curve meets the initial line at two distinct points and curve is symmetric about the initial line then part of the curve forms a loop between these two points. If for any value of B (sayB ,) such that It r
0>00
= 00
then B = B1 is an asymptote to
the curve
288
Engineering Mathematics  I
8.
Sometimes it may be convenient to change the equation of the curve from polar to Cartesian form by substituting respectively
x = rcosO, y = rsinO
y
9 = 1t/2
y
nf~~Y===~)7X
9=0
4.2.1 Example
Trace the cardioid
When 0 =
we get r = 0
o=
1[
Max IcosOI
:. Max r = 2a
:. The curve is entirely within the circle of radius 'a'. Hence no asymptote to the curve.
0
r
1[/4
1[/3
1[/2
21[/3
1[
41[/3
31[/2
51[/2
21[
2a
a(l + 1/J2)
0
=
3a/2
a/2
1[
a/2
3a/2
2a
r = 2 a when
0 and r = 0 when 0 =
.'. The curve intersects the initial Iine at (2a, 0) and (0, 1[ )
~~
289
AI 'I'
de =r dr
a(esine)
= cot e
= tan
(1l2 + ( )...(2) 2
e=
Fig. 4.28
4.2.2 Example
Trace the curve r
= a(l eose)
8 = n/2
Solution:
(+2a,n)
J.....
Fig. 4.29
8=0 (0,0)
~
........
290
Engineering Mathematics  I
()
0, 2J[ 0
J[ 7J[
J[ SJ[
J[ 3J[
4' 4
a(l
3' 3
2' 2

2J[ 4J[
J[
3 ' 3
YJ2)
= tan2
a
() = J[
3~
2a
r = 0 when
() = 0,2J[ and r
= 2a when
a(lcos())
asin()
()
:. tan = 0 when () = J[ (ie) the tangent at (2a, J[) is perpendicular to the initial line. (work out remain ing points as in 3.2.1)
4.2.3 Example:
Trace the curve r  a (1 + sin ())
..... (1)
Solution: r = a when () = 0, J[
r=Owhen ()=J[/2 and r
...... (2)
= 2a
J[ when () = 
:. The curve intersects the initial line at and intersects the line () = J[/2 at F
(2a"~i)
(0,  J[/2)
(r, ())
(r, J[ 
:. curve is symmetric about () = ~ The equation of the tangent at the pole is () = ~ (from (2)) Maxlsin the circle r
()I =1
291
0 r
7r/6
3(1/2 2a
(1/2
~~~~~.O=O
0= rr/2
Fig. 4.30
4.2.4 Example:
Trace the curve r  a sin 0
=0
Solution:
7r/12 a 2
7r/4 a
7r/3
57r/12
7r/2
0
a 2
J3
a 2
(r,7r+O)
rasin(27r+20)=rasin20=
(r,O)
...... (1)
292
Engineering Mathematics  I
and
(r, 3; 8 ) = r asin(3ff 
28) =
F(r,8)
...... (2)
from (1) and (2) it follows that the curve is symmetric in all the four quadrants.
r
pole.
=0
gives 8
= O,ffI2,ff,3ff/2
Max r
o =rc .,;:~~rr_Illll:iiiii:::__1~ 0 =0
e =3rc/4
Fig. 4.31
= a cos 28 .
...... ( I)
Solution:
8
r
ffl6 a/J2
ffl4
0
3ffl4
0
5ffl6 a/J2
ff
293
=0
gives eos2B
= 0 => f) = 4
= 
Jr
F(r,fJ)
= F(r,fJ) = r2
F(r,Jr 0)
_a 2 eos(2Jr  20)
= r2
_a 2 eos20 = F(r,fJ)
=~
eos(2Jr + 2fJ)
F(,., Jr + fJ)
= ,.2 
([2
= F(r, 0)
8=0 __
________
~~
______
~~~~x
Fig. 4.32
Since leos 2fJI ~ 1 ,Max r
=a =a = a 2 => r = a
B = 0 gives r2
fJ I
2
294
Engineering Mathematics  I
tan = co
O=ff
Hence the tangents at 0 When (i.e.,) the radius vector 0
=0
and 0
= ff
are
.lIar
to initial line
(': 0
%gives
= 0)
4
also is tangential to the curve at the pole.
= 3ff
4.2.6 Example:
Trace the curve
r  a cos 30 = 0    (1)
Solution:
F (r, 0) = r acos30 == F (r,O)
=0
(a, 0 )
Since Icos 301 ~ 1 , from (1), Irl ~ a .Curve completely lies within the region of the circle r
These six lines are tangential to the curve at the pole The part of the curve from 0
= to 0 to
ff is AA, 0 .
295
This has a reflection AA20 in the initial line. Thus AAIO A2A is a loop. F (r,4n/3 B) = r acos( 47l'  3B) = F (r,B) The curve is symmetric about B = 27l'/3
from B = 27l'/2 to 27l'/3. This has a reflection OB2B in line 0 ThusOBI BB2 0 forms a loop.
= 27l'/3
.........
..... .........
A2
(a,O)
() :::
....
(a,1t/3)
Fig. 4.33 OCIC is the part of the curve from B = 7l'/6 to 7l'/3 and
OCPC20 is a reflection of OBI B820 in the line B = 7l' acos3B 1 = cot3B 3asin3B 3 when B ~ 0
..LIar
tan =
~ 00
296
4.2.7 Example: Trace the curve r2  a 2 sec 2 f) Solution: The given curve can be written as
f)
Engineering Mathematics  I
=0
=0
gives r
F(r,f)
= F(r,f)
F(r,f)
COS
Since cos 0 S; 1 (i.e.,) IcosOI S; 1 we get r2 2:: a Curve does not exist in the region
l' ) 00
,.2 < a
TC as f) ) 
2
f)
TC
0
a
TC
TC
TC
TC
6
l'
4
J2a
3
2a
2
00
+ 2a
J}
df) dr
r=
dl'
df)
= a
sec f) tan f)
= ) cos 2 f)cotf)
a
l'
297
(a,O)
\~~I
Fig. 4.34
4.2.8 Example
Trace the curve
,.2  a
cos 2(} = 0
Solution:
() = 0
gives
,. = 0
= 0 ~ B = 7r/4
Icos201 S 1 ~
IrI sa. Curve completely lies within the region of the circle
I'
=a
(1',0)
symmetric about
0=7r/2
0 a
I'
Jr/6 a/J2
7r/4
0
7r/3
Jr/2
37r/4
0
imaginary
and 
298
Engineering Mathematics  I
The curve forms a loop bctween (a ,0) and (0,0) and has reflection in B = 1(/2 Diffcrentiating (1)2r~
dO
= 2a 2 sin20
tan
dO =r =
dl'
~2
a 2 sip 20
= eot20
0= 0 gives
line.
1(/2
=
Fig. 4.35
4.2.9 Example:
Trace the curve Solution: F (r, 0) = r 
r  {a + beosB} = 0
{a + beos ( B)} = F (r, 0)
IrI ~ a + b
= a+b
..
Curvature and Curve Tracing
299
Curve meets the line B = 1/2 at (a, n/ 2) . Curve passes through the pole when () = cos!
({l/ b) (since r = 0)
Hence the tangent to the curve at the pole is the line B = cos"! ( (i) (ii) does not exist when a > b is B
=
a/ b)
which
0
r tan = r 
n/3 a+b/2 .
1/2
2n/3 ah/2
= 00

a+b
ab
dB
dr
= a+hcosB
hsinB
when is
:.
= n /2
(a + b, 0)
.l/llr
to the initiallinc.
Further * 0 for any value of 0 and hence no tangent to the curve is parallel to the initial line When a =h tan When Wht1f\
=
n we get
300
____E_n:9:::...ineerin9 Mathematics  I
I (a+b,O) I I a>b
Fig. 4.36 (i)
(2a,0)
a=b
Fig. 4.36 (ii)
a<b
Fig. 4.36 (iii)
4.2.10 Example:
Trace the curve r
..... ( I)
This example illustrates that changing the coordinate system from polar to cartesian facilitates the tracing.
(I)
can be written as
..... (2)
No constant term in (3) :. curve passes through origin Lowest degree terms equated to zero gives The tangents at (0,0) are imaginary.
2/ + x = 0 => x yJii
2
=~
301
dy
y = 2a
o
Fig. 4.37
From (3)
x = y
J2ay ya
Exercise 4.2
when y < a or when y > 2a ,clearly x is imaginary (i.e.,) The curve exists only in the region a < y ~ 2a
4. r=3+2cosO 7. r=asin40
2. r=l+J2cosO 5. r=asin30
l 8. r=a(coso+) cosO
302
Engineering Mathematics  I
= ./; (t)
and y
= ./; (t)
..... (1)
where t is the parameter. The study of the following points are useful for tracing the curve I. If for some value for I , say I) ,
.t; (I) = (l
then the curve passes through the origin. 2. If.1; (I) is an odd function and is an even function
J; (I)
is even and
J; (I)
is odd
then the curve is symmetric about x  axis 4. Intercepts on X(Y)a.xis are obtained by solving respectively. 5. Greatest and least value of exists. 6. 7. If
.I; (I)
00
and
.t; (I)
It (t)
or
1; (I) tends to
Y) = 0 (d dx I~II
xaxis.
(:
8. 9.
) ) 00 as I ) ') then I
= I)
10. Sometimes it may be convenient to transform the equation of the curve from parametric to cartesian form for tracing the curve
4.3.1 Example:
Trace the curve x
= at 2 ,y = 2at
303
Solution:
Eliminating t from x and Y
= 4a 2t 2 = 4a.at 2 = 4ax
y
~~+
__
______+x
(0,0)
This is a parabola with vertex at origin y aXIs is a tangent to the curve at the origin.
4.3.2 Example:
Trace the curve x = acos/,Y = bsint
Solution:
Eliminating t from both x and Y
(= J+( ; J~
+~~~~.x (a,O)
(a,O)
(O,b)
Fig. 4.39
4.3.3 Example:
Trace the curve x
1 = (2 ,Y = t3
304

Engineering Mathematics  I
Solution:
Eliminating't'
2 y2 =t (It/{f
(i.e.,)
=x(l73'f =i(3X)2
9i = X(3X)2 (1)
y
F(x,y)
The curve is symmetric about x  Q.'Cis and hence it forms a loop between (0,0) and (3,0) y
(3x)Fx
3
which shows that the curve does not exist for x < 0
(i.e.,) to the left of Yaxis Lowest degree terms equated to zero gives x curve at origin.
=0
is a constant.
= mx + c
3
fA (m) =1
a constant,
fA (m) =0 gives
=J{i
Fig. 4.40
=dy =![lX] Ix 2 ~
305
Y (d )
dx ,~I
elY) ( dx
4.3.4 Example:
=+ ___
(3,0) 
1 J3
Solution:
For no value of f both x and Y simultaneously vanish :. The curvc does not pass through the origin. x is an odd function while y is even :. The curve is symmetric about y llxis
x(t) = 0 gives t
=0
.Correspondingly x = 0 and y = 2a
TC
llTC
TC
(lTC
2a
(/(1+~)
306
Engineering MathematicsI
n=1,2,3, ....
corresponding x is
a7l",3a7l", ....
Further x ~ 00 as I ~ 00 and
IYI ~ 2a
:. The curve completely lies within the region 0 ~ Y ~ 2a and is period of period 27l"
y
Fig. 4.41
4.3.5
Example:
Solution:
X(I)
=0
n=0,1,2, ....
Since Icos'l ~ I we have y 2 0 The curve is completely above x  axis and lies within the region 0 ~ y ~ 2a
(y = 2a when'
The curve meets x 
307
LI x(t)
t~oo
= 00
= cot ~ = tan ( ;
I
~)
are parallel to yaxis
~=
Jr
2 2
4a1t
~~~~~~~x
2a1t
2a1t
4a1t
Fig. 4.42
4.3.6 Example:
Trace the curve x
Solution:
The functions cos 3 e and sin 3 e are periodic of period 2Jr . Hence it is sufficient to trace the curve for one period. For no value of
e both
=0 =0
x and
y vanish.
x( e)
gives gives
e=~ , e = O,Jr
yeO)
308
Engineering Mathematics  I
01 s:; 1 and Isin '01 s:; 1 we have Ixl s:; a, Iyl s:; b
Jr/6 3J3 a Jr/3 Jr/2
0
e
x
2Jr/3
5Jr/6 2J3a
Jr
8 8
a/8 3J3 b
a/8
8

a
1 b
8
dy
=   tan
~J3 b
8
tan = tan
dx
=0
when
e = (2n+ l)Jr
(i.e.,) The tangent to the curve at these points is parallel to x  axis tan ~ 00 when
(2
2n+l) Jr
e there is x
for Jr 
:. The tangent to the curve at these points is parallel to yaxis It can be observed that for corresponding to x for some and corresponding to x for some
e there is
(O,b)
for  e .
0= n12
(O,b)
Fig. 4.43
309
4.3.7 Example:
Trace the curve x = a[ cose +
Solution:
e= 0
and lyllll'Lx
=a
x is an even function and y is odd. So the curve is symmetric about the x  axis
Corresponding to each x( e) there is x for 1C :. Curve is also symmetric about yaxis Since Isin el
(I
S; 1
we have
IYI S; a.:.
The
S;
Y S; a .
x(
Similarly,
~) = a [ cos ;
+ log tan : ]
= a [0 + log 1] = 0
x[ ;] = 0
=a
and y( ; )
=1
Thus the curve intersects the y axis at (0, a) and (0, (I)
tan~ = <!v dx
:.=1C_
sinOcosO
e)
2
Hence,
e e = ~ and = 1C
when
=0
when
e = ~
310
Engineering Mathematics  I
e =:= 7r/2
e~
00
or
00
according as
e ~ 0 or 7r
(O,a)
Fig. 4.44
4.3.8 Example:
Trace the curve x =   , ,y =   , a > 0
3at l+r'
3al 2 l+t'
Solution:
X
3 3 3 = (3a)3  , .I,y = (3a)3 3 .1 6
l+r
1+1
.". x 3 + y3
3 3 3a )3 27a t 3 ) = = ( __ 1\1 +/ 3 3
1+1
(l+t
3axy
4.3.9
Example:
a(lt 2 ) y 1+ t 2 '
= 2
1+ t
2bl
311
Solution:
x a2
Thus
(1_12]2 i
= 1+t 2
2
'
b2
( see examp Ie 3.3 .L'"')
2 2 ~ + L _ I
a
b
Exercise 40
I. x
2.
= aCt +sin t),y = a(l + cost) x = a sin 21(l + cos 2t), Y = a cos 2t(l cos 2t)
= asin 0
i (a + x) = x (3a  x) is
2
=0
(iii) x3a=O
I ADS: (ii)
2. The curve a 2y2 (i) xaxis
I ADS: (iii) I
3. The curve x 3 +
i = 3axy
[ADS: y = x)
4. If the tangents to the curve
[ADS:
5. The two tangents to the curve
.jba )
312
Engineering Mathematics  I
7. The curve x
= a (t + sin t), Y = a (1 
(2a  x) = x 3
[Ans:true)
5
Application of Integration to Areas, Lengths, Volumes and Surface areas
5.1 LAGRANGE'S METHOD OF UNDETERMINED MULTIPLIERS The definite integrals are useful in formulating important physical applications like (i) lengths (ii) areas and (iii) volumes and surgace areas of sol ids otrevolution. 5.1.1 (a) The area bounded by a curve y = f(x} , the axis of x and the two ordinates x = a and x = b is given by the definite integral.
S:ydx= J:f(x)dx
y
= f(x)
. x'~!
o
y'
"'=x
Fig.5.1.1(a)
Similarly the area bounded by a curve x = fry) the axis of y and the two abscissae y = c and y = d is given by the definite integral.
S:xdy = S:j(y)dy
314
Engineering Mathematics  I
x' :,+, o x
y'
(b)
Fig.5.1.1(b) If the equation of the curve is in prametric form, then the area
=
ll
I,
dx y  dt or dt
II
dy x  dt dt
(c)
where tl' t2 are the limits of integration depending on the boundary of the curve. The area enclosed by the polar form of the curve r = f(B) and two radii vectors (} = a, (} = f3,, is
= fPCd(}=~
a
fP[r(})Jd(}
a
 r d(})
1 2
o~~
Fig.5.1.1(c)
5.1.2 Example Find the total area within the curve c?y
c?x2 ,,
/ , / 'y
x4
"
Y =  x" " " "",
Y
,, ...........8
=x
A
x ' ~~~~~~~~~x
,,
,,
,,
y'
,,
Fig. 5.1.2 
315
Solution: The curve has two equal loops between the lines x = a and x = a and is symmetric about x axis. The total area within the curve = 4 (the area of the half of the loop i.e., 'OABO')
= 4 Laydx
=4
fo va
a
ax
1~22
x dx
=~x_l fa~2_x2j2(_2x}lx
a
2
0
3
3a
Sq.units
=
:x3(2a  x)
x = 2a B
x'
0
(0, 0) A(2a,0)
y'
Fig. 5.1.3 Solution: The curve is symmetrical about xaxis it cuts the xaxis at the points 0(0,0), A(2a,0). The curve consists of a loop lying between x = 0, x = 2a The required area =20ABO
= 2
=
fo ;dx
2a X 3/ 2.J2a  x
o a 2a sin2 ()
2f
=
dx
Substituting x
316
Engineering Mathematics  I
We have
Area
=~
a
=
Jll
0
32a 2
J:
e cos 2 e de
6.4.2 5.1.4 Example: Find the area of the segment cutoff from the parabolay y = 4x 1. Solution: The given curves are y = 2x Y = 4x  1
x'Ib~_1_=
y'
Fig. 5.1.4
Solving (i) and (ii) we get the points of intersection as
J ! {y + 1)dy J
1 124
1 12
317
a2(y
B
 x 2)
x' j===::;>+:;::::=::::f..!.. x
'y
Fig. 5.1.5
Solution: The given equation can be written as
a x
The asymptotes to the curve are given by
~2X2 2
a 2 _x 2 = O=> x::;:a The curve is symmetric about both the axes and passes through the origin. The shaded portion is the required area. The complete area = 4(areaOAB in the first quadrant)
= 4 Laydx
=
4J" 12ax
0
va x 2
~2
1
x
= 
2a X
2  X )
12
10
= 4a[:2 J a 
Jl0 I
2
=
4a[O  a]
4a2 Sq.units.
5.1.6 Example:
Find the area bounded by the curves
= 9x, x 2 = 9y,
Solution:
Solving
9x and.xl
9y
318
Engineering Mathematics  I
x'+~=F=.:=~x
asin 2t, y
asin 2t, y
= 
asin 3 t
cost
y
x=a
x,l..~;;;;;;;~~~x
y'
Fig. 5.1.7
a 2 sin 6 t cos 2 t
ax
319
The equation of the given curve is transformed into cartesian form. The curve is symmetric about xaxis and x = a is the asymptote. The required area = 2(shaded area)
1/2 )
' dx
Writing
asin 2 B, dx=2asinBcosBdB
4a
4 5.1.8 Example: Find the area included between the cycloid x = a(e  sinO), y = a(1  cosO) and its base. Solution: The equation ofthe curve is x = a(B sinO) y = a(1  cosO)
y
e =0
e = 2n
'y
A (2an ,0)
Fig. 5.1.8
=
=
=
dO
f ;(1 2 0
4a
320
Engineering Mathematics  I
? 8a.2
",2
sin 4 tdt
()
(taking =t) 2
371a2 Sq.units
5.1.9 Example: Find the area between the curve x Solution: The required area
= =
=
a(O + sinO), y
2 area OAB
2f"ydx .dO =2f"aQcosO)aQ+cosO)dO o dO 0 2a .2
2
"/2
sin 2 0dO
y
.f. A
x,=~~~~~~l x o =1t 0 0 =0 8
'y
Fig. 5.1.9
=
4a ..
1t
2 2
= mJ Sq. units
5.1.10 Example: Find the complete area of the curve given by the equations.
acos3 fJ, y
bs in 3 ()
321
x'~?+=~x
A(a, 0)
Y'
Fig. 5.1.10
Solution:
The required area
= 4 area OABO
=4Jaydx =4Jo
1t 2
y dx de de
4 I:'2bsin3B~3Bcos2BsinB)
= 12ab
=
J sin e cos e
3 1 1
1f
1t/2
de
12abx...
642 2
? =
a 2 cos2f)
e =1[/4
x'~~~~~~~~
e =0
c
Y'
Fig. 5.1.11
322 Solution:
Engineering Mathematics  I
4 areaOABO
2f"4~9 =
o 2
f" 4r2d9
0
fo
2
"!4
a cos 29 d9
= ~in29]o 2
a2
,,'4
a2
5.1.12 Example:
a(l + cosO)
B
() = 1t
c
A
Fig. 5.1.12
"
a
= f: a Q +cos9 )2d9
2
J:
8a
= 4a 2 = 4a 2
=
2
"/2
(where t = 0/2)
=
3 I 1r 422
3Jlll 2
Sq. umts
323
5.1.13 Example:
, =
Find the area of the portion included between the carbo ids , a(l  cosB').
a (l + cosB') and
Solution:
Required area
=
4(OCBDO)
=4
[I
1t 0
2,2 d8
1
+ cas8 )
8 =0
A
4~~r::_~ r = aQ
Fig. 5.1.13
= 2 0 =
1t / 2
1 {, )2 aV cas8 d8
2a 2 2a
2
[8  2sin8]
5.1.14 Example:
Find the area afthe curve
r2 =
a2sin28.
8=~
4
=n/4
x
Fig. 5.1.14
324
Engineering Mathematics  I
Solution: The total area of the curve = 2 area of one loop of the curve
1 = 2 . 1 fll .!2r 2de = f1l 2? a sin 2ede
0 2
1.
2.
3. 4. 5.
Find the whole area of the ellipse ~ + [;2 = 1 Find the whole area of the curve x 2(x 2 + .I) Find the area of the curve a2x 2
=
a 2(x 2 
.I)
(Ans:
1t
ab]
y(2a  y)
(Ans: Jra2 ] Find the area bounded by the curve xy = 4el(2a  x) and its asymptote. (Ans: 4Jra 2 ) Find the area included between .I = 4ax and y = mx
8a 2 (Ans:  3 3) m 4a(x + a) and
6.
7.
(Ans:
~(a + b}Fab )
1(2J2i}  3 ) I
3JTa 2
8. 9.
Show that the area of the loop of the curve ely Find the area of the loop of the curve r
=
asin2B.
JTa2
aJ2.  2acosB
[Ans: el(Jr  1)]
325
(a)
The length of the arc of the curve y = fix) included between the points whose abscissae are 'a' and 'b' is s=J h
<J
(d)2 dx I+~
dx
or
(b)
The length of the arc of the curve x = f(y) included between the points whose ordinates are 'c' and 'd' is
d
s=J ('
1+dy ( dy )
dx
(c)
The length of the arc of the curve x = fit), y = g(t) included between two points whose parametric values are 'a' and '/3' is
(d)
The length of the arc of the curve r = j(B) included between two points whose vectorial angles are 8/ and 82 is
s=
(e)
J9,
9??
r
+( r 
dr
)
de
dt
,. , J,,
1+ r dr
(de )2 dr
5.2.2 Example:
x 2)
8a2
326
Engineering Mathematics  I
Solution:
y
x'4lIf+ x
A'(a,O) A(a, 0)
'y
Fig. 5.2.2
The curve is symmetrical about both the axis, one loop is formed in between x and x = a and another loop is formed in between x = 0 and x =  a. The total length of the curve Total length = s = 4
=
=
4(1ength OABO)
f:
dx
I+( :
dx
.... ( I)
:x2(a2  x 2 )
8a2y2
16a 2y dy =2xa2 _ 4x 3
dy _ x(a 2 _2X2) dx 8a 2 y
327
.... (2)
=
s=
5.2.3 Example:
.J271
8
x'*J.U.jtJ.LL~~+_ X
(0,0) 'y
Fit. S.l.3
328
Engineering Mathematics  I
The curve is symmetrical about x  axis, the loop is formed between lines x and x = a, differentiating 3ay = x(x  a)2 w.r., to x.
6ay dy dx
= x.2{xa)+ {xa)2
... (1)
1+ (
1+
(:r
r
(3~2+;)2
.... (2)
=2
(3x+a) dx o 2FaFx
s=
2,,3a
=
~Ja3Fx+ax12dx
0
1 ,,3a
r::; L2x
r:
32
+ 2ax
12] a
0
= ~ [2a 3/ 2 + 2aFa]= 4~
,,3a ,,3 5.2.4 Example: Find the perimeter of the loop of the curve 3ay r(a  x)
329
Solution:
x';~t..J.J,.t..J.J,."'f__:__
Fig. 5.2.4
The curve is symmetrical about xaxis and the loop of the curve lies between x and x
=
=
a.
=
20ABO
s= 2
(4a3x) dx o 2J3a.Jax
a
s = _1
fa a+3{a X~lx
0
afj
.Jax
1[2a{ax) 2 2{ax)'2] ~
afj
Ir:; [0 + 2afa + 2a 3 !2]= 4a/ fj
av3
5.2.5 Example: Find the length of the arc of the parabola y2 = 4ax cut off by the line 3y = 8x.
330
Solution:
Engineering Mathematics  I
x'~!OII"I'!J
...x
Y'
Fit. ,.2.6
Solving the equations of the J>araboLa anct the fine gives the points of intersections
0(0,0) and A
(~: ' 3; )
2ydy =4a dx
=
y=4ax
dy dx
2a y
1+
(dy)2 =1+L dx 40
2
s=
. a
_1
2a 2
=
2..
Jo
a[~~ + IOg2]
331
5.2.6 Example:
Find the length of an arc of the cycloid x = a(t  sin t), y = a( I  cos t).
Solution:
y
~o~~an~~a~nA~x
(2a1t,0 )
Fig. 5.2.6
dx dt
2asint/2
= 2
Io" 2asin 7i dt
=
=
4a[ 2cost/2] ~
8a
5.2.7 Example:
a 2/ 3 + b 2/ 3 =I
332 Solution:
y
B(O,b)
Engineering Mathematics  I
A(a,O) x'E:~~x
y'
B'(O,b)
Fig. 5.2.7
The parametric form of the curve is
x = acos 3 (J, y = bsin3 0
s=4
f1t2[(3asinecos2e)+~bsin2ecoseJ
0
:\2J12
de
Substituting and
clcos 2o + b 2sin 2 0 = z2 (b 2  a 2) 2sinO cosO dO
=
2z dz
s = 12
z 12 Z3/ h z. ( 2 2) dz = 2 2 a ,b a b a 3 a
h
3 _
~ 4 ~ (b
ba
a3
)= 4(a
+ b + ab)
a+b
5.2.8 Example:
Find the length of the arc of the curve given by x = asin21(J + cos21), y = acos2t(Jcos2t) measured from the origin to any point.
333
Solution: x
=
asin2t(1 +cos2t)
= 2a(cos2t + cos4t)
=
dx dt
and
4acos3tcost
.... ( I)
acos2t(1  cos2t)
= 
dy dl
L (~;
r r
+(;
lIa
dt
f~ J(4a cos3/COS/)2 + (4acos 31 sin 1Ydl s = f'4a cos 3tdt = sin 3/11
s=
0 3 0
s= 5.2.9 Example:
Sin I
4a . 3 3
a(1 + cosO).
Solution:
~~~x
e = 1t
0=0
Fig. 5.2.9
334
Engineering Mathematics  I
a( I + cos 0)
:=)
dB
dr
a sin 0
2 fox
o
1'2
+(~
2
dO
= =
L" J2a
x
Q+cosO )dO
,..,
= =
4a.2.sinB/ 8a
20
5.2.10 Example:
Find the perimeter of the curve r
=
2acosB.
Solution:
The equation of the curve is r
=
2acosB.
It is a circle passing through pole whose centre is on the initial line at a distance 8/2 from pole.
0=0
Fig. 5.2.10
335
=20ABO =2J
= 2
n'2
r2+(dr)2dB
dB
2asinB)1 dO
f: ~(211~;;~OJ ~(12
= =
4a2
2aJ(
J(
5.2.11 Example
Find the length of the arc of the parabola Ijr
=
Solution:
LSL' = 21 is the latus rectum of the parabola.
Fig. 5.2.11
The length of the arc L' AL = 2AL
=2
;2
1 r+ 
(dr)2 dB
(IB
=
336
Engineering Mathematics  I
dr =rtanB/2 dB
The length of the arc = 2
=
1t/2 ~ 2
r + r tan9/2d9
1t/2 0
1t!2
t
I
sec 2 B/2.dB = dt 2
l[ F2 + log(1 +
F2)]
=
Exercise  5(8)
1.
2.
(x  2a}(x  5ai
(ADS: 4.fja J
337
3.
Find the length of the arc of the parabola x2 = 4ay from vertex to one extremity of the latus rectum. [Ans: a[ 12 +Iog(l +
12)]J
4.
= x2
~Jl+4x2
2
+.!.sin I {2x)] 4
=
5.
1 to x
2
I)
J5)+ J5 ]
7. 8.
a(B + sinO) y
=
a(l cosO)
=
eOsinB, y
1[/2
9.
X = (2,
= ( 
is of length 4fj
=
10.
11.
a(l cosO)
=
e=
(a)
21[/3
J:
1t)12 dx.
Ld
1tX
dx.
338
Engineering Mathematics  I
(c)
}(t), y
$(t) about
']
(d)
dx dl dt
= f '2 n ~ Cr)r
']
dfCr ).dl dt
=
j{t), y
i...t) about
']
(e)
IS
dt"
dl
Volume ofthe solid obtained by the revolution ofthe cure r = j{ fJ) about the initial line
S n\"sIno
OJ
02
f.
f\)2
d{rcose )d0 .
de
(f)
Volume of the solid obtained by the revolutuon of the curve r perpendicular to initial line
=
f.
81
82
n \" COSo
f.
0)2
d{rsine),lO
0]
de
.U'
(g)
The volume of the solid generated by the revolution about the initial line (xaxis) of the area bounded by the curve r = j{ fJ) with the radii vectors B = a, B = {3 is
=
O=~
O=a
(h)
The volume of the solid generated by the revolution of the area about the line B = ni2 (yaxis) of the area bounded by the curve r = f(e) with the radii vectors
B=a, B={3is
=
5.3.2 Example:
Find the volume of the solid formed by the revolution of the loop of the curve y(a + x) = x 2(a  x) about xaxis.
339
Solution:
y
= 0 gives x = 0, a
x=a
Fig. 5.3.2
:. The volume formed by the revolution of the loop about xaxis
(Jr x2 (ax)l
1(
a+x
ex
4(2  x) about
340
Engineering Mathematics  I
Solution:
y
x' ,o..+f.,,,;,~O)r x
Fig. 5.3.3
xcY+4)=8
The volume of the solid obtained by revolving the given curve about yaxis
= 2n
Substitutingy
)2 J (~ y+4
OC!
64
dy
= tanO ~
dy dO
= 2sec 2 OdO
= 8n
= =
1t /
I +cos2e de
8n [ e
+2 sin28
1t
5.3.4 Example:
The part of the parabola y2 = 4ax cut off by the latus rectum revolves about the tangent at the vertex. Find the volume of the reel thus generated.
341
Solution:
y
L(a,2a)
x'+M++x
J?+4.I
L'
y'
Fig. 5.3.4
Volume of the reel generated
=2fo
Jf
=
211
1[
[ '}Y
y4a
1 Y
]2<l
0
8a 2 [
4Jfa 3
= 
cubic units
5.3.5 Example:
Find the volume ofa sphere of radius 'a'.
Solution:
Equation of the circle of radius 'a' is x 2 +
y
a2 .
x'~~~~~~~~x
(a,O)
(a,D)
y'
Fig 5.3.5
342
Engineering Mathematics  I By revolving this circle about xaxis we get a sphere of radius 'a'.
Volume of the sphere
= rr
~"rrydx
(2 ') ~11 \q  x dx
ll
5.3.6 Example:
Find the volume of the solid generated by the revolution of the curve x 3 = bsin () about xaxis.
y
(l
em;3 (),
Solution:
B(D,b)
x'
(a,D) B'(O,b)
'y
Fig. 5.3.6
The volume of the solid generated by the revolution of the curve x
=
aeos 3 (),
.h
1)
IS
11/2
105
343
5.3.7 Example:
Find the volume of the solid fonned by the revolution of x
=
a(
e Sillf/),
Solution:
y
o = n/2
Fig. 5.3.7
Volume obtained by the revolution of the area OABO about the base (xaxis).
O=21t
()=o
dx y2(10 . dO

= na
3f8=21t1J 8=0 ~
cosB
)~
dB
= na"
.8
21t
0=0
2sin 6 O/2dO
(e12 = t => dB = 2dl)
16na3.2 J1t o
5.3.8 Example:
Find the volume generated by revolving the curve r = a( 1  cosq) about the initial line.
344
Engineering Mathematics  I
Solution:
O=~ 2
o = It
A
Fig. 5.3.8
The volume generated by the curve
=
2n 3 2n 3
f1t r3 sin8 d8
0
ysin8 18
=   cubic units.
3
5.3.9 Exam'pre:
8Jfa 3
Find the volume orthe solid formed by the revolution of the curve r (a<b) about the initial line.
Solution:
a + hcosO
Volume
2n = 3
= ~
f1t r3 sin8d8
0
')n 3
(a+bcOS()=t
345
21t 3 3b
U 
u+h
p(_ dt) b
=  21t
SUh t3d!
u+b
==
~~[,;[
~[(a+bt (ab)4]
6b
5.3.10 Example:
Find the volume of the solid generated by revolving the lemniscate? about the line B=
=
a2 c:os2B
tr
Solution:
Fig. 5.3.10
The curve is symmetric about q = tr/2 Volume
=
=
=
i3 1ta
346
Engineering Mathematics  I
(taking
.J2 sinO =
sint =>
.J2 cos(}dO =
cos/dt)
.J27C 2a3
Exercise  5(C)
1. Find the volume of the solid generated by revolving the clips :: x (a) About the major axis
~: = I
(b)
[ADS:
2. The curve + x) = by the curve.
37lZJ b J
yea
3.
Show that the volume of the solid generated by the revolution of the curve (a x)y
7C 2a3
4.
Find the volume of the solid generated by the revolution ofthe curve y(a2 + x2) about the asymptote
a3
347
5.
Find the volume of the solid obtained by revolving the loop of the curve a 2 == x 2(2a  x)(2a  x)(x  a) about xaxis.
(Ans:
60
6.
JI + x"
lying between
0 and x
7.
Show that the volume of the solid generated by the revolution of the cycloid
8.
. . 3 , 1 87[' IS  7[" l  2 3 Find the volume of the solid generated y revolving the cycloid x y = aU + cosO) about its base.
==
. a( 8 + SinO), Y ==
a(8 + sinO),
IAns: 5~l31
9.
(Ans:
12
Ii r ( h ) h] l3log"\/2 + 1 "\/2 I
10.
Find the volume of the solid generated by revolving r and e == 7[/6 about the initial line.
(Ans:
197[(1' 968 )
I
(b)
21ty Is ==
Ii>
X=U
ds 21ty  Ix
X=Q
dx
Surface area of the solid generated by the revolution about yaxis of the area bounded by the curve y = fix), the yaxis and the abscissae y = c, y == I is
21tX 
X=Q
cis (~V dy
[ d~==
dy
1+(dX)2]
dy
348
Engineering Mathematics  I
(c)
f
(d)
'=/2
/=/1
ds .21tydt dt
[ d~
dt
==
(dX)2 + ({~y)2l
dt dt
91
5.4.2 Example:
? '0 ? '3 ?', Find the surface area of solid generated by revolving the curve xi' + y' == aI
about xaxis.
Solution:
acos3 e, y
asin 3 B.
Y
B(O,a)
x'
A'(a,O) 8'(0,a)
Y'
Fig. 5.4.2
The surface area of the solid due to revolution about xaxis
== 2(surface area of the solid generated by revolving an arc in the first quadrant of the astroid is)
=
lt/2
41t
It/2
349
12na 2
2
0' 
sinle cosO dO
ffn
5.4.3 Example:
Find the area of the surface formed by the revolution of the ellipse x2 + 4y about its: (a) major axis
Solution:
16
~ +L
16
ely dx
x 4y
16y2
(a)
+X2
16/
Surface area formed by the revolution about major axis l ds = 2 2nydx o dx
350
Engineering Mathematics  I
.Jl[~(~ r Jl] =
=
x' +
~: Sin{ )I
8"[1 + 4"9
Sq. units.
(b)
41t
L2 J
Xl
+ 16yl dy
2
= 41t
J:
J164 y 2 +16y dy
8Jl. s: (1 r
+ y' dy
351
5.4.4 Example:
Find the surface area formed by revolving cycloid x = a(B+ sinO),y = a = (/  cosO) about the tangent at the vertex.
Solution:
=1[ a1[
y
a1[
=1[
x'   ..............;~"""'"..I X
y'
0=0
Fig. 5.4.4
Surface area required
ds 21ty dB
de
= 4 IX
II
1t)'
(% = t => dB = 2dt)
= 321tary
X/2 0 sin 2
t cost dt
= 
32JlU 2
3
Sq. units.
352
Engineering Mathematics  I
5.4.5 Example: Find the area of the surface of reel thus generated by revolution of the part of the parabola = rax bounded by the latus rectum about the tangent at the vertex.
Solution:
y
x'+~+_ x
y
dy
Fig. 5.4.5
=
4ax
2a
y
dx
Surface area
fo 21tXdx dx
)2 dx
ds
4n
fo" x.J x 2 + ax dx
= 4n
J:[(x+~r (~rl2dx
353
4lT
o
= JZa
2
5.4.6 Example:
Find the area of the surface of revolution formed by revolving the curve r about the initialline~
=
2acosB
Solution:
Equation of the circle is
2acosB
dr ' B = 2 asm
dB
x'~Io
....x
y'
Fig. 5.4.6
ds
lIi2
21trsinO r2 + ( dO
2
dr
)
dO
2 2
"/2
354
Engineering Mathematics  I
5.4.7 Example:
r
Find the surface area of the solid formed by the revolution of the cardioid = a(J + cosO) about the initial line.
Solution:
a(J + cosO)
dr . B =asm
0=0
Io"2nyde de
ds
Fig. 5.4.7
= 2n = 2n
=
L" rsine
r2 +(*
I:
2
2
de
2 rSineJa (i +cose
y +a 2sin 2e de
2
L" a(i + cose)sine .Ja 2(i + cose)2 + a = 16na I" COS3~ sin ~ cos ~ de o 2 2 2 e sm"2 . e d8 = 16na I" cos "2
2n
0
4
sin 2e de
16a 2n   cos 5 
[25 2 eJ"
Sq. units
= 
32mi
5
355
5.4.8 Example:
Find the surface of the solid generated by revolving the lemniscate,.2 about the initial line.
Solution:
a 2cos2B
Fig. 5.4.8
" ds fo 21tydO dO
4
a 2cos2B
41t
In
11/4
dr rsinO r2 + ( dO
2 )
dO
41t
1[/4 0 rsinO
~ a4 ~ r +~ sm20 dO r
41ta 2 [_ cosO ] ~
356
Engineering Mathematics  I
Exercise  5(0)
I. Find the total area of the surface obtained by revolving the ellipse its major axis.
a
x~ + y~ = 1 about
b
2. 3.
Find the surface ofa sphere of radius 'a'. (Ans: 4Jlu 2 ] Find the surface of the solid generated by revolving the arc of the parabolay bounded by its latus rectum about xaxis. 3 Find the area of the surface generated by the revolution of the cycloid x y = a(l  cost) about xaxis. (Ans:
=
4ax
~7lU2(2J2 I)J
=
4.
a(t  sint), 64
2
[Ans: 5.
7m )
Find the area of the surface of the solid formed by the revolution of the cardiod r = a(l  cosO) about the initial line. (Ans:
SJl"a )
32
6.
The lemniscate? = a2cos2B revolves about a tangent at the pole. Show that the surface area generated is 47lU2
Let (x" y,) be any point in the subregion of area 8Ri . Consider the sum
The limit of this sum as n ~ 00 (i == 1,2, .... ) is defined as the double integral ofj(x,y) over the region R and is written as
fff(x,y}iA
357
Hf(x,y}ixdy
II
Lt
n~oo ,=\
I f(x" yJ) R,
(a)
Suppose the region R is described by the inequalities c ::::; y ::::; d and g(y) ::::; x ::::; heY)
y
y=d ..._ _.,....::....fX = h(y)
x = g(y)
x'+x o
Y'
Fig. 5.5.1 (a)
Then
t
yc
="
(b)
Jfthe region R is described by inequalities a ::::; x ::::; band g, (x) ::::; y ::::; h,(x)
y
Fig.5.5.1(b)
Then (c)
x=h
y=lI\ (.)
II
x=a
Hf(x,y}dxdy
II
"
" h
( a
358
5.5.2 Example:
Evaluate
Engineering Mathematics  I
2 I I{x + y2 }Ix dy
o
I
Solution:
o
=
il
2 7 Y 7 I Y + dy=+yl 3 3 3 0
+=
1 7 8 333
5.5.3 Example:
4
K~
Evaluate
Ixydydx
o
Solution:
4 J4x
4
I'=J4x
I
I
fxydydx = f
0
x=l
f [xydy] dx
0
y=K~
f
x=l
fxydy.dx
0
9
2
359
5.5.4 Example:
1 2 r
Evaluate
o J~'
J Jx dXdY
2
Solution:
v=1
y~O
1
J 8
V1
12)1 + 6v '
2) V l IV
~
\'~O
1[S16+2lJ
67 60
5.5.5 Example:
Find the value of Hxy(x+ y}/xdy taken over the region enclosed by the curves
x and y
x2.
y
Solution:
y=x
x' _ _ _ _ _
~~::.....
y'
Fig. 5.5.5
360
Engineering Mathematics  I
x~
1=
ff'"y(x + y')dxcly
II
x5 x5 x7 x8 I 10+]514 24 10
I I I 1 +
10
15
14
24
=
56
5.5.6 Example:
Evaluate x2 + y2
=
IfR 1 Y
A
1.
Solution:
y
x'~r~~~~~~~x
8(1,0)
y'
Fig. 5.5.6
361
= 
ofx[~ /'2~] ()
I I
_I
~ 1 (2
Ix
= 
o
I
= 
f{x x}It
2 
o
J ]1 x 3 X +
2 ()
1
= +=
I
5.5.7 Example:
Evaluate ffe
tlHhY
0, y = 0, ax + by = I
Solution:
x:: : Olt"
x'~~~~~x
AU,a)
Fig. 5.5.7
362
Engineering Mathematics  I
1 = ffea<+hY dx dy
1= I I'"
,=0
lY: 'Sf:/\ e
y=o
+hI' I I (Y(X
I
= _
;R~ e ,(Ia<) _e
llX+) 
lLt
+O
1dx
bo
~[.:. .:.  0 + ~l b a a a
ab
5.5.8 Example:
Evaluate ffydxdy where R is the region bounded by the parabolas y
R
4x and
xl
4y.
363
Solution:
y
x'~~~x
y'
Fig. 5.5.8
Solving the curves i' = 4x, x 2 = /y
X2 )2 (  4 =4x
x= O,x= 4 (0,0), (4,4)
1= ffydxdy
11
48 5
Engineering Mathematics  I
ff(f;  y2 }iydx
II
(I, I).
Solution:
8(1.1) Y
x ____________ ________________x
~
0(0.0)
y'
Fig. 5.5.9
The triangle OAB is within the limits y
~
lOy and 0 ~ y
~)
ff(J~  y dydx) =
2
II
J J(FxY Y
x~IOy
y2)dxdy
y=o x=y
JelY ~~~y /y
[
3 ]IOY
365
Exercise : 5(E)
I.
1. Evaluate the following double integrals:
2
f f(x 2 + y2 ~xdy
0
IAns:  I
3 x+2
32 3
2.
f f~vdx
I
x2
IAns:
I
3
3.
} Jdxdy
J
II
~1I2_x2
4.
f
o
fidydx
0
5.
f f(x 2+ y2 )ixdy
0
ah (J IAns: 3\U + h ]
J)
[Ans:
I
4
3Jru 4
366
Engineering Mathematics  I
2ax
8.
f
o
fxy{O;dx
);2
3a 4 [Ans:  ] 8
9. Find the value of ffxydxdy taken over the positive quadrant of the ellipse
~: + ;~ = I
a Ja 2 y2
10. f
o
f
0
~a2 _x 2 
y dxdy
7fa
3
(Ans:  ] 6
x=1 y=x
y
II.
f eX dxdy
e\ [Ans:  )
2
x=o y=O
12.
[Ans:
7f
log(.J2 + 1)1
13.
j fSin(x+ y)dxdy
x
[Ans: I]
367
14.
y2 = {/2
when
{/4
[Ans:
I
8
15.
Evaluate Hxydx((v whose R is the region bounded by xaxis, ordinatex ~ 2a and the curve x?
.Jay.
[Ans:
3
=
a4
16.
Evaluate and y
=
2x, y
3 ~ x.
17.
Hxydx(~Y
~7).
where R is the triangular region with vertices A(~6, 2), B(~ 1,3)
[Ans:
18.
:n 1
~ 1
~1025
Evaluate Hxydn'y over the region in the positive quadrant for which x + y
I [Ans: 241
dx dx du elv where J = dy cZY and 'R' is the region in the uv plane corresponding to the region du dv
R in the xy plane.
368
Engineering Mathematics  I
dr dB Jff(x,y)dxdy =
/I
Jff~cos9,rsinO] /Jld9dr
/I'
= Jff[rcosO,rsinOp'dltlr
/I'
5.5.12 Example:
Evaluate quadrant.
Jf~ a 2  x 2  y2 dxdy
xl + Y
ax in the positive
Solution:
Substituting x
=
reose,
y = rsinB, in xl + Y = ax
,.2eos2 0 + ,.2sin2 0
=
an'osO
aeosO
Y'
Fig. 5.5.12
From the figure it can be sedn that
OP
aeos8
369
for the upper halfofthe circle, Ovaries form 0 to value of 0, r varies from 0 to
or i.e., () to acmO.
1[
JJ~a2x2idx(ZV= f
II
2 acosO,_ _ _ __
fJa2r2cos20r2sin20rdrdO
r~O
I) ~O
1t
~ f~
3
0
3 2
sin 0)dO
2
5.5.13 Example:
{/
2 J \ a  y
Evaluate f o
Solution:
From the given limit x = ~ a 2

+ y = (r, taking x = rcasO, y = rsillO. The given rigion is the first quadrant of the
circle. Here r varies from '0' to
'(I'
7T "2.
O~~O
370
Engineering Mathematics  I
(14
1l
=x
8
5.5.14 Example:
00 W
Transform the integral I Ie  '+Y dxdy to polar coordinates and evaluate it. o r=d Solution: The limits of x and yare both from 0 and' 00 '. Therefore the region is in the first quadrant where r varies from '0' to ' 00 ' and B varies from '0' to Substituting x
=
(2 2)
1l
1t
1t
I 2
2
r
e [2jW
0
1t
de
1 ? =
Ixydx:v
a
371
Solution:
The given limits are
x:O~a,y:~~2ax
a
~ y = 2a  x i.e., x + y = 2a.
a
Y'
Fig. 5.5.15
a
J Jxydxdy
x2/a
2ax
Hxydxdy + Hxydxdy
OA(,O ('AIl(,
y=a x=[:ry
y=2ax=2ay
Jxydxdy +
Jxydxdy
5.5.16 Example:
a
J J(x 2 + y2 }txdy
x
a
372
Engineering Mathematics  I
Solution:
~ a
ay = x.
x'~~x
Y'
Fig. 5.5.16
f~ i 3
I ( 3
 a 3 l + ai  ay4 } y 3
a3 a =+28 20
5.5.17 Example:
a
Evaluate
2&
Solution:
= 4ax.
373
x=a
x' ...",..jl""::I x
y'
Fig. 5.5.17
3"
2a [
[') Y
4a
a 
Y7]2(1
0
5.5.18 Example:
4
f yfx
4
2 X
2 dxdy
+y
x=4
x'..,t"f'~~
y'
Fig. 5.5.18
374
The given limits are y =
Engineering Mathematics  I
= 4 and x = y, x = 4.
5.5.19 Example:
a vaL _yL
'22
fxydxdy
0
Solution:
y
x'+~+_~~x
y'
i.e., x 2 + y2 =a2
X
o
xL
2
2l~ dx
0
375
Triple integration:
Let u = j(x,y,z) be a single valued function of the independent variables x, y, z defined through the region V. Divide the region V into 11 subregions t5V I' t5V 2 ... t5V nand P(x l , YI' z) be any point inside or on the boundary of the subregion t5V /' then the sum
II
~oo ,~I
Lt
11
~
If(xpy"z, )dv,
00
,~I
HJf(x,y,z}1v
/'
5.5.20 Example:
\
Evaluate
JJ J(x + y + z }ixdyd::.
0
x+z
I
xz
Solution:
\ z x+z
xz
376
Engineering Mathematics  I
JZ 3 + 2z 3 + 2z 3dz
I
1 [ 4]1 =SJ.::\lz=S 24 =0
I I
5.5.21 Example:
2
Evaluate
Solution:
J J JeX+Y+ZdXdydz
t"dy
x+y
000
H Je'[J'dZ H'LT+[[e'.(e' r
fe<[ feY{eHY \ }IY}b:
o
0
4<
377
5.5.22 Example:
Evaluate
1 1
I=
f f[xz t~dnly
\'=0
r:::
1,2
f .~  X3
\'=0
1 \=1
dy
t:..::y2
y=()
f (I6
1
y4 _0_+dy
y6l
3
~ [~< +~;I 3~
5.5.23 Example:
Evaluate
Solution:
4[~+S'11 x 42
z=O
~1
X {}
J4;
]2.[; dz
<=0
4 [ 2r In::dZ z2 Jo
= 1f
=81f
Engineering Mathematics  I
Evaluate HJryzdzdydx over the volume enclosed by three coordinate planes and the
I'
plane x + y + z = I.
Solution:
The plane x + y + z = I meets the coordinate axes in A( I ,0,0),8(0, I ,0) and C(O,O, I).
z
C(O,O,1)
x
Fig. 5.5.24
1(2
I Ix
XY[
r' }n
dy
J JXy(I+X2+y2_2X2y+2Xy~ydx
x=O ),=0
Ix
379
5.5.25 Example:
Evaluate
ff~X2 + i
I'
= z = {[,
Solution:
z
Fig. 5.5.25
ff~x2 + y2 + z2 )lzdydx =
I'
'f 'f
x~o
'f(x + y2 + z2
Z~O
)Iz(zvch
\'=0
(/
x=o
J ))
ra ++dx
3 4
=d
380
Engineering Mathematics  I
5.5.26 Example:
Fig. 5.5.26
V=4
J J [z]ga r
2
y~O
r;;C;'1
,2 1'2
dyd"(
X~O
= 1rG
2 3
381
Exercise  5(F)
1.
I.
[4:':;'
J
x2
J(x+ y}lxdy
241 IAns: 60
2.
J fx{x + i }Ixdy
2
0
29 56 IAns: 24 I
" 2 ,2,,1,,2_x
3.
0
f
2x
fy 2dx((V
0
({~
IAns:  +  1 16 32 4.
lW4
J J!...dxdy v
x .
IAns: 2 log2 I
II
j;
5.
f f
fxy(X + y}lxdy
I'
IAns:
41 2\'at
,.
Jdydx
3 56
6.
x2/4a
IAns:
2
I
3
16a
7.
Jfx
I 3
+ y dxdy
IAns: 10)
382
Engineering Mathematics  I
II.
I.
f f fxyzdxdydz
000
a6 [Ans: 48]
2.
f 'J 1](> + i
o
0 0
+ Z1 }lwlydz
I [Ans: 20]
3.
f II'
()
, , JXIY~ dydz
0
[Ans:
122
3"]
4.
f f fx yzdxdydz
(J
III
5.
() () ()
[Ans: I]
f f f(x + y + z)dxdydz
[Ans:
I
2]
JIx 2 ~~2_y2
f
0
6.
f o
fxyz dtdydz
0
I [Ans: 48]
383
7.
JJ
I x
Fv
Jxyz dxdydz
0
(Ans:] (
I
13 1 1og3 ) 96 ]
8.
JJ
0
Ix x+y
Je dxdydz
0
1 (Ans: ] 2
4
9.
JJ
0
!BY
Jz dxdydz
0
(Ans: 16]
o J 02_x 2
niX
10.
o _J02_x2
J J
Jz dxdydz o
6
Sequences of Series
6.0 Sequence A function fN ~ S, where S is any nonempty set is called a Sequence i.e., for each nE N, ::l a unique elementj{n) E S. The sequence is written asj{I),j{2), j(3), ..... j{n).... ,and is denoted by (j(n)}, or <j(n, or (/(n. If j{n) =an ,the sequence is
written as ai' a 2 an and denoted by , {an} or < all > or ( all ). Here j{ n) or all are the
< n2 >
386
Engineering Mathematics  I
6.1.2 Example:
~3 ,~,;, ~ (or)(~) I 2 J n n
r
I )
Note
1. 2.
If S c R then the sequence is called a real sequence. The range of a sequence is almost a countable set.
Sequences of Series
387
6.1.5 Kinds of Sequences 1. Finite Sequence :A sequence < all > in which an
= 0 Vn > mEN
is said to
Ex:
2. If
said to be
an = (1
r (1 +;)
2
3/2 3 4/3 4
5/4
21 __
o
1 
From the above figure (see also table) it can be seen that m :. The sequence is bounded.
2 and M
l.
2
388
Engineering Mathematics  I
6.1.7 Limits of a Sequence A Sequence < (Ill > is said to tend to limit 'I' when, given any + ve number' E however small, we can always find an integer 'm' such that and we write Lt
all
"
n>co
=I
2
or
(an
~ I)
>~.
Ex:
If an
n2 + 1
2n +3
then <a
n
6.1.8 Convergent, Divergent and Oscillatory Sequences ). Convergent Sequence: A sequence which tends to a finite limit, say' I' is called a Convergent Sequence. We say that the sequence converges to 'I' 2. Divergent Sequence: A sequence which tends to oo is said to be Divergent (or is said to diverge). 3. Oscillatory Sequence: A sequence which neither converges nor diverges ,is called an Oscillatory Sequence. Examples
234
an =1 +
1 n
The sequence < all > is convergent and has the limit 1
nnE 1 Suppose we choose E= .001, we have  < .001 when n> 1000. n
2. If all
3. If an =n 4. If an 6.2
= ..!. + 2 (1
n
Infinite Series
6.2.1 If < U > is a sequence, then the expression u1+ u2 + u3 + ........ + un II infinite series. It is denoted by
Un
or simply
Un
11=1
Sequences of Series
389
6.2.2 Convergent, Divergent and Oscillatory Series Let be an infinite series. As ~ 00, there are three possibilities.
Iu"
(a)
COl1vergent series: As n
Lt
11)00
oo,s"
the series is said to he convergent and's' is called its sum to infinity. Thus
8"
=S
=8
+ 1I} + II] + ..... + 11" + .. .1000 = s. (or)
00
UII = S
11=1
IlIlI = s.
8 11 ~ 00
8 11
Divergent series: If
or
00,
Oscillatory Series: If
infinite it is said to be an Oscillatory Series. Note: Divergent or Oscillatory series are sometimes called non convergent series.
IS
_I_ Ix
Proof:
The given series is a geometric series with common ratio 'x'
sn
= Ix
Ix"
(i)
When
Ixl < 1:
LI s
n;>oo n
n>oo
( 1)
Ix
[ since xn ~ 0 as n ~ 00 ]
. 1 :. T he senes converges to  (ii) When x ~ 1: sn
= xI
x" 1
and
sn ~ 00
as n ~
00
sn ~
sn ~
390
Engineering Mathematics  I
~ 00
or
00
6.2.4 Some Elementary Properties of Infinite Series 1. The convergence or divergence of an infinites series is unaltered by an addition or deletion of a finite number of terms from it. 2. If some or all the terms of a convergent series of positive terms change their signs, the series will still be convergent.
3. Let
Iu"
converge to's'
Let 'k' be a non  zero fixed number. Then Ikll" converges to h. Also, if 4. Let (i) (ii)
I
II"
ku"
'111 '.
v" converge to
Then
6.2.5 Series of Positive Terms Consider the series in which all terms beginning from a particular term are +ve . Let the first term from which all terms are +ve be ul
Let
= o.
Proof:
It un = It (SnSn_I);
n~oo
n+oo
It s,, It
n~oo n~oo
S,,_I
=//=0
Note: The converse of the above theorem need not be always true. This can be
Observed from the following examples.
Sequences of Series
,
1+  +  + ....... +  + .... ;
2.7) it is clear that
391
(i)
1 2
1 3
1 n
lin
= , It
1 n
n~oo
lin
=0
I! is divergent. n
I
~ nconverges,
2
lin = 0, by p series test, clearly Ir n~OCJ Note: If Lt lin ::t: 0 the series is divergent;
IJtoo
= ~, It
Ex:
2n 1 1'" =  2 ,here Lt n
lin
IlHt)
=1
lin
is divergent.
Tests for the Convergence of an Infinite Series In order to study the nature of any given infinite series of +ve terms regarding
convergence or otherwise, a few tests are given below.
n"
1"
IS
2"
3"
(i) Convergent when p > I, and (ii) Divergent when p ~ 1. [JNTU Dec 2002, A 2003]
Pro(~r:
Case (i) Let p> I . J) > 1 3" > 2'" => _1 < _1_
'3"
2
2"
111111114 +++<+++=4" 5" 6" 7" 4" 4" 4" 4" 4"
++ .... +<,
8" 9" 16" 8"
1 1 1 8
and soon.
Adding we get
"<1++++ ....
I.e.,
1 2 4 8 ~ n" 2" 4" 8" 1 1 1 1 n" < 1+ 2(,,1) + 2 2(,,1) + 2 3(,,1) + ..... .
392
Engineering Mathematics  I
The RHS of the above inequality is an infinite geometric series with common ratio
2,,1 < 1(since p > 1) The sum of this geometric series is finite.
Hence
f~ n
11=1
is also finite.
1 1 1 1 I  = 1+  +  +  + ...... n" 2 3 4 1 1 1 1 1 + >+ =3 4 4 4 2 111111111 +++>+++=567888882 11 111 11 ++ .......  >++ .....  =  and so on 9 10 16 16 16 16 2
I_I = 1+(!+!)+(!+!+!+!)+ ..... n" 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 1 1 ~1++++ .....
2 2 2
00
:. The slim of the given series is also Case(iii):Let p<l, Since 1 I7=1+
f_ln
11=1 P
(p
= I ) diverges.
+ 1 +..... 2P Y
1 1 1 1 I>I++++ ....... P n 2 3 4
From the Case (ii), it follows that the series on the RHS of above inequality is divergent.
I Jl is divergent, when n
P
P< I
Note: This theorem is often helpful in discussing the nature of a given infinite series.
Sequences of Series
393
Vn
VII
be convergent.
Then
I
U
Un
converges,
1. If un ~ Vn' \:;f n EN
2. or
.!!.. ~
vn
3. or
un vn
~ a finite limit> 0
Proof:
1. Let
Vn
=I
Then, u l
>0
is convergent
2.
un vn
VII
IS
finite,
Ikvll is convergent:. IU
un n'>oo vn
is convergent.
3. Since Lt
~ < k\:;fn EN
vn
IU
EN
II
is convergent
I
I
UII
and
I
If If
Vn
VII
be divergent.
Then
Un
diverges,
un ~ VII' \:;fn un vn
* 1.
or or
* 2. * 3.
Proof:
1. Let M be a +ve integer however large it may be . Science a number m can be found such that VI +V2 + ..... +vn > M, \:;fn > m
VII
is divergent,
394
Engineering Mathematics  I
I
2
11,
1I"
is divergent
2:: kv,,\:;In
I
3.
v" is divergent ~
kv" is divergent
I
Since Lt
u" is divergent
un
> k, \:;In
(probably except for a finite number oftenns ) :. From (2), it follows that
Un
is divergent.
Note: I. In (I) and (2), it is sufficient that the conditions with * hold \:;In> mEN Alternate form of comparison tests : The above two types of comparison tests 2.8.( I) and 2.8.(2) can be culbed together and stated as follows:
If
Iu"
and
Vn
un =
vn
k,
u" and
Vn
Note: I. The above fonn of comparison tests is mostly used in solving problems. 2. In order to apply the test in problems, we require a certain series Vn whose
nature is already known i.e., we must know whether divergent. For this reason, we call
Vn
is convergent are
Vn
as an 'auxiliary series'.
3. In problems, the geometric series (2.3.) and the pseries (2.7) can be conveniently used as 'auxiliary series'.
Solved Examples 6.2.9 Example Test the convergence of the following series:
(a)
++++.....
00 [ ~ (n
4
3456 1 8 27 64
(b)
++++ .....
4567 1 4 9 16
(c)
+1) 1/4 n ]
Sequences of Series
395
Solution
(a)
Step 1:
To find "ul/" the
d"
3 + (11 1).1
n+2
111/
= 3n
n+2
Step 2:
To choose the auxiliary series
VI/ .
= :l=I = 2
n
11
Step 3 :
It
1/>00
~=
vl/
I/~OO
2 It n+2xn = Lt n+2 = It 3
I/~OO
11
I/~OO
(1+~}=1
11
'
It ~=1
n}oo
VII
:. IUI/
and
I
(b)
VI/
= ~n6
1 ,,?
7
2 > 1); :.
Ill"
is
convergent.
++++ .....
1 4'9 16 Step 1 : 4 , 5, 6, 7, ..... in AP , tn Step 2 : Let " ~ v"
= 4 + (n 1) 1 = n + 3
n+3
= 1
11
,,~oo
Step 3: Lt
I/~'"
+l) = 1,
n
finite.
396
Engineering Mathematics  I
utI and
= 1); :.
Iu"
is
divergent.
=n
=n['.~+ . . .J
4n 32n
= 4~3 
~3 [~ 3;n
!, and I
+ ....
.J
=~
n
n~oo
(! 
Un
VII
IV
1
n =3
is convergent. (p
3 > 1); :.
Iu"
is
6.2.10 Example
If u
n
2+1 {j'3n
~hn3 +3n+5
show that
Un
is divergent
r:::?
Jl3
II
n73
2/
3/ 3
II
Sequences of Series
Ii
397
U )13
=  1/
1
nl12
Lt .!!.. n>""VII
=I
274
which is finite.
= ~ , where
n' ,
=32 =1 ]
n4
nl2
By comparison test,
VII
and
U II
= 1 < 1)
12
L un
6.2.11 Example
is divergent.
Jf ~ J! ~
+ + +
+ ......
un
=~
n:
2
1;
1 1 vn =1I =0=1, Lt u.
n2

n>"" V
Lt )
11>""
11
= 1 (finite)
1+n
VII
:. By comparison test,
Un
procedure given in ex. 1.2.9(a) and (b) to find" un" of the given series.}
6.2.12 Example
1 1 1 Show that 1 + IT + l2 + ....... + l!:! +..... is convergent.
Solution
un
1 l!:!
398
Engineering Mathematics  I
~ <1
2
I "/I
is convergent.
Solution
u Take
"
1 . n(n+1)(n+2)'
1
V"=3
,,~ao V
Lt
U"
n
= n~ao Lt
( 3 1 n 1+n
n)(1+2 )= 1 (finite)
n
and
I
~
n
U" '
v" =
6.2.14 Example
If u" =
Un
Solution
= n2 ( 1+ n1)2 4
n 2 ( 1 n 4
1)2
n
'
~ + .... J = ~ [1 + ~ + .... J 8n n 8n
u'
E...
,,~ao
vn
= 2
n
hence Lt
v"
=1
Sequences of Series
399
:. By comparison test,
lin
and
Vn
=~
n
Un
is convergent.
6. 2.15 Example
l+x
2+x
3+x
Solution
un
Take then
VII
=;
n+x
=,
UII
n n+x
1+~
n
Lt
n~""
(_1_] 1; I
=
VII
1+n
I! n
Un
is divergent.
fSin(!) n
n=1
is divergent.
Take
SIn U Lt E... n~"" V n
n = n~"" Lt ( ) 1
_
. (1) sint =
I~O
Lt 
(where t
= 1n) = 1
Yn
~
Iu I
, n
VII
VII
is divergent
(p series test, p
= 1);
:.
Un
is divergent.
400
Engineering Mathematics  I
6.2.17 Example
Test the series
L sin
I ( : )
for convergence.
Solution
_I 1 u =sm _. n n' 1 vn =n
Take
/1*00
{~)
n
But
L v"
is divergent .Hence
L u"
33
is divergent.
6.2.18 Example
Show that the series 1 +  2 +  3 +  3 + ..... is divergent.
22
234
Solution
Neglecting the first term, the series is 1 +  2 +  3 +  4 + .....
22
33
n"
U 
234 nn n
.Therefore
nn
1
e
1)
Sequences of Series
401
6.2.19 Example
. 1 3 5 . SIlOW t Ilat t Ile series   +   +   + .......00 IS convergent.
1.2.3
3
2.3.4
5
3.4.5
Solution
+++ .......00
1.2.3 2.3.4 3.4.5
Iii
2n1
1 ( 2 n )
Take
1 n
it un
n~oo VII
it
HOO
= it
HOO
_I (2 ~ ) (_1 )
n
2
(1 + ~'~)(1 + 2n)
0 )
Un Vn
=(
1 +0 1+0
2)(
=2
:. By comparison test
But
LVII =
Llln and
1
LVII
L n1
2
is convergent. :.
LUll
6.2.20 Example
Test whether the series
is convergent
Solution
The given series is 1 L==== J;; +.j;;+1
00
11=1
402
Engineering Mathematics  I
Take
I I
Vn =
Un
and
Vn
is divergent (since p
= Ii)
Un
is also divergent.
6.2.21 Example
Test fo~ convergence
nih term
Un
= n[(1
=
3:2 9:5
I
Un
Let
Vn =2
Then
f~L
X=n~Jlj  X
and
1 n
n 3 + ....
Vn
Vn
convergent.
6.2.22 Example
Show that the series, for p 5, 2
~ +~ +~ + ....... P P
JP
Sequences of Series
403
Solution
III
= ~ =
n"
'
n +1
n ( 1+ In)
n"
( 1+ 1~)
11
,,1
Lt u = l:;t: O I = _1_. n,,I '11"') /v ... L 1111 and L VII both converge or diverge by comparison test. BlIt LVII = L }~>I converges when p I> 1 ; i.e., p >2 and diverges when
take v
n/
lI
+ L (?II 73J 3 +1
OCJ
2 1
11=1
Solution
l3
11 (
'~3 1 ) J
3"'
'!...
1+ 3 2  [ 1 1,' + n
I )1,3
1l7r:iJ
L un
2
and
VII
BlIt L... vn
"
L... 11=1 3
~(2)"2 = ~ 2+ (2)3  +3 3 3
+ ..... , W lIC 1
common ratio
is convergent.
6.2.24 Example
4.7.10
7.10.13
10.13.16
+ ..... .
and
'II 'II
til
404
Engineering Mathematics  I
ll=
II
n2
(3n+1)(3n+4)(3n+7)
=:::;;;
3n(1+
" 3n
).3n(1+4
3n
).3n(1+ 7/ ) 3n
27n(1+
Taking vn
/3n
=!
n
27
,we get
Lt
IHOO
~ = _1_:;t: 0;
v
II
behave in the I. :.
VII
is divergent, since p
Lilli
is
6.2.25 Example
Test for convergence
Solution
Iii
.J2n2  Sn + 1 3 2 4n 7n +2
vn
L
=2
nloo ~ = IH~
L
lin
nloo
:. By comparison test,
l l
n 2  / n + / n n 2 n3 /~ +~<3) xI
(4
~/ ~/?
J
0
2  / n + / n2
/n
3
~/ V J
(4 _ 7/ +
2/) 'n
= 4 :;t:
r;; '112
L un
=
and
L vn
VII
is
2 > I] :.
L un
is convergent.
6.2.26 Example
( IS
I .) 4n 2  I
Sequences of Series
405
Solution
1
Ull
= (4n 2 /.);
Let
VII
=\, n
Lt
11>00
_llil
VII
=Lt l rn
Il>ao
2
2
4
n /'n
)1=4 *0 "
o
:. I
Ull
and
Vn
VII
IS
= 2 > 1) ; :.
UII
is convergent.
6.2.27 Example
If un
IU
II
is convergent.
Solution
Let
VII
n
,so that
11>00 ( V
ll Lt _"  LI sin
 n>ao n
VII
Un
6.2.28 Example
Test for convergence Take vn
1tan(l;>
I VII
(~s in above example)
VII
= II ~/; Lt [ulIl ] = 1 * 0
In
n>oo
IIIIl converges as I
converges.
6.2.29 Example
Show that fsin
11=1
2(~) is convergent. n
406
Engineering MathematicsI
Solution
Let un =sm n
Lt
(~)= Lt
V
n
n~oo
where
Lt (lin / ) = 12 = 1 0 /v :. By comparison test, I and I behave the same way. But I is convergent by p series test, since p 2 > 1; :. I
t = II ;
( l
sin 1/
,'n
n
In
n~oo
:;t:
UI/
Vn
Vn
UI/
is convergent.
6.2.30 Example:
Show that
f
U
II
n=2/
Solution
= Inlogn' II .
Similarly
Vn
is divergent and
IU
is divergent.]
(Note: This problem can also be done using Cauchy's integral Test. See ex 1.6.2)
6.2.31 Example
Test the convergence of the series +ve. Solution Th e n Ih term 0 f th e senes
00
(c + n
rr (d + nr' ,
,
n=1
= un =
(c+n) (d+n)
r (
Let
U/' _
Vn
=n
1+
Sequences of Series
407
Lf
11)00
1111 _
vJl
1 ," ; 0 :. L)III and " ~ v" both converge are diverge, by comparison
VII
:. L
II"
6.2.32 Example
Show that
~
1
~n
(1+ 1 )
"is divergent.
Solution
11
"
=n
(1+ 1 )
"=
n.n 1n
11)00
Take
VII
1I 1 1 = ; Lt " = Lf 
"
11+00
In
= 17: 0
For let
Il)ct)
= eO = 1
(:)
L
1I"
and
LV"
L
lIlI
VII
diverges (since p
I); Hence
6.2.33 Example
Test for convergence the series ~
, a, h,
Solution
408
Engineering Mathematics  I
Take
v
II
II
lin
and
VII
converge or diverge.
VII
I.
Hence
lIlI
6.2.34 Example Test the convergence of the following series whose nl" terms are:
(a)
(b)
tan;
11
(c)
(d)
(3 +5
(e)
11
11 )'
11. 311
Hillt:Take
Solution
(a)
VII
=~;Iv" 11
is convergent;
,,~oo
It
(u,,)=~"*o (Verify) v 8
"
lIlI
(b) (c)
Proceed as in 1. 2.16;
Iu"
;
is convergent.
)11
=2
1 11
,,~oo
It "
VII
1 + 3/~
?
e
(d)
U"
II
+(~J]
(Un)
~ ~l ,,0
Sequences of Series
409
LUll
and
VII
L v"
is convergent since it is
~<1
5
:. LUll
(e)
1 1   ~  \;fn EN,
n.3" 3" '
n.3";:::: 3n ;
.....( I)
r=<1. 3
:. By comparison test
II.
n. 3"
IS
convergent.
21+~+3 J + J 1+~+32+4 2 +.............. . 1 +2+3 1+2 +3 +4 12+22+3 2 12+22+3 2 +42 1+ 3 + + +............. . 3 3 3 1 +2 3 1 +2 +3 C+2 3 +3 3 +4 3
1+
1 +212+22
~+2J
Solution
U _
n 
(a)
1+2+3+ .... +n _
12 + 22 + 32
(n+ 1) n2
Take
Vn
=
I
But
(b)
Un
and
Vn
VII
Un
is divergent.
410
Engineering Mathematics  I
Hillt: Take vn
=!
n
IU
II
is divergent.
Exercise 6(a)
1. Test for convergence the infinite series whose nih term are:
(a)
1 nFn
.Jn~IFn
n .Jn2 + In Fn n 2 1 .Jn3 +1N 1
(e) (f)
~n(~+I)
Fn n 2 +1 2n3 +5 4n 5 +1
1 + 3 1 + 1 + T2 + 1 + T3 + ............
(g) (h)
[Ans : divergent] [Ans: convergent] [Ans : divergent] [Ans : divergent] [Ans : convergent]
(e)
411
(f)
(g)
00
~n2 + 1
(h)
(i)
3n L 5n
00
+8
...................... ..
(Ans : convergent]
(Ans : divergent]
LU
beaseriesof+vetermsand(ii) Lt un +J
II~OO
un
=k(~O)
L un
n~oo
Proof:Case(i): Lt un + J =kI)
un
un
i.e.,
U m+ J Um
<I ,
U m+ 2 U m+ J
< I ,..........
Um
Um
[1 + uu
+ um+ 2 + ..... ]
um
II
is a finite quantity:.
L un
00
is convergent
By adding a finite number of terms u J + u2 + ...... + um J ' the convergence of the series is unaltered.
L un
n=m
00
is convergent.
412
U
Engineering Mathematics  I
C(l!t'e (ii)
Lt .!!.l. = k > 1
n>oo
11n
There may be some finite number of terms in the beginning which do not satisfy the condition ull +' 21. In such a case we can find a number 'm'
Ull
3
UII
!!2. 2 1, u3
u,
112 U,
u3
(1 + u +
2
ll,
113 tl2
.!!2. + ..... J
u,
(to 11 terms)
Lt
n~oo
Il
is divergent
6.3.2
Note: 1
The ratio test fails when k = 1. As an example, consider the series,
p
I~ n
n='
Here
Lt .!!.l. = Lt  n>oo
U
n
n>oo (
n P n + 1)
= Lt
n>oo (
1 ,In
1+ 1/ )
=1
i.e.,
But the series is convergent if p > 1 and divergent if p::; 1, which shows that when
k = 1, the series may converge or diverge and hence the test fails.
Ull
~ = k ,then u +'
ll
Un
is convergent
'.I.
hen k
I).
Sequences of Series
~~ ~~

413
6.3.3 Example
(a)
+++ ................ .
1.2 2.3 3.4
x"
111/
Solution
Xl/II
,
1
~/!.!..'.l=
1/" (n+
1)(n + 2
n(n+1)
x"
~ (I + ~
r.
and divergent when
Therefore
LI
11)00
_1/_,1
II
=X
1111
:. By ratio test
IUI/
J (
is convergent When
Ixl
<
Ixl>
I;
When x = I, ul/
:. By comparison test
Hence
IUI/
is convergent.
Un is convergent when
3
Ixl ~ 1
1
Ixl > 1
(b)
Solution
1+ 3x + 5x 2 + 7 x + ...... .
Un
= (2nl)xnl;ul/+
lin
1/>00
=(2n+l)x"
2nl
:. By ratio test
Un is convergent when
Ixl < 1
Ixl > 1
When x
:.
UI/
is divergent.
(c)
I+ n + 1
1/;1
414
Engineering Mathematics  I
Solution
U n
=2  .
2 (
x" n +1'
U
n+1
=
X"+
(n+l)2 +1
Hence
;;: =
un +1
n +1 ) n 2+ 2n + 2 x
2
Lt un +1 = Lt
1 +
n~'"
:. By ratio test,
Un
II~'" n2(1+~+2) 2
n n
>;:2)
(x)=x
and divergent when
L un
is convergent when v =n n2
Ixl < 1
Ixl > 1
When
:. By comparison test,
LU
is convergent when
Ixl ~ 1
Ixl >1
6.3.4 Example Test the series Solution
n~'"
0 for convergence.
1 = Lt [( 2 n + 2n ) ( n + )] x n~'" n + 2n + 2 (n 2  1) .
=x
LU
U
is convergent when
x = 1,
n
=2 
n2 1 n +1
Take vn
1 n
Sequences of Series
415
L un is divergent when
x= 1.
.'. L un
6.3.5 Example
2P 3P 4P
+ l] +
Solution
n~oo
Lt .un +1
un
n~oo
Lt [(n+IY x In + 1 nP
l.fl]=
n~oo
Lt {
(n + I)
(n+I)P} n
= Lt (
n~oo
) x Lt 1+  )P n + 1 n~oo n
(I
= 0 < 1;
lll/
6.3.6 Example
Test the convergence ofthe following series
++++ P P P ........... .
Solution
1 F
1 3
1 5
1 7
u =
1/
(2nIY'
ul/+ 1
un
=
Lt un+1 =1
HOO
un
1 = _. n nP'
E... vn
nP
(2n I)P
LU
ar.d
vn
H6
EngineerinG M~th~ni1!!l'S~
VII
=
I I
:'t_ '
11"
:. I
6.3.7 Example
iI"
is convergent if /'
I and divergent if p ~ I .
"cric~
L..  1/,
,.X
>0
Solution
( n + I) x"
lin =
1
( n + 2) X"l I
;1I1Itl     ,  , 
(11+1)
;
I
1 I
LI
11>''0
111/
illi rl
" ,.w
II
: , ""    ,
.x = X
+ 11 ( 1+ 1 )' n, \.. n
By
i'".1i
j()
test,
UII
n+ I
= ~ ; By comparison test
n
UII
.'. I
UII
. ~(n2
00
2"
1) (.. 1 2.5.8 2.5.8.11 ... ) 1 1.2 1.2.3 II) +   + + ... (III  +  +   + n 1.5.9 1.5.9.13 3 3.5 3.5.7
00 00
Solution
Let
Sequences of Series
417
U
11+1
= (n+1)2
.1l11+1
= (n+1)2 ~
2"tl
11
2
2"rl'
U"
I1~OO lin
_ L Lt1111+1 t. 2
11+00
By ratio test
convergent. :. The given series (ii)
Un
v"
IS
(I
Un
v,,)
is convergent.
t ( n + 2t
(n + 2
U
n
term = 2 + ( 11 + 1 ) 3 = 3n + 5 ;
='~
un+1
n(3+~)
!)
=l
4
<1
By ratio test,
(iii)
Un
is convergent.
nih
tenn =
n ;
d"
term
418
Engineering Mathematics  I
U +
Il
U +
=(~)
2n+3
n.(l+!)
n~oo
:. By ratio test,
6.3.9 Exercise
Lt
UIl +I
= Lt
/HOO
Un
n(2+~)
n =
! <1
2
L un
is convergent.
1.2.3 ...... n 1.2.3 ...... (n+l) un = 3.5.7 ...... ( ) ; Un +1 = ); 2n+l 3.5.7 .....: ( 2n+3
U n +1
= n+l .
2n+3'
Lt
/HOO
U,,+I
un
:. By ratio test,
6.3.10 Example
= Lt n(l+ un HOO n( 2+
LUll
is convergent.
.x  x> 0
I(
Solution
.x 
nl
U,,+I
Sequences of Series
419
Lt 1111+1
IHOO
U//
2 1 x = Lt ( ~ //>00 2n + 2 )
u//
Lt
IHOO
2n(1 + 1
By ratio test,
= ),
Then
:. I
2.4.6 ..... 2n
<1
UII
and
Lt u//
11700
;f::.
U/I
is divergent. Hence
when x ~ 1
6.3.11 Example
2/1+1
Solution
Om itting 1" tcnn,
II,
and
U
IHI
11>00 2"+1 + 1
2/1  2 .
//~~ [ 2//+1 (I +
Un
= 1 ;f::. 0;
:.
Un
diverges
IHOO
6.3.12 Example
Using ratio test show that the series
00
(3 4i)"
n!
converges
/1=0
Solution
_ (34i)"
un 
In! ,un+1 
I .
_(3 4i),,+1 /
. /(n+l)! '
420
Engmeerlng =
MC3tht::rnatl~~
II ',,,,
l:
1111
l:onverges.
6.3.13 Example
3.4
4.5
5.6
Solution
Since x > 0 , the series is of +ve terms;
llil
(n + 1) = (n+2)(n+3)x
(
II
> Zln+1
(n + 2) X/HI = (n+3)(n+4)
Lt IIn+ I II~OO   ; ; : 
[(n + 2)2.X
n + 1)( n + 4)
= Lt
HOO
r 2 (1 + 7;;)2
n
2
n 1+
Yn + j~2 )
.x
= X.
Un
=(
n+2 n+3
(n+l) )( ) ;
=!.
n
'
n~oo
Lt = un = 1 :;t: 0 vn
IU
and
Vn
Vn
is divergent
.. I :. I
.
= 1); =1
Un Un
is diverges when x
6.3.14 Example
~ DIscuss the nature of the senes ~
Sequences of Series
421
Solution
Here,
U
n
3.6.9 ..... 3n 5" . 4.7.10 ..... (3n+l)(3n+2)' 3.6.9 .... .3n(3n + 3)5"+ 1
U II + I
Lt
11>00
11 I ~
llil
'_'c',_':
(3n+4)(3n+5)
Lt
11>00
(1
)1 = 5 > 1
:. By ratio test,
6.3.15 Example
lin
is divergent.
00
n l  II
Solution
1I11
= n ; u +1 = (1)11 n+ ;
III lI
':;,:' = =
(n;I,!"
n~'" U
n(n:l)"
=~C:J
e
Lt un+1 = Lt
11>00
!.[_l_,]" =O}=O<1
n
1+ 1,'
II
,'n
:. By ratio test
6.3.16 Example
Test the series
I
00
Un ,
is convergent
~ ,for convergence.
~
11=1
Solution
2n 3
Un
= ~ ;
U II
+I
2(n+ 1)3 = In + 1
422
Engineering MathematicsI
lln+1
= 2(n+l)3 x
~
2n
3
= (n+l)2 = (1+;~r
un
Lt
:. By ratio test,
6.3.17 Example
In + 1
.!!..l
n3
= 0 < 1;
is convergent.
n+oo Un
L u/l
L~ nn
2/1 ,
un +1 = 2
1111
n 1
Lt
IHOO
.!!..l
= 2 Lt
ull
LUll
Hoo(l+ )~r
=
:. By ratio test,
is convergent.
L un
(b) (d)
where u/I is
n2 + 1 3/1 +1
1.2.3 ....n )2 ( 4.7.10 .... .3n+3
,(a>O) (2n+lf
~
~1+3n
x n I
(c)
(e)
3n + 7n ( 5n 9 +
11
)xn
Solution
(a)
Lt
n+oo
I)
423
<1 3
is convergent.
xn
:. By ratio test,
(b)
LUll
n+ I un
Lt
11>00
(u )= Lt [ (2n + 3r x~(2n+lf] x
n>oo n I 
= Lt
IHOO
[ 2a na (l+ }Snf
=
/I
2 n (I+!' )a . 2n .x = X
aa
By ratio test,
LUll
1 (2n+
If
; Taking v
II
= _1 a
n
awe have,
Lt
n>OO
(Un) =
Vn
Lt
n>oo
(_n_)a =
2n + 1
Lt
n>oo (
1 = _1 a 2 + ;!~r 2
* 0 and finite
:. By comparison test,
un
and
VII
and
(ii)
divergent when a
LU x > 1, L
x < 1,
x
=
un
L x = 1, a ~ 1, L
1, a> 1,
un
424
Engineering Mathematics  I
(c)
~= IHoc> ltll
Lt
Lt
IHoc>
I.2.3 ....n(n+I) 4.7.1O .... (3n+3)]2 x'<4.7.IO .... (311+3)(3n+6) 1.2.3 ....n
Lt [
IHoo
(n + I) X]2 3 ( n + 2)
=! < I
9
:. By ratio test,
(d)
IlIlI
is convergent
= LI
:. By ratio test,
(e)
U"
is convergent.
U I ~= HOC> lIlI
LI
LI
Hoc>
lr 3 ( n + 1)3 + 7 ( n + I
S( n + 1 + II
Sn 9 + II ] xx 3 3n + 7
= Lt
n>oc>
"...!..
U"
= Lt
n>oc>
f3n3(1+
(I
3)
3n
=
Lt
n>oc>
Sn 9 +
x
(1 I/VS
Sn
:. By ratio test,
9 {(
I+ }~r + SI~_}
=~
6
3n
(1 + .%n
)
xx
=X
3)
I
9 (
Un
= 3n3(1+ jjn)
Sn n
(1+ l~n)
"
Taking
Vn =
1 + IYsn 9)
Sn
(I + IYsn
U" =
9)
~, we observe that
">OC>~
Lt
l;f: 0
S
Sequences of Series
425
L un
is convergent.
:. L u"
Exercise  1(b)
1. Test the convergency or divergency of the series whose general term is :
x"
n
I Ans:
nx nI .......................... .
(~:.
lfl
:n
Ixl < legl, Ix ~Ildgt ] I Ans : Ixl < legt, Ix ~Ildgt I Ixl < legl, Ix ~Ildgt Ixl < legl, Ix ~Ildgt
I
I
"'
I Ans :
[ Ans :
(d)
(e)
(f)
(g)
n 3 +1 )"
(3 + 1)
n
[ Ans: cgt.]
(a)
(b) (c)
(d) (e)
 +  +  + .............. 1.2 3.4 5.6 X x2 x3 1++2 + ............. . 2+2 2 34   +   +   + ..... . 1.2.3 4.5.6 7.8.9 1++++ .....  2  + ....
2 5 10 n +1
X X
2
x2
x3
(Ans:
Ixl::::; legl,lxl > ldgt Ixl : : ; legt, Ixl > Idgt Ixl::::; legt, Ixl > Idgl Ixl::::; legt,lxl > ldgt Ixl > legt,lxl::::; Idgt]
] ] ]
J
I Ans :
( Ans : (Ans: [Ans:
x2
426
Engineering Mathematics  I
6.4
Raabe's Test
Let
Then (i) If k > 1, ~>n is convergent. (ii) If k < 1, is divergent. (The test fails if k = 1)
Proof:
Consider the series
Lt n{~l} =k
U + n 1
>1
We choose a number 'p' 3 k > p > 1 ; Comparing the series which is convergent, we get that of terms
un U + n 1 Vn
U"
with
Vn
un
> Vn+1
= ;;
(n+ l)P
p(pl) 1 .+ ......... from (I) L2 n
i.e. If.,
n (   1 > p+
Un+1
Un)
i.e., If
n+oo
Lt n(~I P
U + n 1
Sequences of Series
427
Llln
x
3
1.3
1.3.5
x
7
.+.+.+ .....
2 3 2.4 5
1.3
1.3.5
2 + (n
1) 2 = 2n
21l 1
2n+1
2n
. 2n+3
1.3.5 .... (2n+1) X 2n +3 2.4.6 ... .2n (2n+1) ;;: 2.4.6 .... (2n+2)"(2n+3)"1.3.5 .... (2n1)" X 2n + 1
lIn+1 _
(2n + 1)2 x 2 ( 2n + 2) ( 2n + 3)
II
1 ( 4n1+2n
1)2
x
2
LI ~ = LI
IHOO
Un
n~oo 4n
1+ 22~ )(1+ ~~ )
= X
:. By ratio test, If
LU"
converges if
428
Engineering Mathematics  I
Then
x2
=1
and
~ = (2n + 2)( 2n + 3 )
1111+1
(2n+
1r
~ 1 = (211 + 2)( 2n + 3) _ 1 = 6n + 5
111/+1
(2n+1)2
ul/ n ul/+ 1
(2n+l)2
LI
tHOO
{ (
1J}
= l I (
2 6n + 5n I/~OO 4n 2 + 4n + 1
1
3
= >
n
=
2 (
6+
Lt
11>00
~)
(4 + ~ + _\ ) 2 n n
By Raabe's test,
UI/
Ixl ~ 1
an divergent when
Ixl > 1 .
3.6.9 3 x + ..... ;x> 0 7.10.13
1+x+x +
Solution Neglecting the first term,
ul/
3 7
3.6 7.10
ul/+ 1
1/+1
lIl/+1 lIl/
= 3n + 3.x
3n + 7
UII
; Lt
1/>00
lIll+1 lIlI
=X
:. By ratio test,
I
_
When x
1I1/+1 
3n+3' lIn+1
4 3n+3 3n+3 3
11'>00
LI {n(~l)}= Lt (~)=i>l
lln+1
11>00
~
Sequences of Series
429
:. By Raabe's test,
LUll
Solution
U
II
= ''
3)2 4.8.12.... 4n )2
12.5 2.9 2.... ( 4n 4.8.12 .... 4n
=
litH
Lt u
n>oo
un
( 4n + 1)2 ~ 11>00 ( 4n + 4
Lt
= 1 (verify)
LU
is convergent.
6.4.4 Example
Find the nature of the series
L (l!:!)2 x
~
(x > 0)
Solution
ull
(l!:!)2
~
_
II
.x ; un + 1 = 12n+2 .x
(l~l)2 11+1
ulI +1 ull
)(1+2/) 2n
.x = ~
L un
430
Engineering MathematicsI
When
2n2
4 (n + 1
. 2 ( n + 1) ,
1
II>if.>
LI
[n(~11]= 1 <1 2
li
ntl
:. By ratio test,
lin
is divergent
Hence
Un
6.4.5 Example
Test for convergence of the series
~
x
Solution
n.
n+1
1.2.3 ....n
'U n + 1 
n>oo Un
= 3x
3 3
:. By ratio test
I
3
Un
converges if 3x
If
x=
When
x ~:3' n u.:, 1
~n
[(n+ 1)3
3n + 1 1
n 3n + 4
[1 ]
~
(3+ ~
n><Xl
Lt
n[~I] = ! <1 3
II
11+1
:. By Raabe's test,
:.
IU
is divergent.
" lin ~
1 ~
Sequences of Series
431
6.4.6 Example
1 est for convergence 2 + 
3x
4x 2 5x ++ ~ + ........... (x > 0 ) 2 3 4
tl 
Solution
The
nih
term
II
=(n+l)x
H
I
'
11
II
Hel
_ (n+2) (11+1) X
I
.tl.
II'HI
';;,:lr
2
_11(11+2) (11+1)2 .x
X
11
Lt
HN,
_H_'
= LI
11
tl
H~'UJ
1(1+ 2) 11 .x = (1 1 11 + )1
:. By ratio test,
IU
11
II
Lt
II'>UJ
11
II
_tl 
1 = Lt
IIl/el
11>00
2)
:. By Raabe's test
III//
.
is divergent
:. I
.
Zlil
x 21
6.4.7 Example
FlI1d the nature of the series  + 
3 4
Solution
1I11
3.6.9 ..... 3n 3.6.9 ..... 311(311 + 3) 1= = 4.7.10 ..... ();1I1/+ )( ) 3n+l 4.7.10 ..... ( 311+1 311+4
3 3 =~. LI llll+1 3n + 4' /1'>00 llll
1111+1
= LI
ZlII
) 3n = 1 11>00 3n( 1+ 4 ) 3n
3n(I+3
tl'>oo
LI 11 {  [ ,lll/+1
Zltl
I}]
 LI [ n (3n+4 /1'>00 3n + 3
I)]
432
Engineering Mathematics  I
11
= Lt
:. By Raabe's test 6.4.8 Example If p, q > () and the series
,,>003(n+1)
n Lt 11>003n(1+,]n)
= <1
U"
is divergent.
1 p 1.3.p(p+1) 1.3.5 p(p+1)(p+2) 1+"2 q + 2.4.q(q + 1) + 2.4.6 q(q + l)(q +2) + ....
is convergent, find the relation to be satisfied by p and q. Solution
un
1.3.5 ..... (2n1) p(p+l) ..... (p+n1) . I [negle"tmg l' term 1 2.4.6 .... .2n q(q + 1) ..... (q + n1) 1.3.5 ..... (2n1)(2n + 1) p(p+ l) ..... (p + n l)(p+ n) 2.4.6 .....2n(2n+ 2) q( q + 1) ..... ( q + n1)( q + n) (2n+1) (p+n). (2n + 2) (q + n) ,
lI"tl =
;z Lt
11>00
U,,+l _
nIl
2
J~)+11=2q2p+l
Sequences of Series
~
433
Since
L..,.llil IS
=> q  p >
Yi,
2q2p+l >1 2
Exercise 1 (c)
00
Un
II
II
[ADS:
lfl
[ADS:
(iii)
(iv)
(lJ)2 x
l2
..... .
(x > 0)
6.5
L un
I'
L un
is convergent
434
Engineering Mathematics  I
Proof:
I,' II
(i)
(or) u ll <A",Vn>rn
therefore convergent.
UII
is convergent.
Lt
11>00
UII
/11 = I> 1
II
:. By the definition of a limit we can find a number r 3 i.e., ull > Vn > r i.e., after the 1sl 'r ' terms, each term is> 1.
Lt
11>00
2>11 =
00
:.
LUll
is divergent.
Note:
When
Lt{ In)
Un
n>oo
LUll' The
fact
3
1 ) J~
= Lt ( V1
11>00
nl II
)3 =1
L Yn,
in which
LfUlly" = Lt ~ = 1
11>00 11>00
n11l
1/
(pseries test) And series (2) is divergent. Hence when the limit= 1, the test fails.
Solved Examples 6.5.1 Example Test for convergence the infinite series whose
(i)
1 (ii) 1
nIh
terms are:
(iii)
n'"
Oogn)"
[1 +~r
Sequences of Series
435
Solution
. Lt u
,
1n
n~co
II
By root test
Un
is convergent.
(ii)
u
n
Lt u 'n
n>oo
,.
1 n>oo log n
Lt =0<1
'
By root test,
(iii)
Un
is convergent.
6.5.2 Example Find whether the following series are convergent or ,) i vergent.
(i)
'" 1 In1
n=13
1/ In
Solution
7n
1/
n~ct)
Lt un Yn
= n+oo Lt
=<1
1 3
'
By root test,
(ii)
Un
is convergent.
234
436
Engineering Mathematics  I
Solution
1I
11
By root test,
lin
is convergent.
(iii)
Solution
U
n
'='':=
[(n+1)x n"+1
Lt
Il~OO
Lt
nj.c:/J
u};, =
n
[{(n+1)x ],'n
n"+ 1
II
n>oo
n + 1) ' Lt (  x '1 I
nl n
:. I
fails. Then
(l+!)X.+, = Lt x.+,=x n n'II n>oo n/ n Un is convergent if Ixl < 1 and divergent if Ixl > 1 and when Ixi = 1 the test
Lt
n>oo
Take
vn =
Un = (n + 1 .n = (n + 1 = (1 + !)n ; vn n"+ 1 nn n
:. By comparison test,
1 n
11>00 VII
Lt"=e>l
Uti
is divergent.
(I
Vn
Hence
Un
,/
is convergent if
6.5.3 Example
If un =
,,2'
show that
is convergent
(n+l)
Sequences of Series
437
Ill
2
6.5.4 Example
~ + ( % + ( % + .' ......
(_n_)" . . . . .
2n+l
II~OO
(verify);
,,~oo n
Lt u };,
UII
= Lt (_n_)=!<1
2n + 1
2
is convergt:nt.
Ioog .x
11=1
/I
n+ 1
U/I
[_11 ]~ .x";
1+n
n
Lt u"v,,
,,~oo
= Lt
Il+oo
[_11 JI
1+n
=x
IU is convergent if Ixl < 1 and divergent if Ixl > 1. When Ixl = 1 : un = J n ,taking vn = ~ and applying comparison test, it can n+I n
:. By root test, be seen that is divergent
U/I
is convergent if
Ixl < 1
and divergent if
Ixl ~ 1 .
438
Engineering Mathematics  I
6.5.6 Example
Show that
Solution
~ ( n~ _ I) n converges.
Un
=( nYn If
unYn
= Lt
n . . . . . ct)
Lt
n~oo
(n~I)=II=O<I(since
Lt
1l~Cf)
n'~:' =1);
:. L
Un
6.5.7 Example

n + 2 )n .Xn n+3
2 Un = ( n + )n .xn;
n+3
:. By root test,
n~
Lt
unYn =
n~<XJ
Lt
2 (nn+3 + )
L un
converges when
When
Ixl = 1 : un = (n +
e
e
n+3
2
2) ; Lt Un
n~<XJ
= Lt
n~<XJ
nn
 3 =  '" 0
:. L un
Ixl~l.
is divergent. Hence
L un
Ixl < 1
and divergent if
HI +[~: H' +[:: H + ... u" ~ [(n :":t n: r~ ( n: T[( n: r r
[~:
3
isconvergent
1
Sequences of Series
439
Lt un
IHOC)
~
II
=.=<1
1 1 1 el
1 el
:. By root test,
LUll
is convergent.
6.5.9 Example
Test
00
Ill
(1+2 mfll
Solution
LU
is divergent.
6.5.11 Example:
Test the convergence of the series '" ~ ~ 112
Solution
II II
Lt
11)00
U /n
n
= n.r:1J Lt  = 0 < 1 en
n/n
:. By root test,
LU
is convergent.
6.5.12
Example
Test the convergence of the senes,
2
r l
440
Engineering Mathematics  I
Solution
n~oo
Lt unYn
I
= Lt
[(
II~OO
= Lt [ (  ) ./.x]
II~OO
n+I n
n)'n
= Lt
n~oo
[( + 1). 1]
n
[.
:. By root test,
When x Then
L un
(
I)n _. 1 1 = 1 +. , Take vn =n n n
Lt un
n~oo
= Lt
II~OO
Vn
(1 + !)n =e 0 n
:;t:
L un
is divergent.
L un
Exercise 1 (d)
1. Test for convergence the infinite series whose (a)
(b)
d h terms are:
[ Ans : convergent] [ Ans : convergent]
1 2" 1 1
..............................
n :;t: 1)
'2::n (
(log)
[Ans:
0)
(t)
Sequences of Series
441
(2n2 I
(g)
(2n )211
[ Ans: convergent]
(h)
(n}~ I
nI
(
rn
_112
(i)
n) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(j)
(n:l)"'(x>o) ........................ .
1+2+)2+43 + ..... ,x>O
1 dgt ]
................. .
[ Ans: x
(b)
~+(H
+UoJ + . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..
[ Ans : convergent]
Proof: Let Sn
From the above figure, it can be seen that the area under the curve y = (x) between any two ordinates lies between the set of exterior and interior rectangles formed by the ordinates at n = I, 2, 3, .....n, n + I , ..... . Hence the total area under the curve lies between the sum of areas of all interior rectangles and sum of the areas of all the exterior rectangles. Hence {(l) + (2) + ..... + ( n)}
.. Sn ~
r+ (x)dx ~
1
(x)dx~Sn+I(l)
442
Engineering Mathematics  I
v= O(n)
P,
P 2
Q
3
0
1
Cn +1
Bntl
Il
3
A)
11~1
AI
2 A2
n
An
+1
As
n ~ 00,
1 I n logn
00
n=2
Solution
 xlogx
11~00
It [log log
x]~ =
00
Solution
[ _1 xP
1 dx  It [fdx] x
11~00
P
p 1
It [ x + ]11 n~oo  p + 1 I
_1_ Lt [ n l  p 1 ] 1 P IHOO
Sequences of Series
443
ClIse (i)
(iii)
Hence
I_ln"
00
6.6.4 Example
Test the series
n "2 ~e"
for convergence.
Solution
1111
2
n = (n){say); e"
(n)
1(x){lx= x
I I
I e,2
1e "2
=! le dt{t=x
1
,dt=2xdx}
2I
I 1
By integral test,
IlIl1
is convergent.
6.6.5 Example
~n2
(7f)
11
Solution
Let (n)
= ~2 sin ( :
00
); (n) decreases as
00
11
J(x)dx =
2 X
1 J2
sin
(}x
7f X
444
Engineering Mathematics  I
Letix =t
! sintdt = !costl~/=!
TC
finite,
TC
/2
TC
_TC/ / x
2dx = dt
Yx2dx= ~dt
:. By integral test,
Un
converges x
= 2 => t = ~ x = 00 => t = 0
6.6.6 Example Apply integral test and determine the convergence ofthe following series.
(a) (b)
(c)
Solution
(a)
(n) 
3n is +ve and decreases as n increases  4n 2 + 1 2 j(x)dx= ~x dx (4X +1=t=>Xdx= Ysdt ) I 14x +1 x=l=>t=5,x=00=>t=00
00
n~oo
00
n>oo
:. By integral test,
(b)
Un
diverges.
( n) =
3n +2
~n3
j(x)dx =
I
dx 3x +2 1 OOfdt 1 = (; = (;[logt]5 = 00
1
1~X3
5
00
[where t= 3x + 2]
By integral test,
(c)
Un
is divergent.
Sequences of Series
445
:. By integral test,
Un
is divergent.
I (1 ),,1 .u
n '
where
un
n ........ oo
> un+I ' Vn, and Lt ull = 0, then the series is convergent.
Proof:
Let u l

Let ul > u2 > u3 > u4 , Then the series may be written in each of the following two forms: ......... (A) (UI U 2)+(U3U4)+(U5u6)+
ul
............ (B)
(A) (B)
Shows that the sum of any number of terms is +ve and Shows that the sum of any number of terms is < ul . Hence the sum of the series is finite. :. The series is convergent.
Note:
If Lt ull
n.<XJ
:t:
234
In this series, each term is numerically less than its preceding term and ~O as n~oo. :. By Leibneitz's test, the series is convergent. (Note the sum of the above series is Loge2 )
nih
term
6.7.4 Example
Test for convergence
L (I ),,1
2n1
446
Engineering Mathematics  I
Solution
The given series is an alternating series We observe that (i)
un
I (1 ),,1
un
,where
Un
/1700
U
n
= _I_
2nI
> 0, Vn (ii)
un
=0
6.7.5 Example
111 Show that the series S  1  +   
3 9
27
+ ...... converges.
Solution
The given series is series in which 1.
~ ~
( ),,1
1 1 3n
where
u, = _1_1 is an alternating
I
3/1
un
> 0, Vn 2.
un
un
= 0;
6.7.6 Example
Test for convergence of the series,    ~ +   3  +..... , 0 < x < 1 1+x 1+x 1+x Solution n1 n1 ( 1 ) .xn The given series is of the form'" = "'(1) u,
X
2
x3
L.J
1+ XII
L.J
where Further,
x"
UII=II
. I+x'
U
II
u
n+1
=n 
x"
l+x
X"+1 I+XIl+1
x" _X"+1
=:::;
x" (Ix)
1 )
( 1+ x" ) ( I + x"+
0< x < 1 +ve.
~
Again,
II~OO
U = .
II
1+0
o =0
Sequences of Series
447
6.7.7 Example Test for convergence Solution The given series is an alternating series "(1)"1 L..J ull where Again,
1111
L r========
00
(1 ),,1
1I~2 ~11(11+1)(n+2)
~11 ( 11 + 1)( 11 + 2)
; u > 0, \1'11 ;
ll
~(11+1)(n+2)(n+3) >~n(I1+1)(n+2)
Further,
Lt u
IHOO II
= Lt
11>00
J 11 ( 11 + 1)( 11 + 2 )
=0
By Leibnitz's test,
f( 1)"1 un
2
is convergent
+++ 6 11 16 21 26 ....
Solution Given series,
L (1)
00
nI
  = L (1)
511 + 1 '
11
III
Un
is an alternating series
n=1
u =>0\1'11 .
n
11 511 + 1 11 11+1
1
(

511+1
n
511+6
511+1
1 5
)(
511+6
Un
Again,
Lt u = Lt =:;t:0
n>oo
11 IHOO 511 + 1
Thus conditions (ii) or (iii) of Leibnitz's test are not satisfied. The given series is not convergent. It is oscillatory.
448
Engineering Mathematics  I
00
1
r
f;z +J;+i
u,,=
U" 
(b)
rI '::'
(
1
2
n +1
(c)
Solution
(a)
1
I
vn+vn+l U,,+I
=
~>OVn
Lt
UI/
=0
1
1
(c)
un
= I ~.l
> 0, Vn ;
In + 2 > In + 1 => I ~
6.7.10 Example
Solution
The series can be written as
(i)
00
(_1)"1
';=====
n=1
sJ;+i
U
/I
=;==
SJn+l
(ii)
(iii)
n>oo
Lt un
=0
'
Sequences of Series
449
6.7.11
Example
Test for convergence the series, 1
h + ~  ~ + .....
Solution
The given series can be written as
:. By Leibnitz's test,
(If I2n
is convergent.
6.7.12
Example
Test for convergence the series, 1  +    + ..... .
1 3!
1 5!
1 7!
Solution
2nI ! 2nI !
1 ) > OV n
6.8
IU I IS
II
convergent
6.8.1
Consider the series
1 1 1 IU =1++ ...... 3 +3"3 2 34 1 1 1 1 Ilun l=1+3 +3"+3 + ...... = I3 2 3 4 I n By p  series test, IUn is convergent (p = 3 > 1 )
II
00
450
Engineering Mathematics  I
Hence
I I
Un
Note:
1. If
Un
lIlI =
IUI/ I
For such a series, there is no difference between convergence and ahsolute convergence. Thus a series of +ve terms is convergent as well as absolutely convergent. 2. An absolutely convergent series is convergent. But the converse need not he true. Consider
I I(1 ),,1 )~I =1+ ~ + ~ + ~ + ....... is divergent (pseries test). Thus I is convergent need not imply that II I is convergent (i.e., I is not absolutely convergent).
Un UII
Uti
6.9 6.9.1
Ilu,,1
Un
is convergent, then
Un
is said
to be conditionally convergent.
6.9.2
IU
II
IUn I= 1+ ~ + ~ + ~ .....
Uti
:. I
6.10 6.10.1
is conditionally convergent.
Power Series and Interval of Convergence A series, ao + a1x + a2 x 2 + ..... + anx n + ..... where 'an' are all constants is a
power series in x. It may converge for some values of x .
. Sequences of Series
451
Lt
n~<Xl
UII +I till
= Lt
n~<Xl
Lt
n~'"
a ll +1 = all
Ikxl < 1 .
~1 , ~ )(k * 0)
(~1 ~
,)
I \
'"
II
11;1
Solution
J:
=
E
= 1, L un = L
in
(1,1)
3'
:. L un
6.10.3
is convergent when x
=1
1
1+
452
Engineering Mathematics  I
(c) (d)
IX~+X~~+ ......... .
I(I)"(n + l)x
o
n ,
with x
<.!..
2
L (I),,I un
where
un =
y.;;;
is divergent, by
(iii) Lt
n~oo
un = 0;:.
series
Again
the
+ ......
p  series test.
Hence the given series is conditionally convergent. (b)
L lu,,1 = L;;:2
p=1
00
2n2
I=_x __ (2n2)!
=0 < 1
is absolutely
2n2
u"
L u"
sl
term)
Lt ~ = Lt
IHOO
lu I
Iunl
(n + 2)
IHOO
(n + 1)
Ixl = Lt
IHOO
(1 +
(": x < 12 )
}i
:. Llunl
Sequences of Series
453
6.10.4
Show that the series 1 + x + x/6 + x/6 + ..... converges absolutely \;Ix Solution
Lt
'1>00
x*O [since .
Ilunl
is convergent \;Ix * O.
~ + ~  ~4 + ........
3 33
is absolutely convergent.
~ <1
3
6.10.6
Example Test for convergence, absolute convergence and conditional convergence of the series, 1 ] 1 1++ ......... .
13
(1
r
Un'
where,
un
= _1_ .
4n3
u u
n
,,+1
=
(4n  3)( 4n + 1) 1 I.e., un > un+I ' \;In EN Lt II = Lt   = 0; n+oo 11 fl~a) 4n  3 All conditions of Leibnitz's test are satisfied. I Hence (1 un is convergent. (4n  3)( 411 + 1)
1 1 4n  3 4n + 1 4n+I4n+3
      > 0, \;In E N
r
454
Engineering Mathematics  I
lu 1=1. 4n  3
/l '
Take v
11'
=! .
n
Lt
//+00
lunl = Lt
v"
,,+00
I series test, I
111// I and
n I n( 4  3 /) n
=! * 0
4
and finite.
Ilu// I
6.10.7
Example
Test the series
I (_1)"1.
//=1
Solution
The given series is an alternating series of the form Here
(i)
I (1 rIu// .
un = 3vn "
Vn EN
\I
ll'/+I
<u//,vnE
n~oo
un =
Lt
n)oo
, =0 3" n
1
I
1
(_1)//1.__ = 3,Jn
I_I3,Jn
p= <1)
6.10.8
Example
Test the following series for absolute / conditional convergence.
(a)
(c)
(b)
I(I)"I.~
n=1
n +1
n
(1)" (2n)!
(d)
" (_1)"1.
L..J
nJr
e3n+1
Sequences of Series
455
Solution
(a)
considering
VII
II = 1112
and using
lin
I lUl I is convergent I
is
. Tak1l1g v"
=
"n. n +1
2
~  , , IS
seen to
(c)
Take
Lt
,,>0')
lu,,1 = e~)"+I
Example
convergent. [In problems (a) to (d) above, hints only are given. Students are advised to do the complete problem themselves]
6.10.9
:t (_1)"1 xX
,,~I
(c) Solution
(a)
log(l+x)
lIlI ;
Then
1+n
Ilu,,1
is convergent if
Ixl < 1
456
Engineering Mathematics  I
. W h IC I 1 IS
Similarly, if x convergent.
I
is
~ = I ~
n
which is also
UII
(1 ~ x ~ 1)
lulI+11
Iu'"
Ix+21
3
5 < x < 1.
If x = 5,
Ifx= I,
lIlI
=I (llllI .n
UII:I;
0 )
log (I +x)=
=
x2
x3
X4
I( 1)"1 ~ = IU
00 II
n=1
'n
II
(say)
Ixnl
111+11
/1+00
/1+00
I Un
When x = I,
Sequences of Series
457
Whenx= 1,
:L>n
which is divergent,
L~ n Hence I
since
Un
Exercise 1 (e)
1. Use integral test and determine the convergence or divergence of the following series:
Ln
00
1
2
[ Ans : convergent]
1
2.
~ n{logn )2
l~
[ Ans : convergent]
[ Ans : convergent]
2.
~(2nI)(2n)
I
'"
{Ifl
3. Classify the following series into absolutely convergent and conditionally convergentseries: [ Ans : abs.cgt ] [ Ans : abs.cgt ]
3.
I L
{If
n{logn)2
[ Ans : abs.cgt ]
[ Ans :
00
< x < 00 ]
458
Engineering Mathematics  I
J2 + j j  J4 + ....
is conditionally convergent.
Lx
n=1
00
n I 
L u"
is convergent, Lt ull
n>oo
=0
3. P  series test:
f~ n
11=1
LUll
and
L vn
L un
Lt
n>oo
2:':l.
< 1 or > 1
ll
Alternately, if Lt
n>oo
~ >1 u
ll
6. Raabe's test:
L un
LU
n>oo
Sequences of Series
459
convergent
and (ii)
Lt un
Il+CO
=0
L Iun I is convergent.
(b) (c)
111 1.2 3.4 5.6 22 32 2. 3+3+3+ ..... . 1 +1 2 +1 3 +1 2 22 23 3. +++ ...... . 1 2 3 1 2 3 4. 1+2 + 1+22 + 1+23 + .....
1.  +  +  + ........................................... .
3 X x2 x 5. +2 +3 + ..... (x>O) ........ l+x l+x l+x 2 3 3x 4x 6. 2x+++ ..... (x > 0) ..........................
( cgt. if
27
................................. 2.4.6 32 32.5 2 32.5 2.7 2 8. 2" + 22 + 2 2 2 + ... ... ............................... 6 6 .8 6 .8 .10 2
2~4
[ cgt ]
(dig.]
................................
1.2
2.3
3.4
460
Engineering Mathematics  I
10.
12.
(4
13.
L(l+~r
a" 2:2,a<1
l+n
[ dgt. ] [ egt. ]
15.
n "(_I)n 33 n
3 2
[ Abs. egt.]
2.
(l .n 2: 2f
n
[ Cond.egt.]
.............................. . [3<x<1 ]
" (x+lf
n.2"
Sequences of Series
461
I ADS :(i) ]
(ii) (iv)
I ADS :(ii) ]
4.
IS
oscillatory convergent
(ii) (iv)
X
I ADS :(iii) ]
.
none of these
I ADS :(iii) ]
(ii) (iv)
I ADS :(ii) ]
I ADs :(iii) ]
.2345
is convergent if
(i) p < 2 (ii) p= 2 (iii) p> 2 (iv) none of these 9. The series 6  10 + 4 + 6  10 + 4 + 6  10 + 4 + 6............. 00 is (i) convergent (ii) oscillatory (iii) divergent (iv) none of these
I ADs :(iii) I
[ADS :(ii)]
462
Engineering Mathematics  I
111
2.4
4.6
6.8
(i) (iii)
convergent oscillatory
[Ans :(i) ]
2. Indicate whether the following statements are true or false: 1 I. The series " is convergent. LJ 1+ Til
2. The series
3. The series
.. ................... .
1 1 1 U + 12 + lJ + ........
x
3
[True]
(_1)"1
5. The series " LJ n.5/l
is absolutely convergent. ........................ [ True]
[ False]
+  + ........00 is divergent if x ~ 1 ............... [True] 2 3 x 2! 3 3! 3 4! 4 8. The series 1++2"x +3 x +4 x + ...... +00 is convergent 2 3 4 5
if x> e 9. The series [ True]
x2
x3
"J;; ( 1 + .);; )
is divergent ............................ .
[ False]
ifx< I .
2
13. The senes 3  3 + 3 + ......00 converges absolutely ...... [True]
l+x sin x
x +x 3  x . T] 4 + ......00 IS convergent ...... [ rue l+x l+x l+x sin 2x sin 3x
Sequences of Series
463
I (~11
is conditionally convergent.
[ True]
Ih.
term
IS
3n + 5
(n+2)"
I
is convergent.
[ False]
L ar l 00
[ Ans: 1 r
1< 1]
11=1
un
un =  
I {{!n +In}
3
IS _ _ __
11=1
4. If
L 3n34
00
1/=1
(n+5Y
~ ( :: :~
(un
11 1( )
r
is
x, is _ __
[ Ans: 1 < x < 1]
6.
L un
1100

( ADs: < 1]
7. The series 8  12 + 4 + 8  12  4 + ....... is
8. If
un >
0,
( ADs: Oscillatory]
V nand
LUll
is convergent, then Lt
11>00
[n {~I}] is _ __ u
n 1
[ADS: > 1]
9. If the series
is  10. If
I(Ifan,(all
~
n,!!JL
aMI
( ADS: > 1]
un =(I+!)n2 , Lt u l/ n= _____
n
n>oo
lI
[ ADS:
1/e]
464
Engineering Mathematics  I
00
X"I
x~ 1
and oscilates
n~1
1.
=0
3. p  series test:
f~ n
,,~I
~1
L u"
and I
Vn
v"
IU
6. Raabe's test:
U"
[n{~
UntI
n~oo
I}] I I
> or <
U"
00
n~1
un
>
lin+1 '
Vn (ii) Lt
n~oo
Un
=0
I is convergent.
is convergent and
IU
is conditionally convergent if
Iu"
II U" I
is
divergent. (c) An absolutely convergent series is convergent but converse need not be true. i.e., a convergent series need not be convergent.
Sequences of Series
465
Solved University Questions
  +   +   + ........ .
Solution Let ull be the Then,
1 n(n+1)(n+2)  (n+1)(n+2)
Let
1
VII
2 ;
then, Lt
U
=
II
'!.. 11>00 V
Lt (
tHoo
n +1 n +2
n2 )(
) =1
Lt
11>00 (
1+;; 1+;;
1) (
2)
LUll
and
VII
VII
LUll
is convergent.
(all)
all
be a sequence which converges to a limit '/ 'say. given any +ve number
E,
Lt
1l~C()
= I =>
E
however small ,
III ' , ) ,
'ifn ~ m
jaIl II < 1; I.e., (I  1) < all < (i + 1), 'if n ~ m Let A = min {a"a 2 , am _,,(1 1)} ,and fl = max {a"a 2 , am,,(I + 1)} Then obviously, A ~ an ~ fl, 'ifn EN; Hence (an) is bounded.
1, we have,
466
Engineering Mathematics  I
Solution
The given series is an alternating series where u" (i) (ii)
ll"
=(
2111 !
We observe that,
Lt
= Lt
,,+00"
1 =0 IHoo ( 211  1) !
:. By Leibneitz's test [7 .2 ] the given series converges. 4. Show that the geometric series
00
111=0
1   when /q/ < 1 and diverges when /q/ ~ 1 lq Solution See theorm 2.3 (replace' x ' by 'q') . 5. Define the convergence of a series. Explain the absolute convergence and conditional convergence of a series. Test the convergence of series
I[l+ J,;r'
Solution For theory part, refer 2.1,2.2, 8.1 ,9.1, and 9.2
Problem:
Let
~ H[l+
By Cauchy's root test,
J,;J
=7<1
Un
is convergent.
6.
1 2
1.3 2.4
1.3.5 2.4.6
Given that x> O. Solution Omitting the first term of the series, we have, '' x
and
Sequences of Series
467
UI/ = LUI/
2.4.6 ..... 2n + 2
).x;
n+1
L u n+ 1
L (2n + 1 )
2n + 1
2n + 1
1
)=!<1
n~oo
Lt [n(~I)]= Lt (_n 2n +
U Il +1
IHOO
:. By Raabe's test,
LUI/
diverges.
:. The given series converges when x < 1 and diverges when x 21 . 7. Test the convergence of the series, 1 + ( 2 ) x
2"
Solution
Neglecting the 1st term,
u"
=[(=:~H'
=
1/ u 1n
II
lltoo
Lt uny.n =
[1+ 1/]
x; By Cauchy's root test, " ~u// is cgt. when x < I and dgt. when x >
1, un
=(
(1 + l/~r
1+ 3/~
, )n;
IHOO
Lt Un = ee = e1* 0
2
:. LU
is divergent.
468
Engineering Mathematics  I
8.
nih
term is
(3n 1) / 2n
for convergence.
Solution
U
= n
(3nl)
2"
. '
U
IHI
{3(n+l)I}
=''
2"+1
U,,+I _
un
:. By ratio test,
(3n + 2) 2(3nl)
is convergent.
   1 <1 L (Un+1
n>oo Un
L un
9.
L
<X)
n;2
n(logn
converges if p > 1
[2,00]
00
f(x)dx=f x(logx)
2
ax
<X)
log2
I ;;;
U
Ip
=~
P
II
00
log2
. I [Takmg log x = u,  ax = du x = 2 => u = log 2 and x x Case (i) : p > 1 => 1 P < 0 => Integral is finite, and
= 00 => U = 00 ]
Case (ii) : 0 < p ~ I => Integral is infinite. Hence, by integral test, the given series converges if p > I and diverges when
O<p~1
.
JI
10.
I (I + J,;)"""
Solution
Sequences of Series
1
469
L1
n~oo
U;,II
= 
1 <1 e
[2 <e <3I .
u" is convergent.
11.
11
Solution
The given series is of the form
xn u" = ( ) n nl
1I"
> 0 and
ll"
12.
.
DISCLISS
2'1'1
x2
X4
x6
Solution
Iii
term 0 f th e series
x r::; u = (n+2)'I'n+l
ll
2n
( . . I sl term ) omlttmg
2
21
X 1+2
"1I+1,J;;+2 rn+i
(n + 3)
2
llt
1=
(n + 3).J n + 2 ; ;;: =
.x
LI
/HOO
By ratio test,
x
2
< 1 , i.e., if
When x
= 1, u =
ll
(n+2) n+l
rn+i ;taking
n/ 2
]I
vn
= 3'
n i2
=1
n~oo vn
Lt
U
_II
n~oo n%
Lt
By comparison test,
Un
VII
470
Engineering Mathematics  I
But
211
13.
Solution
X 211 U
n
x2n+2
(n+l)J;;'
=
. U
11+1
===
(n+2)rn+i
u n+1
un
By ratio test, When
,r:;
u n +1 =x2;
11+00
Un
Ixl = 1 , un =
1 .) taking 1 + 1/
VII
~
n/ 2
.n
LUll
is convergent.
lin
converges when
Ixl ~ 1
Ixl > 1
~+~+~+ .........oo
234
Solution
. For tIle gIven serIes, un
x = ; un +1 n+1
11+1
1+ Lt un +1 = Lt ~ n~'" U n~oo ( 1+ 2/
n
II)
n+2
X=X
/n
L un
U
n
converges when
1 =
n+1
;=.,
Vn
un
1+;11
Sequences of Series
471
Lt un
II~'" VII
= 1 * 0
and finite.
IU
=
II
and
VII
Vn
diverges:.
IU
When x
~ 0 as n ~
00
By Leibneitz's test
IU
II
x <1
Solution
un
1. 3.5.... ( 2n + 1)
Un +1 _
Un
n~'"
Lt
~ = Lt r + (
2
Un
3
11 )] ) 11
n~'"
l3 + ( 5
= <1
By ratio test,
16.
(If In(logn)3
"'f
2
Solution
I Iu 1 n(1ognr
n 
dx
= "'f d!
log2
X(logxf
g
r'
=  : 2 =  t
11
log 2
,which is finite.
LlulIl
is convergent.
" L un
converg..:s absolutely.
472
Engineering Mathematics  I
17.
Solution
l. . n/I! term 0 f t le given series,
U n
2n+ I =3X
n +1
_
II
~I/~t
1111
II
1,1
(2n+3).x"H n + 1 + I}
11>00 { (
(113+1)
xn ( 2n + I)
x=.x
Whenx
I,
It
2n+ I . un =  ,  ; Takmg
n +1
?
VII
1 2 n
'
II~'OO
LI _"
VII
2n + I = LI 3 X n = 2"* 0
11>00
n +1
and filllte
I But I
Thus,
lin Vn
and
Vn
converges:.
I
2
Un
also converges.
18.
00
(I)" (log n )
'
II~I
Solution
Sequences of Series
473
x
log2
I
I
UII
Solution
Given that u,
I
LI u'1/ n
n>oo n
= LI
n>oo
[I] =
log log n
0<1
Un
is convergcnt.
Solution
Term of the series, ull
2.4.6 ..... 2n
2n + 1 X211 +1
.(
Xlll'l
(neglecting I st term)
lI
+1
=
lI +1
. (2n + 3)
Lt u
11>00
un
19
~/n
By ratio test,
2
474
Engineering Mathematics  I
Then
+1
411 + 211 + 1
411 + 211 + 1
Lt
IHOO
[11(~1)]= Lt n2(8+1~)
lIn+1
IHOO
n ( 4 + 7~ + /~~2 )
2 2
=2>1
By Raabe's test,
LUll
converges when x
= 1, i.e., x = 1.
:. Interval of convergence of
lin
is
(1:::; X:::; 1)
7
Vector Differentiation
7.1.1
Note: In what follows i,j, k are unit vectors along X, Y, Z axes respectively
For example, consider the vector function
F = (x  y) i + xyj + yzk
Let P be a point whose position vector is
r = 2i
..... (1 )
I.e.
At P,
Thus, to each point P of the region D, there corresponds a vector F given by the vector function (I). Hence F is a vecotr point function (of scalar variables x, y, z) and the region D
is a vector field.
476
Engineering Mathematics  I
f= 2.1.3 + 2.1 + 3 = II
Hence the scalar' II ' is attached to the point P. The function 'f' is a scalar point function (of scalar variables x, y, z), and 0 is a scalar field.
Note : There can be vector and scalar function of one or more scalar variables.
dr du
ou
Lt
Or
Lt ou ~O
r{ u + ou)  r{ u)
ou
~Oou
= L.,l=l+}+
~ dr,.
du
dlj. du
dr2 . du
dr3 k du
Example
If r(u) = (3u 2 + 5u + 6) i + 3U7  4uk, Find dr , when u = 1 du
dr du
= {~(3U2 +5U+6)li+{~(3U2)}j+{~(4U)}k
du
du
du
Note: We can apply the above rule of derivative to the case of partial derivatives also
ex : If A
=
axOv
Vector Differentiation
477
aA ay
{  a (2 x yz ay
)t.
a2 A
4i  4j + 72k
7.1.3 Application to space curves Let ret) = x(t)i + y(t)j + z(t) k represent the position vector of a point (x. y. z) on a
space curve whose equations are given by x time. dr dx. dy. dz Then =I+J+k dt dt dt dt and
x
=
x(t), y = yet), z
(i) dr represents the velocity vector v (or tangent vector) of the point (x, y, z) dt (ii) d 2 r represents the acceleration vector a at the point (x, y, z) dt 2 Ex: If a particle moves along a curve x
=
et, y
I) find velocity and acceleration at time t = 0, and 2) find also their magnitudes
Sol:
r = xi
=
+ yj + zk
478
Engineering Mathematics  I
dr d v=  = dt dt
=
(e~i
d 2 r dv d d. d a= ==(et)i(4sm2t}j+  (4cos2t)k 2 dt dt dt dt dt = (et ) i(8cos 2t)j(8sin 2t) k Putting t = 0 in (I), velocity as t = 0 is v = i + 4k Magnitude = .... (2)
10
J65
7.2 Gradient of Scalar Function 7.2.1 The Vector differential operator 'DEL' or 'NABLA', denoted as 'V' ' is defined by
V'
=i
+ }+ 
a .a ax ay
a az
This operator' V' ' is used in defining the gradient, divergence and curl. Properties of' V' ' are similar to those of vectors. The operator is appled to both vector and scalar functions.
7.2.2 Gradient
If ~ (x, y, z) is a scalar function, defined at each point (x, y, z) in a certain region of space and is differentiable, the gradent of as, grad ~ = V' ~ = 1+ }+k ~
~
~)
is defined
.a .a ( ax ay
a) az
479
~'
If ~ (x, y, z) = c (c being a constant) represents a surface, then 'grad ~'represents the normal vector to the surface at the point (x, y, z) For, if r = xi + yj + zk, is the position vector of the point (x, y, z) on the surface, we have, dr = (dx) i + (dy) j + (dz) k which is in the tangent plane to the surface of
(x, y, z)
(.,'
=c)
:. The vector' V ~' which is 1. r to the tangent plane is the normal vector to
~ =
c at(x, y, z)
V~.a
lal
.'~
in the direction of
(i.e.,
IV~I
Proof: grad
(~+ \1')
{! (~+
\jJ)} i + { ;
480
Engineering Mathematics  I
8ljI. 8ljI )
= Y'~+Y'ljI
(2) grad (~ljI)= ~ (grad\fl) + ljI(grad~) (or) Y'(~ljI) = ~ (Y'ljI)+(Y'~)\jJ Proof: grad
(~ljI)
Y'(~ljI)
{! (~ljI)}i
+{;
(~ljI)} j + {! (~ljI)}k
<.
(8ljI
ay
~+
oy
ay
+ ljI
oz
~)
(3) If ljI :;t: 0, grad ( ljI =
Ex. 7.2.6
Sol:
=  4; + j  2k
Find the unit normal to the surface xy +yz + zx = 3 at the point (I, 1, I). If ~ = c is a surface,
Y'~
Vector Differentiation
481
Here f= xy +yz + zx
;+ j+k
J3
2e2xytz
Ex.7.2.8
Sol :
(a)
Find the directional derivative ofl= towards the point (2, I, 3).
at (1,3, I) in a direction
1 = 2e2xytz;
= (b) Ans:
(4+4+4)
3
=4
In the 'Problem (a)' find the maximum value of the directional derivative
IV11
Ex.7.2.9
Sol :
Find the acute angle between the surface point (2, 1, 1). Let 1 = xy2z = 4 be the surface (1)
482
Engineering Mathematics  I
1,1)
I)
Let g = (.xl y + .?) = 6 be the surface (2) Normal vector to (2) at (2,1,1) = Vg 1(2,1,1)= (2x; + 2yj + 2zk)i(Z,I,I)
= 4; + 2j + 2k = b (say)
:. Angle between the surfaces
4+8+4 .Jl+16+4.J16+4+4
cos
1 (
I (
6.J14 = cos
16)
I (
3.J14
8)

7.2.10
Sol:
Find the constants p and q such that the surfaces px2 4x2y + z3 = 4 are orthogonal at the point (1, 1, 2) Letf= px2  qyz  (p + 2)x = 0 be surface (1), and Let g = 4.xly + z3 = 4 be surface (2) Normal to (1) at (1, 1, 2) = Vf
(11
qyz
(p + 2)x and
"
2)=(81 ; + 81 j + af k 11(1_12) ax ay az
y"
a (say)
Vector Differentiation
483
..... (i)
p + 2q  p  2 = 0 => q
from (i) we get,p = 5/2
I
:. p = 512, q = 1
=
7.2.11
Sol:
(x 2 +
T + z3)3/2
3 2"
(x 2 + T + z2)3/21 . 2x = 3x r
a~
similarly 8y
a~.
a~
grad
=
~=
 l +  ) + k ax 8y az
= 3r (xi + yj + zk) = 3r r
Aliter:
Ifr2
=
ax
ax
.. ar Slmtiarly 8y
= .
yarz =r'az r
grad ~ = Vr 3
[x.
zk] =3rr
7.2.12
Sol:
= (xl + T + z2)nl2
~ =!!{x 2 + y2 + Z2
ax
2
r/
2 
.2x =nx{x 2 + y2 z2
r/z
484
Engineering Mathematics  I
o~ = ny sImilarly ox
grad rn = grad
~
..
= nz x + y + z
(222)";1
= xi + yj + zk
=
r. A
of ox = AI'
81
0'
81
= A2, OZ = A3
:. grad (r.A)
= gradf= 81 i+ 81 j+ 81 k ox 0' oz
~I(r).r
=A i+Aj+A k=A
I 3
(~(r=
(r)
(r) 
81
ox
",I
ar
'Y
ox
I'X
(r).r
or ox or y
r
x
r
0'
or
z
.. V
(~ (r = V f=
oz'''
W
<j>1(r)r
<j>1(r)
(xi+yj+zk) =
Vector Differentiation
485
Ex.7.2.15 Find the equations for the tangent plane and normal line to the surface z = x 2 + at the point (2, I, 5).
.r
Sol:
Let r = xi + y) + zk be the position vector of any point P(x, y, z) on the surface. Let r l = xli + yJ + zl k be the position vector offixed point A(xI'YI' z,) on the surface. Then AP = (x  xI) i + (y  YI) + (z  z\) k Let n be the normal to the surface at A. Then, since AP is perpendicular to n, we have, (rr\)n=O which is the equation to the tangent plane at A. Here, in the given problem rr, =(x2)i+(yI)+(z5)k and 11 = V (xl +
=
= r  r,
..... (I)
.r 
z) at A (2, I, 5)
= 4i + 2)  k
=0
~4x
+ 2y  z = 5
.... (2)
From (2), the direction ratios of the normal Iine at A are 4, 2, I :. Equation 10 tpt( pormal line at A are,
 =
xx)
y Y) zz) he \ w re abc
~,=
(xl'YI' zl)
= Y I = z 2 I
c be any given surface and (xl' YI' zl) be a point on it; then
+=cat(xI'Y"z,) is
486
Engineering Mathematics  I
(2)
Exercise 7(a)
I.
If <jl
2xz3  3xlyz, find V <I> and IV<I>I at the point (2, 2, I)
[Ans: (i) 22i+ 12}12k(ii)2M3]
2.
3.
If V = 2x i  3y) + z 3k, and <jl = 2xyz  3z2, find V. V<I> and Vx V<I> at the point (1,2,3) [Ans . (I)  426 (2) 6i + 352} t 156k] Iff=2xyzandg=xly+z,fing V (f+g) and V (fg) at the point(I,I,0) [Ans : 2i + )  k; 2k ] Evaluate V (3r
r
2 
4. 5. 6.
4.,Jr + 1 ~)
~r
If <I> = r2 e , show that grad <I> = (2r) er r Find a unit normal vector to the surface z = xl + Y at the point (I, 2, 5) [Ans:
51 (2i 
4j  k)
7.
Finq the equations to the tangent plane and the normal line to the surface xz2 + xly = z  I at the point (I, 3,2)
"
8.
Find ~uations to the Tangent plane and normal line to the surface y at the point (1, 5, 2)
= xl + z2
7]
384
Vector Differentiation
487
II.
Find the values of the constants a, b, c so that the directional derivative off= + byz + cz2x 3 at (1,2, I) has a maximum magnitude 64 in a direction paraIlel to zaxis. [Hint:
axl
:. Equate coefficients of i and j to zero and IV ~ = 64. Thus get 3 equations in a, b, c and solve them] [Ans: a =6, b = 24, c =  8] 12. Find the acute angle between the surfaces xlz = 3x + z2 and 3x2  l + 2z = I at thepoint(I,2, I)
[Ans : cos I   ]
7J2
J3
13.
(i)
= Log r (ii)
I = r
(iii)
14.
Find the directional derivative of g = x 2 l + lz2 + z 2x 2 at the point (I, I, 2) in the direction of the tangent to the curve x = et, y = 2 sint + I, z = t  cos t at t = o. [Hint: Tangent vector to the given curve is
[Ans: 15.
J6]
Find the acute angle between the normals to the surface xy = z2 at the points (1,9,3) and (3, 3, 3)
16.
If r
= xi + yj + zk and
4> = x 3 +
Y + z3 
488
Engineering Mathematics  I
7.3 7.3.1
(aA i + aA + aA3) ax ay az
I
A.V
a ax
ay
a az
ax
ay
az
ax
ay
az
= Div A + Div B.
Vector Differentiation
489
(2)
Prove that, Div (fA) = (grad.f) .A + .f{Div A) i.e. V .(fA) = (V .f). A + .f{ V A) Proof: Let A = Ali + A'll + A3k then fA = fAli + fA'll + fA3k
V .(fA)
ay
ay
az
az
..... (1)
..... (2)
..... (3) (1), (2), (3) => V .(fA) = (v.f).A + f(v .A)
Ex. 7.3.5
Sol:
If A = (.x2y) i + (xy2z)j + (xyz)k, find div A at the point (1, 1,2). A = (.x2y) i + (xyz)j + (xyz)k
. aA. aA 2 aA 3 DIVA=++ax ay az
=
=
= xy (2z ,+ 3)
:. At (1, 1, 2), Div A = (1) (1) [4 + 3] =7
490
Engineering Mathematics  I
Ex. 7.3.6
Sol:
a a 2 a (2xy)+(3x y)+(3pyz) ax oy oz
= 2y + 3xl  3py
At (1. 1, 1). Div V = 5  3p Since V is solenoidal, Div V = 0 :. p = 5
3"
Ex.7.3.7
Sol:
A2
A3 = z(xl + y + z2)312
oA 3 2 .. l =3z r+r
OZ
r3 + 3xlr
Vector Differentiation
491
Similarly
ay
DivA=6~
Ex. 7.3.8
(x.
k)
= Ali + Aj + A3k
(say)
aA I = ~ [3r4 x]
ax
ax
. ::
= 3r4 + 12 x r 5
oA c:y2
=3r4 + 12yr6
_I + __ 2 +_3
oA ax
oA
oA
Oy
az
= 9r4 + 12 r6 (x 2 +
492
Engineering Mathematics  I
Show that V .(x" r) r" r
Ex.7.3.9
Sol:
V .(r" r)
~, (yr")
v)'
+
a az
(zr")
z)
r
=0
:. 3 is solenoidal
r
Ex.7.3.10 Prove that Div (CIA + C 2 B) = C I Div A + C 2 Div B, where CI' C 2 are
constants.
Sol:
Let A
= A I i + Aj + A3k
B = Bli+ Bj+ Bl CIA + C2B = (CIA I + C 2B I) i + (C IA2 + C 2B2U + (C IA3 + C 2 B 3 )k Div (CIA + C2B) =
a ax
=C (MI+M2+M3)+C(aBI+aB2+
I
aB
ax
Oy
az
2ax
ay
az
3)
Vector Differentiation
493
Ex.7.3.11 If A = 2xi + 3yj + 5zk and f= 2xyz, find div (fA) at (1,2,3).
Sol:
fA
= 40xyz
:. At (\,2,3), div (fA) = 240 Aliter: div (fA) = D.(fA) = (V f). A + f( V A)
Vf
V fA
vfx V g
a.fjax agjax
aljay agjay
~fxz)
=0
:. V fx V g is solenoidal
494
Engineering Mathematics  I
Exercise 6(b)
I. If V
=
(xlz)i  (2y3z1)j + (vz)k, find div A at the point (I, I, I) [Ans.  3]
2.
Ifr = xi + yj + zk, find div r If F = (3,xyz2)i + (2xy3)j  (xlyz)k, and = 3xl  yz, find (i) Div F (ii) Div (F) and (iii) Div (grad); at the point (I, I, I)
[Ans.3]
3.
[Ans. (i) 4 (ii) I (iii) 6 ] 4. If V = (3xly  z)i + (xz 3 + y4)j  2x3z 2k, find grad (Div V) at the point (2, I, 0) [Ans.  6i + 24j  32k] 5. Evaluate: (I) Div (r2r) (2) Div (r r) (3) grad Div (r/r) (4) div (r/r3) [ Ans. (1) 5r2 (2) 4r (3) 2r/r3 (4) 0 ]
6.
Show that V
7.
Show that the vector F = (2xl + 8xyz)i + (3~y  3xy)j  (4yz2 + 2x3z)k is not solenoidal, but G = xyz2 F is solenoidal. If a is a constant vector and V solenoidal vector.
=
8.
9. 10. 11. 12.
a x r, where r
Determine the constant 'b' such that the vector, V = (2x + 3y)i + (by  3z)j + (6x 12z)kis solenoidal Ifr, and r2 are vectors joining fixed points A (x"YI' z,) and B(x2'Y2' z2) to a variable point P(x, y, z) prove that r, x r2 is solenoidal. If r
= xi + yj + zk and r = Irl
= n( n+ I )rn 2 .
2n(2n I) I n?n+2 , 2 ] r
If g = r2n , find div (grad g) amd find 'n' such that 'g' is solenoidal. [A ns.
7.4
7.4.1 If A is a differential vector function, then curl A is defined as, curl A = V' x A
j
k a/az A3
If A
= Ali + Aj + A3 k , then
Curl A = a/ax AI
a/ay A2
Vector Differentiation
495
(aAJ _
0'
i
V
j
ffi2
k
ffi3
= ffi
x r
ffil
Curl V=
a/ax
8/ay
a/8z
i (ffi 1+ ffi I) + j
(ffi2 + ffi 2) +
Thus the curl of velocity vector is twice the angular velocity of rotation.
7.4.3 Irrotational Vector: A vector V whose curl is zero is said to be an irrotational vector. 7.4.4 Properties :(1) V x (A + B) = V x A + V x B (or) curl (A + B) = curl A + curl B
Proof: Let A = Ali + A.j + A)k and B
496
Engineering Mathematics  I
Curl (A+B) =
ajaz A3 +B3
j
k
If is a scalar function and A is a vector function Curl (A) = ((curl A) + (grad) (or) V x (A) = ((V x A) + (V {P) x A
x
j
L\ x (cj>A)
"i[.I."'ay aA3
~
?>
AI
A2
A3
=cj>( V x A) + (V cj x A
Vector Differentiation
497
Solved Examples Ex.7.4.6 If A = (xy)i + (yz}j + (zx) Ii; find (a) curl A and (b) curl curl A at (1,2, 3)
Sol :
k
zx
(a)
curl A = V x A =
ay
= i(O =
y) + j(O  z) + k (0  x)
yi  zj  xk
=V
i
(yizjxk)
j
z
:. curIAat(I,2,3)=i+j+k
Ex.7.4.7 Show that V = xi + Ij + z3k is irrotational 
Sol:
Curl V = V x V
ay
=0
:. V is irrotational
498
Engineering Mathematics  I
Ex.7.4.8 If F = (4x + 3y + az)i + (bx  y + z)j + (2x + cy + z)k is irrotational, find the constants a, b, c
i j ajay (bx y+z)
k
ajaz (2x+cy+z)
Sol:
Curl F =
ajax (4x+3y+az)
i[~(2X+CY+Z)~(bXy+Z)]+ j[~(4x+3y+aZ)~(2X+CY+Z)J ay az az ax
+
k[~(bXy+Z)~(4x+3y+az)] ax ay
= (c 
i.e., a = 2, b = 3, c = 1
Ex.7.4.9 If r = xi + yj + zk, and r = Irl, find curl (rn r)
Sol :
r = xi + yj + zk, r = Irl = ~ x 2 + y2 + Z2 rn r
=
k
ajaz
1/ 1
curl (rn r) =
ajay Y(X2 +
+ Z2Y2
Z(X2 +
+ Z2 )"2
n x= I.[ z."2
499
curl (rn r) =
ajax xrn
ajay yr"
= "'.[ L..,l  a
ay
_ '" .[
L..,l
z]
I)i + j  (x + y) k, F. curl F = 0 k ajaz xy
= i( 0) + j( 0) + k (0) = 0
Ex. 7.4.10 Prove that, ifF
= (x + Y +
j a/ay
Sol:
Curl F =
ajax
x+ y+1
= i
= ;
+j  k
=0
Ex. 7.4.11 P(x, y, z) is a variable point and Q(xl' YJ, zJ)' R(x2, Y2' z2) are fixed points.
If U = QP and V = RP; Prove that curl (U x V) is equal to 2(U  V). P(x, y, z), Q = (xl' Yl' zJ)' R = (x 2, Y2' z2) :. QP = (x xJ); + (y  YJN + (z  zJ)k = U RP
Sol:
= (x 
x 2); + (y  Y2 N + (z  z2)k
j
=V
k
(ZZl) (ZZ2)
UxV= (XXI)
(xx 2)
(YYI) (YY2)
= ~{(y =~
500
Engineering Mathematics  I
Curl (U
V)
I[ ~{x(y, !
V'"
'I'
8$. 8$. 8$ k = ax 1 + ~ J + az
ajay
== L
i( a ~ a ~
2 2
~az
az~
== 0
Ex. 7.4.13 Show that F == (6xy + iJ)i + (3r z)j + (3xz 2  y)k is irrotational. Find ~ such that F == V ~
i
Sol:
Curl F =
ajax 6XY+Z3
I+J+ax ay az
:. :
== 6xy + iJ
..... (I)
Vector Differentiation
501
a~

Oy
a~
3x2 z
?
..... (2)
az
= 3xz~
 y
..... (3)
... :. (4)
af(y,z)
ay = 3.x2 +
From (2) and (5) we have
ay
..... (5)
af(y,z)
ay
=z
..... (6)
~ = 3x2 + zx 3  yz + h(z)
..... (7)
Comparing (3) and (8) we have h l(z) = 0, :. h(z) = constant, 'c' say Hence ~ Aliter:
=
3.x2y + xz 3  yz + c
~ =6xy+z3 
(from 7)
.... (I)
ax
a~
ay
3.x2  z
.... (2)
..... (3)
502
Engineering Mathematics  I
xz3  yz + h(x. y)
Note:
3x2y + xz3  yz + c, where c is a numerical constant. [Herej= yz, g = xz3, h = 3x2y will satisfy (4), (5) & (6)
:. ~ = fir) r = fir) (xi + yj + zk)
j o/Oy
%z
Curl (f(r) r)
%x
..
Sol:
f{r)r is irrotational
V is solenoidal
Ui
=
V=V t i+V2i+ Vi
:. curl U
=
=> Li[OU 3
oy
OU 2 ]
oz
..... (1)
sImilarly,
..
'" .[OV 3 oV 2] = 0 Oy oz
Ll  
..... (2)
Vector Differentiation
503
}
VxV= VI VI
V2
k
V3 =1:;(U 2V 3 U 3 V 2)
V2
V3
..... (3)
au 3 _ au 2 au I _ au 3 . au 2 _ au I From (I) ,we have,      ,    ,    0' az az ax ax 0' I an d from (2) we have    I    , '0' az' az ax' ax 0'
_
..... (4)
aV
..... (5)
Substituting the six equations of(4) & (5) in (3), we observe that all the 12 terms of (3) will get cancelled. Hence Div (U x V) = 0
~
I. If V = (2xz2);_ (yz)j + (3xz3)k, andf= xlyz, find the following at the point (I, I, I) (a) curl V (b) curl (jV) (c) curl (curl V) [Ans. (a) ; + } (b) 5;  3}  4k (c) 5; + 3k] 2. If 'g' is a scalar function, show that curl (g grad g) = 0 3. Find the value of the constant 'p' for which the vector V = (pxy  z3) + (p  2) xl} + (I  p) xz2k is irrotational. [Ans: 4] 4. Find the constants a, b, c so that the curl of the vector A = (x + 2y + az); + (bx  3y  z)j + (4x + cy + 2z)k is identically equal to zero [Ans. 4, 2, 1] 5. If r =
xi + y) + zk, r = Irl, show that curl (;Z ) = 0 and find a scalar function of' such
r r
o.
[Ans :f= log
(~)]
504
Engineering Mathematics  I
6. If r = xi + yj + zk, and p, q are constant vectors, show that (I) curl [(r x p) x q] = ( p x q) and (2) curl [(p.q)r)] = o.
7.5 7.5.1
Laplacian Operator: V2
V2 =
V.V
'V2' can be applied to both scalar and vector functions as shown below.
V~=++
ax 2 ry2 az2
a2~
a2~
a2~
(V2AJ+(V2A2)j+(V2A3~
~
7.5.2 Vector Identities: we shall give below some vector identities with proofs.
\. If '' is a scalar function curl grad
= 0, (or) V x V ~ = 0
= 0, assuming that
'~'
partial derivatives.
Vector Differentiation
505
(2)
IfY is a vector function, Div (Curl A) = 0 (or) V.(Vx Proof: Let A = Ali + Aj + A3k CurIA=
A) = 0
, 3" .(aAaA ) ay az
~I
Div (curl A) =
" a {aA3 aA)} ~ax ay az a~A3 a2 A2 a2 A4 a~A3 a~A~ a~AI = ++axay axaz ayaz ayax azax azay
grad (Div A) 
=0
(3)
V2 A (or)
Proof:
curlA=
Curl (curIA)=
506
Engineering Mathematics  I
'1 2A + '1('1.A)
(4)
j A2 B2
k A) B)
B = AI
BI
i(A2B)  A)B2)
a ox
L:.
ax
..... (1)
'1xA
a/ax
AI
..... (2)
Vector Differentiation
507
Similarly, A. (V'
x
B) = L.J AI
..... (3)
Expanding the summations of (I), (2) & (3), we observe that, Div (A x B) = B. (V' x A)  A. (V' x B)
7.5.3 Operation of V' on product of two functions Suppose ~ and 'P, are two scalar or vector point functions. When V' is operated on
the product of ~ and \j1, the following rule is useful. V' (~'P) = V' (~o \{J) + V' (~'P 0) wherein the suffix '0' indicates that the function is not to be varied, that is, V' is not to be operated on that function. After the completion of operation of V' the suffixes are dropped. While proving the identities the following are useful. (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g) (h) a.b = b.a a x b = b x a axa=O a.(bxc)=(axb).c a x (b x c) = (a. c)b  (a. b) c (a. c) b = a x (b x c) + (a . .b}C a. a = a2 x operation is always between vectors only
vector identities using V' operation: (i) V' .(FG) = V' . (FG o) + V' . (FoG) = V' F.G o + Fo V' .G :. div (fG) = G. grad F + F div G (ii) V' x (FG) = V' x (FG o) + V' x (FoG) V' x (FG o) = V' F x Go V' x (FoG) = (V' x G)Fo=Fo(V' xG) :. V' x (FG) = V' F x G + F( V' x G) (i.e.) curl (FG) = (grad F) x G + F curl G due to (h)
508
Engineering Mathematics  I
Go .( V' x F)
V'
(G. F0)
due to (a)
Thus div (F x G) = G. curl F  F. curl G (iv) V' x (F x G) = V' x (F x Go) + V' x (Fo x G)
V' x (F
(V' . F) Go
= (Go V') F  Go (V' . F) V' x(FoxG)=(V'.G)Fo(V'Fo)G = Fo (V' . 0)  (F o V') G :. V' x (F x G) = (G . V') F  G( V' .F) + F (V' .G)  (F. V' ) G
Thus curl (F x G) = (G. V' ) F  (F. V' ) G + F (V' .G)  G (V' .F)
"I
V' (Go. F)
Thus grad (F . G) = F x curl G + G x curl F + (F . V') G + (G . V') F (vi) curl (grad F) = V' x (V' F) = (V' x V') F = 0 (vii) div (curl F) = V' .( V' x F) = V' x (V' . F)
= ( V' x V' ). F = 0
Vector Differentiation
509
Solved examples
Y
=
J ++J
ox 0/
oz
:. at (1, 2, 1),
xi + yj + zk, r =
\rI, then
V 2r ll = n(n + 1) rll
+Z2 )
... (1)
02 (r n) = n ( n 2)y 2 r n4 + nr n2 Similarly 2
, oy
... (2)
... (3)
(": x 2 +
y + z2 = r2)
= n(n +
1) ~2
510
Engineering Mathematics  I
Aliter:
n,.rr2 . x
ll
~~II)= n(r 2
az
, ay
and
n2 n4 ~ 2 ~n ) = nr  + n{n  2 )r  .Z2 az
... (3)
=> V2rn = 3nr" 2 + n{n  2)r n 4.r2 = ,.rr2[3n + n2  2n] = n(n + I) r"2
Note: Ifn =1, we have
Ex.7.S.6 If V .U =0,
av
au
at 2 at
at
= at
2 a(au)_ a u
at  ai2
... (1 )
Vector Differentiation
511
But
V x (V x U) = V (V .U)  V 2U
=  V 2U
from ()) & (2), Similarly; Vx (Vx and
(": V U
= 0)
... (2)
i'iu
at
... (3)
Sol:
U (say)
(": V 2y = U)
{~) ~}{V2V}
ax
0'
az
V2(DivV)= V2(0) =
(": Div Y
= V . Y = 0)
512
Engineering Mathematics  1
Exercise 7(d)
(I)
(2) (3)
Show that V
(4)
show also that, if V<j> = 0, then <j> = C] +  where CI' C 2 are constants
~'ry
(5)
If r =
xi + )1 + zk,
(k x grad
I ) + grad
(k.
I grad ) = 0
7.6 7.6.1
(I)
du
= B(b)  B(a)
Let A(x,y,z) be a continuous vector function defined in the entire region of space. Let c be any curve in the region. Divide c into n intervals by taking points A = Bo, BI' B2 ... Bn(= B). Let Pi be any point in the interval B i_, Bi
0" ' .;.;.
Vector Differentiation
513
A= 8 0
Let ro' rJ ...... rn be the position vectors of points Bo' B)' B2 ...... Bn respectively. Let us consider the sum,
1&,:1 ~ 0
f A.dr or
f A.dt; dt
fA.dr
dr
which is a scalar.
f A .dr = fA1dx + A2 dy + A3 dz
c
Note:
7.6.3
(1)
Physical appliations:
Work done by a force (I) If A represents a force and dr is an element of the path of the particle along a curve c, then the line integral
{J
fA .dr
J'
514
Engineering Mathematics  I
(2)
flow or circulation:
(2) If A is the electric field strength, the line integral given above i.e., JA.dr, is called the flow of A along c. If c is a closed curve it is often referred to as circulation of A around c.
{J
In general, the line integral JA.dr, will depend on the path from P to Q
/'
7.6.4 T"eorem: Prove that the necessary and sufficient condition for the integral fA.dr,
c
to be independent of the path c joining any two points is that A is a conservative vector field, (or) there exists a scalar field I/> such that A = VI/> (or) curl A = 0, [i.e., the work done by the force A in moving the particle from one point to another is independent of the path if A = VI/>]
Proof Let P = (x I ,y I ,Z I)' Q = (x2'Y2,z2) be any two given points on the curve c. Let A = VI/>
where I/> is singlevalued and has continuous derivatives.
(J
(1)
Work done
JA.dr
(dxi+dyj+dzk)
I'
Q
p
fVI/>.dr=
Qol/> 01/> 01/> (J Jdx+dy+dz= fdl/> = I/>(Q)I/>(p) /' ox ry oz I' = ~(x2'Y2,z2) 1/>(xI'Yl'zl)
i.e., the integral depends upon the two points only but not on the path joining them. (This is true only if I/> is singlevalued at all points P and Q). (2) The integral is independent of the path. Then,
(x,y,z) (x,y,z)
I/>(x,y,z)
f A.dr =
(Xl ,YI ,Zl)
f
(Xl ,)'1 ,zl )
dr A. ds ds
dl/> =A. dr ds ds
...... (I)
Vector Differentiation
515
But
d<j> =V<j>dr ds ds dr s dr ds
...... (2)
:. A= V<j>
Solved Examples
4
Ex. 7.6.5:
Sol:
4tk, find
(a) JF{t}dt
(b) JF{t}dt
2
Sol:
Given integral
xl2
x/2
xl2
ri/2
=; J(3sine}de+ j J{2cose}de=3cosel;
0 0 0
+2sinejJ o
~
=3;+ 2j
0 is given by,
Find the velocity V and displacement r at any time 't' given that V = 0 when t = 0 and r = 0 when t = O.
Sol:
a = et ;
d 2r
2
dt
:. V
lj 
(3cost)k + C,
..... (1 )
516
Engineering Mathematics  I
Integrating, r
=
..... (2)
But r
= 0 when t = O.
=
:. (2) => + i + C 2
0 :. C 2 =
fFx=Fx+c dt dt
2
d2F
dF
Sol:
We know that
~(FxdF)=FX~(dF)+dFxdF
dt dt dt dt dl dl
Hence the result. Ex.7.6.9 If A = 2ti + 3t7  (4t + 1)k, and B = ti + 2j + t 2k, find
2
(i)
Sol:
f(A x B}dt . o (i) A.B = (2t)t + (3t2) (2)  t2 (4t + 1) = 2t2 + 6t2  4t3  t2 = 7t2  4t3
(ii)
o
f(A.B}dt
i
(ii) A x B = 21 t
=
3/ 2
1j4k 5 3
196.
62.
Vector Differentiation
517
dF du
evaluate IF.du
2
Sol:
F. dF 'du
=~~(F.F)=~~IFI2
2 du 2 du
But F(2) = ; + 2j  2k ~
IFI2 = I + 4 + 4 = 9, when u = 2
= 36 + 4 + 9 = 49, when u = 3
3 dF I . IF.du=[499] =20 ., 2 du 2
= t, Y = t2 , z = t3 .
(2) the straight line from (0,0,0) to (I ,0,0), then to (1, I ,0) and then to (1,1, I) and (3) the straight line joining (0,0,0) to (1, I, I).
Sol.
(1) x = t;
Y = t 2; dy = 2t dt;
z = t 3, .
dx = dt;
dz = 3t2 dt,
/;0
518
6 2 \, 24t lO 12t 7 (3 I 12t t p t =       ! 10 7 30
Engineering Mathematics  I
Irf
o
J~24t
Aliter:
12 12 1 25218035 37 = 5 7 3 105 105 2 2 2 3 Along C, F = (t  2t )j  6. t t j + 8.t.t6 k =  t 2 j  6tJ + 8t7k dr = (dx)i + (dy}j + (dz)k = dt i + (2t dt}j + (3t2 dt)k
=
I
JF.dr
c
1=0
37 (2) 105 Let 0 = (0,0,0), P = (1,0,0), Q = (I, 1,0), R = (I, 1,1 ). Then along OP, y = 0, z = 0, dy = 0, dz = 0 and x varies from 0 to 1.
2 :. JF.dr= J(x 2.0}tx6(OXOXO)+8x(0)2(0)= Jx dx= 2
~ x~
.... (I)
:.
JF.dr=
I'Q
J(122y~6y(0)dy+8.1.(0)2(0)= Jo=O
.... (2)
y=O
.... (3)
=~ + 0 +! = 3
3 3
(3)
~ = = t (say),
2 5t  21
'Vt
Vector Differentiation
519
Ex. 7.6.12 Find the total work done by a force F = 2xyi  4zj + 5xk along the curve x = t2, Y = 2t + 1, z = t3, from the points t = 1 to t = 2. Sol: x = t2 , dx = 2t dt; y = 2t + 1, dy = 2dt; z = t\ dz = 3t2 dt
Total work done = fF.dr
c
= fl2J 2(21 + I}J2Idl _{4./ 3 )2dt + {5/2 )3/2 dl = f{8/ 4 + 4/ 3 81 3 + 15/ 4)dl
'~I
1 5
fF.dr =
(0,0)
'~O
= +1 = +2==2 5 2 5
2nd Method:
1
t2 2
6/ 3 3
18t 5 1 5 0
18
18
11
10
to 1.
.. fF.dr
c
520
Engineering Mathematics  I
Ex. 7.S.14 Find the work done by the force F in moving a particle once around the circle
'C' in xy  plane, ifthe centre of the circle is origin and radius is '2' and
F = (x +y + z)i + (2x + y}j + (2x  y +z)k. Sol:
xy  plane is z = 0,
:. F = (x + y)i + (2x +y}j + (2x  y)k and r = xi +yj
F. dr = (x
~
dr = (dr)i + (dy}j
y
2lt J(2COSS + 2sin sX 2sinS)de + (2.2cosS + 2sin SX2cosS)dS o 2lt 2lt 2 2 2 2 J{ 2sin2S 4sin S + Scos S + 2sin 2S}ie = J{scos S  4sin S ~S o 0
~
2lt 2lt = n4(1 + cos2S) 2(1 cos2S)}iS = J(2 + cos2S)dS = [2S + 3sin 2S~lt o 0 = 4n Ex.7.S.1S Show that the necessary and sufficient condition for a vector field V to be conservative is curl V = 0 Sol: a) Necessary condition: If V is conservative, :3 a 'cp' 3 V = V cpo curl V= curl (V cp) = 0 (see 7.5.2 (1)) b) Sufficient condition: Let V = V I i + V'li + V 3k
i j
Curl V = V x V
8/ Ox 8/ By 8/ 8z = 0
I(8V 8V )i = 0 By 8z
3 _ 2
.... (1)
Vector Differentiation
521
The work done by the force field V in moving a particle from (x\,y\,z\) to (x,y,z) is IV.dr
c
where V is a path joining (x\,y\,z\) to (x,y,z) Let us choose a particular path consisting straight line segments from (x\,y\,z\) to (x,y\,z\) to (x,y,z\) to (x,y,z) and denote the work done along this path by a scalar function ~(x,y,z);
x
y
:.
..... (2)
8cI>
8z = Vix,y,z)
.... (3)
.z
= V2 (X,y,ZI)+ V2(X,y,Z~
from
y
(1)
+ V;(x,y,z~
Yl
Zl
= V \(x,y\,z\) + V \(x,y,z\) 
.... (5)
522
Engineering Mathematics  I
Ex. 7.6.16a) Show that F = yi + (2xy +z2)j +2yzk is a conservative force field.
b) Find its scalar potential. c) Find the work done in moving an object in this field from (1,2,1) to (3, 1,4)
j
Sol:
a) V x F= Max
a/fJy 2xy+Z2
a/az
2yz
:. acjl ax = y2
cjl =
Integrating (1) w.r.t x, (2) w.r.t. y, & (3) w.r.t. z, respectively, we get,
xY + j(y,z),
=
cjl =
cjl
yz2 + h(x,y).
j(y,z)
Hence cjl
yz2,
g(z,x) = 0, h(x,y)
xy.
= xy + yz2 + constant
c
cjl =
XI
zl
= xYI  XlYI + xy +z 12y  ry I  ZI 2y I + yz2  yz I 2 = xy2 + yr  x1yl2  Zl2Yl = xy2 + yz2 + constant.
3rt/ Method: Since F. dr = Vcjl.dr = acjl dx + acjl dy + acjl dz =dcjl ,
ax
fJy
az
Vector Differentiation
d~ == cY)dx + (2xy + z2)dy + (2yz)dz == cYdx + 2xydy) + (z 2dy +2yz)dz
523
=>
~ == xy + yz2 +constant
1'2=(3,1,4)
(0,1)8
c) work done ==
f F.dr ==
c
fd~
IHI,2,1)
(3,1,4)
==
(1,2,1)
'=::::i"'I\( 1,0)
Ex. 7.6.17 Evaluate f(x 3dy + y 2dx) where c is the boundary of the triangle whose vertices
c
Let I ==
== II +12 +1 3, where II ==
f, 12 == f, 1 f
3=
OA AH
(i)
HO
Jx 3 0 + 02 dx
== 0
(ii)
AlongAB, o
I
I toO.
:.1 2 = fx 3 {dx)+{Ix)2 dx
(iii)
Along BO,
_~o =0_(_~_~)= __ 1
4
I
12
:. 1
= II + 12 + 13 =  12
x = (, Y = (2,
=(3
from t
to I .
524
Engineering Mathematics  I
Sol:
Y=1
11
Jfdr
c
Jill
(i + 2tj + 3/ 2k )dl
13
=i
12
dl+ k J3/ 13 dl
0
1=0
./12 I 2/ 1 3/ 14 I 1. 2. 3 =1 J+lJ+k J=I+l+ k 12 0 13 0 14 0 12 13 14 Ex. 7.6.18: If A = 3zi  2xj + yk , and c is the curve given by
x = cos I, Y = sin 1 , Z = 2cos I,
evaluate
c
JA x dr from I =0to I = 2
i j k A x dr = 3z  2x y dx dy dz
1t .
Sol:
:. (1)
1C12
220
24
20
= {
+O+~(l ])]
= %;+(6
:}+e;
1)k
Vector Differentiation
525
Exercise  7(e)
4
I)
JU(t)dt,(b) Ju(t)dt
2
12
1t
3' (b) 
100
5. 37. 8 k +} + ] 2 6 3 5) The acceleration of a particle a at any time t ~ 0 is given by a = eli + (2cos2t)j + (2sin2t)k If the velocity V and displacement r are both zero at t = 0, find V and r at
[Ans' (a)  (b)
I 3'
I
r
3
6) Evaluate
fA. dA
du
526
Engineering Mathematics  I
Exercise 7(f)
I. If ~
[Ans: 2. If F
I I. I k i +4J+ J 7 1
= xi  yzj + z2k,
C
= t, Y = t3, z = t 2, evaluate
= I.
.) [A ns: ( I 5. 7. 1\ k .. 71I5J +1"2 ,(II) 23] 24
3. If A = (2x + 3)i + xyj + (zx  y)k, evaluate fF.dr along c where c is (a) the curve x
(b) The straight lines from (0,0,0) to (1,0,0), then to (1,0, I) and then to (1,2, I) (c) The straight Iinejoining (0,0,0) and (I ,2, I). 491 13 14 [Ans: (a) 105' (b) (c)
2'
"3]
3.5]
1308
5. IfF = (2x y)i + (x 2y)j, evaluate fA.dl" where c is the closed curve shown in the
c
figure below.
y
Vector Differentiation
527
6. If A = (3x + 2y)i + (x + y)j, and c is the boundary of the tringle whose vertices are (0,0), (1,0), (0, I), evaluate fA.dr.
c
[Ans:
2" J
7. If A = (2x + y)i + (3x  2y)j, compute the circulation of A about the circle C: xl + 4, traversed in the positive direction. [Ans: 81t] 8. Find the work done in moving a particle in the force field. F = 2x2i + (2yz  x)j + yk, along (a) the straight line from (0,0,0) to (3, I ,2) (b) the space curve x = 3t2, Y = t, z = 3t2  t from t = 0 to t = I
1=
[Ans: (a)
6' (b) 3]
113
58
9. (a) Prove that V = (2x siny  3)i + (x 2 cosy + z2)j + 2(yz + I)k is a conservative force field. (b) Find the scalar potential ofY. (c) Find the work done in moving an object in this field from (1,0,1) to (2,
1t 2" ,I). 1t
2"
+ 5]
= (9xly 
curve 'c' joining two given points. (b) show that there is a differentiable function <jl such that A = \l<jl and find it.
7.7 7.7.1
SURFACE INTEGRALS
Let S be a twosided surface. Let one side be taken as the positive side. If S is a closed surface, the outer side is considered as the positive side. Let A be a vector function. Consider an element of area 'ds' in the surface. Let n be the unit normal vector to ds in the positive direction. It can be seen that A.n = A cose. (where '8' is the angle between A alld n and A = IAI) is the normal component of A. Let ds be a vector whose magnitude is ds and whose direction is that ofn. :. ds
=
n ds.
528
Engineering Mathematics  I
..... (1)
is an example of a surface integral which is also called as flux of A over s. If'f' is a scalar function,
ff4>ds
..... (2)
..... (3)
..... (4)
Note
are some other examples of surface integrals. (1) The surface integrals can also be defined in terms oflimits of sums. (see 7.7.2) (2) The notation surface s. (3) Sometimes the notation
(4) Surface integrals can be conveniently evaluated by expressing them as double integrals over the projected area of s on one of the coordinate planes {see 7.7.3)
Vector Differentiation
/
529
.,J...... y
The area S is divided into 'L' elements of area Mill' m = 1,2, .... L, let
P'II =
&\)111.
Let nlll be the positive unit normal to I'1S111 at Pm. Then (Am.nm) is the normal component of Am at Pm. Consider the sum,
/,
Am.nIllMm
..... (I)
1/1=1
The limit of the sum (l)as L ~oo such thatthe largestdimens~on of each I'1S", ~ 0 (if the limit exists) is known as the surface integral of the normal component of A over S an d denote d by ,
IIA.n.d'}
ffA.nds
,
, = ffA.n d\XdY
/I
n.k
/,
Am .nmMIII
..... (1)
111=1
530
Engineering Mathematics  I
;~~~~.Y
which is equal
By the fundamental theorem of integral calculus the limit of this sum as L such a manner that the largest Llx m and AYm approach zero is
~ 00
in
IfA.n In.kl
R
dxdy
which is the required result.
Note: Similarly ifR is the projection ofS on yz and zx planes respectively, it can be seen as
and
ln.]
Vector Differentiation
531
to fA.nds and it is known as the total flux of A through the entire surface S.
n.......~C"
force, flux of heat or gravitational force etc. In all these cases, total flux of A through S.
fA.nds
denotes
Sol:
ax
az
V~
2i+j+2k
= ~22 + 12 + 22
2i+ j + 2k 3
532
Engineering Mathematics  I
= .!(12y4xy)
3
If R be the projection of S on the xy  plane.  = dxdy In.kl = 3 => ds = l/l.kl 2 2
dxdy
If(6 y  2Xy}dXlry
/I
..... (I)
To evaluate this double integral over R, (i) Keep x fixed and integrate w.r.t. y from y w.r.t. x from x = 0 to x = 3. :. Given integral
3 62x
J J(6y2xy)1ydx
J(3 xX6 2xY dx =
2 3 J(J08108x+36x 4x }Ix
x=O y=O
3 3 3
yJ + yzk, evaluate
O~
bounded by x =
x = I, Y = 0, Y = 1, z = 0 and z = 1.
Vector Differentiation
533
z
Sol.
x
(vi) S6: Face OBFA
IfF.nds =
SI
J2Z21~
0
J2dY = 2
0
On S2: n =
i, x
1
=
1
0
1 1
HF.n.d.,. =
On S3: n = j, y
= 0
o
1
o
1 1
=I
1
J J(I)1xdz= Jzi
0 0
1
dx= JIdx=l
0
OnS 4 :n=j,y=O
1
:. HF.n.ds
= 0
On Ss: n = k, z = 1
1 1 1
:. HF.n.ds=J J(4Xi/j+yk}kdxdy=
8S
J Jydxdy= J~ I
0 0 0
21
On S6: n =  k,
Z
1
=0
1
HF.n.ds
.'16
. JJF.n.ds =2 + 0  1 + 0 + ~ + 0 = ~ .. 2 2
534
Engineering Mathematics  I
Sol:
f
S R
d~ ~~'
,. 5 R Q 4
r='JL.. y
,....
 ' z=Q
'<.
x
Project s on xz plane and let the projection be R. (See figure)
..... (I)
The norma I to x 2 +
Y = 16 is
ax
ay
= 2xi+ 2yj
. Ul1Itnormaln=
A.n
~(2xY+(2yy = 2JX2+y2
Z
2xi + 2yj
2(xi + yj)
xi + yj =4
(.: xl + Y
16)
= '
2X+X 2 y 4
.
n.J= :. From (I)
"4
=
J
S
JA.nds
J
R
[.: J
= 4z + 64zf = 820
3 3
0
x dx=4, o ~16 _x 2
Vector Differentiation
535
Ex.7.7.8 Evaluate
I I<I>nd~
s
<I> =
x~z
Sol:
We have
If s
<l>nds =
1 If<l>nI
II
dxdz
n.)
80
l+}
64 Z. 3
64Z. 3 Z2 2
f
0
. 1+)
I 64(z2. 83 2
.]1
=.;;1+) =1+.1
8 25(. 3 ~
.)
100(. 3
.)
I I{curIA).nd~
s
Sol:
I~+Y
j
CurlA=
k
a/az
a/ax
y
a/fJy
x2xz
xy
536
Engineering Mathematics  I
&
&
fu
fu
= xi + yj  2zk
The normal to the surface is V (xl + .0 + z2) = 2xi + 2yj +2zk
(Curl A). n =
fpX2 +i
/I
 2Z2 ) dxdy
2
z 12
f f
4x
Changing into polar coordinates by taking x = r cose, y = r sine, dx dy =r dr de, the integral becomes
de= f(88}ie=o
8=0
Vector Differentiation
537
Ex.7.7.10 Evaluate J JA.nds where A = yzi + zx} + xyk and S is the part of the sphere s x 2 + y2 + z2 = 9 which lies in the first octant.
Sol:
Untt normal n to S =
IV x
V x 2 + y2 + Z2
2
+ y +z
'
2xi+2y}+2zk
xi+ y}+zk 3
nk= 3 .
9)
3xyz;
Jsf A.nds
=9 f fxy dxdy
II
The region R is bounded by xaxis, yaxis and the circle x 2 + y2 = 9; z = 0 chang,iog to polar coordinates, the last integral becomes
",/2 3 rr/23
9 J
8;0 r;O
1[/2(
': !cos9Sin9d9=2"
1[/2
I)
Exercise  7(g)
I. If F = 18zi  12x} + 3yk, evaluate J f F.nds where S is that part of the plane s 2x + 3y + 6z = 12 which is located in the first octant (Hint: Take projection ofS on the xy plane and ds =
538
Engineering Mathematics  I
a) the surface S of the unit cube bounded by the coordinate planes and the planes = y = z = I and b) the surface of the sphere of radius 'a' with centre at the origin [Ans: a) 3, b) 41ta3]
4. Evaluate f fF.d~ over the entire surface ~fthe region above the xy plane bounded s by the cone :l
[Ans: 3201t]
[Ans: 132] 6. Evaluate f fV.nds over the entire surface S of region bounded by the cylinder
S
xk
[Ans: I81t]
"8]
Vector Differentiation
539
9. Evaluate
JJ{(x
s
2"]
10. If V = xi + yj + zk, and S is the 'triangle with vertices at (1,0,0), (0, 1,0) and (0,0, I), find the value of I IV.ds . s [Ans:
2"]
II. If A = xi  yj + (z2  I )k, find the value of I IA.nds, where S is the closed surface s bounded by the planes z = 0, z = I and the cylinder x 2 +
y=I
[Ans: 1t]
7.8 7.8.1
VOLUME INTEGRALS
Consider a closed surface in space enclosing a volume V. Then, integrals of the form I I IAdv and I I I~dv, [A is a vector function, f is a scalar function] are
"
7.8.2 Expression of volume integral as the limit of a sum: Let A be a continuous vector function. Let S be a surface enclosing the region D. Divide this region D into a finite number of subregions D, ... ,= 1,2, ..... n.
Let L1v, be the volume of the subregion D, enclusing any point whose position vector is rio Consider the sum
II
V =
LA~JL1v,
,;1
The limit of this sum as n ~oo such that L1V, ~ 0, is called the volume integral of A over D and denoted by I I I Adv
J)
540
so that dv = dx dy dz
Engineering Mathematics  I
k f f f A3(X,y,z}lxdydz
f)
Solved Examples
Ex.7.8.3 If F
IS the closed
Sol:
VF
~(2X2 3z)~(2xy)~(4x)=4x2x=2x
ax
ry
az
2 2x42x2y 2 2x 42x2y .. f f fV.Fdv= f f f 2xdzdydx= f f [ f 2xdz ]dydx v x=Oy=o z=O x=o y=o z=O 2 2A 42x2y 2 2x 2 2x 2 2xz 2x(42x2y}!ytlx= f f l dydx = f f f[ f(8x4x 4xy)t(y]dx A=O y=O Z=O x=O y=O x=O y=O
2 2x = f8xy4x2y2xy2fdx x=O y=O
64 3
8 3
Ex.7.8.4 Evaluate
Sol:
a(4x ) (2y a 2 a 2 )=44y+2z V.A=)+(z ax ry az x=2 y=J4x 2 3 .. fff(v.A}!v= fff(44y+2z}lv= f [J(44y+2z)dzf/ytlx v v x=2 y=v4x~ 12 z=O
Vector Differentiation
)'~f4x2
541
dydx==
J[
JC 2l  12 y)dy]dx
y=Y4r; ?
x~2
Ex.7.8.5 Evaluate
JJJ<I0v taken over the rectangular parallelopiped 0 s:; x < a, 0 s:; y < b,
J'
os:; z < c
Sol:
and ~ == 2{x + Y + z)
y + z)
}YdY
x=o
+1 = 9, z = 0, z = 2.
Sol:
JJJ~dv== JvJJ{4y+2xz}lv
I'
J.=3y=J9x 2 z=2
J J
y=o
x=O
3
==0
J[
~x2
~2
J(8y + 4xX/y]dx
0
JC4y2 +4xy)1
0 0
dx
o
3
= J[4(9x2)+4x~9x2]dx==108
o
542
Engineering Mathematics  I
Ex.7.8.7 Evaluate f f fFdv where F = xzi  2xj + 2y.k and V is the region bounded by
v
the surfaces x
= 0, y = 0, y = 6, z =.x2, and z = 4
Sol:
z
s
\:
y=
.Q...~
z=x
2
z=4
\
x
I ,
'\
~y
=6
y
L _________ J//
i
<
The region V is covered by (see the figure) (a) keeping x andy fixed and integrating from z = .x2 to z = 4 (base top of column PQ) (b) then by keeping x fixed and integrating from y = 0 to y = 6 (R to S in the slab) and (c) finally integrating from x = to x = 2 (where z =.x2 meets z = 4).
f f[
f(xzi2xj+2y 2k)dz}1ydx
x=Oy=O z=x2
264
264
264
=i
f f[
26
fxzdz]dydx+j
f f[
26
f 2xdz ]dydx+k
f f[
f2y dz}1ydx
2
24
J
4
J
26
4
J
= i f f x;
x=O y=O
dydx+ j f f 2xz
x=O y=O
dydx+k f f2 y 2 z
x=O y=O
dydx
z=x2
z=x2
z=x2
Vector Differentiation
543
26
=i
J[ J(8X~)dy}lx+j J[ J(2x
x=o y=O
26
26
3
8x)dy]dx+k
x=() y=O
~=o y~o
x=o
)'~()
Ix
y=O
=i
J( 48x  3x
o
1 = i(24x 2 :; x 6 )
~
x=o
x=o
= 64i 
4~i
+ 768k
Ex.7.8.8 Find the volume of the region common to the intersecting cylinders x 2 +
and x 2 +z2
=
r =b
b2 .
z
Sol:
x +z ::: b
2 2 2
/ I
",
/'"
I
II
_''x +y ::: b
~o
x
V
y
Required volume is equal to 8 times the volume of the region shown in the figure (as the axes cut the volume into 8 equal parts one in each octant)
544
Engineering Mathematics  I
Exercise  7(h)
1. Evaluate
If A = (2X2  3z)i  2xyj  4xk , and V is the closed region bounded by the planes
x=O,y=O,z=Oand 2x + 2y + z = 4,findthevalueof
1u
k) )
3.
Evaluate planes
Ifff dv where f
[ADS: 128) 4x+2y+z = 8,x = O,y = 0 apd z = 0 4. If A = 2xzi  xj + y2 k and v is the region bounded by the surfaces x = O,y = O,y= 6,
z= x
5.
Iff Adv
over the
ADS: 128i24j+384k
rectangular parallelepiped,
Evaluate
ffI(Div A)dv
0~y
~
taken
o~ x ~ 1,
6. Evaluate
2,
[ADS:3 6 1
Iff(Div F)dv for the volume of a cube with edges of length unity
= (x 3 yz2 ) i  ( 2X2Y ) j + 2k
[ADS: 1/3)
Vector Differentiation
545
7.9
CURVILINEAR COORDINATES
7.9.0 The students are already familiar with the coordinate systems such as i) cartesian
ii) Polar and iii) parametric. A study of yet another coordinate system called "curvilinear coordinate system" will be now taken up.
7.9.1
Transformation of coordinates
Suppose the rectangular coordinates (x,y,z) of any point be expressed as functions of variables vI' v2' v3 as
...... ( I)
Let the above system of equations (i) be solved for vi' v2' v3 and another system of equations
..... (2)
Ifthe functions in (I) and (2) are assumed to be single valued and to have continuous derivatives, the correspondence between the variablesx,y, z and vI' v 2' v3 is unique. Thus, to a given point P with cartesian coordinates (x,y,z), we can associate from (2) a unIque set of coordinates (vl'v 2,v3 ) which are called curvilinear coordinates. The systems of equations (I) and (2) give the "transformation of coordinates".
curve
>~y
........
"
= c 3. (cl'c2,
Each pair of the above surfaces intersect in curves called 'coordinate curves or lines'. i.e., vI = c I and v 2 = c2 intersect in v3 curve, v 2 = c2' v3 = c 3' vI = c I in v 2 curve.
546
Engineering Mathematics  I
If the coordinate surfaces taken in pairs intersect at right angles the coordinate system is called 'an orthogonal curvilinear coordinate system'.
Note: The coordinate surfaces described above are similiarto the coordinate planes of the rectangular system and the coordinate curves are similar to the coordinate axes. Infact, the rectangular coordinate system is also an example of curvilinear system with VI = x, v2 = y, v3 = z; c I = c2 = c 3 = 0 7.9.3 Unit vectors of a curvilinear system
Consider the position vector r = xi + yj + zk, of a point P. using (I), it can be written as r = r(v l ,v2,v3)
(i)
~. If e l is
av,
I I'
lilly if
av aV3
2
we can write , av = A2 e2 ,
2
ar
av3 = A3e3
ar
where The unit vectors e I' e2 , e3 are in the directions of increasing v\' v2' v3 respectively. The quantities A\, A , A3 are called 'scale factors'. 2 (ii)
VI
VV 2
2
1'
E3 =
Vv
c 2'
and
v3
= cy
Vector Differentiation
547
V3
curve
Thus, in general, at a given point P there exist two sets of unit vectors,
(i) el' e2, e 3 tangential to the coordinate curves and
(ii) E], E2, E3 are normal to the coordinate surfaces (see figure)
+ a 2e2 +a3e3
Here a\, a2 , a3 or AI' A 2, A3 are the components of A in the two systems respectively (b) The vectors  ,  ,  and Vv" Vv J , Vv3 , are called
8r
8r
8r
'Unitary base vectors (need not be unit vectors in general). We can also represent A in one of the following forms; as
Here CI' c2' c3 are called the 'contravariant components of A and CI' C 2, C 3 are called the 'Covariant components of A
548
Engineering Mathematics  I
= r(vl'v2,v3)
:. dr=
~dvJ +
8v J
ar dV 2 + ar dV3 =AJ(dvJe J+A 2 (dv 2 )e2 +A 3(dv 3)e3 ..... (3) aV2 aV3
ds 2 = AI2dvl2 +A}dv} +A/dv/ for an orthogonal coordinate system (.,' e l .e2 = e2e3 = e3.e l = 0) (ii) Let dvl' dv 2, be vectors specifying arcelements along VI and v2 curves
respectively at point P. i.e., dV I = dr along VI curve and dV 2 = dr along v2 curve. Since v2 ' v3 are constants along VI curve and vI' v3 are constants along v2 curve, we have, from (3),
..... (4)
The area of the parallelogram formed with the vectors of( 4) as adjacent sides is the area element or surface element 'ds 3 ' on the surface v3 = c3 (see fig) and it is given by
ds 3 = Idv i
Oily ds I
dS 2
=
V2
curve
A2A3dv2dv3
= A3Aldv3dvi
are surface elements on surfaces VI = c i and v2 = c2 respectively. (iii) The volume element 'dv' for an orthogonal curvilinear coordinate system is equal to the volume of the parallelopiped whose coterminous edges are dv I' dv 2 , dv 3 i.e., Aldvle l, ~dv2e2' A3dv3e3 (see figure) :. dv
Vector Differentiation
549
7.9.6 EXPRESSIONS FOR GRADIENT, DIVERGENCE AND CURL IN AN ORTHOGONAL CURVILINEAR COORDINATE SYSTEM: 7.9.6(1) Gradient of a scalar function
c7v [ Ia~
~
I
~:
el +~ c7v e2 +~ c7v e3
2 2 3 3
I~
I~
= gle l
+ g2e2
ar
ar
ar
c7v1
c7v 2
c7v3
d~
A3~3dv3
..... (A)
..... (8)
Again,
d~ = ~ dVI + ~
av
av
dv 2 +
av
~
3
d,V3
= [ ~a;
I I
el
+ ~ c7v + ~ c7v
2 2 3
e2
e3
~
3
7.9.6(2)
Ifvl' v2' v3 are orthogon~1 coordinates, prove that (a) lV'vII = A,I,(I= 1,2,3)
V~=~ a~ +!2~ +~ a~
Al c7v1 A2 c7v2 A3 c7v3
550
Engineering Mathematics  I
Hence
lilly
v 2
] 1\,2,
1\,3 ,
/= 1,2,3.
[from (a)]
y,
7.9.S. (3) Prove that, in orthogonal curvilinear coordinates,
V.(A,eJ=
1 A]A2A3 Ov]
1 (e xe ) = e, VV 2 xVV3 = 2 3 A2 A3 AzA3
A2A3 (VV2 X Vv 3) lilly e2 = A3A, (VV3 x Vv,) and e3 = A,A 2(Vv,
=
..... (C)
e]
VV 2
r
..... (D)
V(A,A2A3).~ + A'A2A3{V.~} A2 A3 A2 A3
551
_I ~(_I_)+O+O
AI Ovl A2 A3
=0
AIA2A3 Ovl
..... (E)
(Operating V)
lilly, we get,
and
V.A 2 e2 ==
..... (F)
AIA2 A3 Ov2
..... (G)
7.9.6 (4)
552
Engineering Mathematics  I
AI
vI
0)
(substituting for V)
..... (i)
..... (ii)
and
..... (iii)
1 _e_ A2 A3
{~(A3A3)~(A2AJ1+~{~(A'AJ~(A3A3)1
oV2 Ov3
1..,31..,1
Ov3
Ovl
Ale,
1..,11..,21..,3
A2e2
A3e3
A2A2
A3 A3
Vector Differentiation
553
Ex. 7.9.6. (5) Derive an expression for V2~ in orthogonal curvilinear coordinates.
Sol:
(from 7.9.6(1
A=_I~
I
AI Ov I '
= V.V~ =
.. V2~
V.A
7.9.6(5), if we put vI = X, v 2 = y, v3 = z; AI =A2 = A3 = I, and e l = i, e2 = j, e3 = k; we obtain the corresponding expressions in (rectangular) Cartesian coordinate system. [The reader is advised to verify]
554
Engineering Mathematics  I
..... (i)
z =rcose
where r
~
7.9.7(2)
(i)
0]
c2 which are cones with verex at origin (lines if c2 = 0 or nand xyplane if c2 = n12)
= c3 which are planes through the zaxis = c2 and ~ = c3 is the rcurve and it is a line
~
(ii)
:j:.
c2 is the
~urve.
7.9.7(3)
Scale factors:
r
= xi + yj +zk
=
18rl=~(sinecos~)2+(sinesin~?+(cose?
=(rcosecos~)i+(rcosesin~)j(rsine)k
8r = 8r Ov2 as
=r
Vector Differentiation
555
Ov 3
A =
3
r sinO
A( = I,
A2 = r,
A3
r sinO.
7.9.7(4) Base vectors: The base vectors e (' e 2, e 3 are taken for the sake of convenience as er , eo' etjl respectively. They are,
e
r
e
(
AI Ov l
AI
or
eo = e2 =_1
=
AI GO
(cosOcos<li+(cosOsin<jj(sinO)k
and
A3 0<1>
=~(rsinOsin<li+(rsinOcos<lj
rsmO
)j
[students are advised to verify the above equations] which show that "the spherical polar coordinate system is a righthanded orthogonal coordinate system".
7.9.7(5) Arc length, Area element, and volume element in spherical coordinates: A( = I, A2 = r, A3 = r sinO
I
(from 7.9.5(1))
556
Engineering Mathematics  I
and ds r , ds s ' dStjl are the area elements on the respective surfaces r
= cl'
= c2'
=
and
cj>
= c3.
dv
1..)1..21..3 dv)dv2dv3
= I.r.{rsin e)dr.d9.dcj>
i.e., dv = r2 sin edr.d9.dcj> is the volume element.
7.9.8(2)
Scale factors:
r
= xi + yj +zk
= (pcose)i + (psin e)j + zk
Vector Differentiation
557
A2
=1:1=~(psin8)2 + (pcos8)2 =p
A1 = I8r I= 1 8z
8r = 8r = k; 8v) 8z
p = cl' which are cylinders coaxal with zaxis (or zaxis itself if c 1 = 0) 8 = c2' which are planes through zaxis and z = c3' which are planes (ii) Coordinate curves are: (a) Intersection of 8 = c2 and z = c3 is the pcurve which is a straight line.
(b) Intersection of p
~r
to zaxis
(c) Intersection of p = c 1 and 8 = c2 is the zcurve which is a straight line. 7.9.8(4) Base vectors: (ep,eo,e z )
ep = _I 8r = (cos 8 )i + (sin 8)j
AI 8p
eo =_1 8r
1<.2
as
=~[(psine)i+(pcose)j]
p
=
(sin8)i+(cose))
558
Engineering Mathematics  I
1 8r e ==k ~ A3 8z '
which shows that cylindrical coordinate system is a righthanded orthogonal coordinate system.
7.9.8(5) Arc length,Area element and volume element in cylindrical coordinate system:
(i)
=
ds p' ds s' ds z represent the area elements on the surfaces p respectively. (iii) Volume element 'dv':
l.p.dp.dedz = pdp.de.dz.
7.9.9: EXPRESSIONS FOR GRADIENT, DIVERGENCE, CURL, LAPLACIAN AND JACOBIAN IN SPHERICAL AND CYLINDRICAL COORDINATES: 7.9.9(1)
Gradient of a scalar function 'f Grad f= V j=e l +   e2 +e3
18/
18/
18/
AI
av
A2
av
A3
av
(from 7.9.6(1))
Vector Differentiation
559
a) spherical coordinates:
Al = 1,
el
=C r
A2 = r,
A3 = rsin 0
=(sin8cos~)i+(sin8sin~)j+(cos8)k
e, =e<l> =(~sin~)i+(cos~)j
v f= of e +! Wc or r as
r
+_I_ofe
0
rsine
as
<I>
b) cylindrical coordinates:
Al = 1,
A2 = p,
A) = 1
el =ep =(cose)i+(sine)j
e2
=eo =(~sine)i+(cose)j
AIA2 A3 8v1
[~(AIA2A3)+~(A2A3AI)+~(A3AIA2)l(from 7.9.6(3 8v 8v
2 3
:. Div A =
r sll1e or
1.
=p,v 2 =e,
V3
=Z
p op
1[0 0 0 J (pAI)+(A2)+(pAJ
as
oz
560
Engineering Mathematics  I
7.9.9(3) Laplacian
V2 j
[from 7.9.6(5)]
a)
In spherical coordinates:
Ai =1,
1.,2 =r,
1.,3 =rsiIl9,
Vi
=r,
v2 =9, v)<l>
V2j =
=  +  +  2 2 +    + :::
a2j ar2
aj 1 a2j r ar r2 ae
cot 9 aj
r2 ae r2
1 sin 9
a2 f a<j>2
In cylindrical coordinates:
Al = I,
1.,2
= p,
1.,3
= 1,
VI
= p,
V2
= 9,
V3
=Z
..
V2j
= ++2+  2
(after differentiation and simplification)
a2f az
7.9.9(4)
If A = Aiel + A2 e2 + A3 e3 '
(from 7.9.6(4
a) In spherical coordinates:
Ai =1,
1.,2 =r,
A)
=r~';n9,
VI
=r,
v 2 =9,
v) =<j>
Vector Differentiation
561
..
curl A = r2 sin 8
b) In cylindrical coordinates:
AI =1,
A2 = p,
A3 = 1, VI =P,
v2 = 8,
V3 = Z
7.9.9(5)
Jacobian:
(i) Orthogonal curvilinear coordinates: Let x = x{V"V 2 ,V3); Y = Y{V"V 2 ,V3); Z = z{V"V 2 ,V3) represent an orthogonal curvilinear coordinate system
Jacobian =
J(
axjavl ayjav l azjavl x,y,z ) = axjav2 ayjav2 azjav2 v" v2 ' V3 axjav3 ayjav3 azjav3
since
xi +yj + zk
562
Engineering Mathematics  I
(ii) Spherical coordinates:
x=rsinOcos<\>
y=rsinOsin<\>
. =.,(x,y,z) Jacobian r,O,<\> ax/ar ay/ar az/iJr ax/a8 ay/ao az/80 ax/a<\> ay/a<\> az/a<\>
sin Ocos<\> rcosOcos<\> rsinOsin<\> sinOsin<\> rcosOsin <\> rsinOcos<\> cosO  rsin 0
= r2 sinO
(iii) Cylindrical coordinates:
r2 sinO]
Jacobian =
ax/ap ay/ap az/ap J[x,y,z) = ax/88 ay/88 az/88 p,O,z . ax/az ay/az az/az
eosO psinO sinO peosO
0 0
=
o
[(or) J
=
0
AIA2A3
=
Lp.l
p]
The summary of important results of this chapter is given in a table in the next page for the convenience of the student.
x=x y=y
z=z
AI = 1,
i, j, k
2)
3)
A2= I,A. 3= 1
e,= (sinO coS)i + (sinO sin)j + (cosO)k ep = (cosO)i + (sinO)j ee= (cosO coS)i + (cosO sin)j(sinO)k ee= HinO)i + (cosO)j
e~=
(sin)i + (coS)j
ez=k
4)
Jacobian (J)
8(x, y, z) a(x,y, z)
5) (Arc Length)2
6) Area elements
on the coordinate surfaces
(ds)2 ds,
(dS)2
=dy dz ds 2 =dz dx
ds 3 dv
=dx dy
ds Q=d'" , dp ds z pdpdO
7) Volume
element (dv,\
=dx dy dz
dv
= pdpdOdz
Cartesian Coordinates
(x, y, z)
8)
Grauf
9)
Div A
()A I
++Ox ay clZ
a~
a~
Div A =
....2
rsm
~ O[ ~
(Jr
(r2sinO AI)
go
(r sinO A2) +
~~ (r A3)]
!!i.!J:i.iEJ. or + iJy2 + iJ z
2
+iEJ.
at
co
::J
(l) (l) ~.
::J
+
r2sin O
2
!Ei U2
reo
(r sinO)e eI'
co
Q) (l)
::J
er r2sinO
11) CuriA
a/{)x
AI
OliJy
A2
alaz
A3
alar
AI
alfJo
rA2
()/af/J
(r sin{})A3
peo
(J/r)O
e:
cl/(Jp
AI
i.JI (Jz
A3
pA2
=r
s::
3 Q)
o en
Vector Differentiation
565
Solved examples
Ex. 7.9.10 Obtain the equations of transformation from cylindrical to cartesian coordinates.
Sol: Equations of transformation from cartesian to cylindrical coordinates are x=pcos8 ..... (1), y=psin8 ..... (2) z=z ..... (3) from (I) and (2), we get, p2 = x 2 + y2
~p=~X2 + y2 ,p> 0
y from (I) and (2), we also get  = tan 8
~8=tanl(~)
:. The required equations are
p=~X2+y2, 8=tan'(~}
Note:
z=z
If a point lies on zaxis, x = 0, y = 0 => 8 is indeterminate. These points on zaxis are known as singular points of the transformation. Ex. 7.9.11 Represent the vector A = 2xi  yj +z2k in cylindrical polar coordinates. Sol: The base vectors in cylindrical coordinates are ep =(cos8)i+(sin8)j
eo = (sin8)i+(cos8)j
...... (\)
..... (2) ..... (3)
ez = k
= (sin8)ep + (cosS)eo
Then
A = 2[(cosS)ep
(sin8)eo~[(sinS)ep +(cos8~o}y+z2e~.
566
Engineering Mathematics  I
Aliter: Since cylindrical coordinates form an orthogonal coordinate system, we can write A
as A = a,ep + a2ee + a3ez From (1) we find,
...
(I)
whereat'~, a 3 are to
be determined.
A.ep =a"
A.eo =a2 ;
A.ez =a3
..... (2)
For cylindrical coordinates, we have, x=pcos8, y=psin8, Z=Z given A becomes, A= (2pcos8)i(psin8)j+z 2 k
..... (3)
..... (4)
a, = 2pcos 2 8  psin 2 8;
a 2 =2psin8cos8psin8cos8=3psin8cos8; a 3
=Z2
Ex. 7.9.12
Sol:
Represent the vector A = xyi  zj + xzk in the spherical coordinate system. Since the base vectors er, eo'
A
= ecj>
a,er + a2 eO + a3eq,
..... (J)
where aI' a 2, a 3 are to be found. From (I) we get, A.er =a,. A.ee =a2 A.eq, =a3 For spherical coordinates, we have, x = r sin8 cos<j>, y = r sin8 sin<j>,
2
2
(2)
z
2
= r cos8
A = {r sin 8sin <j> cos <ji  {rcos8)j + {r sin 8cos8cos<jk Also we have,
eq,
..... (5)
a, = 1'2 sin 3 8sin 4>cos 2 4>  rsin 8cos8sin<j> + 1'2 sin 8cos 2 8cos4> .
a2 = r2 sin 2 8cos8sin <j>cos 2 <j>  rcos 2 8sin cp  r2 sin 2 8cos8coscp a3
Vector Differentiation
567
Hence
A = aler + a 2ee + 01 eq,
=
{r
sin} 8sin $cos 1 $  rsin 8cos8sin $ + r2 sin Ocos 2 8cosc/>k + {r 2 sin 2 8cos8sin $cos 2 $  rcos 2 8sin $  r2 sin 2 8cos8cos$ ~o
1 2 2
(ii)
eo = Ser + {cos8)~eq,
Sol:
(iii) eq, = ( sin 8 )~er  (cos8 )~eo where' ' denotes differentiation w.r.t. time 't'. (i) We know that
er = (sin 8cos$)i + (sin 8sin $)j + (cosS)k
" cos8cos$8 "} i + { " sinOcosc/>.$ "} j  (sin8)8k " er ={ sin 8( sin$)$+ cos8.sin$.8+
=
(ii) ee
= 
eo!>
=cos$~isin$~j
( sin 8 }~er  cos8~ee
..... (i)
568
Engineering Mathematics  I
= e~
Ex. 7.9.14
from (i)
(i)(ep)=ee o and
Sol:
(ii)(eo)=eep,
ep = (cosS)i+ (sinS)j
= e{(sinS)i + (cosS)j}
Ex. 7.9.15 Express the velocity V and acceleration a ofa particle in cylindrical coordinates.
Sol: In cartesian coordiantes, the position .vector r = xi + yj + zk .
=1+, j+k 2 2 2
dt dt dr dt
d 2r
d 2 x.
d 2y
d 2z
=k
~'. i = cosSep  sin Seo ; j :::: (sin S)ep + (cos e)eo (Solving above equations for i andj)
:. r = (pcosS XcosSe p  sin See)+ psin e(sin Sep + cosSee)+ zez = pep + ze z
.: dez dt
=~(k)=O]
dt
(0) 0
Vector Differentiation
569 .
a = dt
dV
d.
....
..
..
....
ez = 0)
pBen + pep + pBeo + pBeo + pB(Bep ) + ze z ' (using results of (ex 7.9.14
= xyz,
..... ( I)
sin 20
..... (2)
579
Engineering Mathematics  I
o~
aj
=rJsin20cosO.cos2~
)
:. from (2)
aj = zcoso of
op
00
Hence Vf
op ep +p ae eo + oz ez
sin2Gsin+ in spherical coordinates, find Vf.
aj
I aj
Sol:
aj = 2rsin20sin4>
or
ae
o~
aj =r2 sin20cos~
.. ~l
8j
= =
Jo/
Of
Ex. 7.9.19 Show that the vectorfieldA = polar coord inates is solenoidal.
Sol:
Vector Differentiation
571
=
=
as
aZ
~[zsinOzsinO+O] = 0
p
:. A is solenoidal
Ex.7.9.20 IfA= ( rcosOer +eo +.Oe+ ,in spherical coordinates, find Div A.
r
rS1l1
Sol:
rS1l10
4rcosO+2
cotO
r
af ap2
1 af p ap
1 p2
a2 f
ao
a2 f
az
..... (I)
j

= p2 Z 2 cos20
2
_'J
572
Engineering Mathematics  I
Ex.7.9.22 Using spherical coordinates, show that yo2r" = n{n + l)r,,2 when n is a
Sol: constant and r = 0 if n<2 In spherical coordinates, 2 2 yo2f=a2f+~Of +_1 a f + cot 9 Of + 1 d f ar2 r ar r2 00 2 r2 a9 r2 sin 20 d~2 Here, f= rn 2 Of = nrflI. a f = n{n 1)r" 2
..... (I)
..
8r
' Br2
.. (I)
Ex.7.t.23 Iff=
Sol:
yo2f.
Of = 2rsin29. a
or
'
ar~
~ = 2sin 29
Of =sin2+
0+
a2f ' 0+
=2cos2~ 2
sm~9
X{2COS2P)]
= .2sin 29 +~(2rsin29)+ ~( 41'2 sin 29)+ co~9 x 2cos2p r r r = 2sin 29+ 4sin 29 4sin 29 + 2cot9.cos20 4cosec 29.cos2p
r
Vector Differentiation
573
{r:~sino~,+(~cosO}e+ r l2eq,
CurlA=
e,
{rsinO)eq,
a/a~
Al
rA2
(rsinO}A3
A =3
Here, AI =r sinO, A2
=~cosO,
r
e,
r2
{rsin O)eq,
:. Curl A =
\
2
ajar
a/ae
cosO
a/a$
(I/r}sine
r sin 0 r2 sin 0
==
r smO ae
~.
r smO r r
2.
1.
=
=
cotO
we have, Curl A =
ep
pea
A2
ez
A3
a/ Bp alae a/az
AI
574
Engineering Mathematics  I
Here, A I =
cosO, A2 = z sine, A3 = o.
I
:. Curl A =
a/ap
peo
ez
a/ae
pzsinO
a/az
0
p zcose
= (sinO)ep + (cose)eo
+(~p2sin2e)e= is
Sol:
=~p2sin2e 2
ep
peo
ez
a/ap
p pzsin2e
alae
p2zcos2e
~p2sin2e
2
a/az
Vector Differentiation
575
:. A is irrotational.
Ex.7.9.26 Show that div (curl A) = 0, where A is a vector function, in orthogonal curvilinear
coord inates.
Sol:
%v2
Ojov)
A2A2
A)A,
Dlv j = ~ A A A
I
. '"
2 3
[~( Ov VA A ) I
I 2 3
=0
576
Engineering Mathematics 
Exercise  7(i)
l. Show that the spherical coordinate system is an orthogonal system. 2. Show that the cylindrical coordinate system is an orthogonal system. [Hint for I and 2: Show that e,.e 2
= e2 .e3 = e3 .e, = 0
etc 1
3. Express the vector, F = 2xi  3y.j +z,Yk, in cylindrical polar coordinates. 2 2 [Ans: F= (2pcos S3p 2 sin S}p
~sjn2S+3p2sin2Sh +(pzcosskJ
~+COS2 Scos~k
4. Represent the vector, A = xyi + yzj +zxk, ill spherical polar coordinates.
[Ans: A = r2 sinS{sin 2 Scos 2 ~sin~+sinScosSsin2 + (sin Scos8cos
2
sin ScosScos~~o
+ (cosSsin~cos~sinSsin2 ~cos~}~ 1
5. Express the vectors a) A = yi + xj and b) F = zi  2xj + yk, in cyl indrical coordinates.
[Ans: a) A = peo b) F
yi + xj, b) F
[Ans: a) A = r sinS eq, b) rsinS [{sinS(I + sin2~) + rcos2~ sin~}er + {cosS(l + sin2~) rsinScosS sin~}e() + sin~cos~ eq,l 7. Find the gradients of the fol/owing function
i)f= pz sinS
ii)f=
sinS
2
Vf=~[(2sinS)er + (cosO)eoJ
r
iii) Vf =(2rsin
ii) F =
Vector Differentiation
577
IAns: (i) 0
(iii) 3cosO )
9.
~c() + (r cosO)c r
10.
Find the curl of the following vector fields: (i) A= (zsin O)C" + (zcosO)ctJ (pcosO)c z (ii) F =(rsinO)c r
+(~COSB )c +(~ )e
r
(III)V
...
1 0 = tan e ,. 2
If ' f'
7.10
Let
P(x,y,) and Q(x,y) be continuolls functions of x and y having continolls aQ derivatives in R. Then r Pdx + Qdy = c  ap )d'Cdy .l 11 ax ay
J I
Proof:
E
B
___ .l __
I
I I I
_ _7
o~~c~x
578
Engineering Mathematics  I
Let the equations of the curves DAB and DEB (see the figure) be respectively y = fl (x) and y = f2 (x). Let R be the region bounded by the curve C. Then,
i.e.,
fp(x,y)ix =  f f~xdy II CY
=
..... (1)
lilly if the equations of the curves ADE be and ABE be taken respectively as
gl(Y) and x
g2(Y)' we have,
Thus
fQ(x,y)iy = I~Qdxdy
c
II
..... (2)
'!
}lox
oy
t r
Vector Differentiation
579
(dx)i + (dy)j
=
F. dr
P dx + Q dy
j
k
%z
Again,VxF=%x
o/ay
Q
P
=
OQ OP)
ox oy
k, so that
(v x F).k = oQ _ oP ox oy
Taking dR = dxdy, Green's theorem in the plane can be stated in the vector form as,
fF .dr
I.
JJ(V x F)JaIR
II
..... (A)
fF .dr represents the work done in movi.g the particle around a closed
curve C. :. From (A) it follows that the work done is determined by curl F = V x F. 2. In particular, if V x F = 0 i.e., ifF is conservative (or F = V t) Then fF.dr = O. i.e., the work done is independent of the path. 3. Conversely, if the integral is independent of the path, i.e., if
~~
where F = Pi +Qj.
580
Engineering Mathematics  I
7.10.4 Application of Green's theorem to the evaluation of area of a simple closed curve.
The area bounded by a simple closed curve C
=
lfxu:y  ydx
c
if we put P =
y, and Q = x,
. ap I.e.,  =1, ay
:. We get,
aQ_ == I,
ax
au _ap =2, ax ay
fXdY  ydx =
I"
ff2dxdy
II
i.e., A =
~fxdy 2 ('
ydx .
Solved Examples Ex. 7.10.5 Find the area of the ellipse ~+L = I. a 2 h2
Sol:
~ ~
Parametric equations of the ellipse are, = a cosO, y = b sinO dx =  a sine de, dy = b cose dO. :. By Green's theorem, Area of the ellipse
=
lfXdY  ydx
L
I
=
2n
I 2n ==  fahdO = rrah
Vector Differentiation
581
Ex. 7.10.6 Evaluate f(y  sinx}dx + (cosx}1y, a) directly and b) lIsing Green's theorem,
where c is the boundary of the triangle in xyplane whose vertices are (0,0), (%,0) and (%,1) traversed in the positive direction.
Sol:
a)alongOA:
y=o,
dy=O
1['2 n<2
=1
alongAB:
d\"=O
1t
f(ysinx}dx+cosxdy=
/JO
1[(2:
11
~
situ )+;cosx}x
x 0 = +cosx+stnxi
1t 1t
11/2
2.
2)
1t
1t
7t
7t
582
Engineering Mathematics  I
(b)
By Green's theorem,
'j c
J Pdx + Qdy =
8Q ax
Here
P = ysinx, Q = cosx
= _ sin x
[ =
'ay
ap = 1
<i[[ (~sinx~
2.
l)dy
1C
1C
1C X~O
1C ()
Sol:
By Green's theorem,
fPdx + Qdy =
Here
P=3x+4y, Q=2x3y ;
=
8~=4
Oy
aQ =2
'ax
ff(24)dxdy
= 2 ffdxdy = 2A,
II
= 2 x
1C
x 22
= 81C
Vector Differentiation
583
7.10.8 Verity Green's theorem in the plane for the integral 1(3x 2  8y2 )dx + 4( 4y  6xy)dy
where C is the boundary of the region given by (I)
(2)
x = 0, y = 0, x
+ Y= I
._~
______ X
The points of intersection of y = x 2 and y = We have to integrate [ along (I) y = x 2 from 0 to A. (2) along y =
fx
fx

Alongy=x2, dy=2xdx
x~1
:.1= f (3x 2
AU
8X4)dx + (4x 2
6x')2xdx = f(3x 2
X~O
20x 4 + 8x 3 )dx = x 3
4x 5 + 2X4 I =1
0
Alongy =
fx ; x = y, dt = 2ydy
:.
5 3 1=1+=
By Green's Theorem,
1Pdt + Qdy =
c
Ii OQ. OP)dXd )l ox ~v Y
.
Here,
3x2  8y ; Q = 4y  6xy
oQ _ oP =6v(16v)=IOy
ox
oy
584
Engineering Mathematics  I
:.I=f
2.
flOydxdy= f
R
I[E 1 I
x=O
flOydydx= fSy
J~ l dx =
x2
x=O y=x 2
Green's theorem is verified. The given region is shown in the figure below.
y
(0,1)8
0 ::) dy = 0
I 3 2 f 3x dx = x 1= I I
:. Given integral =
y AlongAB, :. Given integral
o
=
x=o
I  x ::) dy =
dx
0
f~X2 
x=1
x = 0 ::) dx = 0
y=O
0
"3  2 ="3
By green's theorem,
Vector Differentiation
585
Q = 4y  6xy
aQ ap ax ay
Ex. 7.10.9
Sol:
Evaluate
J(10x
(0,0)
=6xy
ar
ay
=
8Q
ax
The integral is independent of the path. Hence we can use any path. For example, if we use the path from points (0, 0) to (2, 0) and then from (2, 0) to (2, 1); we can evaluate the integral. (i) From (0, 0) to (2, 0) ; :. The tntegral = y= 0, dy = 0
4
2
o
lOx dx  2x
512
0
= 64
x= 2, dx = 0
2 2 2 5 4
12y 2 dy = 
4/1
=4
(2,1)
J d(2x 5  x /)= 2x
(0,0)
x y3 J= 2.25  2.1 = 60
(0,0)
586
Engineering Mathematics  I
Ex.7.10.10
X VerifY Green's theorem for f(e siny)dx + (eX cosy) dy where C is the
c
boundary of the rectangle whose vertices are (0, 0) (n, 0) (n, ~ ) and (0, ~ ) 2 2 traversed in the +ve direction.
Sol:
y
O(~O~,O~)~'~~A~(n~,O~)x
In )l ax
Q
=
8Q  8P)dXdY
ay
ex cosy
=
aQ
8x
 
ap
ay
= 
2ex cosy
fPdx+Qdy=
c
If 2e x cosydxdy
R
x x/2 x x/2
=2
x
=2 fexdx=2e
c
xl: =2(e
1)
.....(i)
Again,fPdx+Qdy=f f+ f+ f+ f
c
c OA
AB BD DO
Along OA ; ..
y = 0,
dy = 0
fPdx+Qdy=O
OA
Alo~gAB:
n,
dx= 0
Vector Differentiation
587
1tI2
f Pdx+ Qdy
AB
Je
0
11
11
AlongBD;
BD
Jp dx+Qdy= fexdx=~  1
11
=1 + e
11
11
Along DO ;
x = 0, dx =
JP
DO
sinYI~/2 =  1
..... (ii)
J
c
p dx + Qdy =
H( 8Q  8P) dxdy 8x
R
8y
Ex. 7.10.11
Sol:
The parametric equations of the curve are x = a cos3e, y = sin 3e. A rough sketch of the curve is given below:
x~'~~~~~~x
(6
A'
=rc)
A(6
=0)
= acos3e,
= asin 3e
J(xdy ydx) 2c
588
Engineering Mathematics  I
2 {)=o
ar
2 21t
0
22
2 2x
16 ()
Ex.7.10.12
Verify Green's theorem for J(2xyx 2)dx+(x+y2)dy, where C is the c closed curve in xyplane bounded by the curves y = x 2 and = x.
Sol:
By Green's theorem,
y A(1,1)
JPdx+Qdy= Jfc
C
aQ
 ap)dxdy ax ay
=
1  2x
o=:;;~x
y=~
x=() y=x2
()
4 I
5
r
30
..... (i)
Vector Differentiation
589
AlongC 2,
x=y, dx=2ydy,
o
Exercise 7(j)
1. Evaluate 1(x 2 + y2)dx+3xy 2dy, (a) directly (b) by Green's theorem, where cis the circle x 2 + (Ans: 121t) 2. Evaluate 1(x 2 + 2xy)dx + (x 2 y + 3)dy around the boundary C of the region given by y = 8x and x = 2, (a) directly and (b) by Green's theorem. (Ans: 128) 3. VerifY Green's theorem for the integral 1(3x 2 + 2y)dx  (x + 3cos y)dy where Cis the boundary of the parallelogram with vertices at (0,0), (2, 0), (3, I) and (1, I) (Ans: 6)
(n,2)
4.
Evaluate
y
= 8 sin8,
590
Engineering Mathematics  I
5.
Using Green's theorem find the area bounded by one arch of the cycloid
i)
= ..Jl x 2
[Ans: 4/3]
7. Evaluate f(cos x sin y  xy)dx + sin x cos y,using Green's theorem where c is the
c
[Ans: 0]
8. VerifY Green's Theorem in the plane for f{x 2_xy 3 )dx+ &2 2xy)where C is the
c
9.
Evaluate
= 0
(0,0)
= 44 ]
Vector Differentiation
591
7.11
Proof:
z
ty
.....
R
x S is a closed surface Let any line II lel to the coordinate axes cut S in at most two points. Let z = gl(x, y) and z = gix, y) be the equations of the upper portion SI and lower portion S2 respectively. Let R be the projection of S on the xyplane.
If A = Al i + A::J + A3 k
592
Engineering Mathematics  I
Then,
ff[ S
II
Iq(x,y)
z~g2( x,y)
oA 0/ dz] dydt=
ff
II
AJX,y,Z)1
z~g,
z~g2
dydx
For the upper portion SI' dy dx = (cosyl)dS I = k. n l dS I since the normal n l to SI makes an acute angle YI with k. For the lower portion S2' dydx
= (cOSY2) dS 2 = k.n 2 dS 2,
= f f A 3k .n,dS, + f fA3k.n2dS2
8,
S2
= fA3k.ndS
s Similarly, by projecting S on the other coordinate planes, we get,
..... (I)
..... (2)
and f f f
v
oA2
cry
dv = f f A 2j.n ds
s
..... (3)
Vector Differentiation
593
7.11.2 (a) Express Gauss' Theorem in words and (b) obtain its Cartesian form.
(a) Gauss' Theorem states that "The surface integral of the normal component of vector A taken over a closed surface is equal to the integral of the divergence of A taken over the volume enclosed by the surface. Let A=A 1i+A 2 j+A 3k,
(b)
I ~
a,P,r
that, cosa=n. i, cosp =n. j, cosr=n.kand cosa, cosp, cosr are the direction cosines of n
[ n. i =
"I = cos a
etc.]
:. A.II =Alcosa+A 2 cosP+A 3 cosr Hence the divergence theorem can be written in Cartesian form as,
JJr{ aA + aA + aA )dXdYdZ =
v
Jl ax
ay
az
d~
where
F = 2xyi + yz2 j + xzk and S is the surface of the parallelepiped bounded by x = 0, y = 0, z = 0, x = 2, Y = 1 and z =3 . Sol: By the divergence theorem; HF.n ds = JHV.Fdv s Here, V.F
=~(2Xy)+~(yz2)+~(XZ) ax ay ay
=(2Y+Z2 +x)
594
Engineering Mathematics  I
II2Yz+~+xz
3
I 2
00
I[ I (6y+9+3x)try]d\" = I 3i
0
X;O y;O
=24+6= 30
Ex. 7.11.4 Verify the divergence theorem for F = (4xy)i  (j2)j + (xz )k, over the cub( bounded by x = 0, x = I, Y = 0, Y = 1, z = 0 and z = 1. Sol:
By the divergence theorem
II F.n dS == I I IV.F dv
\ V
Here F
x;Oy;Oz;O
x;Oy;O =;0
I I
== I
I I I
fi xz + 2 y z1 dydx
I
x;Oy;O
==
If I(x+2y)dy]dx=
Ixy+y
x;O
2
1
dx=
IeX+I)d~==~ +xl~==2
x;o
X;O y;O
To evaluate
IIF.ndS
J++y
Vector Differentiation
595
x = I, F.n = 4y; dS = dy dz
J
4yzl~dy= J 4ydY=2/1~ =2
0
FO
:~O
y~O
IIF.n~S=O
:. I IF.ndS=
:. I IF.ndS=o
84
11
J J
I
on S5'
= k, z = I, F.n = x ; dS = dx ely
J J J
1 2 1
:. I IF.ndS =
Hence :. II F.ndS
8
= 2  1 + ~ =%
Ex.S.11.5 : Sol:
If r = xi + Yi + zk, evaluate :.
596
Engineering Mathematics  I
V.r
000
ox
0'
oz
:. I Ir.n ds = I I I3 dv = 3v
Ex.7.11.6 :
..... (2)
But,
IJI(c.V'P) dv = JI{c.('Pn)}ds
(.: c is arbitrary)
Ex.7.11.7 : Ifs is a closed surface enclosing a volume V and ifF = (Ix)i + (my)j + (llz)k,
Vector Differentiation
597
Sol:
a ax
ry
a az
:. HF.nds
Hfu + m + 11) dv
=(/+m+n)V
:. HE.nds=O
Ex. 7 .11.9 : If s any closed surface and n is unit +ve normal to s, show that Hn ds = 0
Sol:
Consider a constant vector a
=
ali + ~ + a3k
( i.e.
al'
Hf(V.a)dv
=0
a.
ax
aa aa ay az
:. Hnds=O
= 0,
598
Engineering Mathematics  I
ff(F .n) ds
s
= fff(V.F)dv
v
.... (1)
V.F
=~(2X)+~(3y)~~(Z3) = 5+z ax ay ay 3
= fff(5+z 2 )dv,
x=O Y= 2 Ex
f f
2.[i;
5z + ~
3 3
dydx
0
~rX
f 96J2xdx = 96J2 ~
Evaluate
s
) 2
= 192J2
0
x=o
Ex. 7.11.11
2
x + y2 ff(F .n) ds
s
= 1, z = 0,
= fff(V.F)dv ,
=~(2x)~(31)+~(z2) ax ay ay
= 26y+2z
+1
ff(F.n)ds=
f f
f(26y+2z)dzdydx
x=ly=~O
Vector Differentiation
599
=8n
Ex.7.11.12:
of the sphere x 2 + I + z2
Sol:
..... (i)
F = yi + zj + xk
V'.F= 0 :. H(V'.F) dv = 0
z
..... (ii)
~+BY
x
Let us evaluate the surface integrals over the faces OAB, OBC and OCA.
b
Jj;2~)
f fF.n ds =  f fx dx(ry
OA B
x=O
(,,' n = k)
y=O
600
Engineering Mathematics  I
Similarly
If F.ndv
DAB
3
ABC
= Jrb + If F.nds
AIlC
.... (iii)
0= Jrb + If F.nds
ABC
If F.nds
ABC
Jrb 3
Ex. 7.11.13:
2
VerifY divergence theorem for F=4xi2y2j+z2k taken over the region bounded by
x + / = 4,
= 0 and z = 3.
Iff DivFdv
(1) DivF
IfF.~ ds
s
.... ( I )
=~(4x)~(2/)+~(Z2) =44y+2z
Ox
..
.,.
By
8z
L.R.S. 0[(1)
,Ll"
2
x~2
[4z4yz+z'JC
dydx~
)11
(2112y)dy
Jdx
=42
f ~4_X2dx=84Jr
[Do the integration w.r.t.x yourself, taking x
= 2sin ()]
(2)
Vector Differentiation
Z
601
Z=3
The given surface of the cylinder can be divided into 3parts, namely (a) (b) (c) 8 1 : the circular surface z = 0
S2: the surface z == 3 (circular) and
I
= 4,
z == 0, z
=3
we now find JJF.~ ds over SI ,82 , S3 .If we add them, we get R.H.S of (I).
(a)
on SI:Z=.O;
(b)
n.k
(c)
n =  =
!VfjJ!
V fjJ
2 ( xi + yi)
2~X2 + i
xi + yi ( . 2
SInce x + y
= 4)
F.n=
2 2 3 22 4x y 3 =xy; 2
To evaluate
602
Engineering Mathematics  I
and ds
= 2dO dz
Hence
fJF.~ ds
S3
(}=02=0
2"
16
dO = 48
2=0
(}=o
(}=O
Exercise  7K
1. Verify Gauss's divergence theorem for A
= (x 2 
yz)i +
taken over the rectangular parallalopiped 0 ~ x ~ 2, 0 ~ y ~ 3, 0 ~ z ~ 1.[Ans:36] 2. Use the divergence theorem to find ff F.ndS, where
s
f = (3x + 2Z2)i  (Z2  2 y) j + (/  2z)k and S is the surface of the sphere with centre at (2, I, 3) and radius 2 units. [Ans:32 TC]
3.
Verify the divergence theorem for the vector cube function, bounded by unit A = (4xz)i  (i)j + (yz)k , taken over the x = 0, x = 1, y = 0, y = 1, z = 0 and z = 1.[Ans:3/2] 4. If r
= xi + yj + zk , and S
by planes x = O,y = O,z = O,x = a,y = band z = c, find the value of ffr.ndS s using Gauss's theorem. Verity your answer by direct evaluation of the integral. [Ans:3abc] 5. Use the divergence theorem to evaluate ffA.nds for A where s is the sphere given by (x _1)2
= (2x)i(2y)j + (3z)k
[Ans:4 7r] constants surface show the that
+ i + Z2 = 1
I, m, n
being the
6.
If
s
V=(lx)i+(my)j+(nz)k
and
ff V.ds
IS
sphere
= 4.
Vector Differentiation
603
7.12
Stoke's Theorem
where C travels in the +ve direction and n is the unit +ve (outward drawn) normal to S.
Proof:
Let S be the surface. Let the projections of S on the coordinate planes be regions bounded by simple closed curves. Let 'R' the projection ofS on xy plane be bounded by C l . (see the figure above). Let the equation of S be z differentiable function.
=
Then
Y'x(Ali)=alax alay
AI
604
Engineering Mathematics  I
8z
8y
8z
8y
.....
(.)
1
xi + y) + zk
= xi + y} + t/>/x, y)k
8r _. 0+] and   } +  k ay 8y
But
ay
8r
.. ay' n = 0
8r
n.} =
8y (n.k)
on S,
A\(x y, z)
:. (ii) becomes, { V
x
(A\i) ] .n ds
=  ay (n.k) ds =  8y dxdy
aa
aa
r:
n.k. ds
dxdy]
H(VxA\i)}.nds=
,I
at each point (x, y) ofC, the value ofG is the same as the value of AI at each point (x, y, z) of C, and since dx is same for both curves, we have
Vector Differentiation
605
Hence,
..... (iii)
..... (iv)
..... (v)
HVx A.n ds =
s
A . dr f c
The I ine integral of the tangential component of a vector A taken around a simple closed curve C is equal to the surface integral of the normal component of curl A taken over a surface Shaving C as its boundary.
(b) As in 7.11.2(b)
A=A l i+Aj+A3k n = (cosa)i + (cos~)j + (cosy)k ) ajay k ajaz
Then,
Vx A = ajax
Al
A2
A3
_
=(aA 3 _
ay
aA2)i + (aA I az az
aA3)} + (aA 2 _ aA I )k ax ax ay
606
Engine~ring
Mathematics  I
Hence the cartesian form of the Stoke's theorem can be stated as,
Solved Examples
Ex.7.12.3 :
Sol:
VerifY Stoke's Theorem for A = (x  2y)i + yilj + y2zk, where S is the upper half of the sphere xl + y2 + z2 = 1 and C is its boundary.
The boundary of the projection ofS in the xyplane is a circle with centre at origin and unit radius. Its parametric equations are x = cosS, y = sinS, Z = 0, 0:::: S < 2n
(.: z =0)
21t
Y' x A =
ajax
(x2y)
ajry ajaz = 2k
yz2 y2 z
(n.k ds
Vector Differentiation
607
Ex.7.12.4: Prove that a necessary and sufficient condition that fF.dr for every closed
("
=0 .
Proof: (a)
= If('\I x F).n ds = 0
S
(b)
=0
"* 0
there exists a region with P as its interior point where '\IF = 0 .Let S be surface contained in this region and let the normal n to S at each point has the same direction as '\IF . Then '\IF = an, (a being a +ve constant); Let C be the boundary of S.
Then by Stokes theorem, f F .dr = If ('\IF).n ds =a Ifn.n ds > 0 c s s Which is a contradiction to the hypothesis that f F.dr
=0 ;
:. '\IF
=0
Note: It follows that '\IF = 0 is also a necessary and sufficient condition for the line
integral f F.dr to be independent of path joining the points ~ and ~ .(see 7.6.4) I;
1'2
Ex.7.12.S
= If(Curl r).n ds
('
..... (1)
608
Engineering Mathematics  I
j
y
x
:. (1) => Jr.dr = 0
('
Ex.7.12.6:
.. J{grad (fg)}dr =0
('
But grad(fg)
f(grad g) + g(grad j)
Sol: Let V be any volume enclosed by a closed surface S. Then by Gauss' divergence
theorem. We get,
JJJV.(curl A)dv = JJ(curl A).nds
..... (1)
Divide the surface S into two portions SI and S2 by a closed curve C. Then
JJ(curl A ).n ds
JA.dr c
Vector Differentiation
609
= 0, by Soke's theorem, since the +ve directions along the boundaries ofS, andS 2 are opposite.
:. (I)
~ fffV.(clirl A)dv=O
div(curl A) = 0
Ex.7.12.8: Use Stoke's theorem and prove that curl gradJ= 0, where 'f' is a scalar function.
Sol:
.... (I)
Now, grad! dr
=(8f i + aJ j ax 0'
+ 8f k ).( dx i + dy j + dz k) az
=0
Since this equation is true for all surface elements S, we have, curl (grad j) = 0
Ex.7.12.9:
Veri1)r stoke's theorem for A = yj  2xyj taken round the rectangle bounded by x = b, y = 0, y = a y
F~
x=b
x=b
____
~~~~~L~~X
y=O
610
Engineering Mathematics  I
k
0
4y
Hence ff(curIA).n ds
a
h
h
~h
y=o
J.=~h
..... (I)
f+ f+ f+
DA AB BF
J
FD
fA.dr = y2 dx  2xydy
AlongDA, AlongAB,
a
0, dy = 0, => JA.dr=O
DA
( .: A.dr = 0)
x= b, dx
:.
y=O
AlongBF,
b
y=a,dy=O
:. JA.dr=
BF
Ja
b
dx
2a2b
Along FD,
:. fA.dr= 0  a 2 b  2a2 b  a 2 b
C
= 
4a2b
..... (2)
Vector Differentiation
611
Ex.7.12.10:
Use stoke's theorem to evaluate the integral fA.dr where A = 2y.i +3xY('
(2x +z)k, and C is the boundary of the triangle whose vertices are (0,0,0), (2,0,0), (2,2,0). ) k
Sol:
+ (6x  4y)k
Since the zcoordinate of each vertex of the triangle is zero, the triangle lies in the xyplane.
:. n
k.
:. (curl A). n = 6x  4y consider the triangle in xyplane. Equation of the straight line OB isy = x By Stoke's theorem,
f A .dr c
fsf(CurlA)nds
(0,0)
A(2,O)
2 1 = 33 .
=
Ex. 7.12.11
Sol:
ff(curlA)nds, where A
=
+ xyk, and S is the surface of the sphere .xl + Y. + z2 = b 2 above the xyplane.
The boundary C of the surface S is the circle.xl + The parametric equations of C are x By Stoke's theorem, we have,
=
y. + z2 = b2, Z = o.
bcose, y
612
Engineering Mathematics  I
= f2ydx+(x2zx}dy+xydz = f2ydx+xdy
('
(0: z=O,dz=OonC)
('
2"
f(2bsin8)(bsin8)d8+bcos8.bcos8.d8
o
J"
Ex.7.12.12
Apply Stoke's theorem to evaluate f A.dr .where A = (x y)i + (2y + z}j +
(~, 0, 0) (O,~, 0)
z
and
(O,O,~)
Sol:
LetA=
(~,O,O)
=
B=
(O,~,O) C= (O,O,~).
y
I =>6x+3y+2z= 1
..... (I)
The direction ratios of the normal to (1) are 6, 3, 2 .. . 6 3 2 :. D IrectlOn cosmes are ,,777 Ifn is the unit normal to the plane, n = A = (x  y)i + (2y + z}j + (y  z)k
i
j
..i +l j
7 7
+3. k
7
Vector Differentiation
613
:. By Stoke's theorem,
('
..... (2)
AB=
AC=
(H+(H ~ ~ (H+(H ~~
15' 15'
6 3 1 2
!,
0 . 0
flO' , flO
cos CAB = (
Ts )(~ )+
2
0 +0 =
)so
2 6
sin CAB =
.:i.EO
('
Ex.7.12.13Evaluate
s
JA.dr=~x2..=_1 [from(2)]
7 72 36
taken over the portion s of the surface above the
xy plane z 0,
If(curl A).n ds
X2+/+Z2_2/x+ft=0
if
Let'S' denote the portion of the surface, x 2 + y2 + Z2  2ft + ft = 0 above the xyplane z= O. The surface S meets the xyplane in the circle 'C', whose equations are
x + /  2ft = 0, Z
2
= O.
614
Engineering Mathematics  I
x == j + j cosS,
y== jsinS,
z=o
(0~S<2n;)
Let S) denote the plane region bounded by C.lfS) is the surface consisting ofS and SI' SI is a closed surface. :. From example 7.11.8 on divergence theorem, we have
=0
i.e., f f(Curl A).2 ds + f f(Curl A).n ds = 0 s [.: S) consists of Sand S)]
..... (I)
Now, curl A=
a/at
a/ay
a/az
:. (curl A). k
= 
2(x + y)
"
.'I'
~cosS.
2/eos9
ff(curlA).nds=2 f s, 9=0
f(rcosS+ rsinS)rdedr
r~O
Vector Differentiation
615
= 
8(,1t
16f31t
1t
..... (2)
Again,
fA.dr
('
[.: on C
z = 0,
dz = 0]
2"
o
21t
fffiki +
=
(I + cosS' )}coril]nIl
3 eaU
f3[2I_ 2sin ede +2I_ 2sin 2ede.+ 2I_ 2cosed8 + 2I_ cos
o
21t
0 0 0
21t
(on simplification)
..... (3)
f'(2n)=2nf3
f f(CurIA).nd\ = fA.dr
s ('
616
Engineering Mathematics  I
Exercise7(1)
1.
f F=(xe )i+(3/)j(z)dz,and
X
2.
fV.dr ,where
('
and C is the boundary of the triangle whose veltices are (0,0,0),(1,0,0) and (I, I ,0) [Ans: I]
3.
Verify Stoke's theorem for F = (2x  y)i  (yz 2)j  (/ z)k if S is the upper halt surface of the sphere x 2 + y2
+ Z1
[Ans: Jr]
4.
If F = (y  z
+ 2)i + (yz + 4)j  (xz)k and S represents the surface of the cube x = 0, y = 0, z = 0, x = 2, y = 2, z = 2 above the xy plane , verify that
ff(Curl F).ds = F.dr ,C being the boundary of S traversed in the +ve direction. s c
[Ans: Each integral =4]
5.
Find the value of the integral f(yz )dx + (zx )dy + (xy )dz ,using Stoke's theorem c where C is the Curve x 2 + y2
= 4, z = y2
[Ans:O]
2
6.
Verify Stoke's theorem for the function V = (3x )i + (2xy)j , integrated along the square x = 0, y = 0, x = I,y =) in thexyplane.. [Ans: 0] Evaluate where c A = (2sinz)i(3cosx)j+(siny)k; where C is the boundary of the rectangle by Stoke's theorem the integral
7.
o~ x ~ Jr,
[Ans:6]
0 ~ Y ~ 1, z = 0
Vector Differentiation
617
Exercise  7(m)
1. If !(x,y,z)=x 1y lllzn1 , find the directional derivative of direction of (i+2j+2k)
at (1,1,1) in the
[Ans: (I + 2m+ 2n)] 2. Find the acute angle between the surfaces
1 3
x 2 + i + Z2
= 6 and 3xyz + i
Z
xy + 3 =
at (1, I, 2)
IAns: cos'( ~}
3. If
p, q
are
constant
vectors,
show
that
4. S. 6.
If F=(x 2y)i(iz)j+(z2x )k,findcurIFat(1,2,3) If !=xyz(x+y+z),provethat curl gradf=O A fluid motion is given by V=(z3)i(i)j+(3xz 2 )k. Show that it irrotational. Find its velocity potential rjJ sllch that V
IS
= V rjJ
3
(2,1)
7.
Evaluate
(0,0)
= 0, x = 2, y = 0, y = 2, z = 0, z = 2 , evaluate
J V.n ds
s
[Ans: 32/3]
9.
If
, x
! = 4x + yz , evaluate
+ y 2 = 1, z = 0, z = 3
618
Engineering Mathematics  I
10.
Express F = xi coordinates.
_,.2
12.
If A
13.
f(x
('
14.
Using
Gauss
divergence
theorem,
prove is
that the
If F.n ds =
s
P,
where by
surface
bounded
15.
Show that the Stoke's theorem, when restricted to the xyp/ane, is Green's theorem in the plane. (Hint: In Stoke's theorem, take A
= Pi + Qj;
n = k; and ds = dxdy)
Vector Differentiation
619
Exercise7(n)
I. I.
= 4t  3, z = t 3 is
[b]
(a) 2i4j+3k 2.
(b) 2i+4j+3k
(c) 2i4j3k
(d) 2i+4j3k
(c) 18
(d) 3
[c]
3.
if
(a) 0
Cd]
 4.
= x/ + yz + zx 2
(c) 3
Jli
(b) 0
Cd]
5.
The angle between the normals to the sphere x 2 + y2 + 2) and (2, 1,2)is
(b) 1C
(d) 
1C
2
6. If a is a constant vector and r
[a]
= xi + yj + zk , then
(c) r
'\l(a.r) is
(d) r
(a) 0
7.
(b) a
[b]
[c]
8.
If r
= xi + yj + zk,
and a =
(b) I
~ r,
3
div ii =
(c) 1 (d) 2
[b]
(a) 0
620
Engineering Mathematics  I
Exercise  7(0)
I. Iff(x,yx) = X lymz"_I, find the directional derivative of fat (1,1,1) in the direction of
(i+2j+2k)
[Ans:
"3
(I + 2m + 2n)
y +:? = 6 and
[Ans: cos
_,(Fs] 3]
=
2(p.q)
6. A fluid motion is given by Y = (z3)i  (y2)j + (3xz 2)k. Show that it is irrotational. Find its velocity potential
+such that Y =
V~
[Ans: ~ = xz 3
(2,1)
y3
 
+c ]
7. Evaluate
f{4x 12x2 y2
(0,0)
2; [Ans: 16]
8. IfY = (xy)i  (yz}j + (zr)k and S is the surface of the cube bounded by x = 0, x
2 , y=O " y=2 z=Oandz=2 , evaluate f V .nds s
[Ans: 32/3] 9. If f = 4x + yz, evaluate f f ffdv over the region in the first octant bounded by v
x 2 + y2 = I, z = 0, z = 3
[Ans: 1112]
Vector Differentiation
621
10. Express F = xi 
y.j + zk in
a) cylindrical polar coordinates b) spherical polar coordinates. [Ans: a) p(cos28  pSin38)e p  psin8cos8(1 + psin8).ea + ze z b) (rsin 28cos2<jl ~sin30sin3<jl + rcos20)e r + (rsinOcosOcos2<jl ~sin20cos8sin3<jl rsin8cos8)ea + ( rsin8sincj>coscj>  ~sin28sin2cj>coscje.] 11. If/= pzsin28, find grad/in cylindrical coordinates [Ans: (zsin28)e p + (2xcos20)e a + (psin28)e z] 12. If A = (rcosO}er (;,sin 0
13. Verify Green's theorem in the plane for J(x 3 c boundary of the square bounded by 0 ~ x
~
l )tx + (x 2 
I, 0 ~ Y ~ I
[Ans: 1]
x2 + y2 = r2 , z =0, and
z=l 15. Show that the Stoke's theorem, when restricted to the xy plane, is Green's theorem in the plane
[Hint: In Stoke's theorem, take A = Pi + Qj; n = k; and ds = dx dy]
8
Laplace Transforms
8.1 Laplace Transforms
Introd uction
The theory of Laplace transform is an essential part ofthe mathematical background required by engineers, physists and mathematicians. It gives an easy and effective means for solving certain types of differential and integral equations. It is the foundation of the modern form of operational calculus, which was originated in an attempt to justify certain operational methods used by an electrical engineer Oliver Heavinide, in the latter part of the 19th century for solving equations in electromagnetic theory. The Laplace transform reduces the problem of solving a differential equation to an algebraic problem. It is particularly useful for solving problems where the mechanical or electrical driving force has discontinuties, acts for a short time only or is periodic but not merely a sine or cosine function.
F(s) = L [f{t)1
Jestf(t) dt
o
624
Engineering Mathematics  I
Def.
Piecewise continuity ofa function: A function off(t) is sectionally continuous (Piecewise continuous) in an interval o~ t ~ b iff(t) is continuous over every finite interval 0 ~ t ~ b except possibly at a finite number of points, where there are jump discontinuties and at which the function approaches different limits from left and right.
f(t)
if 3 M > 0
.... (1)
\;f
t~0
which can be made larger than any given constant by increasing 't' indefinitely.
8.1.2
Theorem: Iff(t) is piecewise continuous in every finite integral [0, N] for N > 0, and of exponential order cr,that is If(t)1 ~ Meat, \;f t ~ 0 and M> o. (from I)
then the Laplace transform ofF(t) exists for all s>
00 00 00
0'
M ==s
cr
Here, s > 0' since I is nonnegative everywhere. This shows that above conditions are sufficient for the existence of L [f(t)].
Laplace Transforms
625
8.1.3
Linearity property: Let f,(t) and fit) be two functions on [0, co] such that the Laplace transforms L[f,(t)] and Lltit)] exist. If k, and k2 are two constants, then
L[k/,(t) + klit)] This property is valid since
00 00 00
k,L[f,(t)J + k2 L[fit)J
..... (i)
= fk\.!; (t)e'I elt + fk2.f; (t)e ,I lit = k\L[j; (I)] + k 2 L[f2(t)]
~
0 0 0
This result can be extended to the linear combinations of more than two functions.
8.1.4
Iff(t) is piecewise continuous on [0, N] for each N > 0, and ttt) is of exponential order 0", that is by 8.10.1 (1), If(t)1 ::s Meat, V t ~ 0 and M > 0 and ifL [f(t)] = F(s) then we have
(1) L [eatf(t)]
..... (i)
where f,(t)
F(~)
Proof(l)
_a_
~~~~s
L[f(t)]
= feMf(t) dt = F(s)
o
00 00
so that
L[eatf(t)]
= feot[eal f(t)dt
o
626
Engineering Mathematics  I
Th is property shows sh ifting on the saxis and is called the first shifting property. This means that replacing s by s  a in the Laplace transform corresponds to multiplying the original function by eat
00
00
(2)
fe.II.Odt+ felIf(/a) dt
o
00
a
00
= fellf(ta)dt== feI(p+a)f(p)dp
o
00
(where t = p+a)
(3)
This property indicates shifting on the taxis and is called the second shifting property d L[f(at)] = fe'I f(at)dt == feI(p/a) f(p)' [taking t = pia]
00 00
o
=
~ }eIP/af(p)dP==~F(~)
8.1.5
(a)
= s+a
(s> a)
...... ( I)
Pro()f:
we have L(eat ) =
r Je
o
.1/
_ .e aidt
r Je
0
(Ha)1
d _  1 [ (Ha)I]OO t e 0

s+a
1 s+a
Ifa=OtheL(I)= 
1 s
(s> 0)
..... (2)
= sa
2
..... (3)
(b)
L(sinat) =
a
S
+a
and L(cosat) =
s
s +a
J
(s> 0)
from (a)
Pro()f:
Laplace Transforms
627
a s 2 ,L(cosat) = 2 2 +a s +a
2
..... (4)
(c)
L(sinhat) =
a 2 and L(coshat) = a
OI ol
s
2 2
(I
(s>
laD
Proof:
L(smhat)=L
(e _e
 
2 sa
Thus (sinhat) =
S
1 [1

s+a
2
I]
s s
2
(I
from (a)
a
2
a
(5)
L(tn) =
I(n + 1)
;+]
Proof:
OOfeP.pnd =T(n+l)
o
S
n+1
'P
00
11+1
and
T(n+ I)
n!
n!
..... (6)
1 L(I)= , s
L(t) =
1
2 ,
Solved Examples
8.1.6
Find the Laplace transform of 1. 2t3 + cos4t + e2t 2. e2t + 4t3  sin2tcos3t 3. cos(wt + ~)
628
Engineering Mathematics  I
Sol: I.
2.
6 (5
1
1)
"2 (sin5t 
sint)]
=cosfJL(coswt)sinfJL(sinwt)= cos fJ 4.
sm
fJ
S
w
+w
4" L[3sin2t 
sin6t]
L(cos 2t) = L
[cos6t + 3cos2t] 4
4"
(s 3S) S2 + 36 + S2 + 4
Exercise 8(A)
8 3 1 Ans.  +   +  S3 S2 +9 s+2 Ans. S
1 4
S2 + 16
3.
4.
5.
Laplace Transforms
629
6.
cos 2 (2bt)
Ans.   + ? ? 2 s s + 16b
1(1
s)
b
7.
8.
s (r
9.
10.
coshat  cosbt
Ans.
s
2
S
(I
s
2
8.1.7
2. t 3 e4t
5. e2t[2cos3t3sin3t]
S
Sol.
1.
L( cosat)
=)
s +0
2.
6 L(t3 ) = 4
+ 4)4
3.
(5 _
3 2)2 + 9.
630
Engil~eering
Mathematics  I
4.
By 8.1.4(1)
L(e
3t .
sm3t)  4
(s+
I 3)2
+I
5.
L(3sin3t) =
~9
8
9 + 2)2 + 9  (8 + 2)2 + 9
~9 .
8
8.1.8
SoL
If L[f(t)] = 'L[f(t)]
= S2
3s
find L[f(3t)]
38 +9
s
I
By 8.1.4 (3), L[f(3t)]
=
3")
8 2
38 +27
3(8)2  +9 3
Exercise 8(8)
Find the Laplace Transform of 1. Ans. 4cosa 83 +sin,:(s  3)2 + 16 (8  3)2 + 16
2. 3.
cosh2t.cos2t Ans
Laplace Transforms
631
4.
coshat sinat
Ans.
a(s2 + 2( 2)
S4
+ 2a 4
S(S2 
5. 6.
cos3t.cosh4t e 21(2cos3t3sin3t)
Ans.
S4
7)
+ 625 14s 2
Ans.
S2
2s5 +4s+ 13
S3
7.
Ans.
S4
+ 4a 4
8.
Ans.
3 (s _1)2 +36
Ans.
5s 2 3s+2
S3
Ans.
8.1.9
Proof:
00
as
=
00
:. FI(s)
8.1.10 Examples
I. 3 L(Ie 2')_ d 1 _ 1 _o_ L( e2')_ s+2' ds s + 2 (s + 2)2
2,
d d ( 2 2S2 L(lcosat)=(I)[L(cosal)]=2 = 2 2 2 ds ds s + a (s + a )
L(t sin I) = _ _ d d..
s)
3.
(_I_) =
S2
+1
,2_s,(S2 + 1)2
632
Engineering Mathematics  I
4.
L(atsinatcosat)=aL(tsinat)L(COsat)=a[dd ( 2S S +a
s = a [ (S2 +a2f~  (S2 +a 2) 2as] 2 2a s s = (S2 +a 2 )2  (S2 +l?)
2)] s 2+a 2
S
5.
6.
7.
d [
] by shifting property
=8.
d [ 2 ds S2 85+20
2
= (S2 8s+20)2
2
45 16
=_~[
Exercise 8(C)
Find the Laplace transform of the following:
1.
Ie"'sjn2.
Ans.
H~
(s
(S2
3)' 
(X~~::15;),]
2.
3t te sin3t
3.
Ans,
Laplace Transforms
633
4.
2tsin3t3tcos3t
5.
tetsin2tcost
(s  2s + 10)=
8.1.11
U .f(t)]
J/(5) ds
,
00
Proof:
f(s)= fe'I/(t)dt Integrating bothsides w.r.t 's' between the limits s, integration on right hand side (R.H.S),
00
J/(S)ds
00
dt
= Je\I
0
I~t) dr
8.1.12
1.
~(1cosal)
I
2.
~(eI sinal)
I
Sol.1.
s
2
S
+a
)K
a
2
] [
]
0
00
1 s + a=Iog 2 2 s
(2? 1
2.
L(etsinat) =
(s+l) +a
I ISlOat) . ] a2 (S+I)]OO 1t s+1 _I(S+I) L (e= oof 2ds= tan  =tan =cot [t s (s + 1) + a a ,2 a a
[1
1
634
Engineering Mathematics  I
3.
L(1e2 t)
L(I)  L(e2t)
= 
1 1 s s2
2 (S+3)2 +4
L(!et
5.
L(eal )
3/
Sin2t)= }
s
(s
+ 3) + 4
22
ds=tan I (S+3)00 2 s
1t ==tan 2
= ,
1 sa
sb
1 al e bl] L [ (e ) = t
XI
s
00
Exercise 8(0)
Find the Laplace transfonn ofthe following:
1.
2.
1 (1cost) t
I _I e SlOt t
1 (hI]
3.
4.
1  (at e  ehI) t
! !
t t
(e3tsin2t)
5.
(sin2t)
Ans.
"4 log
1 (.'+4]
~
Laplace Transforms
635
6.
I  (coat  cosbt)
t
(S2+b 2)
2
S
+(1
7.
I  (I  cos3t) t
8.
!
t
(sin3t)
Ans.
cot
_)
s] "3
8.2.1
Theorem: Iff(t) is continous t ~ 0 and of exponential order, say 0" and has a derivative ~(t) which is piecewise continuous on every finite interval [0, N] for each N > 0, then the Lapalce transform of the derivative ~(t) exists for s > 0" and
L{~(t)} = sLf(t)  f(O)
00
Proof:
L(f(t)]
je'I f(t)dt
o
00
L(~(t)]
je'I fl(t)dt
00
L(~(t)] =
o Since f(t) is of an exponential order, the integrand in first integral on the R.H.S. is zero at the upper limit when s> 0' and iff(O) at the lower limit. Thus, we have
00
L( ~(t)] If Lt f(t)
1)0
= 0  f(O) + S
je
;t
= f(O+)
exists, but is not equal to f(O), which mayor may not exist then
L(~(t)]
= sLf(t)  f(O+).
Note:
Iff(t) and its derivatives ~(t), ~I(t) .............. fI 1 (t) are continous t ~ 0 and are functions of exponential order for some M > 0 and 0', and the derivative fI(t) is Piecewise continous on every finite interval in the range t ~ 0, then the Laplace transform offl(t) exists when s> 0' and is given by L[fI(t)] = s"[Lf(t)  s"  If(O)  s"  2 ~(O) ............... _tn  1(0)] If n = 2, L [~I(t)]
=
636
Engineering Mathematics  I
8.2.2
Example
Prove that L(cosat) =
S2
+ a2
Sol.
We can show this with the help of above theorem Let f(t) = cosat => f(O) = 1 then [I(t) [l1(t)
= a2cosat
Hence, we have
s2L(cosat)  s
8.2.3
+a Theorem: Iff is Piecewise continous on [0, N] for each N > 0 and is of exponential
S
I I order cr, then L ff(u)du = L[/(/)] v s > CT, o s I
s
2 2
Proof.
Let p(t)
= L[I(/)] = [L(f(/]
s s
III
I
I. fsin 2pdp
o
2. fp cosh p dp
o
3.
o p
mp
dp
4.
r p sm P je .   d'P
P
Sol.
Laplace Transforms
637
2.
I (s + (1) then L pcosh pdp =  I(s) = ) ) o 8 (8 a)s
I
3.
. L(smt)=
I ~I ;
s +
(I .
t
SlOt
00
0\
J2s +1
I
ds
4.
'f
Exercise 8(E)
Find the Laplace Transform of
I I
I. Jcos2pdp
0
3.
Jp sin 3pdp
Ans. I.
s
S(S2
+ 4)
2.
8(s + 3)
S(S2
+ 6s + 25)2
I _I 3. cot s s
638
Engineering Mathematics  I
8.2.5
A function f(t) in said to be periodic with period p>O iff(t+p) = f(t) for all t>O Since periodic appear in many practical problems and in most cases are more complicated than single sine or cosine functions, we find it useful to establish the following result:
I I' L([f(t)] = Ie Ps feSlf(t)dt
o
Proof:
Let f(t) be a periodic function of period 'p' so that f(t) = f(t+p) = f(t+2p) = ...... .
00
I'
21'
= fe s/ f(t)dt +
o
writing t = u+p
21' I'
= e Ps feOVlf(t + p)dt
o
I'
I'
(change u to t)
[.: f(t+p)=f(t)]
o
31'
= e 21'S feollf(t)dt
0
I'
and so on
I'
L[f(t)] = (1+eps+e2ps + .................... 00) feollf(t) o The expression within parantheses is a G.P. with c.r. = ePS :. L[f(t)] = 1_:1'$ JeSlf(t)dt
o
Laplace Transforms
639
Solved Problems
8.2.6
l.
f(t)
=k
2. Sol.
L[f(l)] =
le sp
1. Jes1f(l)dt=
le"P
Je"I.~dt
p
2.
L[f(t)] =
_ 1 [{_eSI}a 1_e2a,  s  0
.
e 2 +e
~
2
1
8.2.7
Find the Laplace transform of the rectangular wave shown in the figure:
f(t)
1s
b 2b
3b
Rectangular wave
640
Engineering Mathematics  I
Sol:
le
le
e 2 e
hs
bs 2
I bs =tanhs 2
8.2.8
Sol.
What is the Laplace transform of the staircase function (fig(a)) given by f( t) = n+ I, np < t n+ 1)p for n = 0, 1, 2 ............ . The easient way of getting the Laplace transform of the staircase function is to consider it as the difference between the two functions shown in Fig(b) the transform ofthe linear function (t + p) can easily be found by using first shifting, P second shifting and change of scale properties. Thus, we have
f(t)
f(t)
P 2p
3p
(a) Staircse function (b) solution of the stair case function (c) Sawtooth function.
Laplace Transforms
641
t The function fl(t) =  is called a sawtooth function (fig(c and its transform is p
obtained as shown below.
L[ft(t)] =
L[ I' (I)] JI 
~[1 + ps P S2
p s(1e PS )
..... (2)
Exercise 8(F)
1. If Lf(t) = <I>(s), Prove that
L[~II(t)] = s3<1>(s)  s2 <I>(s)  s<l>l(s)  <l>1I(s)
2.
If
3.
A periodic function f(t) of period 2a is defind by f(t) = t, = 2a  t, for 0 .'S t .'S a, for a < t < 2a
(as) 2
642
Engineering Mathematics  I
4.
Iff(t) = t2,
f(t)
find L[f(t)].
5.
8.2.9
ift<a,
lift < a
The unit step function is the basic building block of certain functions whose knowledge greately increases the usefulness of the Laplace transformation. It is easy to show that the Laplace transform of H(ta) is given by e U \ L(H(ta==s
00
00
e sl s o
00
eas
s
8.2.10 Proof:
. 1 In Particular, when a=O, we get L(H(t = s Heaviside shift theorem: If Lf(t) = f(s), then L[f(ta)H(ta) = eas f(s).
By defnition, we have
00
00
L[f(t  a)H(t  a) == fe si f(t  a)H(t  a)dt == fe si f(t  a)O.dt + fe si f(t  a)l.dt o 0 0
00 00
(consider p = ta)
Laplace Transforms
643
8.2.1
Examples
=1
=0 =sint
1.
ift>21t
SoL
2.
Find L.T. oft2H(t3) Let us express <I>(t) = t 2 as a function of(t3) by using Talor's series, which states that f(x)  f(a) + (xa) (a) +
(t 3)2
fI
(t)=94(t  3).6+
2!
.2
Now, by the above result L[f(t).H(ta)] = L[9+6(t3) + (t3fH(t3)] = L[f(t3).H(t3)] = e3S Lf(t) L[t2H(ta)] 3.
Sol.
=
where f(t)
9+6t+t2
9 + 6 2 + ......... .] e3s [ ? + 3 s s s
Express F(t) = (t2)2 when t>2 and f(t) = 0 when 0<t<2 in terms of Heavis ide unit step function and find its Laplace transform It is easy to see that F(t) = (t2)2 = (t2f.H(t2) (since for t<2, H(t2)=0 and for ~2, H(t2)=1) where f(t) = t2 L[f(t).H(t2)] = L[(t2)2H(t2)] = e2s .Lf(t)
=e
2,\
2! .3 s
644
Engineering Mathematics  I
Exercise 8(G)
I. Find the Laplace tranform off(t) using the unit step function, where
I
f(t) =
ifO<t<1 if3<t<4
2 ifl<I<3
4
2 if 4 <I
I eI 2e31 6e~1 Ans.  +  +     [s s s s
2.
62H(t1t)  4H(t21t)
(ii) f(t)
e2I H(tlog5)
2
(iv) f(t)
t2 H(t2)
Ans.
e2"(2 4s 4s 2 ) '.:3...:...
(v) f(t)
H(te t )
1 Ans. s
(vi) f(t) = tH(t2) (vii) f(t) = (l +2t3t2 +4t3)H(t2) 25 38 42 24] Ans. e2s  +  +  + [ s S2 S3 S4
1

Ans. eltS
S2
+1
Laplace Transforms
645
8.3.1
L[fl(t)]
1.
Linearity Property: If kl' k2 are any constants and F I(s) and Fis) are the Laplace transforms of fl(t) and fit) respectives, then
LI[kIFI(s) + k2Fis)] = klfl(t) + k/i t). First shifiing property: If L I [F(s)] = f(t), then
2.
4.
5.
6.
0, then
fI(t)
=
7.
f(t) then
646
Engineering Mathematics  I
F(S)
ff..ff(u)du".
00 0
8.3.2
I
= 
s
1
L I L I
(~)
L(eat)
= 
s+a
L(tn )
n!
= S"+I
11
eat
S'1+1
(n
t"
S2
a +a 2
s
rl (
s +a
2) =
~ sinat a
cosat
L(cosat)
=
S2
+a 2 a _a 2 s _a 2
LI ( 2 S
s +a
2)
L(sinhat)
S2
L_ I ( 21 L I (
s a
2)=~sinhat a
L(coshat) 8.3.3
S2
S2
s 2 ) coshat _a
Using the above results inverse Laplace transforms of some simple functions can b~ obtained as below. Find the inverse Laplace transform of:
I. 2  S2
2s+3
+9
3.
3s+5 2 9s 25
1_ 4._ 4s+5
8~4 s +
5. 4s5
3 6.s+ 4
2s+ I 7. (s + 1)
s+3
Laplace Transforms
647
Sol.
I.
2.
=
2cos3t + sin3t
3.
I L (
9s  25
3~+5
)=LI(
3s )+LI( 2 5 9s 2  25 9s  25
)=~COSh(~)+~sinh(~)
3 3 3 3
4.
5.
6.
41
7.
8.
s + 4
=L
1
s ) +L s + 4
I(
1'
3 ) =cos2t+sm21 3 . s + 4 2
Exercise 8(H)
Find the invere Laplace transform of:
1. ++S S3 S
+4
4s+ 15 5. 16s 2 _ 25
648
Engineering Mathematics  I
[2
Ans.
2. 3cos4t + sin4t
3. 2cosh3t+sinh3t
,4
Examples 8.3.4
Find the inverse Laplace transform of:
1.
6s4
"2  
s 4s+ 20
2. (s _ 3)3
3. (s _ 2)4
4.
Sol.
4 L I
= LI(
=
I ) + L I ( (s  2) ) (s2i s24s+4+1
=L
I(
l(
S2) (S2)2 + 12
Exercise 8(1)
Find the inverse Laplace transform of:
(i)
s+4 S2 4s+ 13
(ii)
s +6 S2 Ss +25
(iii)
=
4s+ 12 S2 +Ss + 16
Laplace Transforms
649
B.3.5
A Bs+C r + ? 2 r and then use the standard results to find the inverse L.T. (s + a) (s + a )
r l [ S3 +
S(S2 + I)
S2
+1
s+1 = A(s2+1) + (Bs+c)s = As2 + A + Bs2 + cs comparing coefficients of different powers of s from both sides O=A+B
)=
:. I = A, B =1 .
..
. =I cost+smt
2S2 6s+5
If L[f(t)] =
S3
J(s) =
S3
:. 2S2 6s + 5 = A(s 2)(s 3)+ B(s l)(s 3)+C(s l)(s 2)
put s = I we get I =2A put s
=
A= 1/2
B=1
Engineering Mathematics  I
3.
If Lf(t) = (
Sol.
j(s)=~+ Bs+C
we have A = 2, B = 2, C = I
L I [j(s)] = 2C l _1__ 2CI _s_ + L I _)_1_ S 1 S2 + I s + I
=
2e t  2cost + sint
4.
If L[f(t)]
Sol.
j(s) =
s+2
(s+3)(s+I)3
:.rl[f(8)]=~rlI~rlI+ 1
8 8+38
8+14(8+1)
+ I 1 2(8+1)3
5.
Sol:
If L[f(t)]
(S2
Let f(s)
:.S2
as+b 82 + 28 + 5 +
S2
c8+d + 28 + 2
Laplace Transforms
651
3 :f(s)= s2+2s+5
2 s2+2s+2
3 (s+I)2+22
2
(s+I)2+12
:.L
I(
f(s)]=3L
I(
I[
1 2? (s+l) +1
6.
If L[f(t)]
Sol.
I[
] =cos 1 21 4s +16 2
2
2s
since L I [
2 S
s +16
cos4t
e 5
7.
If L[f(t)]
=
Sol.
We know
rl[
(s  2)4
1 LI[_I]
= e 21
S4
e2/.~ = ~t3e21 3! 6
L I
[
e 5s (S2)4
={I 1 g
(I  5)3e2(t  5)
ift>5 if 1 < 5
Exercise 8(J)
Determine the inverse Laplace transform of each of the following functions. (i)
3
s+2 s5 S2 +6s+ 13
(ii)
s s2+2s+6 e 2 .. s(s + 1)
(iii)
2s+ 1 s(s + 1) S2
(iv)
10g(~) s+2
(v)
(vi)
(vii)
652
Engineering Mathematics  I
(viii)
2S2 + s I 0 (s  4)(S2 + 2s + 2)
(x)
(8
+ 64)
(xi)
(xii)
s (s4+s2+1)
s
(xiii)
+ lOs + 13
2 
(xiv)
I 0(8
5s + 6)
(xvi)
(8 + 1)(s2 +4)
(xv)
8+29
(S+4)(S2 +9)
48+4 (8 _1)2(8 + 2)
5s+3 (s 1)(s2 + 2s + 5) S2 + 1
s3
(xvii)
(xviii)
+3s 2 +2s
Ans.
. ) 1 (2/ e e 3/) ( IV t
(v) e3tcos2t  4e3tsin2t (vi) 4(1  e2t)(t  2)
(vii)
(~Sin4t %Sin3t)
2 (ix) (Icost)
(x)
"8
sin2t sinh2t
(XI)
(XII)
(xiv)
I "3
(cost  cos2t)
5 "3
sin3t
(xviii)
.!  22
et
~
2
e2l
Laplace Transforms
653
8.4
Convolution Theorem
If L[f(t)] = F(s) and L[g(t)] = G(s) the inverse transfonn of F(s). G(s) denoted by H(t), is called the convolution of f and g is defind as given below.
I
H(t) = (f*g)(t) = f(tu)g(u)dll,vtzO o The convolution operation * has the following properties. (f*g)(t) = (g*f)*t), [f*(g*h)](t) [1'*(g+h)](t)
=
..... ( I)
v t
v t v t
~ ~ ~
8.4.1
Theorem: Let f(t) and get) be the inverse transforms of F(s) and G(s) respectively, and satify the hypothesis of the existence theorem (8.10.2) then the the inverse transform h(t) of the product F(s) G(s) is the convolution of f(t) and get).
I
i.e.
L'[F(s)G(s)]
fl(t  u)g(u)du
o
..... (i)
Proof:
L[
1 f
(l u)g(u)du
1
g(u)du ]
Now F(s)G(s)
~ [fe" f( v)dv]
=
00
[V
rr llo
where the integration is extended over the first quadrant (u ~ 0, v .:=:: 0) in the uvplane. We now introduce a new variable 't' in the inner integral of the last expression by taking v = tu so that u + v = t and dv = dt (u being fixed during this integration). Thus
F(s)G(s) =
rr le>t llu
J(t  U)dt]g(U)dU =
654
Engineering Mathematics  I
al
s, I
8.4.2 Examples
(I) Evaluate
Sol.
we have
L'C, )~I
and
r'((S~I)' )~/e'
2
U
2(
(s +2 )
Sol.
~4
= F(s) G(s)
Laplace Transforms
655
o
I
2
2u )dll
=~[sin2t.U+~COS2(t2U]1 ~tsin2u
4 2 04
(3)
Evaluate LI [
s s+4
~
Sol.
vs+4 F(s).G(s)
I
 and choose
s
.. f(t) = L [F(s)] =
(s + 4)
~
2
= e4t
CI_1_ =e41
s~
t~ = r;; r41 e1 2
'\I1tl
1 =1 s
e 4u
f(u) = rand g(tu) = 1
'\I1tU
By convolution theorem
I
4u
1 r
2!i
Je
x2
dx
'\I 1t 0
where 4u
.xl
2du =xdx
I
(where erf(t)
2 r
Je
dx
'\I1t 0
656
Engineering Mathematics  I
Exercise 8(K)
Using the convolution theorem find the inverse Laplace transforms of
(v) logs+2 S +1
(vi)
(s + 1)(s + 1)
(ii)
211
"3 (2sin2tsint)
(iii)
"3 tsint
(iv)
I o
/I
e u
du
..... (1)
which satisfiestheinitial conditionsy(O) Yo and yeO) = Yo Taking the Lapa1ce transform on bothsides of (l) and using its linearity, it follows that
L[J(t)]
= L[f(t)]
}'0
(Here it is assumed that the functions f( t), y, y' and y" must have Laplace transforms).
Laplace Transforms
657
Solved Examples
8.4.4
2
' d th i ' 0f d2 y +dy  2Y = smt ' w h'IC h satls 'files t h'" , e so utlOn e Imtla I cond'ItlOI1S y = 0, Fm dt dt
Sol.
y' = 0 when t = 0 Applying the Laplace transforms to both sides of the given equation and by linearity, we have
L(yW) + L(y')  2L(y) = L(sin t)
= 21
s +
1
2
s +1
1
(s + S  2)(S2 + 1)
?
=:
(s IXs + 2)(S2 + 1)
1 (s 1)(s + 2)(S2 + I)
A B C . +D s I s + 2 S2 + I
where
Therefore we get
1 1 yet) = L 1       1 (s 1)(s + 2)(S2 + 1)
658
Engineering Mathematics  I
8.4.5 Example
Solve the initial value problem y"3y'+2y=e 31 .y=l,y'=0 wheret=O Sol. Applying Laplace transform to both sides of the differential equation, we get [s2Ly(t)  sy(O)  y' (0)] 3 [sLy(t)  yeO)] +2 L(t) Applying the given conditions, we get (s2  3s + 2) Ly(t) = s3 + 1
=
L(e3!) = 
s3
s3
sJ
s3
:. L(y(t)] = (s _ 3)(S2 _. 3s + 2) + (8 2  3s + 2)
1
+(81)(s2)(s3) (sI)(82)
83
.... (1)
To find yet), we expand each term on the right hand side of (I) in partial functions, Thus ABC =+(sI)(s2)(s3) s1 s2 s3 1 = A(s2) (s3) + B(sl) (s3) + C(sI)(s2) substituting s = I gives A = 2" ;similarly substituting s = 2 gets B = 1 and substituting
I s = 3 gives c ="2
I
hence
1
  1  =
(sI)(s2)(s3)
2(81)
Laplace Transforms
659
s3 = D (s2) R(sI) Taking s =: 2, we get E =:1 similarly s = I we get D = 2 Hence L[f(t)] = I 2(sl)
+
s2
I 2{s3)
+sI s2
Example 8.4.6
Solve yll + 3yl + 2y = 2t3 + 2t + 2 with yeO) = 2, yl(O)
Sol.
Applying Laplace transform to both sides of the given equation we get L(yll) + 3L(yl) + 2L(y) = 2L(t2) + 2L(t) + 2
? I 4 2 2 [sLy(t)  sy(O)  yeO)] + 3 [sL[y(t)]  yeO)] + 2Ly(t) = 3 + 2 + 
.... (1)
s + s+ )Ly t
3 2
()
2(2+s+s2)
3
S
+ s+
3LI(~) 2r
L\ ) 2LILI
+
3) 
LIe ~ 2)
=3 
2t + t 2  e2t
660
Engineering Mathematics  I
Exercise 8(1)
Using Laplace transform method solve the following differential equations with the given conditions.
I.
2. 3. 4. 5.
6. 7.
"2
when t = 0
yll y = 1 at y = I, yl = I when t = 0 yll + 2yl + 3y = 3et sint; yeO) = yl(O) = 0 xii + 4xl = 8t given x(O) = 0, xl(O) = 0 yll + 9y = 18t given yeO) = 0, yl(O) = 0 yll + Y = sint given yeO) = I, yl(O) =
8. 9.
1 "2
Ans.l. y
= eX 
e3x
5. y = 1 + et  cosht
6. y = 3etsint
8 +"2
I
t  t2 +
"8
e4t 8. y = 2t 
"3
sin3t