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ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS -I

SECOND EDITION

P.B. Bhaskar Rao


M.Sc., Ph.D. Retd. Professor, Former Chairman, Board of Studies, Department of Mathematics Osmania University Hyderabad

S.K.V.S.Sriramachary
M.A., M.Phil., B.Ed. Professor & Head (Retd.) Department of Mathematics University College of Engineering (Autonomous) Osmania University Hyderabad

M. Bhujanga Rao
M.Sc., Ph.D. Professor, Dept. of Mathematics University College of Engineering (Autonomous) Director of Centre for Distance Education Osmania University Hyderabad

BSP BS Publications
4-4-309, Giriraj Lane, Sultan Bazar, Hyderabad - 500 095 A.P. Phone: 040 - 23445688 e-mail: contactus@bspublications.net

Copyright 2008, by Publisher

All rights reserved. No part of this book or parts thereof may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval syste'm or transmitted in any language or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise without the prior written permission of the publishers,
i

Published by :

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Hyderabad - 500 095 - A. P. Phone: 040-23445688

e-mail: contactus@bspublications.net www.bspublications.net

Printed at
Adithya Art Printers
Hyderabad.

ISBN: 978-81-7800-151-7

Contents

CHAPTER -1 Ordinary Differential Equations of First Order and First Degree ..................................................... 1 CHAPTER -2 Linear Differential Equations with Constant Coefficients and Laplace Transforms ...................... 69 CHAPTER-3 Mean Value Theorems and Functions of Several Variables .............................................. 111 CHAPTER-4 Curvature and Curve Tracing ................................................ 213 CHAPTER-5 Application of Integration to Areas, Lengths, Volumes and Surface areas ........................ 313 CHAPTER-6 Sequences of Series .............................................................. 385 _ CHAPTER-7 Vector Differentiation ............................................................. 475 CHAPTER-8 Laplace Transforms ............................................................... 623

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1
Ordinary Differential Equations of First Order and First Degree
1.1 Introduction
Differential euqtions play an important role in many applications in the field of science and engineering, such as (i) problems relating to motion of particles (ii) problems involving bending of beams (iii) stability of electric system, etc. For example, Newton's law of cooling states that the rate of change of temperature of a body varies as the excess temperature of the body to that of its surroundings. If 8(t) is the temperature of the body at time 't' and 8 0 is the temperature of the room in which the body is kept, then dt gives the rate of change of temperature with time.

de

de
dt

= K(8 - 8 0) ; K is constant

Similarly Newton's second law of motion for a particle of mass m moving in a straight line can be written as

d 2x
m dt 2

=F

Where m is the mass, x is the distance of the particle at time 't' measured from a fixed origin and F the external impressed force.

Engineering Mathematics - I

A differential equation is an equation involving an unknown function and its derivatives. Ifthere is only one independent variable and one dependent variable the equation is called (Ill ordinary differential equation. If there are more than one independent variable the equation is called a partial differential equation as this involves partial derivatives. For example:

d3y dx
3

+3x

dy dx

_ y=e(

.... (a)

12 + Y 6 -x 3 d y J4 + (d2 YJ8 + (dY) _ 8 (dx;3 dx 2 dx

.... (b)

.... (c)

.... (d)

.... (e)

.... (t)

.... (g)

The first four equations (a), (b), (c) and (d) are ordinary differential equations and the remaining three are partial differential equations.

Order 0/ a differential equation: The order of a differential equation is the order of the highest ordered derivative appearing in the equation. Degree
The degree of a differential equation is the power to which the highest ordered derivative appears in the equation after clearing the radicals if any.

0/ a differential equation:

Ordinary Differential Equations of First Order and First Degree

In the above examples:

Example: Example: Example: Example:

1.1(a) is a differential equation of order 3 and degree I. 1.1(b) is of third order and fourth degree differential equation. 1.1(c) is a second order, first degree differential equation. 1.1(d) is a second order, second degree ditferential equation.

1.2

Example
Formation of an ordinary D.E : The differential equations ar~ formed by eliminating all the arbitrary constants th~t are involved in the functional relationship between the dependent and independent variables. For example:

cx2 + c 2 where c is an arbitrary constant.

.... (I)

To eliminate 'c': (only one constant) From(l)


dv
_0

dx

c.2x+ 0

I (~V c= 2x dx Substitution of c in (I) gives

_I dy x2+ 2x d\: 4x 2

_1_(dy )2
d);
=

d ~ ( dx

)2 + 2x 3 2 d

dx

- 4x2y

is the required D.E and y = cx2 + c 2 is called the solution of the D.E.

Note:
Depending on the number of constants in the given equation differentiate it as many number oftimes successively. Then the elimination of the arbitrary constants from the resulting equations and the given equation gives the required differential equation whose order is equal to the number of constants.

1.3

Example
Eliminate the arbitrary constants a, b from xy + x 2 = aeX + be-X and form the differential equation.

Engineering Mathematics - I

Solution:
The given equation is xy + .x2 = ae-'" + be-x
..... ( I)

The number of arbitrary constants is two. Differentiating (I) w.r., to 'x' two times successively.

dy
x dx

+ Y + 2x = ae-' - be-x
=

.....(2)

d2y

X ---2

ely dy + - + - + 2.1 d-c dx dx

aex + be-x

.... (3)

From (I), (2) and (3) el imination of a, b gives the D.E. from (I) and (3) we get

--?

d l )' 2dy . . + - - + 2 = xy + x 2 IS the requIred D_E. dxdx

1.4

Example

a.x2 + by =

Form the differential equation by eliminating the constants a and b from 1

Solution:
Differentiating ax2 +

by =

I w.r.t 'x'
=

.... (I)

dy 2ax+ 2byd-c

.... (2)

Again differentiating wr.t., 'x' 2a+2by


-?

d 2y dy dy +2b-.- =0 dxdx dx

.... (3)

Elimination of a, b from (I), (2) and (3) gives


? x-

i
yYl (Y.h + yl2

-I

0 =0 0

Expanding the determinant we get

2 y x d y +x(d )2 2 dx dx

_ y(dY)=o
dx

Ordinary Differential Equations of First Order and First Degree

1.5

Example
Form the differential equation by eliminating the constants from

a secx + b tan x

Solution
Given equation is

y= asecx + btanx
Differentiating w.r. to 'x'

.... (I)

dy dx dy dx
= =

asecx tanx + bsec 2x

.... (2)

secx[a tan x + b sec xl

.... (3)

Further differentiation gives

d 2y
-, 2

(X

= a sec x tan 2x

+ a sec3 x + h2sec 2x tan x

I.e.,

--1

d Y
dx-

asecx tan x

1 + bsec-xtanx + bsec 2xtanx + asec 3x

I.e.,
Substituting

d 2y

dx 2

= secx t'lnx(atanx + bsecx) + sec 2x(btanx + asecx) ..... (4)

asecx + btanx

=y

from (I)

and in (3) we get

atanx + bsecx

= -secx

(~) from (2)


-2

[-f)
d2
dx
i.e.,

dY) ( secx tanx ~ + sec x(y) secx


dx
=

d 2y dy -- tanx - - ysec2x 2
dx

Engineering Mathematics - I

1.6

Example
Form the differential equation of all circles passing through the origin and having their centres on the x - axis.
<

Solution
Take any tangent to the circle as y-axis, the centre lies on x-axis. Let 'a' be the radius of the circle. Then centre is (a, 0) :. Equation of the circle is (x - a)2 +
y

.r

a2

.... (1)

y'
Fig. 1.1 Differentiating (I) w.r. to 'x'
2(x - a)

+ 2y dy -ydx dy dx

dy dx

x- a

a=x+ y From (1) and (2)

.... (2)

[x-(x+
.r

y:lJ' y' =[x+ y:J


+

(:r +.r
+ x2 -

= x2

+.r

(:r +

2XY ( : )

2XY :

.r = 0 is the required D.E

Ordinary Differential Equations of First Order and First Degree

1.7

Example
Form the differential equation of all central conics whose axes coincide with the axes of coordinates.

Solution
The equation of all central conics whose axes coincide with the axes is ax2 + Differentiating (1) w.r.t., x

bl =

.... (1)

dy 2ax+ 2by dx
Differentiating (2) w.r.t., 'x' again

.... (2)

2 y )2 d y a+by - 2 +b =0 dx dx

(d

.... (3)

Eliminating a, b from (1), (2)(3)

x2 X
2

y2 dy ydx

y~+ ~ d 2 (d dx dx

o =0
0

=>

y Xyd2; +x(d )2 _y(dY)=O is the required D.E. dx dx dx

Exercise - 1(a)
1. Eliminate the arbitrary constants from the following and find the corresponding differential equation :
(i) y

= mx + c (m, c arbitrary constants)

(ii) y

a e2x + b e-2x

(a, b arbitrary. constants)


[ Ans : ~ - 4y - 0] dx 2

d2

Engineering Mathematics - I

(iii)

ax + bx 2

(a, b arb. constants)

d2 [ADS: x 2
(iv)

dy ----? 2x -d + 2y dx x

0]

(x - h)2 + (y - kf = a2, (h, k a, b arb. constants)

(v)

(a + bx)e-X , (a, b arb. constants)

d 2y 2dy [ Ans: - 2 + +Y
dx dx (vi)

OJ

a sin x + b cosx (a, b arb. constants)


[ADS: - l 2
(X

d 2y

+ Y = 0]

2. Find the differential equation of all circles with centre on the line y = x and having radius' I '.

3. Form the differential equation of all the circles with centre on the line y passing through the origin.
[ADS. : (xl + y)

-x and

(:

-1) =

2(y -

x) (x + y:)]
dy -2xy dx

4. Find the differentiall equation of all the parabolas with vertex at the origin and foci on the x - axis.
[ADS:

0]

5. Find the differential equation of all parabolas with the origin as focus and axis along x-axis.

dy [ADS: 2x dx + Y

dx) -Y

dy -

0]

Ordinary Differential Equations of First Order and First Degree

Methods to Solve

1.8

The differential equations of the first order and of the First Degree:

1.8.1 Separation of Variables


Sometimes the differential equation
/

dy dx
can be written as

q(x, y)

f(x) dx + g(y)dy = 0

.... (I)

if the variables can be separated. Integration of (1) gives the solution of the equation. i.e.,

Jf(x)dx+ Jg(y)dy=c

where c is an arbitrary constant.

1.8.2 Example
Solve et"tany dx + (1-~sec2ydy
=

Solution
The given equation

ydy =0 e-'"tany dx + (1-e-'")sec 2


can be rearranged as
e( sec 2 y - - d x + - - dy=O

I-eX

tany

Integrating

J I_eX

eX Jsec y --dx+ - - dy=c tany

-Iog( e-'" -I ) + log t~ll1Y = c i.e.,


tany -X-I

e -

c or tan y = c(e X -I)

10

Engineering Mathematics - I

1.8.3 Example
dy Solve - = 1 + xl + dx

Y + xly

Solution
The given differential equation can be written as dy dx
=

(1 +xl) (1 + y)

dy x3 -1- 2 = (1+xl)dx => tan-I y = x + - + C +y 3

1.8.4 Example
dy Solve dx - 2xy = x, where YCO) = 1

Solution
- =x(1+2y) dx dy I+2y =xdx On integration

dy

"2 Iog(1+2y) = 2 +c
Giveny= 1 when x = 0 Substituting in (1)

x2

.... (1)

"2 Iog(3) = 0 + C
C=

~ log3 = log(v'J)
2

Hence the solution is

1 Iog(I +2y)= 2 x "2

+ Iogv'J (i.e.,) log (1+2Y) - 3 - =xl

Ordinary Differential Equations of First Order and First Degree

11

1.8.5 Example
dy Solve - =(4x+y+ If dx

Solution
dy = (4x + y + 1)2 dx Substituting 4x + y + I = t in (I)
-

.... (I)

dy 4+dx
i.e.,

=-

dt dx

dy dx

dt -4 dx

dt - -4 = t 2 dx
Integrating

i.e.,

I t -tan-I-=x+c

tan-I (4X+;+ I) = 2(x + c) The solution can also be written as 4x + y + I = 2tan(2x + c) where C is an arbitrary constant.

Exercise -1(b)

1.9
1.

Solve the Following Differential Equations


:

=~Y

[ADS:

+ e-Y

=
=

c]
c]

2. (2 - x)dy - (3 + y) dx = 0

[ADS (3 + y) (2 -x)

12

Engineering Mathematics - I

[ ADs: yc

= (a + x) (I - ay) ]

dy
6. (x-y)2 dx

= a2

[ADs: (x - y) + log ( x- y-a) x-y+a

= x + c]

7.

dy - =(3x+4y+ 1)2 dx dy =(2x+y+ dx

[ADs: 2(3x+4y+ 1)= .J3tan- 1 2.J3x+c]

8.

If

[ ADs:

1 tan-I (2X + Y + I) .J2 .J2

x +c]

9.

dy dx = tan (x + y)

[ADs: log[sin(x + y) + cos(x + y)] = x - y + c]

10 dy = 2 . dx (x+2y-3)

[ADs: (x + 2y - 3) - 410g (x + 2y + I)

=x + c ]

1.9.1 Homogeneous Equations


The differential equation of the form

dy dx

f(x,y) g(x,y)

where f, g are homogeneous functions of same degree in x, y is called a homogenous differential equation. Such a differential equation can be written as

.... (I)

Substitutingy = vx dy dv - =v+xdx dx

Ordinary Differential Equations of First Order and First Degree


The D. E (I) becomes

13

dv \11 (v) v + x dx = ~(v)

-; + v~(v)-\lf(v)
Integration yields the solution

dx

~(v)dv

dx
X

J"'() ~(v)dv y ( ) = c where v = v'" v - \11 v


x

1.9.2 Example
Solve

(xl +

dy I) dx

=xy

Solution

. dy dv S U bstltuttngy = vx, -d = v + x x dx

dv v + xdx

xvx
=

x +v x v 1+ v 2

dv v+ x dx dv xdx
=

=--

v - -2- v
1+ v

dv _v 3 x-=-dx 1+ v 2

dx J I JI-dv=c -+ ~+ J X v3 v

14

Engineering Mathematics - I

v-2 logx + + logv

-2

logxv- -

e e ~ 2ylogy - xl

2V2

logx - ~ x 2y
i.e.,

(y)

X2

2ey

2ylogy

2ey + x 2

1.9.3 Example
Solve
Solution

dy y2 x-+-=y dx x

dy xl-+y=xy dx
i.e.,

Substitutingy = vx, dy dv -=v+xdx dx

dv v+x - =v-vl dx dv x - =-vl dx

-+=0 X v2
Integration yields
V-2+1

dx

dv

logx+ - - =e -2+1

~logx--

=c

Ordinary Differential Equations of First Order and First Degree

15

x logx - y

c cy
or

ylogx -x

ylogx

x + cy

1.9.4 Example
Solve [x+ YSin(Yx)]dx = xSin(Yx)dy Solution The given differential equation can be written as
dy

= __

x+ ysin(X)
--,---.0.-,.-----.:-

dx

xSin(j~)
dy dy - = v + x. dx dx
= ----

Substitutingy = vx

dv v+x dx

x+ vxsinv xsinsin(v)

dv l+vsin v+x- = - - dx sinv dv l+vsinv 1 -v=-.x-= dx sin v SI11 v dx sin v dv = x


Integrating -cosv = logx + c logx + cos(Yx) = c

16

Engineering Mathematics - I

Exercise - 1 (c)

1.10

Solve the Following Equations


dy y2 dx - xy-x2
=

l.

[ADS : y = ceix ]

2. (2 - 2xy)dx

(x 2 - 2xy)dy

[ ADS : xy(y - x) = c ] [ADS:

3. 2xy + ~ - r) dy = 0 dx

r + y = cy ]

[ADS: logx = 2tan- i (Yx) + c]

5. xdy - ydx = ~ x 2 + y2 dx
y [ ADS: cos - = logcx ] x

7. xcos(Yx) (ydx + xdy) = ysin (Yx) (xdy - ydx)

[ADS: sec (Yx) = yxc]

8. (ry - x 3 )dy - ~

+ xy) dx

[ ADS:

y~ x + y = cx.e
2 2

tan

-I(YI) Ix

9. (r + y) dx

= 2xydy

( ADS: (r -

y) = xc ]

10.

dy dx = y[logy - logx + 1]

( ADS : y = xecx ]

1.10.1

Non-homogeneous Differential Equations


The D.E of the form

dy dx

ax+by+c Ax+By+C

.... (J)

where a, b, c A, B, C are constants, is called a non-homogeneous dif.ferential equation.

Ordinary Differential Equations of First Order and First Degree

17

Case (i) If
--::;:.-

Substituting x = X + h, Y = y + K where h, k are (constants) to be chosen so as to satisfy.


ah + bk + c = 0, Ah + Bk + C = 0

Solving these equations, values of h, k are obtained. The given D.E then reduces to a homogeneous D.E.
dY dX
aX +bY

AX +BY

which is then solved taking Y = VX and then substitute X Case (ii) If


=

x - hand Y

y - k in the solution.

B
dy _ (ax + by)+c dx - m(ax+by)+C

Then the differential equation will be of the fonn .... (2)

since Ax + By will be constant m times ax + by. Now substitute


ax + by = t,

Differentiation gives
a+bdy=dt dx dx dt --a dy dx -=-dx b

i.e.,

D.E (2) then reduces to

~=--b mt+C

--a

dt

t+c

18

Engineering Mathematics - I

Then the solution is obtained by using the method of separation of variables.

1.10.2

Example
Solve

dy dx

x+2y-3 2x+ y-3

Solution dy x+2y-3 = dx 2x+ y-3


Substituting x = X + h, y = Y + k where h, k are chosen to satisfY h + 2k - 3 = 0 and 2h + k - 3 = 0 solving we get h=I,k=I i.e., we take x = X + I, Y= Y + I The D.E (I) reduces to
dY
=---

... - (I)

.... (2)

dX

X-2Y 2X+Y
dY

Substituting Y = VX, dX = V + X dX dV X+2VX V+X-=--dX 2X+VX V+XdV =1+2V dX 2+V


2+v dv=dX I-v X dX +(1 +_3_) dv = 0 X v-I

dV

XdV =1-V

dX

2+V

10gX + v + 3 log(v-I) = loge

Ordinary Differential Equations of First Order and First Degree

19

v + log( v-I )3 + logX = loge v-log(v-I)3 X = loge

Y X +10
I.e.,

V-x -X

3 )

X=loge

10g(Y - X)3 + XY = Xloge log(y - \ - x + \)3 + (x - \) (y - I) = (x -I) loge log(y - x)3 = (x - 1) (loge - y + \)

1.10.3

Example
Solve (2x + 3y + \) dx + (2y- 3x + 5)dy = 0

Solution
dy dx 2x+3y+ 1 2y-3x+5
= :

Substituting x = X + h, y = Y = k, :

Choosing h, k so that 2h + 3k + 1 = 0, 3h - 3k - 5 = 0 we get h = 1, k

= -1
dV dX
2X+3Y 3X-2Y

The given differential equation reduces to

Substituting Y=YX

dV dV =Y+XdX dX dV Y + X dX
2X+3YX = 3X - 2YX

Y+X dV =2+3Y dX 3-2Y

X dV dX

= 2(1 + y2 )
3-2Y

20

Engineering Mathematics - I

3-2V)dV= 2dX ( 1+ V2 X

Integrating dv 2v 3 - - --dv=2 -+c 1+ v 2 1+ v 2 X

fdX

3tan- 1(V) - log( I + v2)

= 210gX + c

3tan
B~

(~ )-IO~ X';/') ~ 210g)( + c

X=x-h=x-I Y=y-k=y+1

3tan-1 (~::
1.10.4, Example
Solve

)-IOg[ (x -Il~: ~ + I)'] ~

210g(x-

I) + c

dy =x-y+l dx 2x-2y

Solution

dy (x- y)+1 = --'------'-'-dx 2(x- y) Substituting x - y = V dY=I_ dV dx dx


l_dV=V+I dx 2V
-- I------

dV_ dx

V+l_V-1 2V 2V

2V dV=dx V-I

Ordinary Differential Equations of First Order and First Degree

21

Integrating
2 JV-I+I dV=x+c V-I 2[V + 10g(V-l)]
=

x+c
=

2[x - y + log(x - y -1)1 210g(x - y - I)


=

x+c

2y - x + c

or

(x - y -1)2

= e2j~x

1.10.5

Example
Solve
dy dx 4x+6y+1 2x+3y -5

Solution
-=(~V

d'(

2(2x+3y)+ I (2x+3y)-5

Substituting
2x + 3y = V dy (N 2+3-=dx dx dy dx

=~[dV
3 Ix

-2]
V-5
IO-2V+6V+3 5-v
13+4V 5-V

The differential equation reduces to

~(dV -2)=- -2V + I


3 dx

6V+3 =2+ - dx 5-V

dV

= ------

5-V 4V+13 dV=dx

22

Engineering Mathematics - I

Integrating

fl 1J~

4V + 13

) dv = _ 4 Idx + e

v- -log(4V+ 13)=-4x+e 4 33 (2x + 3y) - - log[4(2x + 3y) + 13] = - 4xm + C 4


i.e.,

33

4(6x+3y-e)=33Iog[4(2x+3y)+ 13]

Exercise -1(d)

1.11

Solve the Following Equations


dy y-x+5 \. - + -=------dx y+x+3 y+4 1 y+4 x-I ) +"2 log[ ( x-I ) 2 +1 =log(x-I)+loge]

[Ans:tan- J

2.

dy x+2y-3 dx - 2x+3y-5
[Ans: (2+Ji) IOg[y-1 x-I ,,3

~] -

(2-Ji) log [y-I + x-I ,,3

~]+ ,,3 ~

logx= loge]

_dy = _2y'------_x_-_4 . dx y-3x+3


[Ans: (x - 2)2 - 5(x - 2) (y - 3) + (y - 3)2 = e {2(y-3)-[5+h1{X-2)]}] 2{y -3)-(5 -h1(x-2

4. (2x+5y+ l)dx-(5x+2y- l)dy=O


[ Ans : (x + y) 7 = e ( x - y -

r]

Ordinary Differential Equations of First Order and First Degree

23

5.

dy dx

y-x+ 1 y+x+5 y-2) I [ADS : tan~l ( x _ 3 + log [(y - 2)2 + (x - 3)2]

loge]

6.

dy _ 3y+2x+4 dx 4x+6y+5

[ADS: .7'j(2x+3y)7. (4x-6y-l)dx+(3y-2x-2)dy=O

:9

(14x+2ly+22)=x+c]

3 [ADS: x - y + 41og(8x - 12y - 5) = c ]

8.

dy dx

= 2x -

x-y+3 2y + 5

[ ADS: (x - y) + log[2 + x - y ]

x
= -

+ C]

1.12 Linear Differential Equations


A differential equation of the from :

+ py = q where p, q are functions of 'x',

alone or constants is said to be a linear differential equation offirst order. Multiplying both sides of the equation by el pta [called the integrating factor (I.F)] we get,

el ptlr dy + el ptlr py = q .e Iptlr dx


The left hand side is the differential coefficient of y. e (i) can be written as

.... (i)

l pcb:

d(y.e
Integrating

1ptlr

qe 1ptlr

which gives the desired solution.

24

Engineering Mathematics - I

Note:
In some cases a differential equation can be reduced to the linear form by taking 'y' as independent variable and x as the dependent variable. The D.E is written as

p" q I are functions of y or constants


Now the I.F
=

eJ

Pldy

Solution is

x.e

JPldy

fqle

Jpl"Y

+c

1.12.1

Example
Solve (I + x 2 )
-

dy + 2yx - 6x2 = 0 dx

Solution
Rearranging the given differential equation to the form

dy dx + py = q
We have

dy 2x 6x 2 -+--y=-dx I +X2 1+X2


Here

2x
p=
I+X2

6x 2
,q=
I+X2

I.F= e

Jpdx =e J I+x2
=

~dx

log(I+X2 )

I.F = e Solution is given by

(1 + x 2 )

y(1. F) =

fp(I.F)dx + c

Ordinary Differential Equations of First Order and First Degree

25

1.12.2

Example
Solve

xlogx

dy - +y=2Iogx dx

Solution
dy y 2 -+--=dx xlogx x I 2 p= - - andq=xlogx x

Here

Solution is

ylogx =

J~ logxdx + c
(IogX)2
2 +c

ylogx=2

1.12.3

Example
Solve

dy Y ( . ) =I xsmx+cosx xcosx -+ dx

Solution
xsin+ cosx dy -+y.---dx xcosx

xcosx

p=

xsin x + cosx

xcosx

I ,q=--

xcosx

26

Engineering Mathematics - I

I.F

~Slll X~.COS~ dx
XCDSX

= e(log(xsecx)

I. F

= e1og(x sec x) =

xsecx

Solution is

y(xsec x)

f_lxcosx
2

x sec x dx + c

xysec x xysecx

= =

Jsec xdx E c tanx+c

1.12.5

Example
Solve

dy + 2ytanx = sinx given that y


~

0 where x

~,
3

Solution dy + 2ytanx = sinx dx


p q
= =

2tanx sinx ef
2 tan xd!:

IF
~

= e210gsecx

ylF=

JqxIF.dx+c
2

ysec 2x = Jsecx.sec xdx + c

Ordinary Differential Equations of First Order and First Degree

27

ysec 2x
ysec-x
')

= =

J sec x tan xlir + c


secx + ('
.... (I)

Given that y

0 when x =
1C

;7j
C =

o=

sec - + c => 3

-2

Substituting c = -2 in (I)

ysec 2x

secx - 2

is the required solution

1.12.6

Example
dy Solve (x + 2.v) -,
(X
=

Solution
X

2.v
x y

y yd dx

--- =

dx dy

2.v

is in the form of

= -

-1

'

2,1
Y

28

Engineering Mathematics - I

1 x-

f2y

1 x-dy+c y

- =y+C
Y

1.13.7 Example
Solve
(x + y+ I) -

dy dx

Solution
dy dx- X =y+l PI=-lq\,=y+1

IF =
=

f-1dy

e- Y

Solution is given by
x(IF)

= fql(/F)dy+c
f(y + I)e-Y dy + c

xe-Y

i.e.,

or

x +y + 2

ce Y

Exercise 1(e)

1.13 Solve the Following Differential Equations


I. (I + y)dx
= (t~n-Iy

- x)dx [ADS: xetan- I y = tan-Iyetan-Iy --etan- I y + c]

dy 2. cos2x - + Y

dx

= tanx
[ADS: Y = ce-tanx - tanx -1]

Ordinary Differential Equations of First Order and First Degree

29

dy 3. x - +2y-x2 1og=0 dx
(ADS: y

c
=
-?

x-

I .r2 +- x210gx --I


4 16

4.

dy dx + ycot x = 4x cosec.x, if y

n/ 0, when x = ~2
n2 (ADS: ysinx = 2x2 - 2

5. yeYdx

(y

+ 2x&)dy
( ADS : xy~2

=c-

e~Y

6. (x + 31) dy dx

( ADS : x

21 + cy ]

7. (xy -I )

dy dx+ y
3

+ y3

= 0

I ADS: x
dy dx

= ce Y

+ - + II Y

8.

= x 3 - 2xy if y = 2 when x =

[ADS: 2y - x 2 + 1 = 4 el~~ ]

dy x+ ycosx 10. dx = I +sinx


[ADS: y(l+sinx)
=

c - -] 2

x2

30

Engineering Mathematics - I

1.13.1 Non-linear Differential Equation of First Order


Ber noulli j. equation:
The differential equation of the form
ely dx + PY
=

llyn

.... (I)

where p, q are functions ofx alone is said to be a Bernoulli's differential equation. Dividing (I) throughout by yn

dy =q dx Substitutingynt-l(coefficient ofp) "" v


y-n_ + py-n+l

.... (2)

1 dy dv (1-n) - - = y" dx dx
(2) reduces to
I dv - - - +pv=q

(I-n)dl'

dv - + (1-n)pv = (I-n)q dx
which is linear in v. The avove D.E can be solved by using the method given in 1.12.1 example.

1.13.2 Example
Solve dy - ytanx = ysecx dx Solution
dx - ytanx = ysecx

dy

.... (I)

dy 1 y-2 -d - - tan x = sec x x Y


Substituting

-y =v,

Ordinary Differential Equations of First Order and First Degree

31

+--=/ dx dx

1 dy

dv

(1) reduces to
dv dx + vtan x
=

sec x

is linear in v. Here p
=

tanx, q
e e

secx

IF

fpd<
flanXd<

= elogsec x =

secx

SolutIon of th [) E (I) IS therefore

v(lF) = Jq(IF}dx + c

v. secx

Jsecx.secxdx + C
2

vsecx.= J sec xdx + c Substituting

v=-Y

- - sec x y i.e.,

tan x + c
=

y(tan x + c) + sec x

1.13.3 Example
Solve (3xy + .0) dx - 3i2dy = 0

Solution
dy 3x2 - - 3xy dx
=

.0

32 is in Bernoulli's fonn 1 dy _ dx - xy - 3x 2

Engineering Mathematics - I

"7
-1
y

Substituting

=v

D.E reduces to

dv I 1 ---v=dx xy 3x 2
which is linear in v Here
p=~,

.... (1)

1 q= 3x 2

IF = e
=

Jpdx
x

J!d\

=x
Solution of the D.E (1) is

v(lF) = fq(lF)dx+c
-..!..x= f_l_. xdx + c y 3x 2

x 1 --=-Iogx+c Y 3
i.e.,

y(110g x + c) + x = 0

1.13.4 Example
dy Solve dx + (2xtan- 1 y -.x3) (1 + y) = 0
Solution

dy 1+ y2 dx

dv = dx

Ordinary Differential Equations of First Order and First Degree

33

The given differential equation becomes

dv

d-c

+ 2xv=x3

.... (1)

which is linear in v Here


p = 2x, q = x 3

IF

2xdx

=e

x2

Solution of the D.E (1) is

v(lF) =
Writing

Jq(IF}dx+ c
1

x2 = t
xdx

= 2dt
2

v.e x = {e 2+c

dt

1.14.5 Example dy Solve tany dx + tanx Solution dy tany d'C + tanx


Dividing by cosy throughout

= cosy cos3x

= cosy cos 3x

dy secy tany dx + secy tanx = cos 3x


Substituting secy = v, we get

dy secy tany dx

dv d'C

34

Engineering Mathematics - I

dv
is linear in v Here

dx + v . tal1.X = cos3x

.... (I)

p = tal1.X, q = cos3x

IF =

f pdt

flallXdy = secx

Solution of the D.E (I) is v(IF)

= fq(IF)dx + c
=

v. secx

fcos xxsecxdx+c
=

secy secx
secx secy

fcos xdx + c

I
2

I +cos2x 2 +c

x sin2x secx secy = -+--+c

1.13.6 Example
Solve -d

dy x

= (SII1.X -

. cosx smy) - cosy

Solution

dy. ." cosy dx + smycosx = SII1.XCOSX


Substituting siny = v

dy dv cosy-=dx dx
The gIven equation reduces to

dv . dx + vcosx = SII1.XCOSX

.. .. (I)

Ordinary Differential Equations of First Order and First Degree

35

is linear in v Here

p
IF

COSX,

q = SIl1 X cos X
=e

= e

fpdr = e feo') '(tl\

~1Il X

Solution of the D.E (I) is


v.e SlIlt

J. xcosx.e m"'. I + c
SII1
(X

write

sinx = t=> cosx dx = II in the RHS

siny

e;lIlt

= [te t =

el] + c

sinyeSlI1\"

eSItlX [sinx-l] + c

Exercise - 4(f)

1.14 Solve the Following Differential Equations


I. (ylogx -I )ydx =
x(~y

1 (Ans: y
2.

1 + logx + ex )

dy . - cosx + YSlnx = dx

...; ysecx

r.::::::::
(Ans :2y y
12

-Jsecx

tanx + 2c )

( Ans :
dy tany ---Ix l+x

~
y-

= -

sin 2x -sinx -~ + ce 2SIIl\"

4.

(I+x)

~secy

[Ans: siny = (1 + x) (eX + c) )

36

Engineering Mathematics - I

dy 5. x - + ylogy = xyeX dx

I
dy 2 x3 6. 3-+--y=-) dx x+ I y

ADs : xlogy = (x - I)e"

+c

I ADs:
7.
dy + ytanx dx dy dx
=

(x +

Iii =

x6
-

+-

2x 5

+- +C 5 4

X4

isecx

I ADs:
8.
X
2

cos2x

y(c + 2sin x) J

Y +xy

1.14.1 Exact Differential Equations


Let us consider the differential equation Mdx + Ndy = 0 where M, N are functions ofx,y. If this equation is to be exact, then it must have been derived by directly differentiating some function ofx,y. Hence

Mdx + Ndy = du, say

.... (I)

But from differential calculus

du = -dr:+-dy ax ay
From (I) and (2) we get M= ax'

au

au

.... (2)

au

N=

au

ay

Now

-=--

aM
ay

a2u

ayax

and -ax- - -ax-ay-

Ordinary Differential Equations of First Order and First Degree

37

aM

oy

= -

oN.IS tIle con d ItlOn .. lor exactness.

AX

:. The differential equation Mdx +

N~v =

. 'f aM aN IS exact I - = -

oy

ax

Then the solution is expressed in the form

+
(treatingyas constant integrate w.r.t x) (integrate w.r.t y those terms that are independent of x)

Note:
IfN has no term independent ofx then the solution is fMdx
=

1.14.2 Example
Solve (x + 2y - 3) dy - (2x - Y + \ )dx = 0

Solution
(x+2y - 3)dy - (2x - Y + I) dx = 0 M = -(2x - Y+ \) N = (x + 2y - 3)
-=\

aM

oy

-=\

aN

ax

The given differential equation is exact The solution is - f(2x - y + \ )dx +

fe x + 2y - 3)
=

(ry =
e

_2X2 2i - -2- + yx - x + 2

- 3y =

=>

I - x 2 + xy -

x - 3y

38

Engineering Mathematics - I

1.14.3 Example
Solve (x 2+ y.)dr: + 2xy dy = 0

Solution

(x 2 + .V) dx + 2xy dy M=x2+y. -=2y

0
N
=

2xy =2y

aM av

aM ax

The given differential equation is exact Solution is f(x + y2


2

}h + f2xydy = c

1.14.4 Example
Solve (I + e

-,:~, )dx + /Y

[I.'... ;

1
(

dy = 0

Solution
Y (I + e'x Y ) dx + e x'

J -;;, ) dy = 0

t Y x'y M = J + e: , N = e,i

J- Y

x)

-=-

aM
~

-x

,y'
e'Y

oM oN
oy ox
The given differential equation is exact

Ordinary Differential Equations of First Order and First Degree

39

Solution is

+ e

(y)

Exercise - 4(g) 1.15 Solve the Following Differential Equations


1. (el' + 1)cosxdx +
eJ'sinx~v =

lADs: (oY + 1)sinx = c


2. (vcosx + siny + y)tb' + (sinx + xcosy + x)dy
=

I ADs: ysinx + (siny + y)x = c I


3. (x 2
-

ay)dx = (ax - ;l)(~v

ADS: x 3 + ),3 - 3ll.\y

= C

4. (ax + hy + g)d'C + (hx + hy + j)dy"= 0


ax I ADs. - 2 5. (x 2 +
2

+ (liy + g)x + .!. ':'

hi

+ fy

1- a2 )xdx + (x 2 -.v - P)ydy =

I ADS
1.15.1 Integrating factors

: x4 + 2x21

- 2a2x2 - l - 2b 2;l =

4c

If the differential equation Mdx + Ndy = 0 is not exact, it can be made exact by multiplying it with some function of x, y. Such a function is called an integrating

jactor.
Rule!t' for fillt/illg the illtegrtltillg factors :
1. Integrating factors found by inspection:

Example
Solve x dy- ydx
=

Solution

xdy- ydx

40

Engineering Mathematics - I

Dividing by x2
---'-,=-=--

xdy- ydx
x
2

On integration

Yx
Mx + Ny
7:-

=c

First method /0 find an integrating jac/or : If the differential equation Mdx + Ndy is not exact, but is homogenous and
0, then the integrating factor is 1 . Multiply the differential Mx+Ny

equation by IF. The DE becomes exact.

1.15.2 Example
Solve

(x 2y - 2xy2)dx - (x 3

3x2y)dy

=0 =0
(x 3
-

Solution
(x 2y - 2xy)dx - (x 3
-

3x2y)dy

.... (I)

The differential equation (I) is homogeneous

M -

= x 2y- 2xy
=x2-4xy

N
-

= -

3x2y)

aM
oy

aN

ax

=-3x2 + 6xy

The DE is not exact and

Mx + Ny = x 2y
IF
=

7:-

) 1 Mx+ Ny - x 2 y2

Multiplying the DE by the integrating factor ~ x y

y2 X2Y -2X
2

)d _(X2 -3X3Y )dY


X
2

.... (2)

Ordinary Differential Equations of First Order and First Degree

41

write

M
I

= ---

-x 3 N =-+I y2 Y

then

--=-=--

aMI

aNI

ry

ax

y2

DE (2) is exact Solution is

x - - 210gx + 3logy + c y
i.e.,
x

or

1.15.3 Second Method to Find the Integrating Factor


If the differential equation Mdx + Ndy = 0 is not exact and is of the form

j(xy)ydx + g(xy)xdy
and then

Mx- Ny *- 0
1 Mx _ Ny is an integrating factor

1.15.4 Example
Solve (x 2 y2 + xy + 1)ydx + (x2y2 - xy + 1)xdy

=0
.... (1)

Solution

(x2y2 + xy + 1)ydx + (x2y2 - xy + 1)xdy = 0


M

= x2j3 + xy2 + y, N = x2y2 - x2y + x Mx - Ny = 2x2y2 *- 0


IF=-- Mx- Ny 2x 2y2

Hence the

42

Engineering Mathematics - I

Multiplying (I) by IF

2 (X y 2 +xy+ 2x 2y2

1)+ (X

y 2 -xy+ 2x 2y2

I) = 0
dy=O .... (2)

- y+-+dx+- x - - + 1 2 x x 2y 2 y xy-

I{ I 2} I{ II}

DE (2) is exact Solution of the DE (I) is

~ 'y+~+-!-tx+~ 'x_J.-+_I_ )dY = c


2

Jl

x- y

Jl

xy

- xy + log x - - - -logy = c 2 xy 2

1 [

I] I

1.15.5 Example
Solve (xysin xy + cos xy)ydx + (xysin xy - cos xy)xdy = 0

Solutiou
(xysin xy + cos xy)dx + (xysinxy - cosxy)xdy = 0 M .... (1)

= (xysin xy + cos x,v)y, N = (xysin xy - cos xy)x


=

Mx - Ny

2xycosxy

=F-

IF=---

Mx- NY

2xycosxy

Multiplyingthe DE by 2xycosxy The DE reduces to

~(ytanXY+~)dX+~( xtanxy- ~) dy

.... (2)

Ordinary Differential Equations of First Order and First Degree


which is exact (verify) .. Solution is

43

-Iogsecxy + -Iogx - - log y 2 2 2


I.e.,
~

logxsecxy = 2c + logy. Taking 2c as log A xsecxy

= Ay
Exercise - 4(h)

1.16 Solve the Following Differential Equations


I. (x 3;

+ x 2y2 + xy + 1)ydx + (x 3;

xli - xy +

1)xdy

0
1 - - 210gy = c xy

r ADS: xy 2.

(xli + xy +

I )ydx + (xli

xy + 1)xdy = 0

r ADS:

1 xy + logx - logy - xy

c]

[ ADS: logx2 - logy - _I = c ] xy

4. (x4y4 + x 2

+ xy)y dx + (x 4y4 - x 2i + xy)xdy

I ADS : ~ x 2i
2

- _I xy

logx - logy

c ]

1.16.1 Third Method to Find the Integrating Factor

aM
If Mdx + Ndy = 0 is not exact and

aN N
is a function of x alone say fix),

_a-=-~_ _ ax_

then the IF

=e

j (x)dr

44

Engineering Mathematics - I

1.16.2 Example
Solve

(x 2 + y + 6x )dx + yxdy = 0 (x 2 + Y + 6x)dx + yxdy = 0

Solution
..... (1 )

M = x2 +

Y + 6x

N = yx

aM aN ay= 3y, fu = y2 aM aN

ay-ili
N IF = e f~
2tJx

3y2 - y2
y x
2

2
X

is a function of x alone

= x2

Multiplying the given DE by x2

x2(x2 + y + 6x)dx + yi3dy = 0

..... (2)

aMI

ay

=3x2y

DE (2) is exact Solutionis

f(x + x

+ 6x 3 }tx + fy x dY = c

2 2

1.16.3 Example
Solve

(x2 + y) dx - 2xydy = 0

Solution
(x2 +

y)dx - 2xydy = 0

..... (1 )

Ordinary Differential Equations of First Order and First Degree

45

= .xl + .0, N = - 2xy


aN
=

aM
ay

2y, ox

-2y

aM aN
ax
N

ax

2y+2y -2xy

-2 x

is a function of x alone

IF

= e

f -~dx 1 x =x2
1

MuItiplyingthe DE by

IF= -

x2

The given DE reduces to

[ l)
x

2y 1+dx,.--dy=O 2
x

..... (2)

-a --2' y X
(2) is exact

aM, _ 2y

-=-

oN,

2y

Solution of (1) is

l+-dx+ J--dy=c x2 x

y2

2y

x- -

y2
x

=c

1.16.4 Fourth Method to Find the Integrating Factor

aN aM
If the differential equation Mdx + Ndy

= 0 is not exact and

ax M By

is a

[
function of y alone, say fly)

46

Engineering Mathematics - I

Then

IF

t(y)<ly

1.16.5 Example
Solve (xy + y) dx + 2(.x2.0 + x + y4)dy
=

Solution
(xy + y)dx + 2(.x2.0 + x + y4)dy = 0
M =

.xy3 + y
3xy + 1

N = 2(.x2.0 + x + y4)

--- =

oM 8y

oN
ox

=4xy2+2

oN -8; OM] -a; (


M

(4xy2 + 2)-(3xy2 + I) xi+y

y
is a function ofy alone

F=e

f~d)'
Y

=y

Multiplying the differential equation by I.F =Y

(xy4 + .0) dx +

2(.x2Y + xy + yS)dy = 0
oNI .,3 =4xy +2y

..... ( I)

oMI .,3 --=4xy +2y 8y

ox

The differential equation (I) is exact Solution is f{xl +

i }:Lx + 2 f(x 2 i

+ xy + yS) dy

Ordinary Differential Equations of First Order and First Degree

47

1.16.5 Example
Solve (3x 2 y4 + 2xy)dx + (2x 3_Y'

x2)(~V = 0

Solution

aN _ aM _ (6x /

ax

ay -

-2x)-(12x 2y 3 +2xL 6x 2/ -4x -_3. 3x 2 oJ- 2x - y{3x 2/ + 2x ) - Y

is a function of y alone

IF

-J~
Y

dy

I
=-?

Y
Multiplying the DE by

~, the DE reduces to
y

2X) dx+ (3 x2) dy= 0 y 2+-y 2x y-7 (3x 2


aNI =6xy- 2x

ax
:. DE (I) is exact Solution of the DE is

x3 2 2 x 3-y+--=c 3 y 2

48

Engineering Mathematics - I

Exercise - 4(i)

1.17 Solve the Following Differential Equations


I. (x + y3 + I )dx + ydy = 0
ADs: (ADs:
2 3x 2 x 3x 2 e 3x X e 3 e 3x - - - - e +--+(y + l)-=e I

933

2. (x 2 + Y + 2x)dx + 2ydy = 0 3. 2xydy - (x 2 + Y + I)dr

I ADs: y

- x 2 + I = ex I

5. (y4 + 2y)dx + (xy3 + 2y4 - 4x)dy

0
2x .1 I ADs: xy + -) +Y = e ]

1.17.1 Fifth Method for Finding Integrating Factor


If the differential equation
Mdx + Ntry= 0

.... (l)

is not exact and is of the form xliyb(mydx + nxdy) + Xf y(pydx + qxdy) when a, b, r, s, m, n, p, q are constants Then the IF
= =

xlII

where h k are constants such that the equation (I) after multiplying with IF becomes exact.

Ordinary Differential Equations of First Order and First Degree

49

1.17.2 Example
Solve xy\ydx + 2xdy) + 3ydx + 5xdy) = 0

Solution
xy3(ydx + 2xdy) + (3ydx + 5xdy)
=

..... (1 )

The

IF

x"1
xhl it must become exact
=

Multiplying (I) by IF =

(xh+1 1+1 + 3x" 1+1)dx + (2x ilj .? + 1+3 + 5xil f-/ I){~Y

..... (2)

is exact if

aM
-

ay

(4 + k)xH1 . 1+3 + 3x\k + 1)1 .

aN

ax

I /+ 3+5(h + 2(h + 2) xh+

1)x"1

For DE (2) to be exact

aM

aN

ax

ax

Comparing the coefficients on both sides


2h - k
=

0 and Sh - 3k = -2

Solving

h = 2, k= 4

Substituting h = 2, k = 4 in (I) DE (I) reduces to


(x 3y 8 + 3x2yS) dx + (2x4y1 + 5x3y 4)dy = 0 which is exact

.. Solution is

50

Engineering Mathematics - I

1.17.3 Example
Solve (3x + 2y)ydx + 2x(2x + 3y)dy = 0

Solution
(3x + 2y)ydx + 2x(2x + 3y)dy = 0
.... (1)

IF

0/,
-

MUltiplying (1) by IF
(0/,+2 + 30+2 /,+I)dx + (2x h+3/,

0+ 1/,+I)dy

.... (2)

ox oN ox
oM

oM

3(k + 2)0/,+1 + 2(k + 1) 0+2yK

= 2(h + 3) x h+2/, ---(h + 1)0/,+ 1

The DE(1) is to be exact

ON

ox

ox

2(k + 1) = 2(h + 3) => h = Comparing the coefficients

%k = -/i

k + 2 = - (h + J)
and 2(k+ 1) = 2(h + 3) => h =

-,% k= -/i
_ X /2 y72
-3/

Substituting h, k values in (2)


(
X /2 y/2

-5/

3/

II) ( II -II + 2x -1/ 12 yl2 dx + 2X 72 Y 12


I

II) dy = 0

.... (3)

(3) is an exact DE Solutionis

--x
3

-2/

3/

13 yl2

+ 4X 72 y72 = c

II

II

Ordinary Differential Equations of First Order and First Degree

51

Exercise - 4(j)
I Solve the following differential equations
I. x(3ydx + 2xdy) + 8y4(vdr + 3xdy = 0

I Ans:

3x

4
3+l

10 +1 3

3.

+1

---y 10 - - +I 3

X 1

=c]

(y2 + 2x2y)dx + (2x 3 -

xy)dy

0 ( Ans : 4x 2 y
I I

2 __ X

2Y 2 =

ex ]

4. (2.~y - 3y4)dx + (3x 3 + 2xy3)dy

(Ans: 5x

- 36, 13

y 13_12x

24

_10 '
I]y

15
I]

=c]

1.17.4 Applications to geometry, law of natural growth and Newton's law of cooling:
When some action is applied on a quantity the changes and the action affects all the parts equally. The rate of change depends on the original quantity. For example the total population 'p' of a country increases with respect to time 't', say, then its rate of change with time is

~ . Under ideal condrtions the rate of

change of the population will be proportional to the total population at any given time and is called the law of natural growth. The growth of the population satisfies the differential equation -

dp =kp dt

where k > 0 is a constant Solving the differential equation we have

= cekl

dx The rate at which a quantity x is decreasing is given by dt and this is negative.

52

Engineering Mathematics - I This rate of decrease or decay is found to be proportional to x itself

dx =-kx dt

(where k> 0 is a constant)

is the law of decomposition Solving the DE x

= ce-kl

Newton s law of cooling:


Newton's law of cooling states that the rate of decrease of the temperature of a body is proportional to the difference of the temperature 9fthe body and that of its surrounding medium. Let 0 be the temperature of the body at time 't' and 00 the temperature of its surrounding medium. :. Difference between the temperatures = 0 - 8 0 (0 > 00) and the rate of decrease of the temperature of the body is - dt' since the body is cooling oc. Using Newton's law ofcooling

dO

de - oc(O - 0 ) dt 0

or

dt
-

-dO

= k(O -

00 ) where k> 0 is a constant of proportionality

dO
dt

-k (0 - 0 )
0

f~=-k fdt+c 0-0


0

10g(0 - 00) = - kt + c
1.17.4 Example

or

0=0 o + Ce-kl

The mass of crystalline deposit increases at a rate which"js proportional to its mass at that time. The deposit has started around a crystal seed of 5 grams. Find an expression of its mass at time 't'. Ifin 30 minutes the mass of the deposit increases by'l' gram, what will be the mass of the deposit after 10 hours.

Solution
Let m be the mass of crystalline at time 't' then by law of growth

dm=k' dt '

dm -=dt

km

Ordinary Differential Equations of First Order and First Degree

53

on integration
log m = kt + c
.... (I)

initially when t = 0, m = 5
(1) =>

log5 = 0 - c c=-log5

SubstitutilllJ; c value in (1) log m = kt-log5

I.e.,

kt= 10g(

~)

.... (2)

When t = 30 minutes mass deposit increases by , I ' gram m = 5 + 1 = 6 grams Substituting t=

1 "2 (hours), m =6

Substituting in (2) log(1Y t= 109; Now to find the mass after 10 hours (i.e t = 10) from (3) we get
.... (3)

IOg(H IO~ log 7~ log (7) ~ IOg(%)"


x

m = 5"5

6)20

grams

54
1.17.5 Example

Engineering Mathematics - I

The rate at whi~h a certain substance decomposes in a certain solution at any instant is proportional to the amount of it present in the solution at that instant. Initially, there are 27 grams and three hours later, it is found that 8 grams are lett. How much substance will be left after one more hour.

Solution
If m grams is the amount of the substance left in the solution at time 't', then the rate at which it decomposes is dm , which is proportional to m. dl By law of decay

dt

dm

= -

km (k> 0)

f~

=-k fdt+c
.... (I)

logm = -kt+ c Initially when t = 0, m = 27 From (1) we have log27 = - k.O +c

=>

c= log27

Substitution of'c' in (I) gives log m = - kt + log27

10g(;; )= -

kt

.... (2)

It is given that m = 8 when t = 3 .. From (2) 8 log (2 ) = - k, 3 7

8 -k= log ( 27
2 -k=log3

)X

Ordinary Differential Equations of First Order and First Degree

55

Then (2) becomes

10g~ =IOg(%}
when t = 4

... (3)

III

log 27

= log ( "3 )

m=27 x (%r grams

m=

16

grams.

1.17.6 Example The number x of bacteria in a culture grow at a rate proportional to x. The value ofx was initially 50 and increased to 150 in one hour what will be the value ofx after 12" hour. Solution

dx -=/0:
dt

dx =kdt x
.... (I)

logx = kt + c c is the constant of integration when


t= O,x= 50

..
or
(1) =>

log 50 = k.O + c c= log50 logx = kt + log50

56

Engineering Mathematics - I

x log- =kl 50 x = 150, when 1= 1


.. or 150 log 50

= k.I

k= log3

(2) then gives log (

5O) = flog3
=

we want to find x when I

"2

50
X

=
3

(3)2

= 50 (3)2 grams

1.17.7 Example The rate of cooling of a body is proportional to the difference between the temperature of the body and the surrounding air. If the air temperature is 20C and the body cools for 20 minutes from 140C to 80C, find when the temperature will be 35C. Solution If 8 is the temperature of the body at time '1' then from Newton's law of cooling

-d8 -a(8-20) dl
= f~ 8-20

- =-k(8-20) dl

de

k rldl + c

J'

log(8 -20) = - kt + c Initially when t = 0, 8 = 140 log(8 - 20) = 0 + c,

.... (I)

Ordinary Differential Equations of First Order and First Degree

57

c = log( 120), (I) reduces to log(140 - 20) = - kt + log 120 or +kt = log( 120) - 10g(S - 20)
.... (2)

It is given that q = 80 when t = 20 minutes k. 20= logI20-log(80-20) I (120) k= 20 log 60


I k= -log2 20

Substituting in (2) 1 (2 0 IOg2)t= logI20-log(S-20)


It is required to find t when

0= 35c
0 20 10g( \25 ) log2

logI20-log(35 - 20) t= I -log2 20

10g(8) 2010g23 60 10g2 . t= 20 - - = - - = - - =60mmutes log2 log2 log2

Exercise - 4(k)
I. In a certain reaction, the rate of conversion of a substance at time "t' is proportional to the quantity of the substance still untransformed at that instant. At the end of one hour 60 grams while at the end offour hours 21 grams remain. How many grams of the first substance was there initially? ( ADs: 85 grams approximately I The rate of growth of a bacteria is proportional to the number present. If initially there were 100 bacteria and the amount doubles in '1' hour, how many bacteria will

2.

1 be there after 2"2 hours.


(ADs: 564

58

Engineering Mathematics - I

3. Under certain conditions cane sugar in water is converted into dextrose at a rate which is proportional to the amount unconverted at any time. 1f75 grams was there at time t = 0.0 and 8 grams are converted during the first 30 minutes find the amount
I converted in 12 hour.
[ADS: 21.5 gms]

4. The rate of cooling of a body is proportional to the difference between the temperature of the body and the surrounding air. If the surrounding air is kept at 30c and the body cools from 80c to 60c in 20 minutes. Find the temperature ofthe body after 40 minutes.
[ADS: 48c J

5. If the air is maintained at 30c and the temperature of the body cools from 80c to 60c in 20 minutes. Find the temperature of the body after 40 minutes.
[ ADS: 48c]

6. The rate at which a heated body cools in air is proportional to the difference between the temperature of the body and that of the surrounding air. A body originally at 80 cools down to 60c in 20 minutes the temperature of the air being 40c what will be the temperature of the body after 40 minutes from the original temperature.
[ADS: 50c J

7. The rate at which bacteria multiply is proportional to the instantaneous number present. If the original number doubles in 2 hours in how many hours will it triple.
[ ADS: 210g3 J

log2 8. Water at temperature 100C cools in 10 minutes to 80C in a room of temperature 25C. Find the temperature of water after 20 minutes.
[ ADS: 65.5c]

9. A cup of coffee at temperature 100C is placed in a room whose temperature is 15C and it cools to 60C in 5 minutes, find its temperature after a further interval of 5 minutes. [ADS: 38.8c ]

Ordinary Differential Equations of First Order and First Degree

59

Orthogonal Trajectories
1.18.0 Definition (1)
A trajectory of a family of curves is a curve cutting all th.e members of the system according to some law. For example a curve cutting a family of curves at a constant angle is a trajectory.

Definition (2)
If a curve cuts every member of a given family of curves at right angles, it is called an orthogonal Trajectory. The orthogonal trajectories of a given family of curves _ themselves form a family of Curves. If the two families of curves are such that each member of either family cuts each member of the other family at right angles then the members of one family are known as the orthogonal trajectories of the other. In two dimensional problems in the flow of heat, the curves along which the heat flow takes place and the isothermal curves or loci of points at the same temperature are orthogonal trajectories. In hydrodynamics, the flow of water from a lake into narrow channel produces a family of streamlines which are orthogonal trajectories to the curves of equal Velocity Potential. In the flow of electricity in thin conducting sheets, the paths along which the current flows are the orthogonal trajectories of the equipotential curves and vice - versa.

1.18.1 Orthogonal Trajectories: Cartesian Coordinates


Let

f(x,y,c)=O

..... (1)

be a family of curves, where c is a parameter. We can form a first order differential equation by eliminating 'c' from (1) \ i.e.,

F(X,y,:)=o

..... (2)

is the differential equation whose general solution is (1 ) If the two curves are orthogonal (curves intersecting at right angles) the product of the slopes of the tangents at their point of intersection must be equal to -I. Suppose

(x, y)

is the point of intersection of the curve (I) and its orthogonal

trajectory .

60

Engineering Mathematics - I

At this point slope of the tangent to the curve (I) is dy and -dx is the slope of

dx

dy. dx

the tangent to the orthogonal trajectory. Therefore on replacing dy by - dx in (2)

dy

, the equation thus obtained is the differential equation of the family of orthogonal trajectories of the family(l) .

. . (
Suppose

xJI,

:)=0

...

(3)

is the differential equation of the system of orthogonal trajectories, and its solution is the fami Iy of orthogonal trajectories of (I) .

1.18.2 Orthogonal Trajectories - Polar Coordinates

f(r,O,c) = 0

..... (1)

is the family of curves where c is the arbitrary constant. We can form a differential equation

F(r,o, :~ )= 0

..... (2)

of the family (I), after elimination of the constant 'c'. Let be the angle between the radius vector and the tangent at any point on a member of the family of curves. Then

(r, 0) .
.... (3)

dO tan=rdr

Let I be the angle between the radius vector and the tangent at any point (lj, ~ ) on the trajectory. Then tan;/, Y'I

dB = r, _I 1 dr,
I

..... (4)

At a point of intersection of the given curve and the orthogonal trajectory

lj=r,
From (3) and (4),
lj

01 =0

Hence tan1

= -cot

dOl dr l

= --; dO

1 dr

1 dr
i.e., -; dO

= -lj dlj

dOl

Ordinary Differential Equations of First Order and First Degree

61

Hence the differential equation of the orthogonal trajectory is obtained by

. dB fi 1 dr. J dB fi dr Sll bstltutmg - r - or - - , I.e., -r- ordr r dB dr dB


Therefore the differential equation F

(r, B, _r2 ~~) = 0

..... (5)

gives the differential equation of orthogonal trajectory of the family of cllrves(l) Solution of (5) is the orthogonal trajectory of the family of curves.

1.18.3 Example
Find the orthogonal trajectory of the family of curves a/ parameter.

= x 3 , where a is variable

Solution:
Given family of curves is

a/ = x

..... ( I)

Differentiating (I) w.r.t. 'x'; 2ay dy

dx

= 3x 2

..... (2)

Eliminating 'a' from (1) and (2)

.. 2 /

. (X3) .y dy _ dx -3x
2x
dy =3y dx

..... (3)

is the differential equation of the family (I). Now replacing :

by - : in(3),

gives the differential equation of the orthogonal trajectory to (I) as -2x dx = 3y

dy

Integrating both sides


2X2

23 2 -2~ = L + c . Therefore 2 2

+ 3/ = c is the equation of orthogonal trajectory of (I)

62

Engineering Mathematics - I

1.18.4 Example
Find the orthogonal trajectory of the family of parabolas y2 parameter.

= 4ax

where 'a' is the

Solution:

y2 =4ax
differentiating (I) w.r.t. 'x';

..... (1)

y dy dx

= 2a
y2 = 2X(Y:)

..... (2)

Eliminating 'a' from (I) and (2).

.. y=2x

dy dx

..... (3)

is the differential equation of the family (1) Replacing

dy by _ dx in(3) dx dy

Y=2X( -: J
is the differential equation of the orthogonal trajectory to (I). Integrating (4)

..... (4)

fydy = -2 fxdx + c; 2X2 + y2 = c is the orthogonal trajectory of (I)


1.18.5 Example
Find the orthogonal trajectories of ~ + ( 2
2 2

a +A

= 1 whereA is the parameter.

Solution:

-+ =1 a2 a2 +A
Differentiating (I) w.r.t. 'x';

X2

y2

..... (1)

2x + 2y dy a 2 a2 +A dx

=0
..... (2)

Ordinary Differential Equations of First Order and First Degree

63

Eliminating A from (I) and (2)

xxy -2- - - = 1 a a 2 -dy dx


..... (3) ---

:. ( x

a 2 ) : = xy
Y ) = xy (2 X -a 2)( -d dx

is the differential equation of the family (I) dy.111 (3) -dx - fOor S ub stltutmg
;

dy

dx
2

. I.e,

dY~-( x' x a

)dx
2
2

is the differential equation of the orthogonal trajectory to (1) Integrating we get


-=a logx---

Y 2

2+c

x +l
2

= 2a
the

log x + C is the orthogonal trajectory of the family of curves( 1)

1.18.6 Example
Find
2

orthogonal

trajectories

of

the

family

of

coaxial

circles

x + l + 2gx + C = 0 where g is the parameter.


Solution:
Given Differentiating (I) w.r.t. 'x' ; Eliminating 'g' from (I) and (2)

x 2 + y2 + 2gx + C = 0
dy 2x+2y-+2g+0=O dx x + y2 - 2x ( x + y : ) + c = 0 y2 _ x 2 _ 2xy dy + c = 0 dx
2

..... (1 ) ..... (2)

..... (3)

is the differential equation of the family of (1 ) Substituting - dx for dy in (3) we get,

dy

dx dx y2 _ x 2 + 2xy - + C = 0 dy
..... (4)

64

Engineering Mathematics - I

Which is the differential equation of orthogonal traject{)ry. SimplifYing

dx 1 2 c+ / 2x---x = - - dy y y

..... (5)

is a linear equation of the Bernoulli's form (non - linear differential equation of first order and first degree) Substituting x 2 = t,

2x dx = dt in (5) dy dy
(c+ / ) y
..... (6)

dt t ---= dy
is linear in t.

:.I.F=e

I 1 I--dy Y =-

Y
General solution of(6) is

t.! = y
t

f +yy2 .!dy+k y
C

-=-y+-+k.
y y

x 2 + Y - ky -

=0

( since t = x 2 )

is the equation of the orthogonal trajectory of (I)

1.18.7 Example
Find the equation of the system of orthogonal trajectories of the parabolas

2a , where 'a' is the parameter. l+cosO 2a = r (1 + cos 0) 2a = 2r cos 2 0/2


~ a = rcos 0/2
2

Solution:
..... (1)

log a = logr + 21ogcosO/2


.Differentiating w.r .to '0 '

o=! dr + 2 (-sinO/2).(l/2)=O i.e, r dO cosO/2

Ordinary Differential Equations of First Order and First Degree

65

1 dr ---tanB/2 = 0 r dB
Substituting -r 2

..... (2)

10 elr. for m (2) we get dr dB

?dB) - -r-tanB/ 2 =0 r dr
-

1(
r

dr

-cotB/2dB

..... (3)

is the differential equation of the 0I1hogonai trajectory . Integrating (3)

log r

= -2 log sin B/2 + log c


2

log(~) = logsin
c .
2 / (

B/2

-=sm B 2=--'--------'r 2

1- cos B)

:. 2c = r (1 - cos D) is the equation of orthogonal trajectory of the fami Iy of ( I )


1.18.8 Example
Find the orthogonal trajectory of

rill

= alii

cosmB where 'a' is the parameter.


..... (1)

Solution:
Given

rill = a cosmB
ln

mlogr = mloga+ log cos mB


Differentiating w.r.to 'B' ;

mdr =

r dB

cosmB

( -msmmB . )

~ dr
r

dB

-tan(mB)

..... (2)

is the differential equation of the family of curves (I) Replacing -

dr

dB

by -r -

dB . m(2) d,.

66

Engineering Mathematics - I

~.(_r2 da) = -tan (rna)


r dr dr = cot (rna)da
r

..... (3)

is the differential equation of the orthogonal trajectory. Integrating (3)

rn log rln = log e sin (rna) ; rill


lll

'log r = J.-Iogsin (rna) + loge


= e lll sin (rna) is the orthogonal trajectory of the

family (I)
Exercise 4 (s)
1.

Find the orthogonal trajectories of the following family of curves, where a variable parameter.
(i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi)

IS

y=ax 2 xy=a 2 x 2 -xy+ l =a 2 2X2 + y2

[ADS: x +21 =e] [ADS: x - y2


?

=e ]

[ADs: (x-y)=e(x+y)2] [ ADs: x

= kx

= - y2 log ( ;

)]

x 2 _ y2 = a2 X2 /3 + y2/3 = a2/3

[ADs: xy = e] [ADs: y4/3 _ X4 /3 = e 4 /3}

2.

Show that the system of confocal and coaxial Parabolas orthogonal.

4a (x + a)

is self

3.

3 Find the orthogonal trajectories of the curves 3xy = x 3 - a , a being the parameter.

4.

Prove that orthogonal trajectories of a system of circles x 2 + y2 - ay = 0 is

x 2 + y2 -bx =0

Ordinary Differential Equations of First Order and First Degree 5. Find the orthogonal trajectories of the following family of curves.

67

(i) (ii)
(iii)

r=aB
r =e aO
[ ADS:

[ADS: r

= ce 2 I (log)2 + B2 = c I
I

0' --

rn sinnB = a"
r = a(l +eosB)

[ADS: rll eosnB = e"

2 (iv) reosB = asin B


(v) (vi)

[ ADS: r = e (3 + eos 2B) ] [ADS: r = c(l-eosB) I [ADS: r [ADS: r ?

r = aeosB 2 (vii) r2 = a eos2B

= esinO I
?

= C- Sin 20 )

"This page is Intentionally Left Blank"

2
Linear Differential Equations with Constant Coefficients and Laplace Transforms
2.1.1 Let
(i) the differential operator" ~" be donoted by 'D'

dx

(ii) PI' P2' P3' ............. Pn be either functions of x or constants (iii) R be a function of x then the general form of a linear differential equation (L.D.E) of order n is given by

- R Dn Y + PI Dn- I Y + P2 Dn- 2Y + ................. PrJ! -

.... (I)

or simply (Dn + ppn-I + ............ +Pn)Y = 0, If PI' P2' ..................., Pn are constants then (I) is called a L D E with constant coefficients. Denoting the differential operator (Dn + PI Dn - I + .............. + Pn) by f (D), (I ) can be written as
f(D)y
=

.... (2)

2.1.2 Consld er the D.E, dy dx + Py = 0

Separating the variables dy = - P(x) dx y

70

Engineering Mathematics - I

Integration yields logy= fp(x)dx => y =Ce -fp(x)dx + logc Solution isy= Ce-

..... (3)

fpdx
= Cernx
.... (4)

Suppose p is a constant = -m, say, then solution is y (i.e.) the solution of (D - m)y = 0 is y = Ce rnx

2.1.3

In this chapter the attention is mostly confined to L.D.E.S with constant coefficients. If R = 0 then equation (2) becomes
f(O)y
=

We shall take, here afterwards, f(m)

= 0 as the auxiliary equation, (A.E).


..... (6)

2.1.4 Consider a second order L.O.E


(D2 + a\ D + ~)y

=0

A.E. is m + aim + a2 Now four cases arise.

= o.

Let m\, m 2 be the roots of this equation.


(i) m\, m2 are real and distinct

(ii) m\, m 2 are real and equal (iii) m\, m2 are complex and distinct (iv) m\, m2 are complex and equal

2.1.5 Case i : (6) can be written as


[0 2 - (m\ + m 2 ) D + m\m 2 ] y

= 0 or (D - m2 ) (0 - m\) y = 0

.... (7)

Call (0 - m l ) y

(7) now becomes (0 - m 2) Y = 0

From (4) it follows that Y = Ce D12X From (7) (D - m\)y = Ce D12X I.F.
=

e-rn\X .... (8)

Solution is y . e-m\x = C fe(m,-m')x dx + C\

y.e-rn\x=

C
m 2 -m!

e(rnrrn\)x dx + CI' Call

C
m 2 -m!

as C 2 .

Linear Differential Equations with Constant Coefficients ...

71

(i.e.,) y

C2 e-1Il 2x + C, elll,x where C, and C 2 are arbitary constants

Similarly ifm" m2, .......... I11n are real and dinstinct roots off(l11) = 0 then y = C, e'n,~ -I- C 2 el11 2x -I- .............. + C n elllnx

.... (I)

(I) is the solution of f(O)y = 0 where C" C 2, ........... , C n are arbitrary constants.

2.1.6 (Case ii) : m,

m2,

From (8) it follows that the solution of(6) is given by

:. y

= (Cx

+ C,) elll,x
=

Similarly if m, is repeated say 'r' times then solution of(D - m,Y y

0 is ..... (II)

y = (C, + C 2x + C 3x2 + .............................. + c;-r-') elll,x


(II) is the solution corresponding to a root m, repeated r times

2.1.7 Case (iii) : Ill" m2 are complex, say (a if3) Then solution of(6) is given by

A eta I~)X + B e(a=

IfJJX

where A and B are arbitrary constants

(i.e.,) y
=

Ae ax . e Vlx + Beax.e-1jJx = eax [A(cosjJx + isinjJx) + B (cosjJx' - isinjJx)]


..... (III)

eax [C, cos/lr + C 2 sin,lk]

where A + B = C, and i(A - B) = C 2


(III) gives the solution corresponding to two complex conjugate roots (a ifJ)

2.1.8 Case (iv) : If (a ifJ) are repeated say's' times then the corresponding solution (follows from case (ii) and (iii) is given by
y = ~[(C, + C 2x + C 3x2 + ........................ + CsXS- ' ) ] cosf3x

+ (d, + d 2x + d 3x2 + ....................... + dsxS- ' ) + sinf3x]


Example 2.1.9
Solve
- 2 +5-+6y=O

.... (IV)

d2 y

dy

dx

dx

Sol. A.E is m2 + 5m + 6 => (m + 2) (m + 3) = 0


:.m=-2,m=-3. Solution is y
=

Ae-2x -I- B e-3x

72

Engineering Mathematics - I

Example 2.1.10
Solve dx 2 -11 dx +30y = 0

d2y

dy

Sol. A.E is m2 - 11 m

+ 30 => (m -

5) (m - 6) = 0

Solution is y = Ae 5x + B e6x

Example 2.1.11
Solve2 dx 2 +5 dx -12y=0

d2y

dy

Sol. A.E is 2m 2 + 5m - 12 => (2m - 3)(m + 4) = 0


m =3/2, m=-4 :. Solution is y = C 1 e2x + c 2 e--4x
3

Example 2.1.12
d 3y d2y Solve -+4--6y=0 dx3 dx 2

Sol. m3 + 4m2 + m - 6 = 0
(m - I) (m + 2) (m + 3) = 0 :. Solution is y = cl~ + c 2 e-2x + C 3 e-3x

Exercise - 2(a)
Solve the following differences:

1.

d 2y dy -+2--3y=0 2
dx
2

dx

Ans : y

= A~ + Be-3x
A~

2.

d y _ 3y = 0 dx 2

Ans: y =

+ Be-X

3.

d 3y d2y dy -+2--5--6y=0 2 3
dx dx dx

Ans : y = Ae-X + Be2x + Ce-3x

4.
5.

d2 y dy 9 -+18--16y=0 2
dx dx

d2y dy -+3-+2y=O 2
dx dx

Ans : y

= Ae-X + Be-2x

Linear Differential Equations with Constant Coefficients ...

73

Solved Examples
Example 2.1.13

dZy dy Solve -z +6-+9y=0 dx dX'


Sol. A.E is mZ + 6m + 9 =

i.e. (m + 3)z = 0, m = -3,-3 :. Solution is y = e-3x (A + Bx)


Example 2.1.14

Solve~+~=O 2 3
dx dx

d3

dZ

Sol. A.E is m + mZ =
3

=> m (m

+ I) =

:. m=O,O,-1 Solution is y = (A + Bx)e oX + C e-x = (A + Bx) + Ce-X


Example 2.1.15

Solve

- 4 + 181

d4y
dx

dZy
dx~

+ 81y=0

Sol. A.E. is m4 -18m 2 + 81 =


:. (mz - 9) (m z - 9) =

:. m = 3, 3, -3,-3
Solution is y
=

(A + Bx) e-3x + (C + xD)e 3x = (C(x + Cz)e-3x + (C 3x -t- C 4 )e 3x Exercise 2 (b) d2y dy +10- +25y=0
dx

I.

Solve

-Z

dx

Ans : y = e-5x (Ax + B) Ans : y


(Ax + B)e2x + cex

2.
3.

Ans : y

(Ax + B) + (Cx +

D)~

4.

Ans : y =

(M + Bx + C) e-t

74
Solved Examples Example 2.1.16 Solve

Engineering Mathematics - I

d2 y
-2

dx

+4- +9y=0
dx

dy

Sol. A.E. is m2 + 4m + 9 =0

m=-2i/5
a
=

-2 and

f3

/5
=

:. Solution is y Example 2.1.17

e-2x (Acos x

/5 + Bsin /5 x)

d 3y Solve dx 3 + y= 0

Sol. A.E. is m3 + 1 = 0 :. (m + 1)( m2 - m + I) = 0

1+J3i :.m=-I,m=-2

Example 2.1.18 Solve -+2-+3-+2-+y=0 dx 4 dx' dx 2 dx Sol: A.E. is m4 + 2m 3 + 3m 2 + 2m + 1 = 0


(m 2 + m + 1)2 = 0

d4 y

d3 y

d2 y

dy

:. m=

-1J3i 2

-1J3i 2

Linear Differential Equations with Constant Coefficients ...

75

Exercise 2 (c)
I.

Ans: y

= Acos

J7x

+ Bsin

J7x

2.

d 2y dy Solve22 +4- +3y=O dx dx

x x Ans : y = e-x (Acos.fi + Bsin .fi )

3.

4.

d4 y Solve dx4 -64y = 0


Ans : y
=

C\e2x + C 2e-2x + e-x (C 3cosfix+c 4 sin fix) + ~(C3cos.J3x+C6sinfix)

2.2.1 Consider the O.E.f{O) y

.... (I)

Operating both sides with f(IO) (called inverse operator)

1 we have f(O) [f(O)]y


I

I f(O) R

or y = f(O) R This solution is called the particular Integral of(l) while the solution off(O) y = 0 is called the complementary function (C.F.) Suppose y\ is C.F and Y2 is P.I for (I) Thenf{O) y\ andf{O) Y2
..... (2)

= 0 from (2)
=

= R from (1)
f(0) y\ +f(O) Y2

Hencef(O) [y\ + Y2]

=O+R=R

76

Engineering Mathematics - I

Which shows thatYI + Y2 is also a solution of(l)'Yl + Y2 (i.e.) C.F. + P.I is called the most general solution of(l).

2.2.2 Calculation of

I
D-I11,

D _ nl, R = y, say, Operating both sides with (0-m 1), we get (0-m 1) Y = R
(i.e.)

dy

dx - m1y= R
f-mjtU

I.F.lse =e-ml x :. Solution is given by

y.e-mf = fRe-lIl/ dx+c


(i.e) y = Ce-ml X + ell/IX fRe-1Il IX dx = C.r. + P.I P.I.=e mI X fHlIllx dx If

=O~ '0

R= fRdx

I Thus the operator 0 stands for integration

Example 2.2.3

Sol. D 5

Fe" fe".xdx ~ <'


0" [ x I ----5 25

I Find the value of - D x

-5

+('

m} e'+ xe;" - ~;'l

Example 2.2.4
02 _50+6 eX

Sol.

= (D-2){D-3) .(eX)

I I (eX) I 3x -3x x dx = (0-2) . (0-3) = (0-2) e e.e

I 3x (0-2) . e

I -I - (eX) = - -I e 2x Je r -2x .exdx = -e I 2 x e-xdx=-e I 2 x.e- t 2 (0-2) 2 2 2

Linear Differential Equations with Constant Coefficients ...

77

Example 2.2.5

Solve (02+a 2) y

tan ax

Sol. A.E is m2 + a2 = 0 => m = ai


C.F. is y = C I cos ax + C 2sin ax

P.I =

I - I- - -I tan ax = (0+ ai)(O- ai) 2ai [ O-ai D+ ai

J tanax

2ai [e lax J e

-a/\

tan axdx - e -IllX J eat" tan axdxJ


2

r Je -

alX

tanaxdx

J. . sinax (l-cos ax) (cos ax -Ismax) - - dx = JSin ax- i dx cos ax cos ax cosax a
i isin ax -\og(sec at' + tan ax) + - a a

= - -- -

lilly

Je

an

tanax

dx

cosax i isinax - - - + - \og(sec ax + tan ax) - - a a a

II

(Cosax+aisinax) [-cos ax + isin ax -ilog (sec ax + tan ax]

[-\- icos ax log(sec ax + tan ax) + sin ax \og(sec ax + tan ax)]


\

:. P.l. = - 2 ? [-2icos ax log(sec ax + tan ax)]

a-,

cos ax - - - - log(sec ax + tan ax) a :. Most general solution is


y

= C 1 cos ax + C 2 SIl1

ax -

- - 2-

cos ax log(sec ax + tan ax) a

78

Engineering Mathematics - I

Example 2.2.6
Solve (02-50+6)y = ~

Sol. A.E. is m2-5m+6 = 0


C.F. is y

= C)e 2x + C2 e3x
I
=

P.1. isy= 0 2 -50+6 (eX)

eX
(from 5.2.4)

:. Complete solution (C.S.) is y

= C.F. + P.I.

Exercise 2 (d)
I I. 0 cosx I 4. 0-2 sinx

3. 0 (x 2 )

Ans: (I)+sillx (2) e-x (3)


Solve the following: 6.
d2y dx 2
-

x3

(4)

(2sinx+ cos x)

dy 4 dx + 3y = e2x

7.

d2 y
-2

dx

+y=5x+3
dy 3 dx + 2y = e-2x

8.

d2 y
dx 2
-

9.

10.

Linear Differential Equations with Constant Coefficients ...

79

II.

xsin ax Ans : y = C I cos ax + C 2sin ax + C 2sin ax + - - -

+ 12. (D 2 + 9) Y = tan 3x Ans : y


=

cos ax
-2-

log cos ax

C1cos 3x + C 2sin 3x

cos3x - - - log(sec 3x + tan 3x)

Methods of finding P.1.


We shall now consider the methods for finding P.1. where R is of some special form

2.3.1 Particular integral


Where R is of the form eax Case (i) iff(a) Since
=F

De ax = aeax ; D2e ar = a2 ear ...... Dn(eax) = an.ear


j{D) ear
=

(Dn + K1D n- 1 + K 2 Dn- 2 + ...... K,)e ax

= (an + K1a n- 1 + .......... + Kn)e an = j{a) ear


Operating with _I- on both sides

feD)
- I

feD)

[f(D)e a,]

= - (-)

I f D

[f(a)elU]

(i.e)

eax

1 f(a) eax = f(a). [ feD) I e ax] feD)


1 at --e f(a)

(or)

1 a, --e feD)

1 1 1 Note: If K is a constant then feD) (K) = feD) K.eax = f(m)K


3x

for example -D-:0 2-_-2-D-+-l e

I 3 I 3 9 _ 6 + I = e x = "4 e x

80

Engineering Mathematics - I

2.3.2 Case ii) If./{a) = 0 then it is possible to write./{O) as <1>(0) (O-ay where <I>(a) i:- 0 Suppose r = 1 then
P.1. = - - eax = - - - f(O) O-a <1>(0)

e(lX

1 1 1 - - eax = - - - - eax O-a $(a) $(a) O-a = <l>(la) eax

Je~a\ .eaxdx = <I>~a) ea\dx = <I>~a) ell<.x

.... (I)

1 1 I 1 ax ax ifr=2then f(O) e = (0-a)2 <1>(0) e = <I>(a) (0-a)2 ea~ 1 1 - - [xeax] $(a) O-a
P.1. =

1 2 1 ax- = - - e ax- -X e f(O) <I>( a) . L2

In general, if (O-a) is repeated 'r' times then

1 I x2 P.1. = f ( D) eax = $( a) ea~. --;:! Solved Examples Example 2.3.3


Solve
d 2y dy + 4 - + 5y = 13e3x d~2 dx

Sol:

(0 2 + 40 + 5) = 13e3x A.E. is m2 + 4m + 5 = 0, giving m = -2 i C.F. is y = e-2x (Acosx + Bsinx)

I PI (13e3x) .. = 0 2 +40+5
replace '0' by '3' 13e3x 9+ 12+5
13e3x

eh 2

26

Linear Differential Equations with Constant Coefficients ...

81

:. Complete solution is y = C.F. + P.1. = e-2X(Acosx + Bsinx) +


Example 2.3.4

e 2

Solve dx 2 + 4 dx + 5y = 2e-- x , gIven that x = 0, y = I and dx =-2


Sol. Given equation isJ(O)y = 2e-2x were f(O) = 0 2 + 40 + 5

d2 y

dy

J.

dy

:. A.E. is m2 + 4m + 5 = 0, giving m = -2i :. C.F. is y = e-2x (Acosx+Bsinx)


I P.l. = 0 +40+5
2

e 2x 2-

2e- 2 , 2x = 4-8+5 = 2e.... (4)

:. Complete solution is y = C.F. + P.1. = e-2x(Acosx + Bsinx) + 2e-2x Now yeO) = I, (given) Substituting in (4)
yeO) = I(A) + 2; A =-\.
yl(x) = e-2x(-Asinx + Bcosx) -2e-2x (Acosx + B sinx) -4e-2x

yl(O) = B-2A -4, yl(O) = -2 (given)

:. -2 = B-2A-4, => B = 0
:. y(x) = e-2x (-cosx) + 2e-2x

= 2e-2x - e-2x cosx


Example 2.3.5

Solve
Sol.

d3 y d2 y dy - 3 +2+ - =e 2x 2 dx dx dx
A.E. is m3 + 2m2 + m = 0 ; m(m+ 1)2 = 0

m = 0, -I, -I.
C.F. = C1eOx + (C 2 +C 3x)e-X
I e 2x 2x P.l. = 03 + 202 + 0 e = 18

82

Engineering Mathematics - I

Example 2.3.6_
Solve

- , -3 dx-

d2 y

dy

dx

+2y=e-~

Sol.

f(O) = 0 2-30+2 A.E. is m2 _ 3m + 2 = 0 => (m - 2) (m - I) = 0; m = 1,2


here f(l)
I I I I
=

0
I

.. (0-1) (0-2) eX= (0-1) (1-2) e = (0-1) eX=-eX


:. Most general solution is
:. y

(using 5.3.2.(3)

= CteX + C2 e2x - xe n

2.4.1 R is of the form sin ax or cos a\"


0 2 (sin ax) =:' (~a2i~ sin ax

(02f (sin ax) = (_a2)2 sin ax

(0 2)3 (sin ax)

(_a2)3 sin ax

(02)n (sin ax) = (_a2)n sin ax

Hence j(02) sin ax = j(-a2) sin ax, provided f( -a2)

:;i:

1 (0 )
2

j(O )

2'
SIl1

ax -

1 2 . (,)j(-a )SIl1 ax
0-

Qr sin ax =

1(02 )
I.

j(-a

sin ax sinax

1(02 )

SIl1

ax

f(-a 2 )
I 2 cos ax ax = I, cos ax f(-O ) 1(-a-)

Similarly it can be shown that

Linear Differential Equations with Constant Coefficients ...

83

Ifj{O) vanishes when 0 2 is replaced by _a2 then we write

j(O)

[sin ax] =

j(O)

. 1ar [Imaginary part of e ]

1 . = I.P of - - e 1ar

j(D)
1

Similarly

j(O)

[cosar] = R.P. of

j(O)

e 'ar

Solved Examples Example 2.4.2

Solve
Sol.

d2 y
dx
2

-3 -

dy
dx

+ 2y = sm3x

A.E. is m2 -3m+2 = 0; m = 1,2

I. 1 . -1. (3 D - 7) . P.I., (sm3x)= 9 30 2 (sm3x)= (3 7 (sm3x)= 9D 2 49 (sm3x) 0- - 3D + 2 - + D + .) +

(3D - 7 ) . 9cos3x + 7 sin 3x = -81-49 (sm3x)=--0-2=-_-3D-+-2Hence complete solution is

84

Engineering Mathematics - I

Example 2.4.3
Solve (D3 -D) Y = sillX

Sol.

A.E. is m 3 -m m=O, m =1

=0

C.F. is C1e.x +

c2eX + C3e-x =

C 1 + C2e x + C3e-x

I.Sit1X I I P.1. = D3 _ D = D2 _ 1 . D (sitlX)


I -cosx x = - - - . cosx= = --SillX D2_1 -1-1 2

The complete solution is

y = C + C eX + C e-x -~SillX I 2 3 2 Example 2.4.4


Solve (D2 - D + 1) y = cos2x

Sol. A.E. is m2 - m + 1 = 0 ~ m =
~~

1J3i 2

:. C.F. = e 2 (Acos-x + B sin- x)

fi
2

fi
2

I P.I. = D2 _ D + 1 cos2x =

- 4- D+1
I

cos2x =

-3 - D

cos2x = -

(3-D)

9 - D2

cos2x

(3 - D )cos2x
13
x

=-

13 (2sin2x + 3cos2x)

C.F. + P.1. = e 2

fi BSIl1-x . fi ( Acos-x+ 2 2

1 (2sin2x + 3cos2x) _13

Example 2.4.5
Solve D2(D2+9) = sin2x + 5 A.E. is m2(m 2+9) = 0 ~ m = 0, 0, + 3i C.F.

Sol.

= (C I + C2x) + C3 cos3x + C4sin3x

Linear Differential Equations with Constant Coefficients ...

85

P.1.

D2 (D2 + 9) sin2x + (D2 + 9) D2 + ~._I_(I) -4(-4+9z) 9 D2 sin 2x

= _ sin 2x
20

+ 5x 18

Example 2.4.6
Solve

(D 4 -2D 3 + 2D2 - 2D + 1 ) y 2D 3

= eX + sin2(x/2)

Sol.

A.E. is f(D) = D4 + 2D2 - 2D + 1 m4 -2m 3 + 2m2 - 2m + 1 = 0

= (m-l )2 (m2+1) = 0
:. m= I, I,m=i,-i
C.F. is (C t +C 2x)eX + (C 3cosx + C 4sinx) 1 1 P.1. = - - eX + - - sin2(x/2) f(D) f(D)

_1_ f(D)

.
Sin

(x/2) -

(? ) Sin (x/2) (D-It D-+l


0

_
?

(D-It D +1

(2

~~
= -

[(0_1),1(0' + I) (I-COSX)]
--.--

~ ~ [-I -20~
(0'

1)(0' + I) COS X

1 2
1

1 1 (cosx) - 4D D2 + 1
lID (D2) (cosx)

"2 + "4 . D2 + 1 .
2

= ~+~._l_.~(-sinx)
4 D2 + 1 (-I)
1 1

"2 + "4 . D2 + 1 . sinx

86

Engineering Mathematics - I

[)2

1 1 1 + 1 sinx = I.P of 02 + 1 ex = I.P of (D +-i)---:(-D----:-i)

ex

= I.P of 2i

XCiX

= "2 I.P. of -i[cosx + isinx] = -~COSX

:. P.1.

1 1 "2 - "8 x cos.\"

:. Ilence the complete solution is

Y =(C +C
I

x)~+C

1 x r 1 x cosx+C sinx+ -.-e +---cosx 3' 4 2 2! 2 8 Exercise 2(e)

Solve the following


(1)

(2)

(D2+D+ l)y = sin2\" Ans:


r ( C,cos-x+ C Jj J X )] e" o' SI / 1 - X -1 - ('J .... cos 2x+ 3' SIll ' .... 2 2 13

J3

(3)

(D6 + 1) y

3 x sin"2 x.sin "2


jj-,

Ans.

(C1COSX + C 2sinx) + e- 2 (C3cos"2 +C 4 SIIl"2)+ e2- (Cscos"2 +C 6SIIl"2)


x 1 + -sinx+ -cos2x 12 126 (D3 + 4Di y = Sin2x

. x

.fh

. x

(4)

Ans.

xsinx C 1 + C2 cos2x + C]sin2x --8-

-16

cos2x

I 2.5.1 P.1. is of form feD) xm

I - - xm feD)

[f(D)rl.x m

Linear Differential Equations with Constant Coefficients ...

87

Now expand [f(0)r 1 in ascending powers of 0 and retain as far as 0 111 and then operate on xl11

Solved Examples Example 2.5.2


Solve (0 2 + 50 + 6) y = x

Sol. A.E. is m2 + 5m + 6 = 0 => m = -2,-3


C.F. is C 1e- 2x + C 2e- 3x

P.1.

1 0 2 + 5D + 6 x

="6

1 (I

0 + 50)_1 + 8 x
= -

= -

I 50 I 5 [1--] x= - [x--] 6 6 6 6
I 2

---

6
x

5 36

Solution is therefore)' = C e- 2x + C e-3x + - - -

36

Example 2.5.3
Solve

d3 v dy _ . - 3 - -2y=x2 dx' dx
=

Sol. A.E is m3 - 3m -2

0 => (m-2) (m+ 1)2

C.F. is C 1e 2x + (C 2 + C3x)e-X

P.1.

x 0- -30-2
,

(1_(D -3D1,.2 2 .,

=--

0 3 -3D 02 -30 , ., [1+ +( t+ ....... ]x222 1

_ -I 3D 9 2 2 _ 1 2 6x 9 _ I 2 - - [ I - - + - D ] x ---[x --+-] - - [2x -6x+9] 224 2 224

Complete Solution is y = C 1e 2x + (C 2 + C 3x)e-X

~ (2x 2 4

6x

+ 9)

Exercise 2(f)
I. Solve (03 - 302 +2)y = x

88

Engineering Mathematics - I

2.

Solve (D2 + 2D + 3)y = x +.~ Ans. y


=

e-x (C I cos fix + C2 sin J;:) +

14-6x

27

3.

Solve (D2 + 2D + I) Y

cos2x + x 2
=

Ans. y 4. (D2 - 4D + 4) y
=

(y + C e-> -~(3COS2X 2

2sin 2x) + (x 2 - 2x)

x 2 + sin2x + e3t"

Ans. y
2.6.1

(C I +

, C2x)c~X

2X2 + X + 3 cos 2x 3 + - - 8-8- + e x

To find - - (e<txy) where Y is a function of x feD) c<l\D(Y I) + aelU"Y I Similarly D2(ea:.V I) = e aY (D+a)2y I D3(elU"Y ) = e<tt"(D+a)3YI
=

D(elU"Y I)

ea\"(D+a)YI

Dn(elU"Y I)

ea\"(D+a)nYI
=

feD) (ea\v I) Calling

e<tt"f(D+a)Y I

f(D+a)Y I = Y, we get Y I = f(D+a) Y feD) rea,


I

f(D+a)
=

Y]

elU"Y or elU"

Y - - - elU"Y f(D+a) - feD)

_I_ elU" Y

elU"

feD)
2.6.2 Note

I Y f(D+a)

1.

While finding _1- elU" when f(a) = 0 we can employ the above method for feD)

Linear Differential Equations with Constant Coefficients

000

89

2.

Further _1_,_ [cos ax or sin ax] when f( -a2) /(0-) _1_2- [cos ax or sin at]
f(O)

0 we can write

1
=

f(02) [R.P. or I.P of eaT]

\ R.P. or I.P. of e1a\". f(O + ia)2 .\

Solved Examples 2.6.3 Solve: -2 - 2 Sol.

dy - 4y = tfcosx dx A.E. is m2 - 2m + 4 = 0
\

dy dx

m=

fJi
tf cosx 0 2 -20+4
\ 1
= eX?

C.F. is eX(C I cosfJx+CzSinfJx) P.1.


=

(0+\)"-2(0+\)+4

cosx

tf 02 + 20 + 1- 20 _ 2 + 4 (cosx)
~X
t; - -

I ) x cosx eo' cosx (cosx = e . =--0 2 +3 _12 + 3 2 :. Complete solution is y = CoF. + P.1.

eX (C I cosfJx + C 2sin fJx) +

e'cosx 2

Example 2.6.4

Solve (02-2)y
Sol.

tfcosx

A.E. is m2 - 2

=0 m=

J2
1 tf. 0 2 + 20-1 . cosx

C .F , is C I e.fix + C 2 e~.fix
1

P.1.

(0 2 tf. tf .

2) tf cosx = tf. (0 + 1/ _ 2 cosx . cosx

20-2

(20+2) eX(-2sinx+2cosx) cosx = 2 40 -4 -4-4

= -(Sin X -

eX

cosx)

90

Engineering Mathematics - I

eX +C e-- J2 + -(sinx-cosx) Y = CeJ2x I 2 4


Example 2.6.5

Solve
Sol.

d d ---.E. _7~ - 6y = e 2x + xe 2x dx 3 dx

A.E.ism 3 -7m-6=O:. m=-1,3,-2

:.C.F.
P.1. =

Cle-x + C2e3x + C3e-2 t"


3

(1+x) 2x e -70-6

=e2x

1 (I+x) (0+2)3 -7(0+2)-6


~-----3 2

= e2x

0 -60 +50-12

_e2x
12
= -

50 _e 2x 5 (1+-)(1 +x)= [I+x+-] 12 12 12


17 [x+-] 12
-

_e 2x
12

3x 2x x Y = C I e- + C2e + C3 e- -

e 2x
12

17 [x + - ]
12

Example 2.6.6

Solve
Sol.

d3y d2y dy -3-+ 3 - - y = eX(1 +x) 3 2

dx

dx

dx

A.E. is m3 - 3m 2 + 3m - 1 = 0 or (m - 1)3 = 0 or m = I, I, I. C.F. - (C I

xl + C2 x + C3 )eX

Linear Differential Equations with Constant Coefficients ...

91

P.1.

(0 _ 1)3 . (x + I) ~

e'.(x+l) 1 .1 x2 = (0+1-1)3 =~. D3 (x+ 1)=tf. 02 (T+

Complete solution is y = (C 1 x + C~ + C3)


2

x3 ~ + ~ (24 + (;)
X4

Example 2.6.7

Solve
Sol.

- , - 4- +y = e2x sin2x de dx

d~y

dy

A.E. is m2 - 4m + I = 0, m = 2 c.F.
= C,e(2+J3)(

J3

+ C e(2
z

,)1)(

PI .. - OZ-40+1
e 2x 0 -3 Complete solution is

e2x sin2x

eh = sin2x (D+2)2-4(0+2)+1
= --

= - sin2x = 2

e 2x sin2x -4-3

1"

eX sin2x

Exercise 2(g)
I.

Ans : y = (C 1 + C 2x) ~ + 2. Solve (03 - 70 - 6) Y + e2x + x 2e3x

e 8

3x

(al -

4x + 3)

1 2 +-x+-) 5 169 Ans:y= C 1e-x +C 2e- 2x+C 3e 3x_e 2X_(x 12 6 72 3. Solve (0 2 - 20 + 4)y = eXcos 2x Ans: y =

~(C, cos3Fx + C

sin3Fx)+le

-~sin 2x

92

Engineering Mathematics - I

4. Ans. y = Clcosx + C2 sinx -~ ~(2cosx - sinx) 5


5.

13 C ' 13) - - 1 e 2x.(11cosx-3slnx) . Ans.y= C le- x +e7i (C 2COS-X+ 3sm-x 2 2 130


2.7.1 To find

I~O) [xv] where v is a function ofx

O(xv l) = xOv l + vI 02(xv l) = O(xDvl + vI) = x02v I + 20v I = x0 2v I + (0 2) vI Similarly 03(xv l ) = x03v I + (03) vI in general on((xv l ) = xOnv l + (on) vI (here 1 indicates differentiation w.r.t '0') Thus, f(O)(xv l ) =o.x(O)vl + fl(O)vl now let f(O)vl = v ..... (1)

1 vI = I(O)'v
From(1) j(0)

[x'/(D) v]=xv + fl(O)[/(O) v]

Operating both sides with I/O)


_1_ _ _ 1_ __1_
I

_I_

x /(0) v - 1(0) (xv) + I(O)f (0) [/(0) .v]

Linear Differential Equations with Constant Coefficients"""

93

2.7.2. Note: For finding [xlll.(sinax or cosax)] when m > 1 the above method becomes very lengthy. Hence we can take it as [Xlll. (R.P or I.P of e/a,"] and apply the method (2.6.1 ). Solved Examples Example 2.7.3
Solve (D 2 + 9) y = xsinx

Sol. A.E. is m2 + 9 = 0 =>m


P. I.
="

3;

1 .) 1 I . -2-(XSIllX = {x--,-.2D}.-,-.sll1x D +9 D-+9 D-+9 [using the result of2.7.1. v = sitlX]


1 I. x. 1 2 = {x--,-2D} . - Stox= -Stox- - - - cosx D" + 9 8 8 D2 + 9 8

8"

x. 2 Stox - 8"

. 8" . cosx = 8"

x. 1 SltlX - 32 cosx
_I cosx 32

Complete solution is y

= C1cos3x + C 2sin3x + ~ sinx 8

Example 2.7.4

d2 y Find the solution of - , + 9y = xcos2x dxSol. A.E. is m2 + 9 = 0 => m =

; Jj

and

1 P.1. = D2 + 9 (xcos2x)

= Real part of D2 +9 x(cos2x + isin2x)


2" 2" = R.P. of -1 - xe IX = R.P. ofe IX

D2 +9
21x (

1 2" 1 x = R.P. ofe IX x (D+2i)2 +9 D2 +4iD+5


21x (

e R.Pof -

e 1+ D2 + 4iD )~t x= R.P. 5 5

1- D2 + 4iD) x 5

94

Engineering Mathematics - I

2lX e 4iO 0 2 R.P. of -5- [I ----+----]x . 5 5

e 2lX 4i R.P. of -5- [x- 5]

5 [xcos2x + 5 sin2xJ
=

Most general solution is

C ,cos3x +

. 3x + c 2sIn

4 Sin . 2X ] -1 [xcos2x + -

Example 2.7.5
Solve (0 2 - 40 + 4)y Sol. A.E is m2 4111 + 4
=

8e2x x2sin2x
~ m

=0

= 2, 2
x2sin2x = 8e2x _1_ ') sin2x 0 2 x-

C.F. is (C,x + C 2)e2x 8 e2x ')s,n2x - 8e2x 1 P.. I - (0 - 2)2 . x(0 + 2 _

2i

= 8e2x [I.P of

~2 x 2 e 2ix ] = 8e2x[I.P. of e2ix .

1
(0-2i)

x2 ]

- 8 2x[I P f 2ix 1 x2 ] - e . 0 e -4+4iO+02

= 8e2x [I.P

4iO+02 -1 of e 2IX (4) [1 4


2

I,)

x-

. 4iO+ 0 = -2e2x[I.P. of e 21x 14

r
2

x2

= -2e2x

[J.P. of e 2ix [1 + 4iD + 0

2 + (4iO + 0 )2]x2

4
=_2e2x [J.P ofe2 ix [x 2 + 8ix+2 + 16i
2

4
02

(x 2 )]

4
2.<

= -

~ [J.P. of (cos2x + isin2x) (4x 2 + 8ix - 30)


2

= -2-

-e

2.<

.J.P. of [4x2cos2x + 8ixcos2x - 30cos2x + i4x2sin2x - 8xsin2x - 30isin2x] . ISsin2x]

= -e2x[4xcos2x + 2x2sin2x -

Linear Differential Equations with Constant Coefficients ...

95

General solution is y

C.F. + P.1.

(C IX + C 2)e 2\" - e2~[2x2sin2x + 4xeos2x - 15sin2x]

1.

Exercise 2(h) 2 2 Solve (0 -1) Y = x eos3x


Ans. y = Cle-' + C2e- x
-

10 (x 2eos3x -

26 6 50 eos3x - "5 xsin3x)

2.

Solve (0 2 +4)y = xsin 2x Ans. y Cleos2x + C 2sin2x +

"4 ["2

+ sin2x]

3.

Solve (04 + 202 + 1)y = x 2eosx Ans. y

I I 3 (Clx + C 2 )eosx + (C 3x + C 4 ) sinx - 48 (x 4-9x2) cosx + x sinx

12

4.

Solve (0 2 - 20 + 1)y = xe-'"sinx Ans. Clcos3x + C 2sin3x +

"5 (xcos2x + "5 sin2x)J

5.

Solve (0 2 - 60 + 13)y = 8e3xsin2x Ans. y = e3x[Clcos2x + C 2sin2x] - 2e3x xcos2x

6.

Solve (04

+ 0 2 + 1)y = e 2 cos (--)


2

-::::

xfj

-x

1 e2 1 1 1 + C4 sin(-xfj)] + [xcos(-xfj) + r::; xsin(-x.J3)] 2 4 2 -..13 2 7. Solve - , + Y = e-'"sinx


dx-

d2 y

Ans. Clcosx + C 2sinx -

"5 e-'" (2cosx -

sinx)

96

Engineering Mathematics - I

2.8.1 Cauchy's Homogenious Linear equation


Most general form of the homogeneous equation is

(xnon + K1x ll- 1 on-l + ..... + Kn- 1 xO +

=X

.... (I)

Where kl' k2' ........ kn are constants and 'X' is either a constant or a function of x To solve such equations it is convenient to transform them into linear equations with constant coefficients with the substitution x = eZ i.e. z = logx.

dy d\:

= dy

dz dz' dr

= ~ dy
x dz

.... (2)

I 'dy 1 d 2 y -l----t----] x x dz X dz2

dy ( .: dz

= x)
..... (3 )

__ , d2y dy - 2(d 2 - d )
x

..... (4)

By taking '0' to stand for dz'


dy (2), (3), (4) ~ x dx

dy dz

= Oy

..... (5)

Xll

-Z = 0(0-1) (D-2) ......... (O-n+l)y

dn dx"

By substituting (5) in the given equation (') it transforms into a linear differential equation with constant coefficients.

Linear Differential Equations with Constant Coefficients ...

97

Solved Examples

2.8.2 Solve x

d2 y

m"2

dy -x d~" + 4y = 0
(i) reduces to

Sol. Writing x = el.

[D(D-I) -D + 4tv = 0, where D = (D2_2D+4)y=00

dz

A.E. is m2 - 2m + 4 :. C.F. is given by y substituting z = logt,

= =

0 :::) m = 1 fi i

(C 1cos,,'3z+C

2 sinfiz)e

Y= Clcos (J3logx) + C~sin (J310gx) e logx y = [C ICOS (fi log x) + C 2 sin (fi logx )lx
2.8.3 Solve
x2_~ -

d 2y
dx-

3x" - 4y dx

dv

2x2

..... (i)

Sol. Writing x = e Z
(D 2 - D

(i) reduces to

[D(D-I) + 3D -

4lY =

2e 2/ ,

+ 3D -

4)y = 2e 21.

A.E. ism 2 +2m-4=0 ~m=-1 C.F. is y


=

J5
(h'5)L)

(C1e
2

(I.JS)L

+ C 2e

")_

P.1. = -D-2-+-2-D - 4 (e--) = 4 + 4 _ 4 e


Most general solution is

2_ - =

2e 2z e 2z -4- = 2

= (

e-(Il /"S)Z

+C

e (I JS)7

+ e~z

98
2

Engineering Mathematics - I

2.8.4 Solve.xl
Sol.

d --?2y = x d\'

+-

Taking x = eZ equation (i) reduces to


[D(0-1)-21v
=

e 2x + e-Z
=

A.E. is m2-m-2

0 ~m

= 2,-1

:. C.F. is y P.1. =
1

C l e2x + C2e-z
e2z

(D-2)(D+l)

I (D-2)(D+l)

e--Z

1 (D-2)(2+1)

e2z

1 (-1-2)(D+I)

e- Z

1 ~_ ---e-- 3(D-2) =e2z

I
3(D+I)

__ e-

I (I) e-3 (I) 3(D+2-2) 3(D-I+l)

.!. e2z . .!. (I) - .!.


3 D 3

e-z

.!. (1 )
D

= -

ze2x - - ze-z
3

Complete solution C.F + P.1.


I.e.

C e2z + C e-= + - z( e2x I 2 3


I

-- e-Z )

Y = C1 e210gx 2 + C e-Iogx + - (e2logx

e-1ogX)logx

= C

1 1 1 x 2 + C - + - (x 2 - - )Iogx 2 x 3 x

Sol. Taking x = ez the equation reduces to


[D(O-I) (0-2) + 2D(0-1) +21v = 10ez + IOe-z

(D 3-D 2+2)y

IO(ez+e-Z )

Linear Differential Equations with Constant Coefficients ...

99

A.E. is m3-m 2+2

=> (m+ I) (m 2 -2m+2) = 0


(i.e.) m =-1, m = :. C.F. is y
=

I i
IO z e= + D3 _ D2 + 2 e-

C1e-z +e-'(C 2cosz + C 2sinz)


,

10

P.1.

D' - D- +2

10e- z +----: :---1-1+2 (D + 1)(D 2 - 2D + 2) 10e: 5e-'z + 10 e -L = 5e -L + 2e -L . - I --I 5( D + I) (D - I) + 1

1 5e-z + 2e-z D (I) = 5e-z + 2e-z . z

Complete solution
=

= C.F. + P.1.
3

C1e-z + e=(C 2cosz + C sinz) + 5e-z + 2e-z . z logx


x

= -

C1

+ x(C 2cos(logx) + C3sm(logx)) + 5x + 2


dy .

2.8.6 Solve x 2 dx 2 + x dx + Y = logx sm(logx)


Sol. Writing z = logx the equation reduces to
[D(D-I) + D+ IlY = zsinz (D 2 + l)y = zsinz
A.E. is m2 + 1 = 0 => m

d 2y

= i

C.F. is y

= C1cosz + C2 sinz
1

P.I.

= -2-

o +1

zsmz
-2-

I.P. of

+1

ze 'Z

J.P. of e'z

1
(0+i)2 +1

I.P. of e'z ---:-,----z


0- -1+20i+l

100

Engineering Mathematics - I

I.P. of e=

I
D2 +2Di

1 ( I P of e1z 1+ . 2Di 2i

0)'-1

I.P. of e1z

_I_(z_~)
2Di 2i
IZ

=IPof-- - - -Iz
. 2 2
2i

_e .i(z2

J
. . Z

= Imaginary part of
Z2

2 +2 [2 .(cosz + ISInZ) [2
-I

.J]

= - - cosz

-- ZSInZ =
4

I.

- - (SInZ

z. 4

+ 2zcosz)

Hence complete solution is

C,cos(logx) + C2sin(logx) -

lo;X

[sin(logx) +2(logx) cos(logx)]

Example 2.8.7
Solve(x2 02-xO+4)y = cos(logx) + xsin(logx)

Sol. Taking x = eZ or Z = logx the equation reduces to


[0(0-1) -0 + 4lY = cosz + eZ sinz.

A.E. is m2 - 2m + 4 = 0 => m =1J3i


C.F.

=ez (C,cosJ]z+C 2sinJ]z)


I D -2D+4
2

P.I. =

COSZ

D -2D+4

I . Z

e smz

Linear Differential Equations with Constant Coefficients ...

101

--.cosz+

1 3-20

e
1

(D+I)--2(0+1)+4 eZsinz 3
=

smz
eZsinz 3

---cosz+ - - =
9+4

(3+20)

3cosz-2sinz 13

+--

The complete solution is y

C.F. + P.1.

x[C1cos J3 (Iogx) + C2Slll v(logx) ] +

13 [3cos(logx) -2sll1(1ogx)] +

xsin{logx) 3

Example 2.8.8
Legendre's Linear equation: An equation of the form (ax+b)11 dx~ + K1(ax+b)n-l dx n - I + ...... + koY
d ll dll-1y
=

Where K's are constants and X is either a constant or a function of x is called Legendre's linear equation. To solve such an equation we transform it into linear equation with constant coeficients by the substitution. ax + b = eZ or z = log (ax +b) Now
dy dx

dy dz dz'dx dy dx

= _a_ = ady dz

dy ax+b'dz

(ax + b)2 -

= aOy

where 0 = dz

Similarly (ax + b)3

d ---f dx

a3 D(O-l) (0-2)y

by substituting these values the given equation reduces to linear equation with constant coefficients.

102

Engineering Mathematics - I

Solved Examples Example 2.8.9


Solve (J+x)2 dx 2 + (I +x) dx + Y = sm2[log(l +x)]
d 2y dy .

.... (I)

Sol. Write

I +x = e => log( I +x) = Z


(I+x) dx
dy
=

Dy, (I+x)2

d2y
-?

dx-

= D(O-l)y where D =

d dz

Substituting these values (1) reduces to (D2_D+D+ I)y = sin2z; (i.e) (D2+1)y = sin2z A.E. is m2 + I C.F.
=

0 => m =

i
-~4+1

= C ICOSZ + C2sinz
1 0 +1
sin 2z

P.1. = - sin2z = 2

= -~3

sin 2z

sin 2z C omp Iete so IutlOn IS = C .F + PIC . = lCOSZ + C' 2Sll1Z - 3 -

= C1cos[log(l+x)] + C2slI1[log(l+x)]Example 2.8.10


d 2y dy

sin 2(1og(l + x))

"

.J

Solve (2x+3)2 dx 2 +6(2x+3) dx + 6y= log(2x+3)

Sol. Writing 2x+3 = eZ or z= log(2x+3) the given equation reduces to [2 2.D(0-1) + 6.2D + 6]y = z
i.e.
(4D 2+8D+6)y = z

where D =

d dz

A.E. is 4m2 + 8m + 6 = 0 => 2m2 + 4m + 3 = 0 =>m= C.F. is y


~2J2i
1

=-l+J2i

e-Z [Acos

~ z + Bsin ~ z]

Linear Differential Equations with Constant Coefficients

000

103

Pol. =

I 1 z= 40- +80+6 6
1

40 2D2'Z = -6 [1+- +-3-rl z 3 1+-- + ---3 3


4 3

40

:m 2

= -

1 6

40 r1-]z= 3

- [z- - ] = - --

1 6

z 6

2 9

Complete solution is y = C.F. + P.1.


1 B' 1 ] + z -2 =e-Z[ Acos r;::z+ SIl1-Z ..;2 ,fi 6 9

= -2 3 [Acos( r;:: log(2x+3+ Bsin(

e x+..;2..;2

log(2x+3))] + -6 log (2x+3)- ::..


9

')

Exercise 2(h)
Solve the following differential equations I. (x 202 - 3xO + 4) Y = 2x2 Ans. (C I + C2logx~ + x 2 (Iogx)2 (x 2D2 - 3xD + 5)y = sin(log(x Ans. x 2(C Icoslogx + C2sinlogx) + (coslogx + sinlogx) (x 2D2 - xD +2)y = xlogx Ans. x(Clcoslogx + C 2sinlogx) + xlogx (x 2D2-3xD+5)y = x 2 sinlogx Ans.
5.

2.

3.

4.

x2(C)coslogx +

C2sinlog~) - ~
x

x2 1ogxcoslogr

(x D -3xD+l)y
Ans.

2 2 ( _,-s_in_l--,og~x-.:.)_+_1 = -

x2[C Icosh (filogx) + C.,sinh( J3log~) + _I + _1- [5sin(logx) - 6cos(\ogx)]


6x 61x

Ans.

104

Engineering Mathematics - I

8.

(x20 2+xO+I)y= (I0gx)2 + sin(logx)

Ans. 9. (2x-I)2

C I coslogx + C2sinlogx + (Iogx? -x[2coslogx - sinlogx]


-2 +

d 2y

dx

dy (2x-l) - +2y = 0

dx

Ans.

y= C 1(2x-l)+ ~ 2x+ I

10.

d2 dy (5+2x)2 dx; - 6 (5+2x) dx + 8y = 6x

Ans.

C (5+2x)2+.fi + C (5+2xi t fi _ 3x _ 45
I 2

11.

(2x+I)2 d y _ 6 (2x+l) dy + 16y = 8 (l+2x)2

dx 2

dx

Ans. 12.

= C 1 + C2 log(2x+ 1) + [log(2x+ 1)2](2x+ 1)2

d2y dy (2x+3) - 2 -(2x+3) --12y=6x dx dx

Ans.

C 1(2x+3)2 +

Ci2X+3f~

- 2x +

2.9.1 Linear Differential equations of second order


d 2y dy The general form is dx 2 + P dx + Qy = R

where P, Q, R are functions of x.

Method of variation of Parameters


Let the C.F. of the equation
2

d Y

dx 2

+ P dy + Qy = R
dx

be

y=Au+ Bv

where A and B are constants and u, v are two independent solutions-,of


d 2y

dx2 + P dx +Qy = R

dy

.... (I)

Linear Differential Equations with Constant Coefficients ...

105

be

Au + Bv

.... (2)

where A and B are constants and u, v are two independent solutions of


d 2y dy - 2 +P-+QllJ= 0
dx dx
.J'

.... (3)

such that where

1I2

+ PU I + Qu = 0 and v2 + PV I + Qv = 0
d 2u dx 2
'

tl2 =

ul

du dx etc.

In order to obtain the solution of the equation (I) the arbitrary constants A and Bare treated as arbitrary functions of x and are chosen in such a way that

y = A(x)u + B(x)v satisfies (1)


Differentiation of(2) gives
= All,

.... (4)

+ lIAI + BVI + vB, (suffixes indicating the order of the derivative)


.... (5)

Now we chose A and B such that Alu + BI V = 0 So, Again differentiating


d2y dx 2 = (Au 2 + lIIAI) + (Bv2 + vIB,)

.... (6)

substituting (4), (5) and (6) in (I) we get


[AlI 2 + BV2 + Alu, + Blv,] + P[Au, + Bvd + Q(Au + Bv] = R

(or)

A(u2 + Pu, + Qlt) + B(v2 + PV I + Qv) + Allt, + BI vI = R

Alu, + Biv i = R (u and v are solutions of(3) Solving (5) and (7) we get dA -vR dB uR

.... (7)

dx

=A =
I

uv, --u, v

and -

dx

= B = --I
1/V,

-II, v

integrating we obtain
A(x)=

-vRdx +CI;B(x)= (uv, -1I,v)

uR +C 2 lIV, -u,v

.... (8)

where C I and C 2 are arbitrary constants Substituting (8) in (4) we get the complete general solution of the equation (I)

106

Engineering Mathematics - I
1I

Working Rule: First find two independent solutions

and v of(3). Then C.F. is given by

y = Au+Bv where A and B are arbitrary constants. Treating A and B as functions of x, we have the solution of (1) as y = AI(x) 1I + BI(x) u where A(x) and B(x) are given by (8)

Solved Examples Example 2.9.2


Solve by the method of variation of parameters ~- y =
dx 2

d2

2
--x

1+c

Sol. A.E. is m2 - I = 0 => m = I


C.F. is y
= A~

+ Bc-x

Assuming A and B as functions of x such that the given equation is satisfied by

Ac-'" + Bc-X we have


=

dy
dx

AcX - Be-x + ~-+e-xdxdx

dA

dB

= A~

- Be--x

.... (I)

dA

dB

Choosing A and B so that ~~ + e--x dx = 0

.... (2)

.... (3)

Substituting (I) to (3) in the given equation, we get


~-

dA
dx

+e-x -

dB dx

=--

l+c x

.... (4)
dA
-x

Solving (2) and (4) we get -dx and dB


dx
C
X

_c_ eX + I

.... (5)
.... (6)

=---

eX + I

= log (~+ I) -e-x-x


Integrating (5) and (6) A = _e- x + log( 1+e-') - x + C" B = -Iog( 1+~) + C 2

Linear Differential Equations with Constant Coefficients ...

107

Hence the solution is

y=[-e-x+log(ex +
(or)

1)-x+C,1~+[C2-log(1 +~)]e-X

y=C,ex +C 2e-x -1 +elllog(e'+I)-x]-e-'\'log(el+I)J


+P+Q=Otheny=~(ii)

Remarks: If(i) I

I-P+Q=Otheny=e-'x

and (iii) P + Qx = 0 then y = x are solutions of D2y + POy + Qv = 0

Example 2.9.3
Solve by the method of variat ion of parameters

- \ + (I 3

d 3y (ix"

cOlt") ~ dx

cotx = sin 2x

.... (I)

Sol:

d y dv dx 3 + (I - cotx)

dx - cotx = 0
Q = -cou comparing with original eqn.

.... (2)

C.F.P

I - cott

:. I - P + Q = I - I + colx - cotx = 0
showing that v = e-X is a solution or (2) To find another independent solution of(2) let
11

= eO-x . w

By this substitution, the equation (2) reduces to


d 2 w dw 2 -x -+-(l-cotx--e )=0 dx 2 dr c- x

or

d2w dw - 2 = (l+cotx)dx dx

i(~) dw
dX

= I

+ cou

log - = x + logsinx dx

dw

dw or - =eTsinx dx

:. w= JeXsinxdx=- e; (cosx-sinx)
u = e-x [--(cosx-smx)] = - - (cosx - Slnx)
eX .

The second independent solution can be taken as cosx - sinx

108

Engineering Mathematics - I

Thus solution of(2) is

A (COS X

silu) + Be-x

For finding the solution of (I) we treat A and B as functions of x

i.e. y = A(x) (cosx - sinx) + B(x).e-x is the solution of (I) where A(x) and B(x) are obtained by solving (cosx - sinx) A I + e-x . BI and
dA solving (4) and (5) ~
= =

.... (4) .... (5)

-2 sinx
--'-----'4

and

dB sin2x = ~--ex
dx
4

(I-cos2x)

integrating we get
I A = --

f' cosx slflxdx+C 1 =--+C 1


2

.... (6)

and Hence the complete solution is

.... (7)

C 1(cosx - sinx) + C2e-x -~ (sin2x - 2cos2x)


10

Example 2.9.4
Solve by the method of variation of parameters
(I -

x)

d y + x dy _ Y dx 2 dx

= (I

_ x)2

The given equation can be written as


d 2y dx 2

+ I-x
x
I-x'

dy I dx - l-x Y = I-x
I

.... (I)

p= _ . Q= Clearly P + Qx = 0 Hence y

I-x

andX= I-x

= x IS a-solutIon of - 2 +
dx

d2y

-I-

-x

dy I dx - --y = 0
I-x

.... (2)

Linear Differential Equations with Constant Coefficients ...

109

To obtain the second independent solution of(2) take y = vx Then (2) reduces to -'} + dx (-+-.1)
dxI-x

d 2v

dv

d . dv dv x 2 - [-]+- [-+-] = 0 dx dx dx I-x x d dv ~~ dx

- - =- - - - =+( ) -- =+1---d,,1- x x I- x x I- x x

I-x-I

lo.g(:) =x+ log(x-I)-logx2


dv

dx

= -.e-t= e-t [-+-, ] 2


x
X

x-I

(-I)

x-

:. v

= e"'" .x

The second independent solution is xv = e"'" solution of equation (2) is Y = Ae"'" + Bx To find the solution of (I) treat A and B as functions of x such that
.... (3)

dA dB e"'" - + x dt"
dx

0 I -x

.... (4)

and,

dA dB e"'" - + x dx dx

.... (5)

dA dB Solving (4) and (5) we get d; = -xe-X and dx = I

Hence the complete solution is y

A e"'" + B.x

= [C1+e-x(I+x)]e"'" + (x+C 2 ) x = C1e"'" + Cr + x 2 + (I+x)

110

Engineering Mathematics - I

Exercise (i)
Solve the following by the method of variation of parameters
I.
d 2y dx 2

+ a2y

sec ax

x . I Ans. y = C,cos a:r + C '2sm ax + -SIl1 ax + -cos ax Iog(cos a,) a a

2.

d2 y

dx 2 + Y = tanx
=

Ans. y
3.

-[Iog(secx + tanx)] cosx + C,cosx + C2sinx

--T + 4y = cosec 2x dxAns. y = C,cos 2x + C2sin2x + xcos 2x + sin 2~ log(sin 2x)

d2 y

4.

x2~-2x(l+x) -+2(1 +x)y=x3 2

d2

dy

dx

dx

Ans. y = C, xe 2x + C

r - 4-"4

x2

3
Mean Value Theorems and Functions of Several Variables
3.1.0 This chapter deals with (i) Rolle's theorem (ii) Lagrange's mean value theorem also called as first mean value theorem. (iii) Cauchy's Mean Value theorem (iv) Higher Mean Value theorems. (v) Curvature (vi) Centre of curvature. (vii) Evolutes (viii) Envelopes 3.1.1

Rolle's Theorem
Ifj{x) is (i) continuous in [a, b], (ii) differentiahle in (a, b) and (iii)j{a) = j{b), then there exists a'c'E(a,b) Proof: Suppose (i)

3f'(C)=0

(ii)

f (x) is a constant function throughout the interval [ a, b ], then f' (x) = 0 VX E ( (I, h) Hence theorem is proved ... f (x) is not a constant function in [ (I ,h ]. As f(x) is continuous in [a,b],
there exists a maximum value say, at 'c' sayat'{f (a~d~h) for

(a ~ C ~ b)

and a minimum value,

f(x)

in(a,b).

112

Engineering Mathematics - I

f (c) 7:- f (d)


Suppose

and at least one of them is different from and

f ((l) == f (b)

f( c) 7:- f( a)
then

'c + h' be a point in the neighborhood of 'c' ,.


$;

/(c+II)- /(c)
h

0 when II> O.

.... ( 1)

and Further

/(c+I1)- /(c)
Iz

;::: 0 when h < O.

.... (2)

f(x)

is differentiable in (a, h). As h -t 0 we get from (I) and (2) that -

. / ,(c) == h~O Lt /(c + h) - /(c) .. h /(c+h)- /(c) h-~O h


LI
$;

0 and

/(c+h)- /(c) h~O h


Lt

;::: 0 respectively.

i.e.,

1'( c) $; 0

and

1'( c) ~ 0 simultaneously => 1'( c) == 0


f (d) 7:- f (a)

Similarly the theorem can be proved when

3.1.2 Geometrical interpretation of Rolle's theorem


Let P and Q be two points on the curve y=f(x). AP==BQ ordinates f(a)=f(b and the curve is continuous from P to Q. It can be shown that there is at least one point on the curve y = f(x) between x = a and x = b at which the tangent to the curve is parallel to x-axis. .
y

x=a P f(a)

y=a
Q

.i(b)

x'

y'

fix) is a constant function

Mean Value Theorems and Functions of Several Variables

113

x=c
y

Q
f(a) f(d)
f(b)

y'

j(c) andj(d) are both different fromj(a)

j(b)

x=c
y

x=a

x=b

f(a)

f(c)

f(d)

o
y'

j(c)

-:F j(a)

andj(d)

j(a)

j(b)

x=a
y

x=b

x=d f(a) f(d) f(b)

x'

0
y'

j(d)

* j(a) and j(c) = j(a) = j(b)

114

Eng~neering

Mathematics - I

3.1.3

Verify Rolle's theorem for /


Solution:
Consider the function

(x) = log { :;a:a:) }in ( a,b )


x a+b

J (x) = 10g{ x(2 + ah)} in the interval ( a, b ).

J(x+h)- J(x) h~O h

Lt

=
2

I[ (x+h)2 +llh I x +abj - log - og--+ h~O h ( a + b) ( x + h) ( a + b) x

Lt

+h~O

Lt

~rlOg (x +_~h) + 2xll+h2 -log x+ hj

hl

(x 2 +ah)
1

= Lt -1 [ log {'1+ 2xh 7 +h r"~O h x- + ab I =

-log {h}] 1+x

+h~O x 2 + ab

Lt [2X

1 ] --+O(h) x

where O(h) indicates terms of order h and higher powers of h.


I(

X)

2x - ~ x +ab x
2

which indicates that Further

I (x)
2

is differentiable in ( a,b ) and hence continuous also.

(a +ab) (a ) = log ( ) a a+b


2

= log 1 = 0
) = 0. Thus

I (b) = log

(b +ab) b a+b
(

I (a ) = 0 = I (b)

All the conditions of Rolle's theorem are satisfied. Hence 3c( a < c < b) such that

I(

C)

=0
II () C =0
. gIves

c +ab

2c

--=O~c
E

1 c

=ab or c=ab

Clearly c

= +ab

is the G.M of a and b and so

(a, 1)

The theorem is thus verified.

Mean Value Theorems and Functions of Several Variables

115

3. .4 1

. Ven'fy Rolle's t I1eorem '" lor the function Solution:

j"() S1l1X.10 x = --eX

(0 ,Tl )

f(x) =~lIl<x in e

(O,Tl)
Sinx] = Lt -1 [Sin(x+h) h--.O

Lt
h-... O

f(x+h)- f(x) h

e( ail)

e'

e< [Sin ( x+ h) - e" sin x] = Ltx


iI--.O

ex+1I .e

}HO

LI h

Sin(x+h)-Sinx{l+ h + h + .. ..1 1 I! 2!
e
.f!

-----------X+-il~x--------~

1 2 cos ( x + ). sin ( ) - h {sin x + 0 ( h )}

=h--.O Lt h

----~--~--~-----------ext-II

S1l1

. (h)
2

=II--.O Lt ! 2COS(X+!!'). ( h ) -{sinx+O(h)} h 2


f' ( x ) = cos x ~ S1l1 x
e
Thus

f (x) f

is differentiable in

(0, Tl)

and hence continuous there.

Further

(0) = 0 = f

(Tl) .AIl the conditions of Rolle's theorem are satisfied.


such that

:. 3e( 0 < e < Tl)


(i.e.,)

f'( e) = 0 cose-sine Tl (pnnclpal .. value) -----= 0 => e = eC


4

and clearly e =

Tl E (0, Tl) . Hence the theorem is verified.

116

Engineering Mathematics - I

3.1.5 Example
Verify Rolle's theorem for the function.f{x) = Ixl in (-1, I). Solution Here
.f{x) = - x for -I < x < 0

= 0 for x = 0

=x for 0 <x < I


}(-I) = 1,.f{I)= I; Hence .f{-I)=.f{I)

/'{x}

=-1
1

for for

-1.:sx.:sO

/'{x} =

:. f'{x} does not exist at x = 0 and hence j(x) is not differentiable in (- 1, I)

.. Rolle's theorem is not applicable to the functionj(x) = Ixl in (-1, I).


y
y = f(x) = Ixl

------------------~~------------------x

y'

Fig. 3.1 (The curve is not smooth at x = 0).

Mean Value Theorems and Functions of Several Variables

117

Exercise - 3(A)
I. Verify Rolle's theorem for the following functions :
1. lex)

= x (x + 3)e-xI2

m m

(-3.0)
(O.n)

[Ans:c=-2] [Ans : c = n/2]

2. j(x) = sin x

3. j(x)

= e" (sin x - cos x m

(:.?~)
(2,3)

[Ans : c = n]

4. j(x) = log

(.' +6: s;-

[Ans : c =

J6]
]

5. fix)
6. fix)

= (x- a)m (x- b)n in (a, = xl 5x + 7 in (2, 3)

b), m > 0,

11 > 0

[Ans : c =

{mb+ na} {m+ 11}

[Ans : c = 5/2]

3.2.1

Lagrange's Mean Value Theorem (First mean Value Theorem):


Ifj(x) is (i) continuous in [a, b] and (ii) differentiable in (a, b) then ::3 at least one "alue 'c' in (a, b)
3

f'{c)

= f{bi- f{a)
-a
=

Proof: Define a new function j>x


where A is a constant i.e.,
i.e.,
3

fix) + A.\

..... ( I)

j>(a) = j>(b)
=

fia) + A (a)

fib) + Ab

= _

[f{b)- }'(a)] b-a

..... (2)

j(x) and Ax are continuous in [a, b]

Hence j>(x) is continuous in [a, b]


j(x) and A x are differential in (a, b),

..... (3)

Hence j>(x) is differential in (a, b) andj(a)


=

..... (4)
..... (5)

j>(b)

118

Engineering Mathematics - I

(3), (4), (5) show that ~(x) satisfies all the conditions of Rolle's theorem.

3 atleast one value c in (a, b) ;)


~'

~' =

(x)

f' (x) + A

~' (c)

= f' (c) + A = 0
f'(c)
..... (6)

= -

From (2) and (6) it follows that

f'{c) = j'(b)- f{a) b-a


3.2.2 Geometrical Interpretation of Langrange's Mean Value Theorem
P and Q are two points on the continuous curve y = j(x) corresponding to x = a and x = b respectively.
.. P[a, j(a)],

Q [b,j(b)] are two points on the curve.

... h . PdQ SI ope on t he Ime JOll1lng t e pomts an IS

f{b)f{a) ' RIS a pomt . h b_a on t e

curve between P and Q corresponding to x = c, so that f'{c) is the slope of the tangent line at R [c,j(c)].

f'{c) =

f{b)- f{a)
b_a
y

means that the tangent at R is parallel to the chord P Q.

f(a)

f(c)

f(b)

x'

0
y'

x=a

x=c

x=b

Fig. 3.2 Hence this theorem tells that there is at least one point R on the curve PQ where the tangent to the curve is parallel to the chord PQ.

Mean Value Theorems and Functions of Several Variables

119

3.2.3 Example
Verity Lagrange's theorem for the functionf(x) = (x - I) (x- 2) (x- 3) in (0, 4).

Solution j(x)
=

(x - I)(x - 2)(x - 3) and a

0, b

j(x) = x 3 - 6 Xl + II x - 6 is an algebric polynomial and (0, 4) is a finite interval.


Hencej(x) is differentiable in (0, 4) and is continuous in [0,4] showing that the conditions of Lagrange's Mean Value theorem are satisfied.

:3 atleast one value 'c' in (0,4), such that


f{b)- f{a) b-a j(0) = - 6, f(4) = 6
=

f'{c)

..... ( I)

f'{x) = 3 x2 - 12 x + II
f'{c) = 3c2 - 12 c + 11
From (I)

3c2 _ 12 c + II 3c2 - 12 c + 8 =
c=
62fj
3

6 - (- 6) 4-0

The point

c = 6 2fj

W h ICh CIear Iy

IIe . 111 ( ,4 .

)
= ~

3.2.4 Example
Verify Langrange's Mean Value theorem for the functionj(x) in (0, I) :

Solution j(x) = ..
~

is differentiable in (0, I) and continuous in [0, I] :3 atleast one value 'c' in (0, 1) such that
3

l'{c)

f{b)- f{a) b-a f(l) - f(O) 1-0

..... ( I)

'{ ) f c

..... ( 1)

j(0) = eO

I, f(l) = e

f'{x)

~ gives

f'{c)

120

Engineering Mathematics - I

From (I)

eC =

e-I ' 1-0

c=log(e-I), thisc EO, I)

3.2.5 Example
Verify Langrange's Mean Value theorem for the functionj(x) in (3,4).

= 5x2 + 7x + 6

Solution
j(x) is an algebraic polynomial and the interval (3,4) is finite, j(x) is differentiable in (3,4) and continuous in [3,4]. . . 3 atleast one value c r.(3, 4) such that j'(e) = f(ll) - f(3) 4-3
3

..... (1 )

f'{c}

f{h}- f{a} b-a

j(3) = 72,j(4) = 114, f'{x} = lOx + 7


IOc+7= 114-72

4-3
(3, 4)

c = 3, 5

E,

Exercise - 3(8) I. Verify Langrange's Mean Value theorem for the following functions :
I. j{x)
=

x(x - I) (x - 2) in (0,

X)

2. j(x)=logxin(1,e)
3. j(x) 4. j(x)
=

x 2 _ 3x _

in ( -~

1, I;)

= a2 - 7x + lOin (2, 5)

3.3.1

Cauchy's Mean Value Theorem


If two functionsj(x) and g(x) are (i) continuous in [a, b] (ii) differential in (a, b) and (iii) g'(x) =F- 0 in (a, b) then 3 atleast one value 'c' in (a, b) 3

f'{c} g'{c}

f{b}- f{a}

= g{b}-g{a}

Mean Value Theorems and Functions of Several Variables

121

Proof:
Define a new functionj(x)

= j(x) + A g (x)

.....( I)

Where A is a constant such that 4>(a) + 4>(b) j(a) + A g (a) = j(h) + A g (h)

..... (2)

[j{b}- j{a}]
A=- [g{b}-g{a}]
j{x), A g (x) are continuous in [a, b)

..... (3)

Hence 4>(x) is continuous in [a, b) j(x), A g (x) are differentiable in (a, h) Hence 4>(x) is differentiable in (a, b) and 4>(a) = 4>(b) ..... (4) ..... (5)

..... (6)

(4), (5), (6) show that 4>(x) satisfies all the conditions of Rolle's theorem
3 atleast one value c in (a, b) ;) 4>' (c)
=

But

4>'{x} = f'(x} + Ag' (x) 4>'{c} = f'{c} + Ag' (c) = 0

=>

A= -

/'{c} g'{c} /'{c} g'(c}


/{b}- /(o)
=

..... (7)

From (3), (7) we get

g(h}- /(o)

3.3.2 Example
Verify Cauchy's Mean Value theorem for j(x)
=
-?

1 and g(x) x-

= -

1 in (0, h) x

Solution
j(x), g(x) are differentiable in (a, b) and continuous in [a, b)

122

Engineering Mathematics - I

::3 atleast one value 'c' in (a, b) :)

f'{c)

f{b)- f{a)
=

g'{c)
Here

g{b)- f{a)

f'{x) = ~ X3
g'{x)

=7

-I

-2
C 3

=--IT
//c 2

1
b

c c

a+b ab 2ab a+

= --b which is the Harmonic Mean of , a' and 'b'

c E(a, b)

3.3.3 Example
Verify Cauchy's
Mea~

Valve Theorem for fix)

e, g(x) =

e-X in (3, 7)

Solution
fix), g(x) are differentiable in (3, 7) and continuous in [3, 7]

::3 atleast one value 'c' in (a, b) :)

f'{c) f{b)- f{a) g'{c) = g{b)-g{a)


Here

f'{x)
g'{x)

= =

e
e-x

c = 5 E (3, 7)

Mean Value Theorems and Functions of Several Variables

123

Exercise - 3(C)
I. Considering the functionsj{x):::: x 2 , g (x):::: (x) in Cauchy's Mean value theorem for (a, b) prove that 'c' is the arithmetic mean between a and b. 2. Verify Cauchy's Mean Value theorem for j{x):::: sin x, g(x):::: cos x in (a, b) 3. Verify Cauchy's Mean Value theorem for j{x)::::

fx, &>(x):::: fx

in (a, b)

3.4.1

Higher Mean Value Theorem with Lagrange's form of remainder (Taylor's theorem with Lagrange's form of remainder):
If a functionj{x) is such that

(i) j(x); f'{x}, r{x} ..... fn - I (x) are continuous in [a, a + h]


(ii)

fW{x} exists in (a, a + h), then :3 at least one number '8' between '0' and' I' h hn - ' h" 3j{a + h):::: j{a) + ,f'{a} + ..... + - ( \"f(n-I)(a) + -F (ll + 9h) 1. n -I,. n!

Proof: Define a new function.


j{x):::: j{x) + (a+h-x) f'{x} + (a+h-xY r(x) + ... J! 2!

(a + h - X ),,-1 /"-1 (a + h - x)" (-I) (x) + .A n . n.,


3

..... (1 )

where A is a constant

cp (a) :::: cp (a + h)
2

h j" (a) + 2! h fW (a)+ cp(a) :::: j{a) + 1! hn - I n- J! hn n!


A

..... + - ( I",,r-I(a) + and cp (a + h) :::: j{a + h) cp (a) :::: cp (a + h)

..... (2) ..... (3) ..... (4)

but
Thus

j(a + h) :::: cp (a + h) :::: cp (a)

124

Engineering Mathematics - I

Hence using (2) we get


j(a + h) = lea) + - j(a) + -

h J!

h2 I" (a) + ..... . 2!


..... (5)

j(x), I'(x) , I" (x ), ... .fn-I(x) and (a + h - x) (a + h - x)2 etc continllolls in [a, a + 17] and differentiable in (a, a + h)

Hence

~(x)

is continuous in

ra, a + 17] and differentiable in (a, a + 17)


~' (c) =

..... (6)

(4) and (6) show that ~(x) satisfies all the conditions of Rolle's theorem.

:.

:3 atleast one value 'c' (a < c < 0 + 11) ;)

Write c = a + e 17 where 0 < e < I

:.

:3

e E (0,

I) ;)

~'

(0 +

e 17) = 0

..... (7)

Differentiating (I) with respect to 'x'

.,.

+ [(a+h-x)"J

(n-I)

I" (x)- (n-IXa+h-xt(n-I)

In-J/(x)j_ n(a+h-xtF;'n!

A ..... (8)

From (7) we get


~' (0

+ e 17) =

(h - eh),,-J

(n-I)

[rea + eh]

=0
..... (9)

From (5) and (9) it follows that


j(a + h)
=

hi' (a) + -, h I j(a) + -1'


. 2.

"

(a) + ...

(0 < e < 1)

Mean Value Theorems and Functions of Several Variables

125

The last term

~ .!' (a + 0 h) is called Lagrange'sform of remainder.


n!

3.5.1

Higher Mean Value Theorem with Cauchy's form of remainder (Taylor's theorem with Cauchy's form of remainder):
If a functionf{x) is such that (i)f(x), f'{x) , r{x) ..... fll(X) arc continuous in

[a, a + 11] and (ii),f'1(x) exists in (a, a + h) then 3 atleast one number '0' between '0' and' 1' such that
2

f(a + h)

h '" (I) + ... .f{a) + h f' () a + j!f

I!

Proof: Define a new fUllction


~(x) = .f{x) +

(a+h-x) () (a+h-x)2 () f' X + f" x + .... I! 2! '

(a + h - x)"
+
where A is constant

{n-l}!
3 ~

fll-l(x)+(a+h-x)A

..... (1)
..... (2)

(a + h) = ~ (a)

From (1)

(a + h)

= f(a + 11)
h .
'I

~(a) = f(a) + -1'.1


From (2), (3), (4)
f{a + h)
=

{a} +

f 2!

h2

"

h"-' , {a} + ... + -(-1)'.1 11-1 (a) + II

n- .

..... (4)

.f{a) + -"

h " j

,J

(0) + -,

n- f"

2.

(a) + .......

.. ... (5)
f(x), f'{x) , r(x) ..... jil- I (X) and (a + h - x), (a + h - x)2 ...... are continuous
in [a, a + h] and differentiable in (a, a + 1/)

126

Engineering Mathematics - I Hence <I>(x) is continuolls in [a, a + h]

..... (6) ..... (7)

<I>(x) is differentiable in (a, a + h)


(2), (6) (7) show that <I>(x) satisfies all the conditions of Rolle's theorem. :. 3 atleast one number '0' in between '0' and' I' Differentiating (I)
W.f.
3 <1>'

(a

+ 0 h) = 0

..... (8)

to 'x'

<I>'{x) = I'{x) + [(a+h-x) IW{x) - f'{x) (a+h-x f I"'{x)- 2(a+h-x) f"{x)] 2! 2 + ... + ... +
llu1 )

+ [(a+h-x

(11-1).

F(x)_{n_I){a+h-x)"2 f"'{X)] -A)

(n -I).

I.e., <I>'{x) =

(a+h-x)"-' {n-I}. f"(x)-A

..... (9)

From (8) and (9) we get

{h-Oh)"-I
<1>'

(a + 0 h)

{n -I}.

fll (a + 0 h) -

A=0

..

A =

h,,-I (I - 0),,-1 (n-I)' fll(a+Oh)

..... (10)

From (9) and (10)

flo + h)

hi' h j.w j(a) + -" (a) + -, (a) + .... . 2.

The last term

h"{I-OY--1
(

n-I!

fll (a + 0 h) is called Cauchy's form of remainder.

Mean Value Theorems and Functions of Several Variables

127

3.5.2

Alternate form of Lagrange's Mean Value theorem


If f(x) is i) continuous in the closed interval [a. a + h] and ii) derivable in the open interval ( a . a + h ) then there exists at least one number B, 0 such that f(a+h)=f(a)+f'(a+Bh).

< B<1,

Proof: In ( 2.1 ) put b exists 'c' ,


such that

=a + h

,then from the proof of L . M . V theorem there

f'(c)

= f(a+h)- f(a)

a+h-a writing c = a + Bh we have 0 < B < 1 and (I) becomes

....... ( I)

f'(a + Bh) = f(a+ h)- f( a) => f( a + h) = f(a)+ hf'(a+Bh) a+h-a 3.5.3 Example:
If f(x+h)=f(x)+hf'(x+Bh), O<B<l, find the value of B when f(x) is any quadratic expression.

Solution:
Let

f (x) = ax 2 + bx + c , then
f(x+h)=a(x+h)2 +h(x+h)+c

= f(x)+h(2ax+b+ah)

.......(1)

It is given that

= f (x + h) = f (x) + hf' (x + Bh)

....... (2) From ( I ) and (2) we get,

f'(x+ Bh) = 2ax +b +ah (i.e.,) 2a(x + Bh)+ h = 2ax +b +ah

(sincef'(x) = 2ax+b) => 2B = 1 or


3.5.4

B=

1;2

Alternate form of Cauchy's Mean value theorem


If f (x) and g (x) are (i) continuQ,Us in the closed interval [ a, a+h] (ii) derivable in the open interval ( a . a+ h ) and (iii) g' ( x) *- 0 at any point in the open interval

( a, a+ h ) , then there exists at least one number B , 0 < B < 1, such that

f'(a+Bh)

f(a+h)- f(a)
by

g'(a+Bh) - g(a+h)-g(a)
Note: Lagrange's Mean Value theorem can be deduced from C . M . V theorem replacing g (x) with x in the interval ( a, b )

128

Engineering Mathematics - I

We get g ( b)

= b , g ( a ) = a and g X ) = 1 f'(C) f(b)-l(a) -- = . which is L. M. V. theorem. 1 b-a


I(

Example: Using Cauchy's Mean Value theorem, show that sin b - sin a < b - a given that 0 < a < h <

Jr
2

Solutio,,:
Taking

f (x)

sin x and g (x) = x and applying C.M. V theorem we get that, sinb-sina

3e

such that

. Furt her cose < ] 111

(0 Jr) 2
;-

b-a
:.

= cos

e where 0 < a < c < b < -

Jr
2

sin b - sin a <

b-a

l' .
I

' ) (I.e.,) Sin b -SIna < (b -a

3.5.5 Example: I f f '( x) is continuous in [ a, b] and

fll (x) exists in ( a, b ) then show that


2!
where

f(b)-f(a)=(b-a)f '(a)+(b-a)2 fll(a)


Solution:
Choose a function

a<e<b.

Now

g( x) = h( x) _(b - X)2 h( a) where b-a h(x) = f(b)- f(a) -(b -X)f'(X) ........(1) g(a)=h(a)-h(a)=O and g(b)=h(b)-O=O from (I) and L.M.V
such that

g( x)

theorem.

g(a)=O=g(b) .
It is given that f'ex) is continuous in [ a, b] and differentiable inC I, b) .

h(x) and g (x) . :. g (x) satisfies all the conditions of Rolle'stheorem.Hence 3e (a<e<b) 3g '(C)=0
Hence, so are

........(2)

I (

X)

= h' ( X ) + 2 (b - C! h ( a) (b-a)

from (I )

=-(b-X)f'1 (x)+ 2(b-X![f(b)_ f(a)-(b-a)/(a)] (b-a)

Mean Value Theorems and Functions of Several Variables

129

Using (2) we get,

or

(b-c )f"( c) = 2( b [f(b) - f(a) -(b - a)f'( a)] (b-a) (b - a)2 f(b)=f(a)+(b-a)f'(a)+ 2! f"(c) ........(3)
(' = a + Biz where

-C!

Taking (3) gives

h = b - a and

0 <B<1 where 0 < (1 < I

f(a + h) = f( a)+ Jif'(a) + ~2! f'(a +Oh)

3.5.6 Example:

f (x), g (x)

and

h(x)

are three functions derivable in ( a , b ), show that there

exists c in ( 'I, b ) such that

f'(c) g'(c) h'(c) f(a) g(a) h(a) =0 f(b) g(b) h(b)


deduce L. M . V and C . M . V theorems.

Solution:

Consider the function

f'(x) g'(c) h'(c) ( x) = f (a) g ( a) h(a) f(b) g(b) h(b)


are all derivable in (a, b),

=0

........ ( I )

Clearly Also :.

(a) = 0 = (b)
and

f( x),g( x)

h( x)

All the conditions of Rolle's theorem are satisfied. Hence 3c E

(a,b)

such

that ' ( c ) = 0

(i.e.,)

f'(c) g'(c) h'(c) f (a) g ( a) h(a) = 0 f(b) g(b) h(b)

........ (2)

130

Engineering Mathematics - I

Taking

g(x) =x

and

h(x)
0
1 1

I we have from (2)

f'(e) I f(a) a f(h) b


(i.e.,)

=O=>f'(c)(a-h)-[f(a)-f(h)J=O

f'(e) =

f(h)- f(a) h-a f'(e) g'(c) f (a ) g ( a ) j(b) g(b)

where

e E (a,b)

........ (3)

(3) shows that L . M . V theorem can be deduced from (I) Taking only h (x) 0 1

=I

we have,

= 0 where

E (

a, b)

=> f'(e)[g(a)-g(b)J-g'(c)[f(a)- f(b)J=O => -(-) = ()


g' e

f'(c)

f(b)- f(a) ()
g h - g a

where c

(a,b)

which

. .
IS

C. M . V theorem.

3.5.7 Example: Apply Maclaurin's theorem with Lagrange's from of remainder for the function

f (x) = eX

and show that 1 + x + ~

~ e ~ 1 + x + ~ eX for every x ~ 0 . 2 2
t

Solution: Maclaurin's theorem with L form of remainder is

f(X) = f(o)+~r'(o)+~ f"(O)+ ... +1~_1 in-I) (0)+ ~~ f" (Ox)


~ ~ ~

n-I

X + -X eX = 1+ X + T=)
~

lJ

X Ox (SInCe . Dn ( eX) = eX) + ...... + IX ~ _ 1 +- e ~ ~

n-I

........ (1) where 0 < (} < 1 Taking n = 2 in (1) we get


eX

= 1+ X + ~ eOx

X2

........ (2)

For every X ~ 0 we have eOx ~ eX where 0 < (} < 1

Mean Value Theorems and Functions of Several Variables


1 1

131

1+x+-e S +x+-e

x-

Ox

x-

II
2

........ (3)

Further e

Ox

> 1 whenever x ~ 0 and 0 < 0 < 1

l+x+-sl+x+-e

fh

II

II

........ (4) From (2), (3) and (4) it follows that


X 1 x Ox x x, l+x+-s +x+-e =e sl+x+-e
2 2 2

II

II

II

3.5.8 Example

. Taylor's theorem to prove that loge ( 1 + x ) < 1- 2 x +3 x whenever x> 0 . Apply


Solution: According to Taylor's theorem

h2 h"- I I I( a+h) = l(a)+11 1'( a)+ ~ f"(a) + ... + In-l f"- (a)+ R" h
where

Rn

h" (1-0),,-" ~ n- .p

I" (a+Oh)

, 0<0<1
h"
~ f" (a+Oh)

RII with Lagrange's form

(n = p)is Rn =
2

Substituting a = I and h = x in (1)

1(1 + x) = 1(1)+ ~f'(I)+


Taking

~ 1"(1)+ ... + 1:-1 in-I) (1) + ~ I" (1 +Ox)

n-I

II

I (x ) = log x, I" (x ) =
x
3

(_1)"-1 In-l
n

x2 .. 10g(l+x)=O+x--+

II 3(l+Bx)

30<O<I(Takingonlyupto3terms)

Foranyx>O, (1+0x1

132

Engineering Mathematics - I

3.6 3.6.1

Functions of Several Variables

Students are quite familiar with functions of a single independent variable. Functions which depend on more than one independent variable are called Functions of Several Variables. (i) Volume V = nr2h ofa cylinder, r = radius, h = height, curved surface area (ii) Area of a triangle A = A = 2prh.

"2 xy, x = base, y = altitude

(iii) Volume of a rectangular parallelopiped v = xyz, where x = length, y = bredth z = height are all examples offunctions with more than one variable. (i) and (ii) are examples offunctions oftwo variables and (iii) is a function of three variables. Let z =j(x, y) is a function of two independent variables. Here x, yare independent variables and z is the dependent variable and let the function f(x, y) be defined in a region R. Suppose (x, y) be a movingpoint and (a, b) a fixed point in the region R ofthe xyplane. The point (x,y) may approach (a, b) along different paths (see figure) PI' P2' P3 etc.

3.6.2 Concept of a Limit


Let (i) (ii) and (iii)

f(x, y) be defined in a region R


(x, y) tend to (a, b) along any path
E

< 0 be given.

Mean Value Theorems and Functions of Several Variables

133

If ::3 0 > 0 such that Ij(x, y) -II < tend to I. We write

E,

V Ix - al < 0, Iy - bl < 0, thenj(x, y) is said to

Lt
x~a

j(x, y)

'I

y~b

or as

Lt
(x,y)~(a,b)

I(x, y)

3.6.3 Example
Consider
x-~2

Lt

y->!

---'--, it can be seen that if 4xy

x2 + y2

E =

0.01 (say) then

x2

+ y2

5
- -8 <
E

4 xy

whenever Ix - 21 < 0.02,

lv -

II < 0.02 thus 0

0.02

satisfies
x- +,v)
)

4xy

-"8
Lt

5
< 0.0 I. Hence the desired limit is

"8 .
m

Note: 1
Let then
,y)-->(a,b) .

f(x, y)
Lt

I and

(X,Y)-'(a,b)'

Lt

g("(, v)

(i) (ii)

(x,y)->(a,b)

[f g]
[fg]
=

Im

Lt
(x,y)->(a,b)

/m

and

(iii)

Lt
(x,y)->(a,h)

1
III

Note: 2
(x,y) LI ~ (a, b) exists iff
LI [ LI

(x-~a) y~b

I(x,b) ==

Lt

Lt

(y~b) x~a

f(x,h)

134

Engineering Mathematics - I

3.6.4 Example
f(x, y)
=

x- + V . 2 ' find Lt as (x, v) 2x+ y .

(2, I)

Solution

y~ x~2

LI [Lt

x +y LI + 5 2X+;2 . = y~ 4+ y2 =5=1
..... (i)

1 [4
Lt
=

y]

x~2 y~l

Lt [Lt

+y ]

2x+ y2

x~2

[X2 +

2x+1 =5=1

I] 5

..... (ii)

The two limits (i) and (ii) are equal.


Lt
x' + Y ---=-;;-=1
'J

Henee

(x,y) ~ (2,1) 2x + y2

3.6.5 Example

f(x, v)
.

x- - Y' ? J find whether the limit exits as (x, y) x- + y-

(0, 0)

Solution

Thus

L/ x - Y J ') [ X ~ 0 Y ~ 0 x- + y-

I,I

2 2]

7:-

~ 0 ly ~ 0 x- + y
?

LI

I [""'

I,/

x] - Y

2]
)

lIenee the limit does not exist.

3.6.6

Example

Lt
Find
~

xy

(x,y)

(0,0) y- - x-

')

Mean Value Theorems and Functions of Several Variables

135

Solution
Puty =
11/X
2

Lt
(X,y)~(O,O)

xy

Lt
X2

mx

__

X~O m 2 x 2 __

X2

It is clear that limits will be different for different values of m i.e., the limit depends upon the slope of the path along which (x. y) approaches (0,0). Hence the limit does not exist.

Exercise - 3(0)
I. Examine whether the following limits exist. Find them if they exist.
Lt
(i)
(x.y)
~

x 2 ~ y2 + 4

Lt
(ii)
(x, J~
-~

x 2 + 4y2

(2,1)

3xy2
yx~2y

(0,0) y2
X

~ 2X2

Lt
(iii)
(x.y)

~(2,2) xy~2x

(iv)

Y4 J J (x,y) ~ (0,0 ) x~ yLt


~

Lt
(v)

x-y-

(x,y) ~ (0,0) x 2 + y2

3.7.1

Concept of Continuity
Suppose
(i)

Lt
(~,y) ~(a,b)

j(x. y) exists

and

(ii)

Lt
(x,y)~(a,b)

f(.~, y)

j(a, b)

thenj(x. y) is said to be continuous at (a. b).

Note: 1
Ifj(x. y) is said to be continuous at every point of a region R, then it is said to be continuous in R.

Note: 2
Letj(x. y) and g(x, y) be continuous at (a, b) then f g,fg, and are all continuous at (~ b).

(g -:t 0)

136

Engineering Mathematics - I

3.7.2 Example
Consider the function/ex, y)
Lt

= x 2 + Y - 2x when (x,

y) 7= (0, 0) and.l( I, I)

=0

(x,y)

~(I,I)

f(x,y) =

Lt [Lt
x~

1 y

(x 2

J + y-- 2x) ]

=/(I, I)
Hence the function is continuolls at (1, 1)

3.7.3 Example
Consider the function f(x, y) = ~ y J when (x, y) 7= (0,0) and.l(O, 0) = 0 . . x + yLet (x, y)
~
2 2

(0, 0) along the path y


Lt
(.Y,y)
~

mx Lt
2 2

(0,0)

f(x,y) =

~y 2 (x, y) ~ (0,0) x- + y
Lt

x 2 m 2 y2

(x, y) ~ (0,0) x 2 + 1112 x 2

m2x 2 -(.r, y) ~ (0,0) I + m 2


Lt

=.1(0 0)
,

lienee .l(x, y) is continuous at (0, 0)

3.7.4 Example
Consider the function.l(x, y)
Lt

=
xy

xy
x2 _ y2 (x, y 7= 0, 0), .1(0, 0)

Lt

mx

(x, y) ~ (0,0) x 2 _ y2 along the path y


= niX

(x, y) ~ (0,0) x 2 (I - m 2 )

= - - 7=

III

1-JIl

.1(0, 0) except when

III

Hence the given function is discontinuous at (0, 0)

Mean Value Theorems and Functions of Several Variables

137

3.7.5 Example
Consider the functionj(x, y) =
=
X

~X2 _ y2

(x, y) cf. (0, 0)

at (x, y)

(0, 0)

In this case it is convenient to introduce (polar co-ordinates). Substitutions x = rcosB,


y
=

rsinO.

x 2 y2

r4cos20sin2B

l"(2 + y2 - Jr2 (cos


r'

0 + sin 20)

-(sin 2 20) 4

4
=

{x2 + y2
4

y2

Now

, )3 2 E . I (x-, +y~ - provided /x/ < E 3


4 2

thus when

/x - 0/ <

I i3

and

lY - 0/ <

E3

..... (i)

Hence

Lt

x 2 y2
---;===== =

(x,y)~(0,0)~X2 + y2

frol11 (i)

=j(O, 0)
j(x, y)
=

Jxx Y +y
2

2 2

2-

is continuous at (0, 0)

138

Engineering Mathematics - I

Exercise - 3(E)
I. Investigate the continuity of the following:
(i)

j(x, y)

2x + ),2

(x, y) t= (2, 3)
(x, y) = (2, 3)

=0 xy j(x.y) = - - , ~Xl + y2 =0 x-y (iii) j(x,y) = - - , 2y+x =0

at (2, 3)

Ans: Not continllous


(ii) (x, y) t= (0, 0) at (0,0) (x, y)
=

(0, 0)

Ans : Not continuolls.


(x, y) t= (0, 0) (x, y) = (0,0)

Ans : Not continuolls

3.8.1

Partial Differentiation
Consider z = j(x, y) where x and yare independent variables and z is the dependent variable. Keeping one of the two variables x and y as constant and allowing the other to vary we get a partial derivative of 'z' with respect to the variable that is varied. Keep 'y' constant and allow x to vary, then partial derivative of z w.r. to 'x' is obtained and is denoted by az or f (x, y) or Dj{x, y) or 8f ax x ax az So Similarly ax az

= =

Lt
ax~o

j(x+Jx,y)- j(x,y) bx f(x,y+Jy)- j(.x:,y) by

Lt
ay~o

By
Note: 1

z = j(x, y) represents a surface in the cartesian co-ordinates (x, y, z) system. The section of the surface z = jex, y) with the plane x = k (parallel to yz plane) is a curve. (Similarly the sections with planes parallel to xy - plane and zx - planes also will be curves).

Mean Value Theorems and Functions of-Several Variables

139

Note: 2

az) ( Ox
[
~

gives the slope of the tangent at (x, y, z) to that curve


x=k

~z 1
y=k

gives the slope of the tangent at (x. y. z) to the curve obtained as


=

the section of the surface z =f(x. y) with the plane y

k.

3.8.2 Example
z = x3

+ x2y + I

(i) To find

az , we keep 'y' as constant


ay
=

partial derivative w.r. to x of x 3 = 3x2 partial derivative w.r. to x of x 2y partial derivative w.r. to x of I
=

2xy

..
(ii) To find

ax

az

3x2 + 2xy

ax

az , we keep 'x' as constant


=

partial derivative w.r., to y ofxJ = 0 partial derivative w.r., to y of x 2y


x2

partial derivative w.r., to y ofy2 = 2y

3.8.3 Example

az

ay

=x2 + 2y

f= x 2 + 1- 2xy - =2x-2y ax 3.8.4 Example f= (x - y) (x + 2y)

af af

ay

=2y-2x

140

Engineering Mathematics - I

This is a product, and the usual product rule applies

at' = (x - y) (1 + 0) + (x + 2y)( I - 0) -'


ax

= x - y + x + 2y = 2x + y
-

aj

ay

(x - y) (0 + 2) + (x + 2y) (0 - 1) 2x - 2y - x - 2y = x - 4y

3.8.5 Example
y Iff= x-2 , Find af and aj x+y ax ay Solution

Applying the Quotient rule

aj
ax

(x+ y)(I-O)-(x-2y)(I+O) (x + y)2 (x+ y)(-2)-(x-2y)(O+I) (x + y)2

3y (x+ y)2 -3x

aj
ay

= (x + y)2

3.8.6 Example
Iff
=

sin(ax + by), sino aj and aj ax ay

aj
ax

= cos(ax + by) x =

ax

(ax + by)

= acos(ax + by)

ay
3.8.7 Example
Consider f Then
=

cos(ax + by)

ay

(ax + by) = bcos(ax + by)

ax2 + hxy - by
ax

aj

= 2ax + hy - ' = 2by + hx


' ay

at

The expressionix = 2ax + hy is itselfa function ofx andy. We could therefore find its partial derivative with respect to x or y.

Mean Value Theorems and Functions of Several Variables

141

(i)

If we differentiate it partially w.r. to x, we get

~ [Of] ax ax

and this is

a a [- , = - (2ax + hy) = 2a
axax
This is called the second partial derivative of 'f \V.r. to 'x'. If we differentiate Of partially w.r. to 'y' we get

I]

ax

!L (a~)
ay ax

and this is -

written as - -

ail ayax

Thus

al ax

= 2ay

+ hy,

8f ay

hx - 2by

Similar steps can be carried out with the expression for

8f ay

a~
2

ay
2

~ (8f) ~ ay
al ax
~

-2b

aI axay

(8f)

142

Engineering Mathematics - I

3.8.8 Example
Iff= ax + hx y + bl, find
3 2
2 2 2 2 al 8f a 1 a f a 1 a 1 -'-'-2'-2,--,-ax ay ax ay ayox axay

Solution
-

af

ax

=3ax2+2hxy~ -

8j

ay

') =hx2+3by

In this example also, we see that - - = - ' -

ayax axay

a21 a2 f

3.8.9 Example
Iff= log(x2 + y), prove that

a21
Solution

a21

axay ayax
8j
=

2x

a2 f -4xy a2f -4xy ayax = (x 2 + y2 axay = {x 2 + y2

axay ayax
3.8.10 Example
Ifu(x + y) =x2 + y~ then prove that ( - - - ) 2 =4( 1 - - - -)

au au ax ay

au au ax ay

Mean Value Theorems and Functions of Several Variables

143

Solution
Since

u= au ax

x+y x 2 +2xy- y2 . _au = _X +2xy+ y2 (X+y)2 'ay (X+y)2


2

au _ au 2 ax ay )

7-2xy- y-7]2 =[7 x- +2xy- y 2 +x(x+ y)2


..... (i)

..... (ii)

(i) and (ii) prove the result

3.8.11 Example
If z = 2(ax + byi - (x 2 + y) and a2 + b2 = 1, then prove that
-2 +-2 =

a2 z a2 z
ax

ay

Solution

ax
-

az

4(ax + by) . a - 2x

ax 2

a2 z az
=

4a2 -') ~

ay

4(ax + by) . b - 2y

144

Engineering Mathematics - I

3.8.12 Example

If z

Xl] f (y

aZ az then prove that x - + 2y- = 0 8.:r Oy

Solution

x az + 2y az =f'(Xl][2X2 _ 2X2]=0 ax ay y y y

..... (i)

Differentiating (i) partially w.r., to 'x' .


a 2z az a 2z x-+-+2y--=0 ax 2 ax axay

..... (ii)

Differentiating (i) w.r., to 'y' partially


a 2z az a 2z x--+2-+2y-=0 ayax ax ay2

..... (iii)

Multiplying (ii) by 'x' and (iii) by 'y' and adding


2 a ::.) 2 a z az a2 z ::.2 u Z 'Z 2 u- Z x -+x-+2xy--+xy--+2y-+2y -=0 ax 2 ax axOy Oyax Oy ~l

But

az az x-+2y-=0 ax Oy 2 a-z a z 2 u-Z x -+3xy--+2y -=0 2 axay ax Oy2


) 2 ::.)

3.8.13 Example

If u = log(x3 + T + z3 - 3xyz) then prove tllat

Mean Value Theorems and Functions of Several Variables

145

Solution

...... (i)

Now

au
ax

-3 - - - - - - ( 3 x 1 - 3 yz) x + y3 + Z3_ 3xyz


3 3 3

all
~y

x + y +z -3xyz

(3y2-3xz)

au
az
au

1 ~ -3- - - - - - ( 3 z - -3xv) x + y3 + Z3 --3xyz .

- +- +ax ay OZ
3

au

au

= -----'--,-----'-------,.-------'-

3x 2 +3yz-3 y 2 -3xz+3z 2 -3xy Xl +./ +Z3 -3xyz


(Xl

x+y+z

(.: (x + y + z)

+ y2 + Z2 - xy - yz - zx)

= x 3 + y' + Z3 - 3xyz)
Hence from (i)
LHS

(!

~ + ! J( x + : + z 1
1 _
{x + Y + Z )2

=3(-

{x + y + Z )2

{x + Y + z

=--------:-

-9 {x+ y+ Z)2

146

Engineering Mathematics - I

3.8.14 Example

If II

au = 1a (r ? au ) en e 40 then find 'n' so that ao ,.2 ar a,.

r'

Solution

au _ nen ae

-r' -40

--I' ( ? On -40-~

.e

4e

1
..... (i)

also

== 2e r 20 + 3r-u

-1[4lt

?]
..... (ii)

Equating (i) and (ii) we get

-3
2e

Hence

n==-

-3
2

Mean Value Theorems and Functions of Several Variables

147

Alternative method :

Taking logarithms on both sides log u = n log 0 - -

r-

40

..... (I)

Diff. (I) partially w.r.t 8


--=-+-

au

11

r2

u ae

u0 2

r2)1l - = 11+-

au (

ae

40 8

..... (2)

Diff.( I) partially w.r.to 'r'


--=-=:)-=--

au - r

ar

20
-11.,.3

au - u. r or 28

r--=---

) au

ar

28

ar

a( au) _-I [ u. 3r
I .2 -

ar

--

28

+r

.1(-1/1")] 20

..... (3)

From (2) and (3) we get

r2

_3

r2

11+-=-+-

48

40

.... 11=2

-3

3.8.15 Example
If x- yY zZ
?

k then prove that at x = y

z, - -

a2 z

axBy

= [x log exr I

J48

Engineering Mathematics - I

Solution
Applying logarithms to.r y zZ =
k,

we get xlog x + ylog)' + zlog z = log k.

Differentiating this implicit function partially w.r., to 'x'. x-+logx+ z.-+Iogz )az -=0 x z ax
(I + logx) + (1 + logz).

(I

ax = 0

az

..... (i)

az
ax
/Illy

(I + logy)
l+logz

az
ay

(I + logy)
1+ logz

Differentiating (i) partially w.r., to 'y'

a2Z {1+logz )- +aZ[1 - - .az] - =0 ayax ax.z oy


Substituting x
=

z, we get
2

a I =0 (I + logx)_z_+axay x
I

-axay- - - x{1 + logx) xlogex

I x{loge + logx)

or

- (xlogex)

Exercise - 3(F)
x+4y OJ of 1. If f= 4x _ y' find -8 and 7)
x

-17y 17x (ADS: (4x- y)2' (4x-- y)2 ]

2.

If z

ax2 + bxy + by/inti ax' ay

az az

(ADS: 2q.x +

~y,

bx + 2by]

Mean Value Theorems and Functions of Several Variables

149

3. Ifz = (ax + by)(a\" - by), tind

-a x '-0 y
[ADS: asec 2(a," + by), bsec 2(ax + by)

OZ

{)z

4. Ifz=tan(ax+ by), find


sin(ax + by)
5. Ifz=

ox'ay ox' OU .J'


oz OZ

oz oz

xy

find

[ADS: [

a\"cos(a\" + by) - sin(a\" + by) bycos(a\" + by) - sin(ar + b x2y , x2y

Y2 )

6. If 11 = log(siny + ysinx), then prove that


----ax~v ~vJx

a2 u

a211

x- - y-

ayax
8. If u = tan
I

J + y-

XY

~X2 + y2 + I

then prove that

9. If u =

I -.. x'-- prove that ct 2 e 4c 't

10. If 11

au ) a2u -=c--at ax 2 = .I(x + Ky) + g(x - Ky) then show that a2u = K2 a2u
ay2 ax 2

150

Engineering Mathematics - I

II. If

1I

=~

z + - prove that
x
x au + y ay + z

ax . uy

au =: 0

oz

12. I f

II =

log(x3

t-

y3

-f :;3 ~3xyz),

prove that

-+-t----=:~--

all au

UII

ax
=

~)I

az

x+y

t- :;

13. I f

1I

=.I(r)

W Ilere

.jx" + y + z- prove t HIt

I,,)

14. [1' 11 =

~-

y+z

+ _.- -+ - - then prove that


z+x y+z

lADs: -I)

16. If u = xyf (;

l'
=

prove that

x-- + y-- = 211 Dx . ~v


17. If x = rcosO, y rsin0, then prove that

au

all

18. If 1-1 = logr, r

0 20 0 1 0 - , +-) =0 ox- ay 3 x + );J - x 2y - xy2, prove that


4

19. lf 11

x 2y + J,2z + z2x , prove that

au+ au+ au )~ = (x+ V+zax


~

az

Mean Value Theorems and Functions of Several Variables

151

20. If u = .x3 +

i - 3ary then prove that


a2u a211

21. If u = e ax + by j(ax - by), prove that

h-+a-=2abu

au

all
0;

ax

22. If

- ?-

) ) yz+ - 2- + - 2 - - = I , prove that a- +u b +u c +u

+ (au)2 + (au)2 (-au)2 ax 0; az


3.9.1 Composite Functions

-2( all ax

au au) x-+ y-+zBy az

If u is a function of two variables x and yare themselves functions of an independent variable I. then

-=-.-+-.-'

au au ax au av at ax at ay al

..... (i)

Suppose now that 'u' is a function of the variables x and y, and x and yare themselves functions of two other variables rand s. then

au au ax au ay ar ax ar ay ar all au ax au 0; -=-.-+-.'as ax as 0; as

-=-.-+-.-

..... (A)

..... (8)

II Ily if u is a function of rand s, where rand s are themselves functions of x and ythen

au au or ax as ax ar ax as ax au au or au as -=-.-+-.0; ar ay as ay
-=-.-+-.-

..... (C)

The second and higher-order partial derivatives of'u' can be obtained by repeated application of the above formulae. Also, the formulae can be extended to functions of three and more variabl~s.

152

Engineering Mathematics - I

3.9.2 Example
If z = fix, y), x = ell + e- v, y = e-l/ eV then show that

az az az az ---=x--yau av ax ay
Solution -=--+--=-e --e

az GZaX azOy az u az au ax .au Oy .ax ax . av . az az ax az Oy az


v

-=--+--=--e av fuav Oyav fu


By substraction

--e

az Oy.

az - az)_( - - e (au av

v)aZ - - (" e -e v)aZ ax ay az y-az =x--ax ay


11

+e

3.9.3

Example
If u
=

j(x, y), x

rcos(J, y

sinO prove that

Solution we know that

au = au. ax + all .ay = au cosO + au sin 0 ar ax ar Oy ar ax Oy au au ax au Oy au . au - = - . - + - . - = -(-rsll1 0) + -(rcosO) as ax as ay ae ax ay au lau au +2cosOsmO-.-+ . auau ()2 =cos-O.()2 (-Or )2+2 rae ax axOy
1

Mean Value Theorems and Functions of Several Variables

153

SIIl-O(- ) +SIIl 2 c3y

au 2 .

au ~ 0(-) ax

-2cosOsIIlO-.-+ COS 2

. au au ax ay

au )2 (0
c3y

3.9.4 Example
If u
=

j{x - y, y - z, z - x) prove that

au + au + al~ = 0 ax c3y az
Solution
Let X = x - y, y = y - z, Z = z -x then u
=

f(x, Y, Z)

-=-.-+-.-+-.-=---

lilly

all all ax au ay au az au au ax ax ax ay ax az ax ax az au au all au au az ay = ay - ax' az az ay au + au + au =0 ax c3y az

Adding all these gives

3.9.5 Example
If

z = j{u,

v) Where

(a)

u x2 -y and v = 2xy az y-=2(x az )az x--y )ax ay au


=<
?

prove that

(b)
Solution

u = x2 - y, v = 2xy au au =-2y, av ax =2x - 'c3y ax =2y, av c3y =2x

154

Engineering Mathematics - I

..... (i)

..... (ii)

From these, we get

at at 2 2 aZ x - - y - = 2(x + y ) ax ay au
From (i) and (ii) we obtain

(-J
ax

az 7

az +( By

az az az az)2 = {[ 4 x-+y- J? + [-y-+x- J? } au av all av

3.9.6 Example
If x = reos Bandy = rsill B, prove the following:

ax 1. -=eose as '
2.

ax . e. -=-rsll1

as
,

'

ay = sine By = rsinE> ar 'as y

ar ax

~X2 + y2

ar By

~X2 + y2

as
ax

=-

y x- + y-?
?

'

as
By

x x2 + y2

3.

(:r +(: r

=1

Mean Value Theorems and Functions of Several Variables

155

Solution
I. We have x we get
=

reos O. Differentiating this relation partially w.r.t., rand w.r.t., '0,

ox = cosO -o=r . -rsl110 or ' ao oy = sin {} oy = reosO or 'ao

..... (i)

Similarly, the relation y = rsinO yields .... (ii)

2. From the relations x = reosO, y


x 2 +1=,2 y = tall 0 x

rsinO, we get ..... (iii) .... (iv)

Dr Differentiating (iii) paliially w.r.t., 'x' and w.1:l. ), 'we get -0 ;-0 x y
This gives

or

or y or x x 2 ox r Jx + y" '

y
..... (v)

Differentiating again (iv) partially w.r.t., 'x' and 'y' we get

y( __ 1 ) = sec" 0 ao ,
x2 ox
which gives

~ = sec" 0 ao
x
~v

ao = - -, y = cos " 0 = --, y =, -

ox

rx

x- + y

..... (vi)

-=--=-

00

cos" 0
x

oy

,.2

.... (vii)

3. From (v) we get

(::l\(:r~1

2 or)2 +(or)" =X +y2 =1 ( ox oy r- rr2

=< =<

..... (viii)

156

Engineering Mathematics - I

4. From (v) we also get ..... (ix)

..... (x)
Adding (ix) and (x)

-+ 2 -=5. From (ix) and (x), we get

a2 ,. a2r ax ay2

I r

..... (xi)

..... (xii)

Differentiating

ay

ar = Y
r

partially w.r.t., 'x' we get

So that From (xii) and (xiii) we get that

..... (xiii)

..... (xiv) 6. From (vi) we get

Similarly from (vii), we get ..... (xvi)

Mean Value Theorems and Functions of Several Variables

157

Adding (xv) and (xvi) we get

a 0 a-A 2xy 2xy 0 ----:? + - 2 = -4- - - . 1 = ax ~v r r

Note:
I. The variables (I', 0) related to (x, y) through the relations x = rcosO, y = rsinA are the polar co-ordinates of the point whose cal1esian co-ordinates are (x. y). 2. In obtaining the resllits in (i) rand 0 are regarded as independent variables and x and yare regarded as dependent variables. 3. In obtaining the results (ii) - (vi), x andy are regarded as independent variable~ and rand 0 are taken as dependent variables. 4. After partial differentiation is carried out, the final expression for the partial derivatives are to be expressed in terms of the independent variables. 5. From the expressIOn for - , - ; - , - , It may be observed that -

or ax ax ao ax ar as ax

ar is not the ax

. I reclproca

fax ax.IS not the reclproca . I 0f or an d ae

ao ox'

In C lact we note IJere

ar = ax and ax = 1'2 as . Similarly ar = 0' ay = 1'2 as ax ar ao ax 0' ar ' as 0'


6.

The results (i - vi) arc useful in calculations involving polar co-ordinates.

Exercise - 3(G)
I. If u = x + y, v = xy and f = feu, v), show that

aj Of Of Of x-+ y-=u-+2vax 0' au av


2. If z = 1(r, y) and x = e" + e- X and y = e- II -ev show that

az az az az ---=x--yau av ax 0'

158

Engineering Mathematics - I

3. If z = ttu, v) where

II

'--=

x2 - y2 and v = 2xy prove that


UZ
2

OZ x - --

ox .voy == 2(x

+ y )OU

()z

4. If II

(!"siny. v

e'cosy and z =.f(1I, v) prove that

5. If Z

/og(u 2 + v).

U =

eX' +/.

V =

x2

-f

y, show that
2

!!..~ _ 2.\"(21/ 2 + I)

ox -

/1

2+V

OZ _ 4Y1l + 1 ~v 1/ + v

6. If w =.f(u. v) and u = x 2

-I, v = 2.\:v prove that


OU

J o2 W U-W 4(.2 2) ) ) .\ +Y --+--=

olr

~v-

r 1 l--+-ovJ ;-,J o-W u-W 2)

7. Ifu

= -;V=-'--

V and w =zandf=}(u, v, z

ll~

show that

Of Of Of Of x-+y-+z-=w-

ox

oy

oz

ow

8. If z = }(x, y), x

= 11

cosh v, y =

1I

sinh v prove that

9. If z = }(u, v),

It =

Ix +

II~Y, l' =- ~v

I11X,

show that

a-J z 02 z (/ 2 2)(2 0 Z 02 Z = +111 - + 2 ox+ ~2 0,,2 ov 2


10. If z =f(u, v),
U =

x2
~v

-I,

1- x 2 show lhat

OZ oz x-+ y-=O

ox

Mean Value Theorems and Functions of Several Variables

159

II. If x

ell /e/1/V.)' C~ ell sec)'

fino the vallie of


~v

+ }' (~)' 1 x (x vv + }'-~l ( x~l!ax . Dy ax'


( I Iog(y? -. x-) ) . . II == 2 Ilmt an d v::= Sill
=

lADS: 0

I(

x y

II

12. If w

.f(x2 -

y, )~ .. z2, 22 -- x 2) prove that


-.!. ow + _~_ ow + _~ all' == 0 x ax )' ~y z Dz

13. If w

j(x, y),

11

0=

e\ v

eY show that

D2 w
--:=

3x~v

---.(111')

3 2 \1'

ouvv

14. If x::= -!vw,y::=

j;;,z = -J;;;,

Prove that

o<p 0(1) o<jl o<jl o<jl o<jl x-+ v---+z--=u-+v--+w-

ax . ~Y

oZ

all

ov

all'

where <jl is a function of x, y, z.

3.10.1 Homogeneous Function

Definition
A functionj(x, y,
Z, II .. .)

is said to be homogeneous in x, y,

Z, 11 .....
11.

if it can be

written in the form xl1

g(Y '!-,!~ ..... ) and is said to be of degree x x X

Ex.

I. z = sin-I

(~ ) + tan 1(~)

is homogeneolls and is of degree '0'. Since

Z=xO[sin-I(~J+tan
2
Z

I:]

= x

x-y

. IS

IlOmogeneous an d'IS 0 f'd egree Isll1ce '

160

Engineering Mathematics - I .

3.

~ = x 3sin(~) + A)!ZIOg(;1 + XZ2 tan I(~ 1

~ x'ISin(~)<~lot H~r tan'(;


llence
~

lJ

is of degree' 3' and homogeneous in x, y, z.

3.10.2 Euler's Theorem


The following theorem, known as the Euler's theorem gives a very lIseful formula for a specific combination of partial derivatives ofhomogeneolls functions.

Theorem :

ffz is a homogeneous function ofx andy with degree '11' then x-+ y-=nz
ox .
~y

oz

oz

..... (i)

Proof :
Since Z is a homogeneous function of degree '11' we can write 'z' in the form.

z=

xllf(~)
I1X 1f (

Now

~: = Il - ~) + x l /(:)( ~;)
=

nxlllf(~)_xll 2y/(~)

and

xox oz + yoz = f( y) -x" 'y/ (y) + x" 'y/ (:Ix) x x x


~y
I1X"

= nxllf(:Ix)
=nz

[.:Z=Xllf(;)]

Mean Value Theorems and Functions of Several Variables

Thus

x-+ V-=IIZ

uz

oz

oX .

~V

3.10.3
Ir z is a homogeneous functions of x and y with degree 'n' then
X
2 ]OZ
J )

o-z 20-Z - , + 2xy - - + y - i = ax uxoy uy

11 II -

1z

..... (ii)

Pr(}(l:
Diflerentiating (i) pUl1iaily w.r., to x, we obtain

02 Z OZ 02 Z OZ x--+-+ y--=ll-2 ox ox oxoy ax


I.e.,
02 Z 02 z UZ x-) + yx--=(n-I)-

ox'

oxoy

ax

.... (iii)

Differentiating (i) par1ially w.r., to 'y', we obtain

02 Z 02 Z oz y-+x--=(n-1)oyJ oyox oy
Multiplying (iii) by 'x' and (iv) by 'y' and adding we get

..... (iv)

02 Z 02 Z ) 02 Z (OZ Oz) x--? +2xy--+ y-? =(n-I) x-+y- =n(n-l)z ox' oxuy oy' ox ry
?

3.10.3 General Formula


The Euler's theorem may be generalized to homogeneous functions of more. than two variables. For a homogeneous function j(x, y, z) of degree 'n' in three variables, the theorem can be read as :

x oj + y OJ + Z oj ax ry oz

= nj

..... (v)

In general, for a homogeneous functionj(xl ....x,,) of degree 'n' in 'k' independent variables x\ .... x k the theorem reads

xl -

+x2 - + ..... +xk =l1j a a a Xl X2 xk

OJ

OJ

oj

..... (vi)

The proofs of (v) (vi) are left to the student

162

Engineering Mathematics - I

3.10.4 Example
1/ 1I :~. cosec

-[;-;+JY] au __ ~ if;: + if;; ,thcn prove that x au ax + y ay - 6 tanu


I

Solution
We note that from the given cxpression for' u' we can write cosecll
= "il

'Y.\"

;-;+JY . ;1.: f (say)


+vY
=:

..... (i)

Then

:. fis a homogeneous function of degree

~,

Hence by Euler's theorem

W WI. I x-+ y-=- j =-cosecu


ax
Oy

..... (ii)

I.e.,

I x-(cosecu) + y-(cosecl~ =: -cosecli ax ay 6

Mean Value Theorems and Functions of Several Variables

163

Carrying Ollt partial differentiation, we get

x-+ y-=-=----=--tanu ax ~v - cosec II. cot u 6


x-

au

II

I --cosecu
6

au + yau 1 - = - - tanlt
ax

ry

3.10.5 Example

x y z Ifu= j o( -,-,yzx
Solution
11=

J prove that x-+y-+z-=O au au au


ax

ry

az

y j -,-,y z x

o(x

z)

all au au 0'( -----+---+x z x y y z x-+y-+z-=j ax ry az y x y z z x


=0
3.10.6 Example
If u = sin

1; + tan -1 ~

prove that x ax + Y ry = 0

au

all

Solution

u = f(x. y) is of degree '0'


By Euler's theorem

164

Engineering Mathematics - I

x-+ y-=o.u=o

au

ali
0'

ax

Alter:

Sill

,x - = v, y

tan - -

,y

=w

u=v+w

-=-+-

au avow -::::-+au av Ow ax ax ax' ay 0' 0' x . 1 av -:::: Sill V, - = cosvy y ax y - y ? aw - = tan w, -} = sec- w.x xax -x av I ) aw --:::: cosv- - = sec"w.y2

0"

0'

=0

3.10.7 Example If
ZI =

tan' - __ ( x+y
0 -

X3 + 1'3)

prove that

(i)

x - + y - = s1112u
J
?

(ii)

au au . ax oy 2 a-u? au. . 2 a-u X - 2 +2xv--+ y-} =sm4u-sm2u ax . axay ay-

Solution

Proof:
For the given expression for 'u' we have tanu = ----'-- = f, say x+y

x3 + y3

Mean Value Theorems and Functions of Several Variables

165

Ilere

~f'

is a homogeneous functions of degree'2'

By Euler's thcorem

.\"-' Ox +Oy
I.e.,

at" of

.1' 7f' = 1l.J =~ --:

X~(lanl/) I~ y~~~(tanll)= 2tanll


ax
~v

Carrying oul partial derivatives, we get


? xsec-II-;-~

:"\ vII
vx

+ ysecII
= --,,-

all
~v

- 2tanll S1l1211

x - + y~~~

au
aX

all
(~y

2 tan 11

ceo

sec ~

..... (i)

Next dirterentialing bL)th sides of the resull (i) partially \Y.r., to 'x' and 'J" wc get
x ~-, + ~- + v .~-- =-- 2 cos 211 alII

all
D.\

alII

Ou

ax-

. axD)'

Dx

..... (ii)

a"11 D) II UII all x -~ + )' - , + -~ = 2 cos 211 ~~


(~VaX ~v'

(Iy

~v

..... (i i i)

Multiplying the result (ii) by x, the result (iii), by 'y' and adding the results we get

a~1I + y' x', ~-,(1.\'-

,a"II +
~-:,~

'1

ay

~xy-- =

a"II

OXG)'

(2cos211 ~-l (all all) x - + y--Dx


~v

= (2cos211 =

-I ) sin211,

(from i)

sin411 - sin211

3.10.8 Example

Solution
Let and

166

Engineering Mathematics - I

Then v and ware hOl1logeneous./llllclioll.\' (!ldegree '2 '. Applying 3.10.3 to 'v' and 'w' we get
..... (i)

!Illy

..... (ii)

(i) - (ii) gives

Note:
Letj(z) be a homogeneous function ofx and y of degree Il ; then from Euler's theorem
x_:'l
('JI"

a" =I/f + y_:'l ax Dy


1?/ => X ax + y ay = 7
. oz OZ Ilf
..... (i)

i.e.,

.' f)z , az x..f . ax + xi ay =

DifTerentiating (i) w.r., to y'partially


J
J

Z Z a'z a a'z [j")--JJ 'fj'" a \'-+-+ }I--=Il ' . ax 2 Dx . oxoy /2 -ax

..... (ii)

Differentiating 0) w.r., to 'y' partially


2 2

a z a z az x--+y-+-=n . axay ay2 ry


(ii) x + (iii) Y gives

[/2/2 -jt' 1

-az ay

..... (iii)

Il[j '2

j2

~ f( ][x.az + y_~~]
OX~}I

..... (iv)

Mean Value Theorems and Functions of Several Variables

167

Using (i) in (iv)

..... (v)

llere

3.10.9 Example If z = log(,3 + .vI __ x 2y __xy2), prove that


(i)

x-+ v- =3

a=

ax . ry
f

oz

Note: (i) and (iv) can be llsed as formula in such cases

Hence

t!, f'

c=, f"

e= and

1/

=3

From (i) of3.1 0.8 note

x-+ v--=3 Dx . ~v
lO-Z az 2a'z " x - , +2xv--+y -,=3.2--9=-_, ax' . axoy ~v'
1 ) ,

az

u=

Form (v) on. 10.8 note

3.10.10

Example
Verify Euler's theorem for the function 1/(x, y, z)
=

Jx',z ; +y

Solution
1I

is a homogeneolls function of degree

-=J.
2
..... (i)

So that

2u- = -z(x- + v-) . . 2x 0;'" .

uu

, _,

168

Engineering Mathematics - I

2u~=-z(x-

au

oy

+ y) - .2y

).)

gives

au y~+z-=au ou x--+

ax

oy

oz

-z[
211

x- + y2

) I )

1
by (i)

2 U I - - - -:;: ----1/

211

Hence the result

3.10.11

Example
J

If f

cos

+Y -

"X 1 -t )'4 - Z4

of Df of then show that x - + }'- + z-'- = -cotf AX . ~v oz

Solution
..... (i)

So that

coif=

11 11

From (i) we see that

is a homogeneous function of degree I.

By Euler's theorem
x~+ y~+Z--=-ll

all

all
~

au

ax

az

...... (iii)

Form (ii), we find that

au = -sin l. Of, ou = -sinf i?l, au = -sin fo.l ax . ax oy ~v oz . oz


Using these and (ii) and (iii), we get
-Sill

.f[

x~

Of + y-'of + z-'-

ox

ay

Of) = cos j'


oz

Of Of Of x-- + y - + z~ = -cotf

ax

~v

oz

Mean Value Th.eorems and Functions of Several Variables

169

3.10.12

Example

,
2 2 2 . 1all au ,all ... Fmd x- - , + 2xy-- + y- - , ,If u = sm-- I ax' axoy ~~!.

[Xl + y2
, ,

x' + y3

' ,]1

Solution

,
~ + y31 x3 Taking z = , , [ Xl + y2
I degree - - = n
12

]~

then z = sinu =.f(u) say z is a homogeneous function or

From Euler's theorem

au all j(u) x - + y - = 11-,ax ay f (ll)


, 2

= - - - - = --tan II
12
. 1
1 ) ,"

I sin II 12 cosu

Again

2 a'u .... a 11 2 a-lI ( I) f 11- f -I x -+.ay--+y -,=1111- - , , a.'/ axay ay' f f 3

(-~)(~ -I)tanu - _I_(-tan u).tan 12 12 144


{-:./ = COSll, (' =

1I

-sin 11)

tanu 1 --(13 + tan-u)


144

3.10.13

Example
2 1 _ Y )a u a 2II 1 a-lI If u = tan' ( -=--- ) ,find x' --+ 2xy--+ y--2 X ax axay ay

Solution

Let z =

2:. degree of z is 0 and z = tanu


x

x-+ y-=o ax ay

az

az

-=sec'u-

az ax

au
ax

- =sec'uoy ~v

af.

,all

170

Engineering Mathematics - I

..... (i)
x 02~ +

. uxoy oy
(i) x + (ii) y gives

au + y

02U =

~l

..... (ii)

x--+2xv--+ y-=- x-+ y - =0 0'(2 . ax~y oy' ax oy

) 0\'

OlU

0\.

(au au)

Exercise - 3(E)
I. Verify Euler's theorem for the following functions:
(a) z=--

xy x+y

(b)

(d)

z = SIl1

1 X} (

Y1 ) x-y

( e)

Z-SIl1

_.

--I

X 3

3}) Y
+Y
3

(I)

Z = (x

?+ z-?) + y-

2. If z = xyf

(~) then show that


y

x OZ + Y OZ = 2z ax ~

3. Show the following by using Euler's theorem: (a)lfz=

x3 + / OZ OZ 5 . thenx-+y-=-z ~x+ y ax ~Y 2 x 3 + y3 OZ OZ ,then x-+ y-=2 x+ y ax oy

(b) Ifz= log

x-y 87 OZ (c) Ifz=sin- I - - - - then x--=' + y - == 2 tan z

3 3) ( x-y

ax

~y

Mean Value Theorems and Functions of Several Variables

171

4. If z = tan-I ( x + /

lx+y 5. Ifz =

l'

then x uz + y OZ = sin 2u

8x

'~y

sec~l[x2 + yll, then


x+ y

x a::: + yUZ =cotz

ox

6. If z is a homogeneous function of x and y with degree' 11' and z = f(u), prove that

x-+

all

ux . ~

y-=n-'--

au
2

(u)

/(11)

7.

If z = x 3

. (y) 1 SIll-1 - ,show that x


,

z + 2xy-11 fiz x 2 --T + y2 -2- = 20z

ax-

axay

a
2

~y

8. If z = tan-I ~ X4 + y4

show that

(i) x - + y - = sm2z
2 z 0 2z , 2z . . ii) x) + 2xy + v-) = s1I14::: - Sill 2z (

az ax

oz oy

,a

ax'

ax~v'

~v'

8z I (i) x-- + y - = -tanz

az ax

ay

1 10.lfz=tal1- 1 [;l+YSin- [.:l show that

\-

II. If z = cosec-I

x2

+ y2

then show that

172

Engineering Mathematics - 1

a2 z
-2

ax

"z "Z 02 0+ 2xy - - + y ---:;-

aX~Y

ay

tan z 1 J ] = - - -+-tan- z 12 12 12

ll3

12.lfz=tan- 1 x +y

2 2) ,then show that

x-y

13. If z = log rand ,2 = x 2 +

"a z a z )a z then show that x- - 2 + 2xy-- + y - " + 1 == () ax axay ay

I X4

+ y4I
!

j
then show that

14. If z = sin-I

x5 _ y5

a z )a z 1 2 X - - 2 +2xy--+ y - , =--tanz(tan z-19) ax ax~ ay 400


2

a-z

')

~ x 2+ y2]
15. If z = log (

;\2;\ 2;\ 2 2uZ uZ 2UZ

x+y

find the value of x

GX2

+ 2xy axay + y ay2

3.11.1 Jacobian
Ifu and v are functions of two independent variables x and y then the determinant

au au
ax Ov ax
~ i.e.,

ux
v,

uy

Ov

vy is called the Jacobian of u, v with respect to x and y

au

and is denoted by

a(u, v)
a(x,y)
If u,
l~

or

.J(~) x,y

ware functions of three independent variables x, y, z then the determinant

Mean Value Theorems and Functions of Several Variables

173

lI(

UI'

1I,

V( W(

vI'
Wy

Vz
lV,

is called the Jacobian of 1I.

V,

w with respect to x.

)~

z and is denoted by

a{/I, v, w) a{x,y,=)
Similarly

or

)(U,\" w)
x,y,z

aUI

uU I

(J/I~

a{U p 1l2uJ _ aX I aX 2 a{X I'X 2.....x,,) - all" OU" oX I aX2

ax" au" ax"

SOME PROPERTIES OF JACOBIAN 3.11.2 Property

a(u,v) a{x'Y)_1 a(x,y)' a{u, v) where

J = a{lI,

a{x,y)

vI and

.J

_ a{x,y) - 0(11, v}

Proof:
Let u = u(x. y) and v = lI(x. y) so that u and v are functions of x and y. Then differentiating these partially each with respect to II and v, we get I :=

au . ax + all . 0'
ax all ay au

174

Engineering Mathematics - I

O= - . - + - . -

av ax av ay ax au ay au

1=

av .ax + av .ry ax av ay av au ax av ax
-

Now

a(lI, v) a(x,y) a(x,y)' a(u, v)

all oy av ay

ax ax all av ry ay au av
-

au -au ax ay av av ax ay

ax au ax av

ry

all
ry

av au ax au ay ax' av ay' au av ax av ay --+--' ax' av ~v' av

(Interchanging rows and columns in 2 nd determinant)

-.-+-.- --+--

ali ax au oy ax au oy au av ax av ry -.-+-.-au au ry au

=I~ ~1=1
3.11.3 Property

Proved

a{u,v) _ a{u,v) a{r,s) a{x,y) - a{r,s)' a(x,y)


where u, v are functions of r, sand r, s are functions of x, y.

Proof
By differentiation offunction ofa functions, partially; we get

-=-.-+-.-;

au au ar au as ax ar ax as ax

Mean Value Theorems and Functions of Several Vanables

175

-=~

ou

au -+--'---_. or oy OS

or .~ as oy ,

..... (i)

and

oval' - + avos -_. ox or .ox os ox ' Ov 01' or 01' as -=- -+--_. ~y or .oy os ~y ,
-=~-

01'

=?----=

o(u, v) a{r,s) (1(r,s) a(x,y)

all au

uv
i"lr

(lr

os elv us

(lr (Ix us
(!y.

ilyl

(Is (Iy us

Oll

or as or os x ax ax ov -oV (II' as or as oy oy
all

(Interchanging rows and columns of the second determinant)

-.-+-.- -.-+-.-

or ou os or ox os ox Ov or OV os -.-+-.-or ox os ox
all

or Oll as or oy os oy ov or ov as -.-+-.or oy as ~
ou

ou -ou ox ~ _ o(lI,v) ov Ov - o(x,y) ox ~


-

using (i)

3.11.4 Property
If u, v are functions of two independent variables x and y thell u, v, are independent if

o((U,V))oFO. Otherwise they are dependent. o x,y


. . . o(u, v, w)

Similarly if

II,

v,

(functions of x, v, z) are II1dependent If and only If

a(x,y,Z ) oF

176

Englneenng Mathematics - I

Theorem
If the functions 11 1, 1I::...... 1I11 of the variables xI' x 2 .... xn be defined by the relations Il, ==.ll'",), 112 =flx ,. x 2), 113 = .li x ,. x 2 x 3 ) ..... 1/11 .I;,<x,. x 2 ..... x).
cc

Then

O(lI p 1/2 .....U,,}


o(x"x2.....x,,) -

OU, UU] OU 3

OU II
OXII

ox, . oX1 'a~~

We know that
Similarly lor

Oil,

Oil 2
ox,
0111

ox,
Oil,
Then

0(U"l/2 .. ..U,J _ aX 2 o(x, 'X 2 ..... X II )

oX1

all,
OXII

~1I2

aU

Ii

OXII

OXII

OU,

Oll]

OU"

ox ,
0

ox ,
Olll.

ox ,
Ollil oX1 OU, Olll ox , . oX 1 OU II OXII

oX 2
o

o
3.11.5 Example

If x

= 112

-vl . Y

2uv ,. tllld --( --) 0 1l,V

_ o(x,y)

Solution
We have

u2 - v2

-ox

all

2lI.

--=-2v OV

ox

Mean Value Theorems and Functions of Several Variables

177

v = 2uv => --- = 2 v -"-- = 211


V I I ' 01'

cYv

0)1

ox AX V{X,y) _ or ()I~ ~ 1211 - 21'1 O(II.~) - VI' ~F 21' 211 au VV


3.11.6 Example

:=

) 4(u+ 1'-

If x ~ reose. y ~ rsintJ find - (- ) lllld-(--)

V(x, y) V r,O

a( t,

a x,y

Solution

x = reosq,

rsinO

=>

~ =

(It

cos()o

(1,.

ax = -rsiIlO, of)

---

0(1

ov = rc()sf)
ao
~v

Then

o(x,y) _ or or

ax ax
_Icoso

0(1',0) - ~v

- sinO
tal1- 1 ~

-rsinol . r Sill 0

r(cos 2 0 + sin 20)

= r

ao
x

Again

12 = x 2

+ y2 ; 0 =

2r-- = 2x

or

ox

(l()

-- y

ax

r+y
-

-y 0 r-

or

ax
Dr ay

= -

+x
I'

,.

(1()

-y x2
+)'2

-y

ilx

178

Engineering Mathematics - I

lar

ar

x
Y ~ y

a(,., 0) ~ ax aCy,y) ~ ao
lay

ao -vy

~}!

3.11.7 Example
If x
=

uv, y

11 -

then show that .1./ ::.: I

Solution
We have
-=V,

ax

-=11

at

all
~F

al'

ay

VII

aI'

---

11

But

')

lr =

xy

2u- =

VU )I, ax .
21'-=
ay

DII 2u-=x
ay

and

=-, 2v

x
y

ax y'
y

av =!...
2u
I

aI'

x
--?

y.

J =

II"

lly

211
~x

Vr

v)'

2vy
X

21:J!
X

4uvy

411vy

2uv Y

I? =---v211v

2u

Mean Value Theorems and Functions of Several Variables

179

- 3.11.8 Example
Prove that JJ
=

1 for x

e V secu, y

e V tanu

Solution

ax = e secu tanu, all


and

-=

ax av

e V secli
v

oy

au

eV sec 2 u;

- = ('

0;

av

tanu
2"
I'

x" Yv
Now

e secutanu
e secI' )

"

e secu

I
1I =

II

e" tan 11

-e secu = -xe

sec 2u - lan 2

x 2 e- 2v

ye-2v =
y, also

1
--e" secll
eVtanu

e2v = x 2 -

Y
x

SlIlli = X

-1 = Sill -;

(Y) an d v '2 1 Iog(x


=

)) - Y-

Du
i1x

X~X2
x x- 1

,
- /

all
(Jy
y
x- - y? ?

X~X2 -y 2

av ax

Dv
y
? '

i1y

Y
J
lIx
lIy

X~X2
X

_ y2

~X2

_ y2

Vt

VI'

Y
1 x-

x2 _ y2

y-

180

Engineering Mathematics - I

, \' I JJ =xe ,-=1 \'

xe

3.11.9 Example
VIV Wlt lIV I I I O(X, y, z) If x=-,y=--,z=-- t Jen SlOW tlat - ( - '-)=4
II

01l,V,\I'

Solution

ax
o(x,y,z) _ oy
0(1/, V,-H') Oil OZ 011
- VlI' VlI' VlI'

Oll

ox ov oy ov oz
OV

oX oy ow

VI\'

lI'
It

v
1/
II

all'

u
11'

Wit

oz

V V IV

II

uv

ow
Wli ltV

IV

- Wli

lIW

ltV '-2 '-2 ' 2 II v W --l/V

-I -I -I
=-1(1-1)-1(-1-1)+ 1(1+1)=4

Exercise - 3(1)
I. If y + x + Z = 1I, Z + Y
=

1Il: Z = lIVW, find o(x,y,z) o(u, v, w)

[ADS:

(1I

v) J

Mean Value Theorems and Functions of Several Variables

lSI

2.

If

II

= x+

2/ - Z2, V = x2yz, W = 2X2 -xy find


~(x,Y)
8(r,0)

o(u, v, w) o(x,y,z)

at the point (1,-1,0)


Ans:19

3.

If x==rcosB,}J==rsinB, find
.

and

!JS!~~~
8(x,y)

and show that

--'--.
o(r,O)

o(x,y)

o(r,O) o(x,y)

= 1 (Hint :relcr 3.6.6)


X X, XIX) o(YI,VnY,)

4.

I ,y, = - - - ,show that ----'----'--== 4 If YI = - --- ,Y) = --XI x2 x, 0(X I ,X2,X3)

XOXI

5. 6.

If

YI ==1-XI'Y2

=xl (l-x2 ),y] ==xlxl(l-x,),provcthat

O(YI' Y), y, ) 0(X I ,X2 ,X,)

= (1)3 - XI 2 x"

If x=a(coshu)cosv,y=a(sinhll)sinv, then show that

--,-'- = - (cosh 211 - cosh 2v)


0(11, v)

o(x, v)

7.

If II = /(x l ), v = (x l , x 2 ), W = If/(x!, X 2' Xl) then show that

Oell, v, w)
0(X I ,X2 ,X3 )
8. If
X

=--' oX ox} 2 i

011 Ov

uw

ox

= r S1l1 r.

. 1')

do 0 . do 0 I oC X, y, z) ). 0 cos 'I', Y = r Slll S1l1 or, Z = r cos - S lOW that - - - = ,.- S1I1

o(r,a,)

ox

ox 00 oy

uy

or

o
uy

Solution:

o(x,y, z) o(r,O,)

ay
or

sinOcos reosOcos

- r sin Osin rsinO eos

--

UO tJ

= sin Osin
cosO

r cos Osin
-rsine

OZ
or
=

OZ oz -oe

sin ecos[ 0 +,.2 sin 2 Oeos ] + r coseeos.r sineeosecos +

+( -r sin esin )[ -r sin 2 Osin - r cos 2 esin ] == r2 sin 3 Oeos 2 + r2 sin Ocos] Oeos 2 +,.2 sin 3 Bsin 2 + r2 cos 2 Osinesin 2
== r2 sin 3 0 + r1 sin () cos 2 () = ,.2 sin O.

182

Engineering Mathematics - I

3.12.0 JACOBIAN OF COMPOSITE FUNCTIONS:


Let (u,v) be functions of x,y where x,y themselves are functions of r,e .Then 1I,V arc

. fi .. . e 8(1l, v) composite unctlOlIls of r, and

8(r,B) 8(x,y) 8(r,B) Note 1: Ifu,v are functions ofx,y we may regard x,y as functions ofu,v.

= 8(u, v) . 8(x,y)

(from 3.6.3)

Taking r

= ll, e = v

in the above result, we have


-

au
8u 8v

8u 8v

8(1l, v) 8(x,y) 8(x,y) . 8(1l, v)

---

8(u,v) 8(1I, v)

1 0
0
1

av
8v

=1

811

..

8(1l, v) 8(x,y) 8(x,y) . 8(1l, v)

1 => .1.1 1 = 1

I where J = 8(1l,:i,J = 8(x,y)

8(x,y)

8(1l, v)

Note 2:

8(u, v, w) 8(r,e,)

8(u, v, w) 8(x,y,z) 8(x,y,z) 8(r,e,)

where u,V,W are functions of x,y,z and x,y,z

are functions of Also

r, B, .
J./' = 1; where J= 8(1l, v, w) , .II
8(x,y,z)
II =

= 8(x,y,z)

8(u,v,w)

3.12.1 Example: If

xyz, V = x 2 + y2 + Z2, W = x+ y+ z find .I = 8(x,y,z) . 8(1l, v, w)


I

Solution: we first evaluate .I

8(1l, V, w) 8(x,y,z)

since u,v,w

are explicitly given as

yz zx xy
functions of x,y,z.

.II

= 2x
1

2y 2x

= -2(x we have

y)(y - z)(z - x)

1
1

Hence from the relation that .1.1

= 1,

J = 8(x,y,z) = -] 8(u, v, w) 2(x- y)(y-z)(z-x)

Mean Value Theorems and Functions of Several Variables

183

Exercise - 3(G)
I.
2.

Ifu=2xy,v=x--y, whcrex=rcosO,y=rsmO show that ---=-4,..


o(r,O)

C(ll, v)

If x =

;;;;,y = Jwu,z =-r;;;;


v(x,y,z)
a(r,O,rjJ)
= -1I-V'

where II = r sin OcosrjJ, v =,. sin Osin rjJ, W = rcosO, show that
If x =

= --,.

1 4

Slll

0
(1I-V)2) (A liS : --'------'-

3. 4. 5. 6.

ltV )' ,

ll+V

fll1d - - o(x,y)

v(u,\')

411v

II II = -

yz zx xy 8(x,y,z) V = HI = prove that = x ' y , z 8( ll, V, lV) 4


x +Y
1

1I1I=--,O=tan-l(x)-tan-- (y) show that =0. 1- .xy v( x, y)


If lI=x--2y,v=x+y+z,w=x-2y+3z show that ----=1Ox+4

D( ll, 0)

v(u,V,lI') 8(x,y,z)

3.12.2 Jacobian of implicit functions


Let
1I1' 1I2' 1I3,

be implicit functions of x,,

x 2' x3

so that r= 1,2,3
= 0 and so on

jJu"
Then

1I2' 113'

x" x2, x3 ) = 0,

oj; + a.t; .aU I + a.t; .aU 2 + a.t; .aU 3 aX I aUI oX I oU 2 aX I aU 3 oX I a(.t; ,j~ '/1) 0(11" u), uJ -a(u"U 2 ,1I))' a(X I ,X2 ,X3 )

then

aj~ . all,. I oj~ . OUr I a.f! . Ollr au, oX2 all, oX3 all,. ax! I af2 . OUr I of2 . all,. I a.f~ . all r au,. aX 3 OUr aX 2 Ollr ax! I a.t:l }ur I 'fJj~ . OUr I af3 . au,. all, aX3 au,. oX2 au,. ax!

(by the rule of prodllct of determinants)

184

Engineering Mathematics - I

_ aJ; ax,
_ ~f2

_ aj~

W, _ ~t; aX2 ax)


- aj~

au, 0f, ax,

QU 1

aj; aX2

au) 0f, ax)

= (_ I)' a(J;,j2''/;)

a(x"X2 ,X3 )
Hence

a(u" 112' uJ _(_1)3 a(;;~-x~~~,"J a(x, x2 ,xJ ~V;,fI,lj) , a(U"l/2,lIJ

aCt; ,j~,f,)

(The result if obvious)

3.12.3 Example

x y z If u = r:--:;' v = r:--:;' W = r:--:; prove that v'1-r2 v'1-r2 v'1-r2

a(u, v, w) _ 1 a(x,y,z) - (l-r2


where

y;
r
=

-? =
II
(1-/ 2 )

x2 +

r+

z2

Solution
we have

=x2

=>
Similarly

II(u, v,

W, x, y,

z)

= u2 (I _x2 -

_z2) -

x2 = 0

./; == v2 (1 - x 2 ~

r - z2) - r

13

== w2 (1 - x 2 ~

r-

0 0

z2) - z2 =

.... (i)

(see 3.13.2)

Mean Value Theorems and Functions of Several Variables

185

aCt; ,.I~ ,.I;) _


8(x,y,z)

- 2u 2 x- 2x -2v x -2w 2 x
2

- 211-Y -2v y-2y


- 211'- y
)

- 2112 z

- 2v 2 z - 2w 2 z -2z
?
2

u2 + 1
=

u-

11V

(-2x) (-2y)(-2z)

vw)

v +1
11')

w2 +1

? u-

-8xyz -I
0
-I

v-

w2 +1
by C 1 -C 2

C2 -C 3
=

-8xyz(u2 + v2 + w2 + I) -8xyz
--J

+--- 2 +--? + 1 I-r- I-r l-r? ') ')

X2

y2

Z2

=-8xyz -8xyz
=--2

x- + y + z- + 1-

1'-

,.,

1-r;also.
_Z2)

I-r

2u(l-x2 - /

8U;,.I;, .I;)
8(ui' v2 , w3 )

o
2u(l_x2 y2 _Z2)

o
0
_ yl _ Z2 )

o o
_ y2 _ Z2 )3

o
.
z

2u( 1- Xl

8l1vw(l- Xl

JI-?

(l_r2)3=8~yz(l_r2)112

.J1-r 1
=

_. 8(11, V, w) 1)3 -8xyz ~ Hence trom (I), we have - - - - = (- - , 8 (I 2)1/2 8(x,y,z) I-rxyz -r
X Y Z Cor: Given U=- V=- W=k' k' k

r:-?
',"1_1'2

where k

II =V

' f iIn d ,(x,y,z) Y, - Z-,


(u, v, w)

in terms ofk. lAns: k

186

Engineering Mathematics - I

Exercise - 3(H)
I. Ifx+y+z = u ,y+z = uv, z = uvw, then prove that
2 2 2
----'----=--~

8(x,y,z)

=- II

8(u, v, w)
~)

8(u,v) x--y2. Ifx + l + u _v = O,uv + xy = 0, prove that 8(x,y) u 2 + v 2 then 3. If u1 =x1 +X2 +x3 + x,pU 1U 2 =x2 +X3 +X4 ,1lIU2113 =x4 8(X p X2 ,X3,X4 ) 3 2 =1I1 .il2 113 8(u l , 112 , u3' 114) 4. If u 3 +V3 +W3 =X+ y+z,u 2 +V2 +W2 =X3 + / +Z3, 8(1I,v,w) (y-z)(z-x)(x-y) t Ilen SlOW t Ilat = ---"'----'---'..-----'-----'-----'----"-I 8(x,y,z) (v- w)(w-u)(u - v)
functions.

prove

that

3.7.4 Use of Jacobians in determining functional dependence and independence of

Let u and v be two functions of x and y connected by the relation v = f(u), then we say that u and v are functionally dependent. We shall prove that the condition for functional dependence is

o(u, v) = 0 o(x,y)
Consider
w = v - feu) = 0

Now w is a function of u and v where u, v are functions of x and y. w is a composite function of x and y

ow ow au Ow Ov -=-.-+-.-

ax ax ax ov ax ow ow au ow Ov -=-.-+-.ax au ax ov ax
But w considered as a function of x, y is identically zero. i.e.,

..... (i)

..... (ii)

Ow -=0

ax

'

Mean Value Theorems and Functions of Several Variables

187

From (i) and (ii) we get


-.-+---.--=0

Ow

all ow ov au ax av ax au
~v

..... (iii)

and

--.--+-.-=
D1'

Dw

all ow av

0 ..... (iv)

ay

Eliminating

Ow aw -a--o from (iii) and (iv) we have 11 I'

all aI' ax ax all -av


Oy
~v

=0

--

au au ax ay ou au =0 ax Oy

=>

a(x,y)

a(u,11=o

The concept of functional dependence can be extended to any number of variables. Thus if u, 1\ 11' are functions of x. y, z the 1I, v, w will be functionally dependent (i.e., there will exist a relation between ll. 1\ 11') if

Q~!_,V, w) = 0
a(x,y,z) 3.14.5 Example
Are x -I- y - z, x - y + z, x 2 + y2 + z2 - 2yz functionally dependent? I f so, find a relation between thelll.

Solution
Let

lI=x+y-z
1'=x-y-l-z
11' =

..... (i)

..... (ii)

Xl

-I-

-I-

i2 -

2yz

..... (iii)

188

Engineering Mathematics - I

Then

o(U, v, w) = o(x,y,z)

\
\

-\

-\

2x

2y-2z

2z-2y

=
2x

-\

-\

=0

2y-2z

2y-2z

(since 2nd and 3 rd columns are identical)

:. u, v, ware functionally dependent


To find the relation between u, v, w we notice that, from (i) and (ii)
11

+ v = 2x,

U -

v = 2(y-z)

From (iii)

u2 + v2 = 2w, the required relation


3.14.6 Example
11,

If 11 = x + Y + z, v = x 2 + y2 -I- z2, W = x 3 + + z3 - 3xyz then prove that l~ ware not independent and find the relation between them.

Solution

CondItIOn or lunctlOna

..

ti

c:

Id d . epen ence IS

o(u, v, w) 0 ( ) =

o x,y,z

Now

o(U, v, w) 2x 2y 2z o(x,y,z) - ? ? 2 3x- -3yz 3y- -3zx 3z -3xy

=6 x2

X
-

yz

Mean Value Theorems and Functions of Several Variables

189

=6

x-y (x- y)x+ y+z

y-z
)

y - z(x + y + z) z- -xy

o
=

o
z
x+ y+z z -xy

6(x - y) (y - z)

x+ y+z
=0
11, V, IV

are functionally dependent. We shall now find the relation between them

we have Now

(x + y + z) (.x2 + I + z2 - xy - yz - zx)
V =

..... (A)

u2 -

(x + y + z)2 - (x 2 + I + z2)

= 2(xy + yz + zx)
We write (A) as

W=U

U-V] -[v 2

Thus

3.14.7 Example

Test whether u = - - , v = ( the relation between them.

x+ y x-y

xy )2 are functionally dependent and if so, find x-y

Solution
Treating'lI, vas functions of x, y the condition for functional dependence is

a(u,v) =0
a(x,y)
11=--,

x+y x-y

V=-~-c-

xy

(x- y)2

190

Engineering Mathematics - I

We have

ux
II

{x-y)'I-{x+y)'1 (X_y)2 (X- y).(I).{X+ y){l) (X_y)2

-2y {X_y)2 2x {x-yf

==
y

--'---~---'--'---'--~'--'--'--

V
x

= {x- y)2 y-2{x- y).l.xy


(x _ y)4

_ {(X- y)y-2xy)

(x- y)
xy - y2 - 2xy _ - y{y + x)

{x- y)3
lilly
Vy={

- (X- YY

X(X+ y) x-y )3
lIx ll"
Vy

a{u, V)

a(x,y) = Vx

=UV - v v x y x y

'-2y 2 .x{x+ y} + y{X+ y!. 2x J =0 (X- y) (X- y) {X- y} (X- y). U,

v are functionally dependent

We shall now find the relation between them We have


u=--

x+y x-y

x-y x+ y

By componendo and dividendo


-=-

1+u

I-li

Mean Value Theorems and Functions of Several Variables

191

Now

xy

o X

v = (x - y)' = (;

1+11
l-lt

by (A)

'V=C~:~2 J
u2(4v+ 1) = I
The required relation of functional depedence between
lI,

v.

3.14.8 Example
Examine for functional dependence of u = sin-I x + sin-1y

v=x~l-y2 +y,JI-x 2
and find the relation between them, if it exists.

Solution
We have

u =-===

~1_x2

lilly

a{u, v)
a{x,y)

1I (

It )'

Vx

Vy

192

Engineering Mathematics - I

:. ll, V

are functionally dependent we shall now determine the relation between u and v Let A=sin-1x,B=sin-1y; =>x=sinA y=sinB The given function can then be written as u = A +B v = sin A)1-sin B +sin BJl-sin A = sin(A+B)= sinu Hence the required relation of functional dependence between u and v is v = sinu
2 2

3.14.8(a) If u

= eX sin y, v = eX cos y,
-

show that u,v are functionally independent

a(u, v) Solution: The Jacobian a(x,y)

au ax

au ay av

e smy e cosy
eX

av
ax

cos y

_ex

sin y

_ex

* o.

ay

:. x, v are functionally independent. 3.14.9 VerifY whether u = - - , v = - - are functionally dependent, and if so find
the relation.

x-y x+z

x+z y+z

Solution: Treating u,v as functions of x,y regarding z as an absolute constant, the


condition for functional dependent in

a(u, v) a(x,y)

=0
,

Now - =

au ax

y + z au 1 av 1 av = - = - - - and -=~-, (x+z/' ay x+z ax y+z ay

x +z (Y+Z)2

Mean Value Theorems and Functions of Several Variables

193

B(u,v) B(x,y)

y+z (x + Z)2
1

---

X+Z x+z (y + Z)2

=0

y+z

u, v are functionally dependent.To lind the relation between u and v, we eliminate 'x' between the given relation viz:
u

= ------------- (A),
X+Z

x-y

v = ---------------(B)

x+z

y+z
liZ

from(A) ux+vy = x-yo =>(I-u)x=uz+y => x = - liZ

+Y 1-11

+Y

+z

Substituting for 'x' in 'B', v = 1-11

y+z

(y+Z) I-l/' y+z

I-u

Hence the required functional relation between 'u' and 'v' is v( I -u) = I.

Exercise - 3(1)
I. Verify whether the following are functionally dependent and if so, lind the relation between them.

x- y x+ y x+y x x-y ( b) u = - - , v = tan -\ x + tan -\ y I-xy


(a) II = - - , V = - -

(Ans: u( I+v) = 2) (Ans: v = tan (Ans: 4v + 1I


2
-\

II)

(c)u=x-y,v= xy x+y (X+y)2


2. (a) II

=1)

Prove that the following functions are not independent.

= X + 2y + Z, v = x- 2y + 3z, W = 2xy - 2z + 4yz - 2Z2 2 (b) II = x+ y- z, v = x- y+ z, w= x + l + Z2 - 2yz 3 (c) u = x + y + z, v = xy + yz + zx, w = x + l + Z3 - 3xyz


If u

3.

= x + y "v = y + z
Z x

= y(x + y + z) ,
xz

show that u,v are connected by a

functional relation.

194

Engineering Mathematics - I

4.

Examine for functional dependence between u = - - , v = tan-I x - tan -I y.1f


dependent, find the relation. ( Ans: u=tan v)

x-y l-xy

5.

Prove that functions

II

=Y + z, v = x + 2z 2 , W = x -

4yz - 21 are functionally

dependent and find the relation between them.

(Ans: V=W+2l?)

3.15.1 Maxima and Minima


The method of finding the maxima and minima of functions of two and three independent variables is discussed in this topic. The maximum or minimum values are also called Stationary or extreme or turning values. For finding these values we use Taylor's theorem for functions of two variables.

3.15.2 Taylor's theorem for a function of two variables: We know that Taylor's theorem for a function f(x) of a single variable 'x' is

f(x+h) = f(x) + hj\x) +


....( I)

~~ /I(X)+ ...... .

Now, consider f(x,y), a function of two independent variables. Keeping 'y' constant and following (I) we get

j(x+h,y+k) = f(x,y+k)+h-f(x,y+k)+---J j (x,y+k)+ .........(2) ax 2! axKeeping 'x' constant and by applying (I), we get

h2

f(x+h,y+k) = f(x,y)+k-j(x'Y)+---2 f(x,y)+ ...... . 2! ay ay


.... (3) Substituting (3) in(2) we get

a.

ea

f(x+h,y+k) = [ j(x,y)+k a;f(x'Y)+2T ay2 f(x,y)+ ...... .


2

a.

ea

2 ]

a [ f(x,y)+k-j(x,y)+---) a. e a f(x,y)+ ...... .] + hax ay 2! ay 2 2 112 a [ a. a ] + 2T al f(x,y)+k iY j (x,y)+2T al f(x,y)+ ....... +..... .

Mean Value Theorems and Functions of Several Variables

195

Substituting (iii) in (ii) we get

f(x + hy + k)

k a f(x,y)+ ....] a [f(x,y)+k-f(x,y)---2 ay 2! ay

2 a [ f(x,y)+k-f(x'Y)+---2 a a f(x,y)+ .....] +hax ay 2! ay

2 2 2 h a [ f(x,y)+k-f(X'Y)+---2 a a f(x,y)+ .....] +---2 <2 ax ay < 2 ay

+ .....

k a f + .....] + h-+hk--+ a f .....] = f(x,y)+k-+-2 ay


2

aj

2 2

< 2 ay

[aj

ax

axay

+[~ a <2 ax
Thus

+ . . .]
f(x, y) + (h! + k

f(x + h. y + k)

~ )f

1 +~hax+kay

(a

a)2 f+

..... (iv)

Expression (iv) if known as Taylor's expansion for functions of two variables. Writing x
=

a, y

b expansion about (a, b) is given by

If(a+h,b+k)=f(a,b)+ ( hax +kay

a)2

ira,b)

1 h-+k- ]2 i((jb)+ ..... +1! ax ay ,


Now if we call h = x - a, y - b = k we get

[a

f(x,y) =f(a, b) + ((x-a)!

+(y-b)~)i((j'b)

196

Engineering Mathematics - I

1 ( (x-a)-+{y-b)a a )2 fiab) + ..... . +2!

ax

ay'

..... (v) Writing a = 0 = b, we have


f(x, y)
=

j(0, 0) + (x

~+y;

)./(0,0) + ......

.. ... (vi)

This is Maclaurin's series for two varialbes.


3.15.3 Example

Solution

We have

f(x, y) =- ~2 + y2

=> f{I,I) = e 2
=

Ix (x, y)

2xe x

2+ 2
Y

=> Ix (I, I)

2e

fyy (x, y)

X2 + y2

+ 4Y eX

+Y-

=> fyy (I, I)

6e2

Hence putting these values in second form of Taylor's theorem, we get


e,2+y2

1 =e2[l +2(x-I)+2(y-I)]+ 2! [6(x-I)2+8(x-I)(y---I)+6(y---If+ .... ]

3.15.4 Example

Expand
Solution

siny in powers of x and y as far as terms of third degree

f(x, y)

= ~siny

=> j(0, 0) = 0
,=>Ix(O, 0) =>J;,(O, 0)
= =

Ix(x, y) J;,(x, y)

= ~siny = ~co,';y

0
1

Mean Value Theorems and Functions of Several Variables

197

lxlx. y) = ~siny -=>lxx(O, 0) = 0 lx/x. y) /y/x. y)


= ~C()sy =

-=>fxy(O, 0) = I
0)
"=

~siny -=>/y/O,

lxxi'" y) = ~siny -=>j~x..l0' 0) = 0 lxx/x. y) = ~sillY -=>j~-X/O, 0) = 1


j~J'Y(x, y)

= ~siny -=>fxy/O, 0) = 0
=

fy;./x. y)

~C()sy -=>1;'JY(x, y)

= -1

Then by Taylor's theorem we have


f(x. y)
=

j{0, 0) + [xlx(O, 0) + y1;. (0, 0)]

I 2 .2 + 21 [xfxx (0,0) + 2xylxy (0,0) + yjXy(O, 0) ] + ......


=

0 + x(O) + y( 1) + - (0) + xy( 1) + - (0) + - (0) + ..... 226


2

x-

y-

x-

x y =y+xy+---+ ..... 2 6

3.15.5 Example
j(x. y)
=

x 2y + 3y - 2 in powers of (x-I) and (y + 2) by Taylor's theorem

Solution
j(x, y)
=

f(a, b) + [(x-- a)lx (a, b) + (y - b)fy (a, b)]

21 (x -

a)2 fxx(a, b) + 2(x -a) (y - b)j~ (ab)


.... (i)

+ (y - b)2.fyy (ab) + .....

Here a

1, b = -2
f(x. y)
=

x 2 + 3y - 2 -=> j{ 1, -2)

-10

fJx. y) 2xy -=> J,x (I, -2) = -4 x /y(x. y) =x2 + 3 -=> 1;,(1, -2) lxix. y)
= =

1+ 3 = 4

2y -=> lxx(\' -2) = 2(-2) =-4

fxy(x. y) = 2y -=> fxy(\' -2) = 2( 1) =2


j~(x.

y) = 0 -=> j~(1, -2) = 0

198

Engineering Mathematics - I

11)=0 Jrxx.\ (x'J/

--- Jrxxx (I ' -2)=0


---,I'

' /x Y') j xxy\" /


, AYY\"

2 => j' (I -2) xx)' ,

f'

/x y,) = 0 /

=> j'XJ'}'(I , -2) = 0

' /x Y') = () => j' (I , -2) = 0 j .Y.ly\" / )')'


Substituting a = -1, b = 2 and above values in (i) we have

x 2y + 3y - 2

= -

10 -4(x -I) + 4(y + 2) - 2(x-l;2


1)2

+ 2(x- -1) (y + 2) + (x 3.15.6 Example


Evaluate log[(l.03) I] + (0.98) '4 -1] ,approximately.

Cv + 2)

Solution

Then Assuming We get

f(x + h. y + k)

IOg( (x +
= -

h)~ + (y + k)~ 0 .02

I)

x = 1, y

1, II

= =

0.03, k

F(x+h, y + k)

IOg[(l.03)~ +(0.98)~ -IJ


F(x, y) + h-+ k - approximately ..... (A) ox oy

oF

OF)

of ox

I -x 3

of oy
I -

1 --3/ -y 4
-

x 3 + y4 _I

x 3 + y4 -1

F(x, y) + h

. ox + k [OF) oy approximately (OF)

Mean Value Theorems and Functions of Several Variables

199

~ IOg[ (1.03)~ + (0.98)~ -I]


=

F(I, I) + 0.03

(aF)

ax

+
(1,1)

(_O.02)[aF)

ay

(1,1)

~O.03 ll+I-IJ r j to.oJ ~ 1 ~O.005 ll+I-IJ


Exercise - 3(J)
I. Obtain the expansionllsing Taylor's theorem of the following:

approximately

(-: F(l,I) =

0)

I. xy2 +

cos(xy) at

(I'~)

2. xY at (I, I) lIpto second term

I ADS:
3. sinx. siny in powers of

xY = 1

1 +(x -I ) +(x -I) x (y -I ) + (x_I)2 I 2

(x -~) and (y -~)


( ADS. 2242'

~+~(x_~)+~(V_~)_~(X_~)2
444

4.

eax sinby at (0, 0)


( ADS: hy + xyah + '" )

200
3

Engineering Mathematics - I

5. Prove that sm(x +y)

=x +Y-

( x+

y)
2

<3

+ .....

6. Show that eY 10g(1 + x) = x + xy - ~ approximately


2

7. Expandf(x, y)

sinxy in powers of (x -1) and (y -

~) upto second degree term.


1t) - -1 ( y - -1t)2 + ..... I y- 2 2 2

1t [ ADs I -

2 (x - 1)2 - -1t(x -1 \
2

3.16.7 Maxima and Minima


The function F(x, y) is maximum at (x, y) if for all small positive or negative values of hand k; we have

f(x + h, y + k) - F(x, y) < 0

.... (i)

Similarly, F(x, y) is minimum at (x, y) iffor all small positive or negative values of hand k; we have

F(x + h, y + k) - F(x, y) > 0


Thus ifF(x, y) has a minimum or maximum value then [F(x + h, Y + k) -F(x, y)] keeps the same sign for all small positive or negative values of hand k. Now using Taylor's expansion, we get

F(x + h, y + k) - F(x, y)

aF aF) h -+k ay

ox

-f

2 2 2 -2-(h2 a F +2hk a F +k2 a F) 21 ax 2 axay 0'2 + .....

..... (iii)

Assuming h, kto be sufficiently small; the sign of the expression on the left can

aF aF be made to depend on that of h ax + k 0'


Hence the necessary condition for f(x, y) to be a maximum or minimum is that

Mean Value Theorems and Functions of Several Variables

201

- = 0 and - = 0

of ox
=

of oy

of
I.e.,

0 and q

where p = ox'

of q = oy
2 2

then (iii) ~ f(x + h y .

-I-

k) - j(x y)

,0 F 0 F , 0 F] 11- --) + 2hk-- + K- --) + ..... '2! or ox8y oy= -

I[
I

= -

2!

r rh 2 + 2shk + tk2 ]

02F s=-ox8y'
, =r - [ h2!

z= 0

~y-

~l

s t ,] + 2hk-+-K-

=-

2!

[(

h+-k r

- s ) k, -,-k- +1-) ))+ (2 rr-

II

=~[(h+~k)2 +(rt-.~.2)k:l 2! r rIt has the same sign for all h, k if and only if (rt - s2) is positive. When (i) (ii) (rt - s2) positive,j(x, y) is maximum for negative 'r' and minimum for positive 'r'. (rt - s2) is negative, we have neither a maximum nor minimum and such stationary points are called saddle points.
=

Solvingp = 0, q

0, we get the extreme points

Extreme value :

.I(a, b) is said to be an extreme value ofJ(x, y) if it is either maximum or minimum.


3.16.8 Example
Find the maximum and minimum values of x 3 + 3xl- 31 + 4.

Solution
We have

J(x, y)

x 3 + 3xl- 3x2
fy

31 + 4
f)y = 6x- 6,

fx = 3x2 + 31- 6x,

= 6xy - 6y,

1;)' = 6y

202

Engineering Mathematics - I

We now solve

Ix = o,f;, =
I.C.,

0 simultaneously
..... (i)

x2+y~2x=0

and

xy

~Y =

..... (ii)

xy ~ y = 0 => y = 0 or x = I
From when

x 2 + y ~ 2x

0 we get

y = 0, .~ ~ 2x = 0
x = 2 or x = 0

when

x= l,y~1

0 i.e.,y= I or~1

Thus the points are (0, 0), (2, 0), (I, I), (I, ~ I) (a) For

x = 0 , y = 0 , r =j' xx = ~6 ' s = 0 ') t = ~f)


rt ~
s2 =

36 ~ 0 > 0

j(x, y) is stationary at x = 0, y = 0
But

r=/xx =
=4

~6

<0

fix, y) is maximum at x = O,y = 0 and the maximum valuej{O, 0)


(b) Por Again

x = 2 , .y

= 0,

r =/ xx = 6 ' s =/ .xy = 0 , t =j' n' = 6

rt ~s2 > 0

j(x, y) is stationary at x
But

2, Y

r =/ xx = 6 > 0
j{x, y) is minimum at x = 2, y = 0 and minimum value j(2, 0) = 0 x
=

(c) At

I, Y = I or at x = I, Y = ~ I

rt ~ s2 > 0 and we can reject these points as they are not stationary points.

3.16.9 Example
Discuss the maximum and minimum of f('(,y)
=

x2 ~

Y + 6x -- 12
~

P = 2x + 6, q = ~2y, r = 2, s = 0, t = ~2 p = 0 gives x = ~3, q = 0

y =0

Mean Value Theorems and Functions of Several Variables

203

Stationary point is (-3, 0); and here r = 2 >0; and rl-s~ == 4-0 == 4 > 0 ) ) - 1,... x- -.V + 6x - .!. is minimum at (-3,0) thc minimum valuc is

j'(-3,O)==-21.
Exercise -3(k)
I. I.

....
')

Find the maximum and minimum valucs of: x' + 3x/ - 3/ + 4 jAns : (0,0) max. its valuc 4,(2,0) min. its value 'W] 3 ) - 3.c ) 7 x'+ xy -3 Y)+ [Ans :max . value 7 at (0,0) min.value '3' at (2,0))
x~ + /

3. 4. 5. 6.

+6x+ 12

[Ans: mill. value '3' at (-3,O)j

x 3 + x/ + 21x -12x2 - 2./


X4 X4

l Ans : max.value

10 at ( 1,0) min. value -98 at (7,0) 1

+x/ + / + / _ x2 _

jAns: minimum value '0' at (0,0)1


y2

+1

lAns: max.value I at (0,0) min.value Y2 at t(Hlr pOints(

~ ~)]

7.
8.

9.

jAns: max.valuc --at -,- ] 324 2 2 ) ) ) 3 Discuss the stationary values of II == x-y-3x- - 2y -4y + [Ans: u is a maximum at(O,-I). The maximumvalue is 5, u is neither maximulll nor minimum at(4,3) Find the maximulll and minimum values ofthc following functions. (a) x'/(12-3x-4y) jAns:maximulllvalucat(2,1)]
X

Y -x Y -x Y

1 (1 1)

(b)

Xl

+ / - 3axy( a > 0)

[Ans: minimum value is _(/' at (a,a)1 [Ans:maximum value is ~ at (a/3,a/3)]


1

(c) xy(a-x-y) (a>O)


10.

27

Determine the values of x,y for which the following functions are maximum or mllllmum .. (a) x ' y 2(1-x- y) l Ans: maximum for x = 112 , Y = I/3 j
(b) (x 2

+ y2)"

-2a\x~

- /)

(c) sinx siny sin(x+ y) (d)a[sinx+siny+ sin(x+y)] [Ans: maximum for x = y =7[ /31
(e) x/(3x+6y-2)

[Ans: minimum for x == a,y = OJ [Ans : maximum for x = y = 7[ /3] [Ans: minimum at x = y = 1/6J

204

Engineering Mathematics - I

Lagrange's method of undetermined multipliers: 3.17.0Theorem: Find the maximum and minimum values of

f(x"X 2'X3' ......xlI )

where x" x2 ' x 3 ' XII are connected by the following m equutions.

, (x, ,x2 ' x,J= 0


2(X"X2' ....... .xJ = 0

m(X, ,X2 ,. .... .xll ) = O.


Proof: Let u
=

f(xl'x2, .........x,J .Since n variables are connected by the m given

relations, only n-m of the variables are independent. The maximum and minimum values ofu can be found by the method of Lagrange's method of undetermined Multipliers .For u to be max or min of u , du i.e.
=

au au au -dx, +-dx2 + ........ +-dxn =0 ax, aX2 aXil


also from, we have

..... ( 1)
multiplying the above equations by 1, ~, ~, ....Am respectively and adding, we get

au a, a2 am ) ( au a, al am ) ( -+~-+~-+ ........ +AI/I- dx, + -+~-+~-+ ........ +AI/I- dx2 ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~

+.................................... .
au a, ~ a2 1 am) _ + ( -+~-+"'2-+ ........ +AI/I-- dxn -0. ax" aXil aXil Ox
ll

. .... (2)

The values ~,~, .... Am are at our choice .We can, therefore choose them so as to satisty 'm 'linear equations .

.. .. (3)
I(is immaterial which n - m of the n variables are regarded as independent. Let these bexl/I+"x"H2' .......x".Then since the n - m quantities dxm+"dxm+2, .......dx" are all independent, their coefficient must be separately zero. This gives additional equations.

Mean Value Theorems and Functions of Several Variables

205

..... (4)

au axil

A, atA aXil

~ a2
- axil

+ ........ + Alii

am = 0 aXil

Now we have m+n equations in all and given relations ,

= 0, 2 = 0, .......III = 0

The equations (3) and n-m equations (4) are sufficient to determine the m + n quantities
A,,~, .... AII/ and

x"x2 ' x

lI

for which maximum and minimum values of u

are possible .The m multipliers are called Lagrange's Multipliers.

3.17.0 (a)Theorem: If u=<p(x,y, z), j; (x,y, z)=O., .t;(x,y, z) =0


maximum and minimum values ofu

discuss the

Proof: For a maximum or minimum, we have du


I.e.

=0

af" af" af" -'-' d" + -'-' dy + _0_' dz = 0 ax ay oz

Also from

j; = 0 andJ; = 0
'" .. ( 1)

FaJ; dx+ aJ; dy+ a.t; dz=O ax iY az aJ; dx+ aJ; dy+ aj; dz = 0 ax iY az
Multiplying these equations by 1, A" ~ respectively and adding

a + A, aJ; ( ax ax
...
~ ... (2)

~ aJ;) dx + ( a + A, a.t; + ~ aj ;) dy + l( a + A, a.t; + ~ a.t;) dz = 0


ax

liY

iy

iy

fu

fu

fu

The lagrange's multipliers

A"

~ are choosen such that

206

Engineering Mathematics - I

o +:1 ()I; + /l, ~ 01; /11 oy oy - ~v

.... (4)

then equation (2) becomes

o +:1 ~/~ + /L 1) ~/; /11 ()z oz - oz

=0

(5)

These equations (3) ,(4), (5) and given

1;<'t,y,z)=0, .I;(x,y,z)=O are

sufficient to find ~, ~ ,x,y,z which give maximum and minimum values of u ..

3.17.0(b) Theorem: If u
minimum values ofu.

(x,y, z) and f(x,y,z) = 0 find the maximum or

Proof: For a maximum or a minimum


I.e.
~.dx+~.dy+~.dz

II

,we have du

0
.... ( I)

o ox

o oy

o oz

=0

and from given

f(x,y,::) = o. of ol ~l - .dx + -.Jy + -.Jz = 0 ox oy OZ

.... (2)

Multiplying (1) by 1 and (2) by A and adding

o + A of)dx+( o + A ol)dY+(o'+ A ol)dZ = 0 ( ox ox oY oy OZ oz


Lagrange's multiplier A is choosen such that

.... (3)

o +A ~l =0 ox ox
.... (4)
and

o +A ~l Oy oy

=0

.... (5)

The equation (3) gives

o +A ~l =0 oz oz
The equations (4),(5),(6) and

.... (6)

1 (x,y, z) = 0

enable us to tind the values of

A "x,y,z for

which u is a maximum or a minimum.

Mean Value Theorems and Functions of Several Vanables

207

Exercise - 3(1)
3.17.1 Example

$ = x 2 +1+ z2 has a minimum value and find this minimum $.


Solution

Find the point upon the plane ax + by + cz

p at which the function

ax+by+:::=p
') . .2
J

~:::= ~---~

p-ax-hy e
J (

..... (i)
)

Again

$=

x~

+ .V"" + z-

= r

')

+ ), +

17 - ax - bV)c

Then for min./max., we have


0$

ox = 2.x uy

2a (p _ ax - by) = 0
e2
(p _ ax - hy) = 0

..... (ii) ..... (iii)

~$ = 2y- 2~
e-

From (8)

~-=

p-ax-hy
) c-

~-=

p-lLr-hy c2
y
.

h
x a

bx y=. (l Now, substituting this value ofy in (ii) we obtain


~-=-'--~

b- X) =0 x- 2a ( P - l I X e 1I
c 2x - (lP

+ a2x + b2x

x( a 2 + b2 + ( 2 ) = (lP

ap bx bp ) ) and Y = =) ) ) a +h- +c a a- +b- +c2

Then,

and

208 Hence 3 a min, when

Engineering Mathematics - I

x y p =- =----:---=-::----c2 2 2

a +b +c

Also

Z =

p-ax-by c

=~[p_
c

a p

a2 + b2 + c2

I.e.,
Hence 3 a min. at

-==-

y Z abc

P 2 a +b 2 +c 2

4> . =.xl + y2
mm

+ z2 =

a 2 p2 + b 2 + p2 +C2p2
----'---,---...:...--.---:'--

(a 2 + b2 + c2 r

3.17.2 Example
Divide 24 into the three parts such that the continued product of the first, square of the second and cube of third is maximum.

Solution
Let 24 be divided into parts x, y, z then x + y + z Given then or
=

24

..... (i)

4>(x, y, z)

x 2 y2z

4>(x, y) =.xl;? (24 .- x - y) from (i) 4>(x, y) = 24x3y2 - x4y2 - x 3y3

Differentiating, we get

= ~! = n.xly2 2

4~y2 -

3x2 y3

a 4> r =-? ax-

144xy2 - 12x2y2 - 6xy3

Mean Value Theorems and Functions of Several Variables

- - --- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - and
S

209

02~ =- = - (o~ oxoy oX ~Y

a 1

? ? 144x2y- 8x3y - 9x 2y-

For a maximum value of ~(x, y)we have

a~ = 0 => ox

72x 2y"2 _ 4x 3

i - 3x2y3 =

=> x 2i (72 - 4x - 3y) = 0 => 72 - 4x - 3y = 0,


and
x = 0, y = 0
=

..... (ii)

o~ = 0 => 48x3.v ~

2x4y - 3x3 v2
.

=> x 3y (48 - 2x - 3y) = 0 => 48 - 2x - 3y = 0,


Solving (ii) and (iii) we get x At (12, 8), we have

x = 0, y = 0

..... (iii)

= 12 and y = 8 etc

r= 144, 12(8)"2- 12(12)2(8)-6(12)(8)3


= 12(8)2 (144 - 144 - 48) = 12(8)2 - (-48)

r=48(12)3_2(12)4_6(12)3.8
= (12)3 (48 - 24 - 48) s = 144( 12)2 . 8 - 8( 12)3 . 8 - 9( 12)2 (8)2
==

(12i. 8 (144 -96 -72) == (12)2.8(-24)

:. rt - s2

=12. (8)2 (-48). (12)3 (-24) == (12)4.8 2 .24 (48 - 24)


==

-l (12)"2.8.

(-24)]2

(12)4.8 2 .242> 0;

Since rl - s2 > 0 and r < 0, therefore ~ (x, y) is maximum at (12, 8). Putting x
==

12, and y

==

8 in (i), we get z == 4

The values of x, y, z are 12, 8, 4 respectively. This is the division of 24 for maximum ~(x, y, z).

3.17.3 Example
A rectangular box, open at the top, is to have a volume of 32 c.c. Find the dimensions of the box requiring least material for its construction.

210

Engineering Mathematics - I

Solution
Let I, band h be the length, breadth and height of the box respectively. Then, wc have
v
=

Ihh

= I-

32 ; surface

2(1 + h) h + Ih

S (say)
.....(i)

2(1

b)h + Ih and b

32
= -

III

32) h + I (32) 64 +32 s = 2 ( 1+= 2111 + III liz I h


Now

~~

2/-(:;)

For maximum and minimum ofS, we get

as =0= as
al
0/

ah

as = 0 ~ 2h _ 64 = 0 h = 32 2
1
' 12

and

ah

as = 0 ~ 2/- 32 = 0
h2

and

8h-

82~ = +2

so 'S' is minimum for

1= 4,b = 4,h = 2.

Mean Value Theorems and Functions of Several Variables

211

3.17.4 Example: If u=a'x"+h'/+c3z1 where -+-+-=1 show that the x y z


stationary point of u is given hy x
1

=- - - , y =
a

a+h+c

a+h+c
h

,,"" - - - c
..... ( I )

a+h+c

Solution: For a stationary value of 'u', du =0


I.e.

a ' 2xdx+h'-2ydy+c 2:::dz


x

=0
y :::

Also we have the given relation

~~ + l + l = 1

1 1 1 -) dx+-) dy+-) dz = 0
x~

..

..... (2)

Equating the coefficients of dx , dy ,dz from (1)+ A(2) separately to zero We get a x + -) = 0, h x + -) = 0, c x + -, = 0 .
xI

A y

A --

or

:. a x ' =h ' /=c ' z'-=(-A) ax = by = cz = (-At] = k(say) x = k I a; y = k I h; z = k I c


..... (3)
In X

. j'or x, y, Z SU hstltutll1g
abc k k k :. k = a+h+c

1 + -1 + ~~ 1=I Y z

-+-+-= 1

..... (4)

Substituting in (3) we get


X=

a+b+c
II

,y=

a+b+c a+b+c , z = - - - for which u is stationary. c b


Exercise 3(M)

I. 2.

Find the maximum and minimum distances from the ongll1 to the curve 5x" + 6xy + 5 y2 - 8 = O. [Ans : max. 4, min .16,6,3]
Fin~the dimensions of the rectangular box, with out a top of maximum capacity rAns:6",6",3" J whose surface is 108 Sq. inches.

212

Engineering Mathematics - I

3.

If

f = u 1 +j'1 +W1
1

where

11

+ v + w = 1, show that

IS stationary when

U=V=W=~

3
4.
Use Lagrange's method of multiplies to determine the minimum distance from the origin to the plane x + 2y + 3z = 14. [Ans:

Jl4"1

5.
6.

Find the maximum value of / = xyz when xy + yz + zx = k. [Ans: (k / 3)3/?] If the distance from the origin of any point

p(x,y, z) on the plane

3x+2y+z-12 =
7.

is P

=~X2 + y2 +Z1
of a

,find the minimum value of p(use the inscribed


III

Lagrange's method). Find the maximum


, ' x+ y-) +z 2 = r.

volume

parallelepiped

a sphere
2 ]

8r [Ans:
h

3J3

8.

Find the volume of the largest rectangular parallelepiped that can be inscribed in

, , ) d x- Y z- 1 t I1e e II IpSo! - 2 +-) +-) = .

b-

c-

8a c] [Ans: 3 (:;3
-V j

9.

Given x+y+z=k,findthemaximumvalueof XII,yll,ZY [Ans:

aa./3II.rY.k<at/l+Yl [ (a+/3+rt l /l+ Y J


r

10. 11. 12.

If

r2

Z2

and x+y+z =30 find the values of x,y,z for which

IS a

mll111nUm

[Ans: x = y = z = 10]

Find the dimensions of a rectangular box without a top of maximum capacity whose surface area is 108 square inches. [Ans: 6,6,3 inches] Find the dimensions of a rectangular box with open top, so that the total surface area S of the box is a minimum, given that the volume 'V' of the box is constant. fAns: x = y = 2z = (2\,)1/3]

13. 14. 15. 16.

Show that the rectangular solid of maximum volume of that can be inscribed in a sphere is a cube I f the total surface area of a closed rectangular box is 108 sq.cm. Find the dimensions of the box having maximum capacity [Ans:

.Ji8,.Ji8,.Ji8]

Perimeter of a triangle is constant, prove that the area of this triangle is maximum when the triangle is equilateral. If u=(x,y)where/(x,y)=O, find the maximum and minimul.1 values of 11 using Lagrange's multipliers Method

4
Curvature and Curve Tracing

4.1.1

Curvature
The curvature of a curve (bending of a curve) varies from point to point on the curve. Let P be a point on the curve and Q be
c.l

point nearer to P, are OQ = 0 s

Let tangents at P and Q make angles, \.11, and \.11 + 0\.11 with the X- axis.

LT R T' = d\jJ is the angle through which the tangent at P turns as a point moves along the curve form P to Q through a distance os along the curve and hence 0\.11 depends on the arc length

os.

0\.11 is defined as the total bending or total curvature of the arc P Q.

8s

0\.11

is defined as the average curvature of the arc P Q.


~

Now os

0 as Q ~ P
=

&s~O uS

Lt

~\.11

dd\.l1 is defined as curvature of the curve at the point P and is denoted


S

by K.

Thus

d\.l1 K=ds

214

Engineering Mathematics - I

x'

Fig. 4.1

Radius of Curvature
The reciprocal of the curvature of a curve at any point' P' is called the radius (?f curvature at that point and is denoted by 'p'. Thus p = -d is called the radius of curvature of the curve at the point P. \1' .

ds

4.1.2 Theorem
If 'r' is the radius of a circle then the radius of curvature of the circle is same as its radius.

Proof:
Let 'c' be the centre and 'r' be the radius ofa circle. P be any point on it and Q be a neighbouring point, arc PQ = ds. The tangents at P and Q make angles \If and \If + 8~, respectively. From the figure

LT R T' = 8 \If
LP R Q' LP C Q'
~ =
u
~,

= 180 - 8\1f

= 8\jf,

from the sector PCQ.


~

8s

r and as Q ~ P, 8s

Curvature and Curve Tracing

215

01->0

Lt 8 \1' = ~ 8s r

I.e.,

P
p=r

x'

y'

Fig. 4.2 4.1.3 Cartesian form of the Radius of Curvature


Let y = j{x) be the Cartesian ~quation of a curve and tan (\lJ) be the slope of the tangent to the curve at a point P.

dy tan \lJ = dx
Differentiating w.r to 'x'

We know that

ds dx

216

Engineering Mathematics - I

... ,..

y 1 +(d )2 dx

[I+(~~)' I+(~)' 1
p=

[ + y( ) '2 . _I I.e.,pwhereYI

3/

y~

= -d 'Y2=-2
X

dy

d 2Y dx

is the radius of curvature of the curve (Cartesian form).

4.1.4 Parametric form of Radius of Curvature


Let x = fil), Y = get) be the Parametric form of the equation of a curve.

d'( () dy = f\t - = g ,(t )

dl

' dl
y'

i.e.,

x'

= /'(t),

= gl(t),

dy dy dl -=dx dx
dt

'.,
-=I
X

-,

dy dx

y'

Curvature and Curve Tracing

217

Differentiating w.r. to 'x' on both sides

,{2y " .- yx '" X 'Y --=

{X')3

dy
X

d'y
ex .

Substituting -d ' - I 2 values in p =

[l+(~)T
d2
Y dx 2

3/

[l+(Hr
p=
x'y" - y'x"

'----'..,..

{X')3
[(XI)2 + {y')2 y~
P=
x'y" - y'x"
I

where

I dx x =-

dt '

y=-

dy dt

is the parametric form of the radius of curvature,

4.1.5 Polar form of Radius of Curvature


Let P (r, 8) be a point on the curve r =f(O). If '0' is the pole, 0 X is the initial line.

LXOP =0
The tangent at P makes an angle \I' with the initial line.

$ is the angle between the radius vector OP and tangent PT.

218

Engineering Mathematics - I

From figure

\If=e+cj>
d\lf de d<l> -=-+ds ds ds
-=-

1 p

de d<l> de +-.ds de ds

= de + d<l>]
ds de

[1

..... (1 )

Fig. 4.3
We know ds de tan
<I>

r2+

(dr)2 de

..... (2)

and

= r-

de

dr

i.e.,

tan cj>-=dr de

Differentiating w.r. to

'e' on both the sides

Curvature and Curve Tracing

219

(1 + tan

<1

de

d~
=

d~

de

d<l> de

The value of

I+

~~
de
d,h

I + r' +

t~
r2

+ de

(dr)2

r-~~
r
2

1+

-'I'

de de = --'-----'------:---

r r2 +2(_dr)2 _rtl_2 _ r2

de
ds Substituting the value of de'

+(-:r
,

..... (3)

I+

de

d~

from (2), (3) in (I)

220

Engineering Mathematics - I

is the polar form of radius of curvature.

4.1.6 Pedal form of Radius of Curvature


Let P be any point on the curve. the tangent P T and P makes an angle \jJ with the initial line OA, LP 0 X = e (see the figure in 4.1.5)
\jJ=e+~

..... ( I)

Differentiating w.r. to s

d\jJ de d~ -=-+d\' ds ds
-

I p I p

I de d~ dr -.r- + - r ds dr cis I r
+ dr
I p
= -

= - (sin~)

d~

cos~,

We have

sin~=r-, ~

de

I [ sm~+rcos~. d~] ,cos~=dr


~ ~

I d(r sin ~) r dr
:. p
=

p = r sin ~

_ = ~dp
p

r dr

dr rdp

where p is the perpendicular distance from pole to the tangent.

4.1.7 Examples
2

Prove that the radius of curvature of the curve y = a cosh (x/a) is

Solution
y
=

a cosh (x/a)

Curvature and Curve Tracing

221

dy
dx d 2y

I a sinh(x/a)a I cosh (x/a)a

-2 =

dx

dy d 2 y
Substituting the values of - , - - ? in p = dx dx-

[ I + ~j;
d2

( dy)2l~2
Y

dx 2
[ + sinh - x / a P =1 cosh{x / a ).~ ?

]3 2

p
p

= aeos h2(x/a)

~ a( ~:),

as y

~ cosh(x/a)

p~ ( : )
4.1.8 Example
Prove that for the rectangular hyperbola xy = c2 the radius of curvature at any point
r3

is given by p =

-2

2c

where 'r' is the distance of the point from the origin.

Solution
Differentiating xy = e 2 w.r. to 'x'
x - +y=O dx

dy

222

Engineering Mathematics - I

Substltutmg for -d ,--? m P = X dx-

..

dy d y .
2

[1+ ( ~b:

dy)2l~~

/2 ( Y
dx 2

p=

as ,.2 = x 2 + rand xy = c 2

4.1.9 Example

y = 4 ax varies as the cube of the focal distance of the point.


Solution
From

Prove that the square of the radius of curvature at any point on the parabola

y=4ax

..... (1 )

dy
dx
-

~ f~
= -

d 2y dx 2

I -3/ lax /2 2 -va.

Curvature and Curve Tracing

223

Hence

p=

x'

y'

Fig. 4.4

p=

-~"a

-1 r -~~ x 2
..... (2)

1a(x+a)~
~(x-aY +(y-oy

The focal distance of the point p (x, y)


sp=

= ~X2 +a 2 -2ax+ y2
=

~ x 2 + a 2 - 2ax + 4ax

using(l)

sp=

~(x+aY
..... (3)

SP = focal distance = (x + a)

224

Engineering Mathematics - I

From (2) and (3) P = ~ [Focal distance]3/2

-2

p2 = - [Focal distance]3

p2
4.1.10 Example

00

= cube of the focal distance.

Show that the radius of curvature at an end of the major axis of the ellipse
Xl

a2

+---;;: =

y2

1 is equal to the semi

latu~-rectum

of the ellipse.

Solution

i ..e.,
Differentiating (1) w.r. to 'x'

..... (1 )

dy dx

d y b dx 2 = - --;;

2fy-xdyl dx
y2

Curvature and Curve Tracing

225

x'

A'(-a,O)

(0,0)

A(a,O)

y'

Fig. 4.5
-2 ----

d 2y dx

b2 2

( using a x' y' 2 + b2 = I

[1+(:)']"
p=

d 2y dx 2

Hence

[ l+---~ h" 4 a i p= _b 4 2 a

r;

(a 4i+b 4x2) a 4b 4

..... (2)

The coordinates of the ends of the major axis are A (a, 0) and A' (-a, 0) Taking the end A (a, 0) we have from (2)

pl(a,o)

b2
= -;; =

Semi latus-rectum of the ellipse.

226

Engineering Mathematics - I

4.1.11 Example
Prove that p at any point of the curve x;; 3 + y/3 =a 3 is three times the length of the perpendicular from origin to the tangent at that point.
J J'

5<

Solution
The parametric equations of the curve are

acos 3e,

y = asin3e
-------,,---- - - = -

dy dx

de
=

dy dx

3a sin 2 e cose dy - 3a cos 2 e sin e dx

tan e

de
and
-= 2

d 2y dx

de -sec2edx 2 = - sec e / (-3acos 2 e sin


3a cos 4 e sin e

e)

Hence

gives

p=

(I + tan 2e
I

f2
..... ( I)

3a cos 4 e sin e
p
=

3a cos e sin e

The perpendicular distance from the origin to the tangent

dy y-xp

= ---;===dx==

a sin 2e - cos e(- tan e)

I+(:J

2 JI + tan e

P = a sin e cos e

..... (2)

From (1)&(2) p=3p

Curvature and Curve Tracing

227

4.1.12 Example
Find p at any point for the cycloid

x = a (8 - sin 8)
y = a(1- cos 8) and also find p at 8 = 90

Solution dy dy _ de _ a(sin8) dx - dx - a(l-cos8)' de


and
-

8 dy = cotdx 2

d y

dx

cosec - - 2 2 dx

2 8 1 d8

d 2y dx
2

1 28 -2cosec 2
=

-1

a(1-cos8) ,

..

[1+(:)'r
p=

d 2y
dx
2

p=

( at
1+cot
2

-1
4a sin4 ~ 2

= - 4a sin

2 212 a
~.

at 8 = 90, P = - 4a sin 45 i.e., p = -

4.1.13 Example
Find p at (r, 8) for the curve r = a (1 + cos 8) and also find at 8 =

Solution
r

= a (1 + cos 8)

dr de = r) = a(- sin 8) d 2r - 2 =r =acos8 de 2

228

Engineering Mathematics - I

[a 2(1 + cos e)2 + 2a 2 sin 2 e + a 2cos e(1 + cos e)]


[2a 2 (1 +cose)7i]

[2a .2cos
2

~~]7i
2

a + 2a + 3a cose
at

3a .2cos ~~

.iacos e/ 3 /2

e=~
4 P = -acos 45 3
=

2 r;:; -,,2a
3

4.1.14 Example Find p for the curve r'" = if! cos me Solution r'"

= if! cos me
1 cos me

mlog r = m log a + log (cos m e)

1 dr m -. r de
r)

(-

m sin m e)
..... ( I)

= -r

tan me

ar r2 = -r m sec2 me - tan m e. de r2 = - rm sec2 me + r tan 2 me


From (1)

..... (2)

3 {r 2+ r2 tan 2me)2 r2 + 2r2 tan 2me + mr2 sec 2me - r2 tan 2me

Curvature and Curve Tracing

229

{m + J)cos me
r
m

am
a

{m+J( m
For the curve ,-In = d" cos m

P=
4.1.15 Example

(m + J)r m- 1

Find the radius of curvature of the curve p2 = ar

Solution

p2

ar

..... ( 1)

Differentiating w.r. to 'r'

2p dp dr dp dr
p
=

a
a

2p

r dr
dp

= r.

2p a

From(l)

p=-j;;;
a

2r

4.1.16 Example
1
Find the radius ofcurvature at the point (p, r) on the ellipse
-2

= -2 + -b2 a

r2 ~b2

230

Engineering Mathematics - I

Solution

Differentiating 2 dp p3 dr -2r a 2b 2
2

=>

dr a 2b r-=-dp
p3

4.1.17 Example

Find the radius of curvature p of the curve ,2 cos28


Solution

if
..... ( I)

,2 = cos28 = a2 Taking logarithms on both sides we get

2 log r + log cos 2 8 = 2 log a


Differentiating w.r.to '8'
1 dr 2 -;: d8 - 2 tan 28 = 0

r-=cot28 dr tan <\> = r dr tan <\> = tan <\>=2- 20 We have P = rsin<\> => p = r sin P = r cos 28 Substituting cos28 = a2
-2 1t

d8

d8
=

cot 28

(~ - 28 )

(~-28)

from (1)

Curvature and Curve Tracing

231

dp = dr

~
,.2

dp ,. p=r-=---) dr -(r

4.1.18 Curvature at Origin


(i) When y can be expanded in powers ofx by some algebraical or trigonometrical method from the equation of the curve as y = px + qxl

2!

dyl +.... then p = dx


--'----~

d2 q = --)
x=O

y
x=o

y=o

dx-

y=o

p (at ongll1) =

..

(I + p).i
q

(ii)

Newtonian Method: If a curve passes through (0, 0) and the tangent at (0,0)
IS

X - axis, then we have x = 0, y =

and d,Y = at origin.


{X

The expansion of y by Maclaurin's theorem reduces to

= (yo)

+ (YI)O +

Xl

(Y2)O

Taking upto terms of (x 2 )


Y=

+ . +
x

x2 q - +... 2!

Dividing each term by x 2 and taking limits 2y q= L t x->o x 2

232
3

Engineering Mathel\latics - I

We have as and and

P = (at ongln)
p = 0 at (0,0)

.,

= -'-------=--<-q

(I + p)2

2y
Lt 2 q = x~Ox
I

P (at origin) =

p (at origin) = Lt

x~o

(~) 2y
2 )

(iii) Similarly, if a curve passes through (0, 0) and the tangent at (0, 0) is Y-axis then
p (at origin) = Lt (Y2
x~o

(iv) Curvature at pole: If the initial line is the tangent to the curve at the pole then

2 X2 ) r2 cos 8 (.: x = r c.os 8) p= Lt = Lt x~o ( 2y x~o 2rsin8 y=rsm8


P = Lt ---cos 8 e~o 28 sin8
p - e~o ( 28
r

Lt - r )

(as Lt - .- ~ 1.cos28 ~ I)
e~osm8

4.1.19 Example
Find p at the origin of the curve y4 + xl + a (xl + y) - a2 y method.

= 0 by Newtonian

Solution
Equating to zero the terms of the lowest degree in the equation of the curve

- a2y
=?

y= 0

i.e., Then

x - axis is the only tangent at origin


'p' at (0,0) when X - axis is the tangent is given by

x2 p= Lte~o2y

..... (1)

Curvature and Curve Tracing

233

Dividing the given equation by y

I
Let So that and

+ x -

J x-

+ a. - + ay = y y

x2

a2

x~O
y~O

=2p

From (1)

o + 0.2p + a2p

+ a.O = a2 => 2 a p = a2 => p =

"2

4.1.20 Example
Find p at the origin for the curve x = a (8 + sin 8), y = a (I - cos 8) by Newtonian method.

Solution

x = a (8 + sin 8),

y = a( 1 - cos8) is a cycloid

X-axis is the tangent to the curve at (0, 0)

p at (0, 0) = Lt

x---+o 2y

(~l

2 Lt a (8 + sin 8)2
0---+0 2a(1- cos 8)

a (8 + sin 8)2 L t - -'-----'-0---+02 l-cos8 '


=

(Of the form % )

Lt a (8 + sin 8)2(\ + cos 8) 0---+02 sin 2 8 Lt

0---+02 sm8

!!.(~+ 1)2 (1 + cos 8)


8

= -2 (1 + 1)2 (I + 1) using Lt = I 0---+0 sin8


p=

a [8] 2 P = 4a
-

234

Engineering Mathematics - I

4.1.21 Example
Find pat (0, 0) for the curve 2x4 + method.

31 + 4x2y + x Y - y2 + 2x = 0 by Newtonian

Solution
Equating to zero the terms of the lowest degree in the given equation of the curve 2 x = 0 => x = 0 y-axis is the tangent to the curve at (0, 0)
2

P at (0, 0) = Lt L x->o2x
So that Dividing the given equation by 'x'
2x3 + 3y2. L
2 y2

..... ( I)

+ 4x y + Y - -

+2

Taking

x~O,y~O

2.0 + 3.0 (2p) + 4.0 + 0 - 2 P + 2 = 0; p = 1

Exercise - 4(A)
I. Find p for the following curves :
1.

4 sin x - sin 2x at x

2"
(Ans:

-I
4

515 ..

[Ans: - - ] 16

3J2a

Curvature and Curve Tracing

235

5.

E +JY =J;

at

%,~
a

lADs: J21

6.
7.

x = a (0 - sin 0), y = a (I - cos 0) at 0


x

= 1t
lADs: - 4 al

= a sin 2 t (I + cos 2t) Y = a cos 2 t (I - cos 2 t) at any point 't'


lADs: 4 a cos 3 tl

8.

x = a (cos 0 + 0 sin 0) y = a (sin 0 - 0 sin 0)


lADs: a 01

9.

? = a 2 cos20
[ADS: );]

a2

10.

r =

(\

+ cosO) at

(~,~)
J2 [ADS a] . -3

lADs:

{n + 1)rn-1 1

an

4.2

Centre of Curvature, Circle of Curvature and Evolute


1. Definition: The centre of curvature at a point 'P' of a curves is the point 'C' which lies on the positive direction of the normal at 'P' and is at a distance 'p' (in magnitude) from it. 2. Definition: The circle of curvature at a point' P' of a curve is the circle whose centre is at the centre of curvature 'C' and whose radius is 'p' in magnitude.

236

Engineering Mathematics - I

x'

o
y'

Fig. 4.6

4.2.1

Centre of Curvature
Let P (x, y) be any point on the curve and C (X, Y) be the centre of curvature at 'P' which is on the normal PC at P. Then PC =: p = radius of curvature at 'P'. The tangent P T at P to the curve makes an angle \jJ with X - axis. P B, C A are perpendiculars to X - axis, and P R is perpendicular to C A. L.PTX=L.RPT=L.PCR=\jJ I cos \jJ = - sec \jJ

(I + tan 2 \jJ2 )2"


..... ( I)

dy dx

..... (2)

Curvature and Curve Tracing

237

and we have

..... (3)

(i.e.,)

x = 0 A = 0 B - A B = OB x = x - P C sin \jJ
X
=

PR
(From
~

P R C, PR = PC sin \jJ)

x - p sin

\jl

From (2) and (3)

X=

X=x-

dx

d~[1 +(tfl)2] dx
d 2y dx 2

Y=CA=RA+RC=Y+PCcoo\jJ From (I) and (3)

238

Engineering Mathematics - ,

x'

o
y'

.. The coordinates of the centre of curvature of a curve

at

p (x, y) is C

_ dy _ d Y [ _ Yl (I + Yl ) 1+ Yl ] , . Denoting Yl - d 'Y2 - - - 2 we can WrIte C x ,Y + x dx Y2 Y2


C (X, Y) is the centre and 'p' is radius ofthe circle of curvature .. The equation of the circle of curvature is
(x -

xi + (y - Yi = p2

4.2.2 Example
Find the centre of curvature of the curve
Y

= x 3 - 6x2 + 3x + 1 at (1, -1)

Solution

dy = 3x2 - 12x + 3 dx

Curvature and Curve Tracing

239

dy
dX(I,I)

--6

=-6
dX2 (1,_1)

X=

X -

YI (I +
2

yn

Y
X= I-

and Y = Y + - Y2 1+36 and Y = I + - -

I+ YI2

(-6XI+36)

-6

-6

-43 X = - 36 and Y = 6 -43) The coordinates of the centre of curvature are ( - 36, -6-

4.2.3 Example
Find the centre of curvature for the cycloid x
Solution
=

ace - sine),

Y = a(1 - cos e)

dy = a sin e _ cot e/ dx a(l-cose) 12 d 2y 2 e 1 de 1 1 -=cosec -.--=x---,------,dx 2 2 dx 2 2 e a(l - cos e) Sin 2

. 4 4aSIn

--

e
2

240

Engineering Mathematics - I

4a SIO

e
2

X=

ace -

. 4e e 4 aslO -cot-sine) + _ _-'2"'--------=-2


SIO-

. e
2

ace - sine) + 2a sin e X = ace - sine)


X=

Y=y+-Y2

1+ YI

Y=a(l-cose)-

(l+cot2E!) 12 . 4 - 4 a SIO
-

e
2

Y = a(l- cose)- 4a sin 2 ~ 2


Y = a(l - cose) - 2a(1 - cose) Y = -a(l - cose) .. The coordinates of the centre of curvature are

[ace + sine),
4.2.4 Example

a(1 -

cose)]

Find the centre ofthe curvature at any point (x, y) on the eIlipse.

Solution
..... (1 )

Curvature and Curve Tracing

241

Diff. (I) w.r. to 'x'

2b 2x + 2Q2y dy dx

..... (2)

..... (3)

Using (I) (2) and (3)

X= x _ YI (1 + yO
Y2

[~: (a' - h'), -;.' (a' - h'


4.2.5 Example
Find the circle of curvature of the curve

ij

is the centre of curvalure,

fx + fY

fa

at the point

(~, ~)
..... (1)

Solution

242

Engineering Mathematics - I

Diff (1) w.r. to 'x'


1 1 1 -I 1 --I dy -x 2 +_y2 -=0

2
dy

dx
..... (2) ..... (3)

JY
ai

dx--.r;
and

:10/
d 2y dx 2
d 2y

14' /4

~1
X

[
=

, I ~-I ----..jy-x dy C 1 ~-I] ..;x-y 2 dx 2

4
0/ (//
/4' )14

dx

..... (4)

p = [1 + Y2

y~ = [1 + 1]% = ~
i
.fi
a

..... (5)

a a is the radius curvature of the curve at ("4'"4 )

X= x _ YI (1 + YI2 )
Y2

a 1(1+1) 3a X=-+--=4 4 4
a

Y=y+
a

(1 + y2)
1

Y2
Y="4 + -4- =

(I + 1)
a

3a

Coordinates of the centre of curvature ( 4' 4

3a 3a)

Curvature and Curve Tracing

243
=

Equation of the circle of curvature of the curve (x - X)2 + (v _ y)2

p2

3a)2 3a)2 + ( y- _ ( X -4 4

(~)2 Ji

Exercise - 48
I. Find the coordinates of the centre of curvature of the curve y = x J at the point

7 31 IAns: - - ) 64' 38
2

2. Show that the centre of curvature for the curve y

x x+ 9 at

(3,

6) is

(3, I;)

3. Show that the centre of curvature at the point 't' on the ellipse x = a cos t,
. .
y=bSllltlS

[(

a - ba

a- - b 2) . 2 , )cos-I,- () b Slll-'
1 1

1
3

4.

Find the centre of curvature at (

3 ;1, 3;1) of the folium x

+I

3a xy

21(1 21a IAns: - - --I 16 ' 16

5. Find the centre of curvature at the point '0' of the curve

x y

= =

(I - aO) cos 0

+ a sin 0
IAns : a sin 0, - a cos 01

(I - aO) sin 0 + a cos 0

6.

Find the coordinates of the centre of curvature of the cycloid x = a (0 + sinO), y


=

a( I - cos 0) (Ans: a (0 -sin 0), a (I + cos 0)

7.

For the curve y


x2

= 111X

+ ~ show that the circle of curvature at the origin is


a

+I

= a2

(I + 1112) (v - I1lx).

244

Engineering Mathematics - I

4.3
4.3.1 Evolutes
Definition .' Corresponding to each point on a curve we can find the curvature of
the curve at that point. Drawing the normal at these points we can find centre of curvature corresponding to each of these points. Since the curvature varies from point to point, centres of curvature also differ. The totality of all such centres of curvature of a given curve will define another curve and this curve is called the evolute of the curve. Thus the locus of centres of curvature of a given curve is called the evolute of that curve.

Notes:
(i) Elimination of x, y from the coordinates of the centre of curvature (X, Y) gives an equation in terms of X, Y which is called evo/ute of the given

curve y = fix).
(ii) When the equation of the curve is given in the parametric form (say t) elimination of '1' from the coordinates of the centre of curvature (X, Y) gives an equation in terms of X, Y which is called evo/ute of the curve x = fit), y = get).

4.3.2 Example
Find the evolute of the parabolay = 4 a x

Solution
Differentiating

4ax
=

w.r. to 'x'

2ydy dx dy dx d y dx2
2
=

4a

Fa Fx

..... (1)

-Fa
=-3-

..... (2)

2x2

X= X _

YI

(1 + yl2 )
Y2

X=x

-~(1 +~) Fx
-Fa
3

2x 2

Curvature and Curve Tracing X=3x+2a

245 ..... (3)

I + Cl ) 1 + y2 X Y = Y+ _ _ I = Y+ ~----=c'y)

I-Fa
,
2x 2

..... (4\

Squaring y2
=

4 -.x3
a

From (3) substituting x = --3- in (5)

X-2a
3

y2= _ a
27 ay2 27 a

4(X-2a)'
= =

4(X - 2 a)3

4(x - 2 0)3 is the evolute of the curve.

4.3.3 Example

Solution
..... ( I)

Differentiating (I) with respect to 'x'


dy 2b 2x + 2a2y dx
=

dy dx

-b x
02y

..... (2)

246

Engineering Mathematics - I

_b 2 a 2b2 a 2 y2 a 2;. _b 4 a 2y 3
..... (3)

d 2y dx2
X
=

x _ YI + yl2 )
Y2

(I

x- - (a4y2 4 2

a b

+ b4;x2)

Substituting c?y2

a 2b2 - b2x 2 from( I)

..... (4)

=y+

b4 x 2 1+4""2 ay
_b 4

Curvature and Curve Tracing

247

y - ~ (0 4; a 2b 4 a 2;

+ b4x 2 )

Substituting b2x 2

= 02b 2 =

from (I)
[a 4;

-+
a b4
b4

2 2

a (a 2

-;)]

a 2 _b 2

y3

..... (5)

Eliminating x, y from (4) (5)

2+ (bY)} 2= (a 2 - b 2 )2 (aX)3 :I is the evolute of the given curve.


4.3.4 Example
Show that the evolute of the curve
2 2 2

X3 +y3 +a 3
Solution

= is(X+Y)3 +(x-Y)l =2a 3

The parametric equation of the curve is x = acos 3S, y = a sin 3S


dy dy dx

= de
dx

3 a sin 2 ScosS - 3a cos 2Ssin S

de
dy - =-tan S dx

d2y de - 2 =-sec 2 S dx dx

248

Engineering Mathematics - I

30 cos 4 esin e
..... ( I)

(I + tan
1

e)

..... (2)

From (1) and (2) (X + Y) = a(cose + sine)3 and X - Y = a(cose - sine)3


') I '),

{X+yt3 +{X-Y)"'3

=
2

2a 3
is the evolute of the given curve.

(x + y)~ + (x 4.3.5 Example

y)~ == 2a:1

Show that the evolute of the curve x


=

a(cose + sine), y

a(sin e - e cose) is

x 2 +y=a2 Solution
x
=

a(cose + sine) and y

a(sin e - e cose)

Curvature and Curve Tracing


Differentiating w.r.t 0
-;-0 a

249

dx

= a(- Sll10 +
=

..

Sll10 + OcosO), -'- = {{(cosO - cosO + 0 SIIIO)

dy 10

dx dO
dy dx
ely

dy. aO cosO, dO = aO SII10


aOsinO (JOcosO tan 0
..... ( I)

-, = (X

d 2y dx 2

(l0 cos'O y{l+y2)


1 . 1

..... (2)

X = x- .

. tan{l+tan 2 a(cosO + 0 S1l10) _ ----"-------:-----"-I

0)
..... (3)

Y2
X
y
=

aOcos 1 e
a cos 0

I+ y2 y + --'_I Y2
(I

a(sin 0 - 0 cosO) +

(I + tan 2 0 )
I aOcos '0

sin 0

Eliminating '0' from (3) & (4)

X2 + y2
:.

= (/2

x 2 + 1= (12 is the evolute of the given curve.

4.3.6 Example
Show that the evolute of the curve
x

x a( cos t + log tan ~) ,y asin


= =

t is

y
Solution

a cos h

aCcost + log tan

t '2 )y =

1I

sin t

250

Engineering Mathematics - I

dx =a -smt+--.sec 1 2 -.t 1 dy =acost dy t t 2 2 ' dt an2

r.

= a -smt+ =a -smt+-.dx IJ dt 2 sm-. t1 t sm t cos-

j [.

dx dt dy dx

acos 2 t dy . and -d SIn t t dy acost acos 2 t sin t

= a cost

.J!L
dx -dt

= tan t

X = a( cos t + log tan

"2) - a cos t = a log tan "2

..... ( 1)

1+ yf
Y2
y
=

a sin t+

1+ tan 2 t sin t

y=sin t
From (1) From (2)

..... (2)

t tan 2
.
SIn t=

= eX/a
a

Curvature and Curve Tracing

251

2 tan t 2 (i.e.,)

1+ tan 2 t . 2
x

2e
I+e

a a

([

2X

Y
a

y
y
=

~( /

+ e - X,,)

= ((

cosh

(%)

a cos II

(%) is the evolllte of the given curve.


Exercise - 4(C)

I. Find the evolllte of the curve x

c t and y

c
= -

2.

Prove that the equation to the evolute of the parabola x 2 27 a x 2

4ay is 4(y - 2(/)3

3. Show that the evolute of the hyperbola


(a 2 + b2 )2/3

x2

I is (ax)2/3 - (by)213

4. Show that the evolute of the cycloid x equal cycloid.

a (q - sin q) y

a (I - cos q) is another

4.4
4.4.1 Envelopes Family of curves:
Let us consider the equation of a straight line x cosa + y sina = p. Where a is a parameter. For different values of a, x cosa + y sina = p gives different straight lines but all of them are at a constant distance 'p' from the origin. The set of all of these straight lines is said to form a family of straight lines and 'a' is called the parameter of the family. For a given p, different values of'a' give different straight lines which touch the circle x2 + .Y = p2. The circle x2 + 1 = p2 is called the

envelope of the family of straight lines.

252

Engineering Mathematics - I

A curve, which touches each member ofa given family of curves and each point is the point of contact of some member of the family is called the envelope of the family of curves.

Letj(x, y, a)

0 be the given family of curves and a is the parameter.

. . WIt . h respect to " . II y Now d f'" I Jerentlatmg a partla

a/(x,y,a) aa

0 f' a' f romJ' "(x, y, a ) = 0 an daf(x,y,a) = o . .III EI Imlllatlon gIven an equatIOn


terms of x, y which is called the envelope

aa 0/ fhe family of curves.

If the given equation of the family ofcurvesj(x,y, a) = 0 is the quadratic in 'a', say of the form Aa2 + Ba + C = 0 where 'a' is the parameter and A, B, Care functions of x, y. Then the envelope of the family of curves is B2 - 4AC = o.

4.4.2

Example
Find the envelope of the family of straight lines y parameter.

= mx + ~
m

where 'm' is the

Solution

y=mx+ III

..... ( I)

is the parameter

Diff(l) w.r. to 'm'

o=x-2
m
111=

..... (2)

Substituting for' m' in (I)

2.[;;;

Squaring we gety = 4

ax is the envelope of the family of curves

Curvature and Curve Tracing

253

Aliter:

mx + 111 Y

III

m2x -

+a= 0

is quadratic in parameter '/11' (A = x, B = - y, C = a)

8 2 - 4 AC = 0 then gives the required envelop.


.. Envelope of the family of curves is

i - 4(a)(x) = 0

i
4.4.3 Example

= 4 ax is envelope.

Find the envelope of the family of curves


I J J J y=mx+ va-nr+bw here'm'ist heparameter.

Solution
y=mx+ vlrm-+b(y - I1lx)2 = ([2m 2 + b 2
I
J J J

m 2(x 2 - a 2) + m(- 2 y x) + (V
is quadratic in parameter '111'

- b2) =

The envelope of the family of curves (-2 x y)2 - 4(x 2 - a 2)(1- b2) = 0 b 2x 2 + a 2 = a 2b 2

.;. + -=;- = I is the envelope of the family of curves. a b


4.4.4 Example
Find the envelope of the family of curves x cos 38 + y sin 3 8 = c when 8 is the parameter.

Solution
Given x cos 3 8 + y sin 3 8 = c Diff. (I) partially w.r. to '8' - 3 x cos 2 8 sin 8 + 3y sin 2 8 cos 8 = 0 Hence tan8= y (8 is parameter)
..... ( I)

254

Engineering Mathematics - I

Substituting these values in (])


X

[ ~ X2 Y+ y2
= C(X2

3 ]

+y

x ~ X2 + y2

13

j=c

x 21 4.4.5 Example

+ I) is the envelope of the family curves.


2

Find the envelope of the ellipse -;- + a b

I where
=

a, b are parameters connected by the relation a2 + b 2 Solution


Given

c2

-2+ 2
a

x2

y2

=]

..... (1 )
..... (2)

a2 +b2 =c2
Assume that' a' and' b' are functions of' t' Diff. (]) and (2) w.r. to '1'
2 (-

2) da + I a3 dt
y2

2)db (- 3
b dt

-+- =0 a 3 dt b 3 dt
Diff.

x 2 da

db

..... (3)

a2 + b2 = c2 w.r.

to '1'

(i.e.,)

da db 2a- +2b- =0 dt dt da db a- + b- = 0 dt dt

..... (4)

Eliminating da, db from(3),(4) dt dt

Curvature and Curve Tracing

255

Using (I) and (2) we get

=~=2
a

(i.e.,)

[/4

c2

(14

=x2c2

(12= XC

-=-

Substituting (12, h2 , values in a 2 + h2

= ("2

x 2c2 + Ic 2

c2

xl + J,z = I
4.4.6 Example

is the envelope of the family of curves.

Find the envelope of the family of curves connected by the relation ah


= ('2.

~ + Eh
{/

= I where (I,

b are parameters

Solution
Given

~+E a b
ab

..... ( I)

= ('2

..... (2)

Assume that a, b are functions of 't' Diff. (1) and (2) w.r. to 'I'
- I )+ da y.(I)= db O x (a 2 dt h 2 dt
- - - +2 - - =0 (/2 II h dl

x da

y db

..... (3)

Diff.

ab

= ('2

w.r. to 'I'
..... (4)

db da a-+b-=O dt dt

256

Engineering Mathematics - I

da db Eliminating dt ' dt from (3), (4)

-+!L.=lL~-.!L=JL=~
2 2 -

ab

ab

2ab

Using (I) and (2) we get


x

y a

=~=2
b 2c

a = 2c
ab

Using (2) c2 ~= 2c 2
X

..... (5)

a=2x

a
-=--

ab 2c 2

Using (2)

b=2y
Substituting a, b values from (5), (6) in (2)
c2

..... (6)

(2 x)(2 y)

4 xy = c2 is the envelope of the family of curves.

Curvature and Curve Tracing

257

Exercise - 4 (0)
1. Find the envelope of the family of curves: (a) y

= mx + a ~I + m 2 when
=

111

is parameter.

(b) ;

2a(x - (I) where a is the parameter.

IAns : x 2 (c) x cos <p + y sin <p


=

2; =

01

p where <p is the parameter.

(d)

~ +~
a

I when a + b = e

(a, b parameters).

(Ans : (e)

fx

.JY = -!c ]

~ + ~ = 1 when a2 + b2 = e2
a
b

(a, b parameters).

IAns:

fx

.JY = -!cl

(f)

ff H
+
=

I when a + b = e

(a, b parameters).
2 2 2

(Ans : x 3 + y3
In

=c 3 ]

(g)

Find the envelope of the family of curves

~ + L = I when dnb n = elll + n ani bill

(h)

Find the envelope of the family of straight lines

~+~

1 where a & bare

related by the equation d l + bn = en, e being a constant.


n
II
/J

(Ans :

xn+1

+ yll+1

= C"+ I ]

258

Engineering Mathematics - I

4.5

Curve Tracing
Generally a curve is drawn by plotting a number of points and joining them by a smooth line. If an approximate shape of the curve is sufficient for a given purpose then it is enough to study certain important characteristics. This purpose is served by curve tracing methods. The points to be observed for tracing of plane algebraic curves are given below.

1. Whether the curve is passing through the origin, if so the equations of the
tangents to the curve at the origin. Suppose F(x,y) = F(O,O) =

=>

is the algebraic form of the equation of the curve.


IS

the curve is passing through origin (i.e.,) If there

no

constant term in F(x,y) then origin lies on the curve. The equations of the tangents to the curve are obtained by equating the lowest degree terms in F(x,y) to zero. If at 0(0,0) the tangents are: (i) real and coincident then '0' is called a cusp (ii) real and different then '0' is called a node (iii)imaginary then '0' is called a conjugate point 2. Whether the curve is symmetric about an axis or about other any line. If (i) F(x, y) = F(x-y) (ii) F(-x, y) =F(x, y) (iii) F(-x,-y) =F(x, y)

=> curve is symmetric about x-axis => curve is symmetric about y-axis => curve is symmetric in opposite quadrants.

(iv) F(y, x) = F(x, y) curve is symmetric about y = x (v) F(-y,-x) =F(x, y) curve is symmetric about y =-x

Curvature and Curve Tracing


y y

259

----+-----------~~x

y' =4ax

--------~~~----------.. x

(i)
y

(ii)
y

----~~~----------------~x

------~~~----~x
3

+y'

~~V

(iii)

(iv)

-----..;:::.~"'-------~x

(v)

3. Weather the curve intersects the axes, if so the tangents to the curve at these points. 4. Find the region in which the curve exists (i.e.) the curve is defined. The values of x for which y is defined gives the extent parallel to x-axis and the values of y for which x is defined gives the extent in a direction parallel to y-axis. If y is imaginary for values of x in a certain region then the curve does not exist in that region.

260
Similarly with respect 10 values ofy . 5. Finding the asymptotes.

Engineering Mathematics - I

An asymptote is a line that is at a finite distance from (0, 0) and is tangential to the curve at infinity (i.e.) the curve approaches the line at infinity. (i) Sum of the coefficients of the highest degree terms in x equated to zero gives the equations of the asymptotes parallel to x - axis. (ii) Sum of the coefficients of the highest degree terms in y equated to zero gives the equations of the asymptotes parallel to y-axis. (iii) To find the asymptotes that are neither parallel to x-axis nor parallel to yaxis (i.e.) oblique asymptotes, the following method is suggested. Substitute y =mx + c equation in 'x'as
111

F(x,y) = 0 and rewrite the equation as a polynomial

(m)x

n +$

n-

l(m)x

n-I + .... +$ =0 n

The slopes of the asymptotes are given by $I/(m) = O. Let the slopes be

The values of'c' can be obtained trom $I/-I(m) Let the corresponding values of c be c1' c2 ,

= 0,$1/_2(m) = 0

(if necessary).

Note: if $1/ (m) is a constant then there are no oblique asymptotes to the curve. 6. Obtain dy from F(x,y) = 0 by differentiation.

dx

If in the interval for

x, dy > 0 then the curve is increasing


dx

and :

< 0, then the curve is decreasing in that region.


0.

. . by -dy 7. TIle po liltS 0f maxima an d minima are given

dx

Curvature and Curve Tracing


y

261

~o+-------------------~X

dy dx

o. gIves
2

XI,X)

If in an interval for x

(i)

el

~-

~ ~

> 0 then the curve is concave upwards

(X), X 4 ' .... in -

the figure) and has

a minima in that interval.


2

(ii)

el

llx-

< 0 the curve is concave downward (XI' xw .... in the figure) and has a

maxima in that interval.


2

(iii)

If at a point

X)

(say) in the interval d

dx-

0 then that point is called a point

of inflection and at that point the curve changes it concavity to the opposite direction.

4.5.1 Example
Trace the curve y
X2
=

+2x

.... ( 1)

x+ 1
Solution:
Substitution of
X

=0

in (1) gives y

0:. origin lies on the curve.

F(x,-y):f:- F(x,-y):f:- F( -x, y) etc 1.

:. The curve is not symmetric about any line


2 -

can be written as y (x + 1) - x (ie) x


2 -

2x = 0

.... (2)

xy - (y - 2x) = 0 Lowest degree term is y - 2x = 0

Equation of the tangent at (0,0) is Y Substitutingy


=

= 2x .

0 in (1) we have x(x+ 2)

= o,x = O,x =-2

262
:. The curve crosses x -axis at (0,0) and (-2,0)

Engineering Mathematics - I

Since x =0 in (I) gives y = 0 only, there is no intercept on y-axis The

x :. The curve is defined in the region R curve is not defined at

-I.

Hence

it

IS

discontinuous.

{-I}
IS

Coefficient of highest degree term in x i.e.) of Xl) Hence there is no asymptote parallel to x -axis.

I which is a constant.

Coefficient of highest degree term in y is x + I. :. x + 1=0 is the asymptote parallel to y- axis. From (2)

dy dx

which

is >

0 always except

at

= -1

Hence the curve is increasing in the regions.


00

< x < -2, -2 < x < -1, -1 < x < 0 and 0 < x < 00
\ \

\~
\ \ \

\..-

\j.:,
\ \ I \ \ /
/

Fig. 4.7

4.5.2 Example
Trace the curve

y-

x +1

- Xl

-1

Solution:
....... ( I)

Curvature and Curve Tracing

263

x= in (I) gives y y intercept is -I.

-I :. Hence curve does not pass through (0,0), and

r (-x,y) = r (x,y)
y=

curve is symmetric about y-axis

gives x

+ 1= =>

= i curve does not cross

x -axis.

Coefficient of highest degree term in x is y-I llence y = I is the asymptote parallel to x -axis Coefticient of highest degree term in y is to y-axis

(from( I

x2 -]

x = ] are asymptotes parallel


II

dy =
dx

Hence y

=0

gives x

=0

and Yx=o =

4 -3 < 0 and =I:- 0

:. The maximum point on the curve is (0,-1) and there are no points of inflection.

--------1---_ I
I I I
I
I I

Ix

I'J

I I

I I I

----r--------I

l~Y.,
I I
I

I --------1--I I I I

I I __ ..JI ________ _ (0,-1) Y=-1

I I I
I I I

Fig. 4.8
The curve is decreasing in the interval

<

Ixl < ] and I< x <

00

as dy is -ve there

dx

.. an d IS IIlcreaslllg 111

-00

. t I" i < X < 1 as -dy.IS +ve III l1S mterva dx


.... ( I)

4.5.3 Example:
Trace the Folium x
3

+ / == 3axy

264

Engineering Mathematics - I

Solution:
Clearly (0,0) lies on the curve .No intercepts on y-axis.

F (y,x)=/+x'-3ayx=0=F (x,y)

:. curve is symmetric about x-axis

Coefficient of highest degree term in y is I. a constant, and hence no asymptote parallel to y-axis. Lowest degree term equated to zero gives xy = 0, x = 0, y = 0 (i.e) the axes are the tangents to the curve at the origin.

y = x in (I) gives 2x' - 3ax 2 = 0 x = 0, 3;1 (ie) the line y = x meets the curve
at (O,O)and F (-x, - y)

(3~, 3~)

= x' - /

+ 3axy

= F (x, y) :. curve is not symmetric about (0,0)

To obtain oblique asymptotes: Substitute y


3 2

= mx + c in (I) and
2

rewriting in terms

of 'x' we get (I+m )x'+(3m c-3am)x + ..... =0 (ie) 3(m)=I+m'and

2 (111) = 3m 2c - 3am, .....


, (m)

= 0 gives m= -1, there is only one oblique asymptote with slope-I

VI

x+y=3a

Fig. 4.9

2(m)=0 gives 3m(cm-a)=0 => cm-(l=o


:.Theasymptoteis

(e) c=-a(-:m=-l)

y=-x-a or y+x+a=O

.... (2)

--------------------~----------------------------------------~

Curvature and Curve Tracing


2

265

dy From (I) = ay-x ~ :. (dY - ) =-1 dx y -ax dx e~/,32")


Equation of the tangent to the curve at this point is y

+ x = 31 which is parallel to (2)

4.5.4 Example:
Trace the curve a 2 y 2- x 2( a 2- x 2) = 0 ........ ( I )

Solution:
x
F

=0

in (I) gives y = 0,0 (ie) double point on the curve


=

(-x, y)

(x, -y) = F (x, y) curve is symmetric about both the axes.


2 (/ -

Lowest degree terms, in (I), equated to zero gives a are the tangents to the curve at (0.0). y
=

= 0 ~ y = x

in (I) gives x

= a

The curve intersects the x-axis at for

(a, 0)

and

(-(1,0)

From (I) it can be seen that

Ixl > a
is negative (ie) the curve does not exist for

Ixl > a

YI

gives

= 0, .i2' points of maxima and III inima.

Tangents at the points

a x = J2 to the curve are parallel to x-axis .Further


:. x

2y ) d dx ( 2 at x

a . . = J2 IS negative.

a . . = J2 IS a maxImum

. d" . POlllt an Y IS IIlcreaslIlg

in 0< x <.i2

while decreasing in

.i2 < x < a .Thus after tracing the curve in

the first quadrant, the symmetry about both the areas can be utilized for tracing the complete curve. Substituting y

= mx + c

in (I )gives

X4

+ a 2 (mx + c

r -a

2 2

=0

266

Engineering Mathematics - I

4 (m) = 1 which is a constant. Hence there are no oblique asymptotes to the curve.
y

~(_-a~,O~)~--------~----------+-~~X

,
Fig. 4.10

4.5.5 Example: Trace the curve y2 ( x 2 - a 2) + a 2 x2= 0 Solution:


..... (1)

x = Oin (1) gives y = 0 :. (0,0) lies on the curve.


F (x,-y) =F (x,y) =F (x,-y) :. curve is symmetric about both the areas. Highest degree terms of y equated to zero gives (X2 - a 2) l

= 0 => x = a

:. x = a are asymptotes parallel to y-axis. Highest degree terms of x equated to zero gives x 2(y2 + a 2) = 0 => x = ia ... No asymptotes parallel to x-axis.
Equating lowest degree terms to zero we get a 2(y2 - x 2) = 0 => y x are tangents at (0, 0) writing y

= mx + c

in (1) and rearranging in terms of I x I

m2x 4+2mcx3+(c 2 _a 2m2+a 2)x2

-2a 2mcx-c 2a 2 =0

=> c is indeterminate since m = 0 2 (m ) = 0 gives c 2+ a 2 = 0 => c = ai


oblique asymptotes do not exist. Further there are no intercepts on either of the axes.

Curvature and Curve Tracing

267

( 1) can be written as

a 2x - - which indicates that curve does not exist x 2 _a 2

when Ixl > a :. The curve exists only in the region -a < x < a.
y

Fig. 4.11

dy a4 x = and y> 0 in first quadrant. Hence curve is increasing in 0 < x < a . dn y


4.5.6 Example:
Trace the curve

l (2 - x) - x2 (1 + x) = 0 ....... ( 1)
y=O
:.(0,0) lies on the curve

Solution:
x=Oin (1) gives

F(x,-y)
=

F(x,y) :.curve is
0 in (\) gives -1,0

symmetric about x-axis . Lowest degree terms equated to zero gives

2l- x 2 = 0 => y =

12

tangents at (0,0) to the curve y

curve passes through (-1,0) in addition to (0,0) Coefficient of highest degree terms of y equated to zero gives 2 - x = 0 (ie) x = 2 is an asymptote parallel to y-axis No asymptote parallel to x-axis as coefficient of x is 1,a constant
2

268
Substituting Y

Engineering Mathematics - I

= mx + c

in (I) and rearranging

2 2 2 2 2 m + 1) + x ( 1+ 2mc - 2m ) + ( c - 4mc ) x - 2c

=0

3 (m) = m 2 + 1 => 3 (m) = 0 gives m = i :.

There are no oblique asymptotes.

--~----~~--------~----~x
...
~...,

I (2,0) I '" J2 I "'",. I I I


y=-

-x

I I

Fig. 4.12 From (I) Y1 = y2

2y 2-x

+ (2x + 3x h' h h O 0 < X < 2 were h ) . T IS sows t at YI > 111 t he curve

is increasing and x = 2 is an asymptote. YI

= 0 => x = 0, x =

5J5j
4

.. In the secon d quadrant y IS maxImum at x


parallel to x-axis
It can be seen that the curve forms a loop in

5-1 =-4

where the tangent IS

[-1,0]

due to symmetry about x-axis.

4.5.7 Example
Trace the curve /

-(x-2)(x-4)2 =0

.. , .. (1)

Solution:
y = O. (I) gives x = 2, 4 Curve intersects the x-axis at (2,0) and (4,0)

Curvature and Curve Tracing

269

F(x, -y) = F (x,y) :. curve is symmetric about x-axis For x < 2 , / is -ve :. therefore curve does not exist for x < 2

From (I) it can be seen that x = 2 is a tangent at (2,0) Coefficient of x 3 = l,a constant :. No asymptote oarallel to x-axis Differentiating (1) w.r.t 'x'

dy _ (x-4)(3x-8)

dx
At (4.0) dy

2y

= Lt (x-4)(3x-8)
H4

dx

2.J x - 2 ( x - 4)

H4

Lt 3x-8 = J2 2.Jx-2
4)

Equation of tangents at (4,0) are y =

J2(x -

Further dy --}- 00 as x --}- 2 :. x = 2is a tangent at (2,0)

dx

--~--~----~~~~~x

(2,0)

,,

Fig. 4.13

dy = dx

gives x = 8/3. Thus the tangents at x = 8/3 are parallel to x-axis. For the

region. 2 < x < 8/3, dy >

dx

above x-axis and dy <

dx

extreme values. For the region 8/3<x <4 dy <

dx

below x- axis. At x = 8/3, y takes above x -axis and dy >

dx

below

x -axis. :. the curve forms a loop in 2 ~ x ~ 4

270

Engineering Mathematics - I

4.5.8 Example
Trace the curve y ( x + 4a
2 2 ) -

8a 3

=0

.... (1)

Solution:

* 0 when x = O.

:. origin does not lie on the curve.

Curve is symmetric about x-axis ,since F

(-x,y)=F (x,y)

y is +ve for all real x :. Curve completely lies above x-axis. Substituting y = mx + c in (I)

m3 + cx 2 + 4a 2 mx + 4a 2 c - 8a 3

3 ( m ) = 0 => m = 0 and

=0 2 ( m ) = 0

gives c = 0

(ie) y = 0 is an asymptote to the curve From (I) -

dy
dx

= - ----

16a 3 x

(X2 + 4a2
dx

In first quadrant dy < 0 and hence y

IS

dx

decreasing. dy

o at (0, 2a). y s

maximum at

(0, 2a) .

----------~--------------~x

Fig. 4.14

4.5.9 Example:
Trace the curve y- c cosh x / c = 0 .... (1)

Solution:

x= 0 in (1) gives y = (c/2)[e O +e-D] = r

Curvature and Curve Tracing

271

:. Curve does not pass through (0,0) and intersects y-axis at (0, c). F

(-x,y)= y -(c/2)( e- x / c +e<i<) = F(x,y)


( x /) 1 [x/c C =e -x -Xlc] 2

curve is symmetric about y-axis

It can be seen from (I) that y>o for all real x .

dy . h = Sill

dx

which is >0 for x >0 and <

for x <0.
y

Y=c

(D,c)
------~~------------~x o

Fig. 4.15 Thus the curve is increasing in

(0,00), and decreasing in (-00,0).

When x = we have dy = 0. Further y = c for x = 0.

dx

(i.e.) The tangent to the curve at (0, c) is parallel to x-axis.

4.5.10

Example

Trace the curve

(x / a )2/3 + (y /a )2/3 -1 = 0
x =

.... ( 1)

Solution:

:I;

0 when

:.

(0,0) does not lie on the curve.

It can be observed that F

(-x,y)= F (x,y)= F (x,-y)

The curve is symmetric about both the axes.

272

Engineering Mathematics-I

--~---------+----------~----~x

(0, - b)

Fig. 4.16

x = 0 gives / = b 2 => Y = b y = 0 gives x = a. Thus the curve meets x axis.


at (-a,o),( a,o) and y axis at (o,b ),( o,-b). For

Ixl> a or \YI >b

(x/a) 2/3 +(y/b)2/3 -1> 0

Equation is not satisfied.

Ixl> a or IYI >b. :. Curve completely lies in the region Ixl ~ a and Iy ~ bl
:. Curve does not exist for From (I) dy

dx

y -!!..( a )I/3. In the first quadrant y is decreasing as a bx

dy < 0 for dx

O<x<a.
4.5.11 Example
Trace the curve y2 (a -x) _x 3 = O,a > 0
.... (1)

Solution:
Clearly y F

= 0,
=

0 when x = O. Origin is a double point on the curve.

(x, - y)

F ( x, y). Curve is symmetric about x-axis.

Curvature and Curve Tracing

273

Differentiating (I) w.r.t, 'x' we get -

dy

= -

Fx (3a - 2x )
3jJ

dx

2 (a-x) -

dy dx

1(0,0) =

o.

So x axis is a tangent to the curve at origin.

x = a is an asymptote parallel to y-axis.


A" coefficient of x is a constant, there is no asymptote parallel to x -axis. For x < 0 and x> a curve does not exist (as y2 is negative) Substituting y
3

= mx + c

in (1) and rearranging

m 2 + 1) + x 2 ( 2mc - am 2 ) + x ( c 2 - 2ame ) - ac 2

=0

fA (m) = m 2 + 1=> m = i .
I I x=a

PI

I I I
--~~--------.---------~x

(a,O)

Fig. 4.17
Hence there no oblique asymptotes. From (I) YI

= (

3x2 + y2

2 a-x y

For 0 < x < a, YI is positive. Hence y is increasing in 0 < x < a .

. 4.5.12 Example
Trace the curve x
2 (a

- x) = l

(b + x)

.. .,(\ )

274

Engineering Mathematics - I

Solution:
Clearly curve passes through origin F ( x, - y ) = F

(x, y) .'. Curve is symmetric about x-axis.

Equating lowest degree terms to zero

by2 _ax 2 = 0 => y

= ~.x
x2 ( a - x) = 0 => x = 0, a
3

There are two real, distinct tangents to the curve at (0,0)

=0

in (1) gives

The curve intersects x-axis at

(a, 0)
y

There is no asymptote parallel to x-axis as coefficient of x is a con

I I
I I

--~I~--------~~--~~~~----~x I
I I l X=-b I

Fig. 4.18 Coefficient of highest degree term in y is b + x

:. x + b = 0 is the asymptotes parallel to y-axis


Substituting y

= mx + c

in (I) and rearranging

x 3(1 + bm

2) + .... -0'I.e., V'3 "'( m)-0' _+_i - gIves m - Jb


= xJa - x
b+x
which shows that y is imaginary in the

Hence no oblique asymptote to the curve.

t!) can be written as y


regions x > a or x < -b

Curvature and Curve Tracing

275
~

Hence the curve completely lies in the region -b < x From (I) - =

dy dx

( - 2X2 - 3bx + ax + 2ab) 2(b+x)


3/2

(a-x)-

1/)

which shows that dy ---) 00 as x ---) a

dx

The tangent

x = a to the curve at (a, 0) is parallel to y-axis.

Thus the curve forms a loop between

(0,0)
=0

and

(a, 0) .
....(\ )

4.5.13 Example:
Trace the curve x 2(y2 - a 2) - b2/

Solution:

x = 0 in (1) gives only y = O. Curve passes through origin.only and


does not intersect either of the axes:

F(-X,y)= F (x,y) = F (x, -y) :. Curve is symmetric about both the axes. x 2+ b y2 Lowest degree terms equated to zero gives a 2
showing that there are no tangents to the curve at

=0

(0,0)

Coefficient of highest degree terms in y (i.e.) of y2 is x 2- b 2


:. x

= b are the asymptotes parallel to y-axis

Coefficient of highest degree terms in x (i.e) of x 2 is y2 _a 2

= a are the asymptotes parallel to x- axis. Substitution of y = mx + c in (1) gives


:. y

x 4 .m 2 + x 3 (2mc) +X2 (c 2 _a 2 _b 2m2)_ 2b 2mcx-b 2c 2 = 0

3 ( m ) = 2mc does not provide value of c since m = 0

276
The asymptotes are y =

Engineering Mathematics - I

a which are parallel to x-axis.


For

Hence there are no oblique asymptotes. From (I) x

~ ~

by
y2

-a2

IYI < a , x

is imaginary

Similarly for

Ixl < b,

y is imaginary. Hence curve does not exist for

Ixl < b,

Iyl<a.
Since the curve is symmetric about both the axes, it is enough to study the curve in the first quadrant.

J
(0,0)

y=a

"x=b

x =-b
y=-a

From (I) Y = /

"x

"
ax
2

(
Fig. 4.19
..... (2)
2

-b

From (2) it is observed that y ~ 00 as x ~ ba and x ~ 00 as y ~ a For the first quadrant y


=

ax

x 2 _b 2
111

:. Yl = first quadrant.

a 2b2
(x 2

.Thus Yl < 0 for x> b . So y is decreasing when x> b

_b 2 )2

4.5.14 Example
Trace the curve
y2

(x - a) - x2 ( X + a) = 0

.... (1)

Solution: x = 0 gives y = 0 :. (0,0) lies on the curve.

Curvature and Curve Tracing

277

Lowest degree terms equated to zero gIves a x :. There are no tangents to the curve at (0,0) coefficient of highest degree terms in y (i.e.) of

(2 + y 2) = 0 => x- + y = 0
J J

IS x - a

:. x = a is the asymptote parallel to y-axis


No asymptotes parallel to x - axis since coefficient of x is constant) Substituting y
3

= mx + c

in (I)

x 3 (m 2 -1)+ x 2 (2mc-um 2 - a) + x(c 2 - 2amc)-ac 2 3(m)=m 2 -1=0 gives m=l


2(m) = 0 gives c = a(m2 + 1)

=0

2m

= a when m = I and = - a when m =-1

/\/y=x+a

I I

V'.Sl

--~.---~--------~x

/ I (a,2a) // I 1 I

(a,O)
I 1

"
:. The oblique asymptotes are y From (I)

" " l(a,-2a)

~~+a=o If""
=0

Fig. 4.20

=x + a

and y + x + a

d 2
dx

x -ax-a (x -a).J x 2 - a 2
dx

When x ~ -a, dy

~ 00

:.

Tangent at (-a, 0) is parallel to y-axis

dy = o. gIves
dx

x 2 - ax - a 2

1f5 = 0 => x =-a

278

Engineering Mathematics - I

Tangents to the curve at x For

= 1 + Fs a (A and B in fig) are parallel to


2
y is imaginary yexists y is imaginary yexists

x -axis.

0< x < a

a<x<oo -a<x<O
- 00

< x <-a

(i.e.) The curve does not exist in the region -a < x < a. For x = - - a there is no tangent to the curve (since the curve itself is not

1-Fs
2

defined there).

4.5.15 Example
Trace the curve /(a 2 _x 2)_x 2(a 2 +X2) = 0
.... ( 1)

Solution:
x

=0

in (1) gives y = 0,0

:. origin is a double pt on the curve.

The curve is symmetric about both the axes sinceF(-x,y) = F(x,y) Lowest degree terms equated to zero gives y
(i)

= F(x,-y).

= x as the tangents at the origin.


III d' Icates

can be written as y 2

=X a 2 +x 2
a -x

2(2

2)

Th"IS

that y

~ _00

as x

a.

Hence the curve lies only in

Ixl < a.
in (l) gives
X4

x = a are asymptotes parallel to y-axis.


Substitution of y

= mx + c 4 (m ) = m 2 + 1 = 0
=

(m 2 +1) + ... = 0

gives m = i

There are no oblique asymptotes From (1) dy

dx

4 2 2 4 a +2a x -x (a 2 _x 2)3/2(a 2 +X2yl2 dx

In the first quadrant: dy > 0 for 0< x<a (i.e.) y is increasing in this region.

Curvature and Curve Tracing

279

Fig. 4.21

4.1.16 Example
Trace the curve

l (a 2 + x 2 ) -

x2 ( a

=0

.... ( I)

Solution:
x = 0 gives y = 0,0 :. origin is a double point on the curve.

F(-x,y) = F(x,y) = F(x,-y) shows that the curve is symmetric about both the axes.
there are no asymptotes parallel to x-axis, since coefficient of highest degree terms in x ((ie) of X4 )is constant. The coefficient of highest degree terms in y (ie) of :. there are no asymptotes parallel to y axis. From (1)
y
=

is x + a 2

a 2 -x 2 x 2 2 a +x

For

Ixl > a,

y IS Imaginary

:. The curve entirely lies in the region -a s x sa.

y = mx + c in (l) gives J. (m) = m 2 + 1 :. m = i

280

Engineering Mathematics - I

There are no oblique asymptotes :. y values are extreme at parallel to x-axes.


4

dy = 0 gives x = dx

a~ -1 J2
the tangents to the curve are

x=a~J2 -1 ,where
2 2 4

dy = + a -2a x _x (2 )3/2 (2 )1/2 dx a +x 2 a -x 2

..... (2)

(-a,O)

Fig. 4.22

.'. x = a are tangents to the curve at (a ,0). Further


Hence y = x are tangents to the curve at (0,0)

Y) (d dx

(0,0)

a:

= 1 from (2)

The curve thus forms a loop between (0,0) and ( a ,0) and another loop between
(-a,O) and (0,0).

4.1.17 Example
Trace the curve Solution: F (x, - y) = F

a/ - 4 x2 ( a - x) = 0 ..... ( t)

(x, y) :. curve is symmetric about x-axis

F (0,0) = 0 curve passes through origin.

Curvature and Curve Tracing y=

281

in (1) gives x = 0, a (i.e.) the curve cuts the x-axis at (0,0) and (a ,0)
2

Equating the terms of lowest degree to zero we get al- 4ax = O::::? Y = 2x Thus Y 2x = 0 are the tangents to the curve at (0, 0)

dy = 4x(3a-x2) ::::?(d Y) dx 3ay dx (up)

----).00

(ie) the line x = a is a tangent to the curve at (a ,0) substituting y

= mx + c

in (1) and rearranging the terms

4x 3 +ax 2 (m 2 -4)+ 2amcx-ac 2 = 0

fA (m) = 4 constant.
For

Hence there are no asymptotes to the curve. y is imaginary.

Ixl > a we find

Curve does not exist for

Ixl > a.

________

~~--------~~~x

Fig. 4.23

4.1.18 Example:
Trace the curve a

2 1

= x 2( 2a - x) ( x - a)

Solution:
F

(+ x, - y)

F curve is symmetric about x-axis.

F (0,0) =0 origin lies on the curve (isolated point)

282

Engineering Mathematics - I

y = 0 in (1) gives x

= 0,a,2a.

The curve intersects the x-axis at (a ,0) and (2 a ,0) Terms of lowest degree are curve at (0,0) .

+ 2X2 which shows that there are no tangents to the

(y2 + 2X2

= 0 gives

= J2ix imaginary)

Proceeding as in 3.1.17 it can be seen that the curve has no asymptotes y is imaginary for x < a and x> 2a(i.e.) the curve exists only in the region
a:::;x:::;2a.

Further dy

dx
:. x

~ 00 as x ~ aor x ~ 2a

=a

and x

= 2a are tangents to the curve parallel to y-axis.


y

x
(0,0) 0

x=a

x = 2a

Fig. 4.24

4.1.19 Example
Trace the curve x( x 2 + y2) = a( x 2 - y2 ),( a> 0) ........... (1) (2001 s) F (x, - y) = F (x, y) curve is symmetric about x-axis

Solution:
y = 0 in (I) gives x

= 0,0, a . The curve meets the x-axis at (0,0) and (a ,0).

Equating lowest degree terms to zero we get

y2 _ x 2 = 0 => y

= x which are the tangents at (0,0)

Curvature and Curve Tracing

283

dy dx

~ 00

as x

~a

. Thus x = a is a tangent to the curve at ( a ,0)

For x > a (1) shows that y is imaginary No part of the curve exists for x> a.

~ 00

as

x ~ -a :. x = - a is an asymptote to the curve.

Fig.

4.2~

4.1.20 Example
Trace the curve

l (a 2+ x 2) = x 2( a 2- x 2)

..... (1)

Solution:
F(O,O) = 0 curve passes through origin F (-x,y) =F (x,y) =F (x,-y) curve is symmetric about both the axes. Lowest terms equated to zero gives a 2y2 - x 2 a2 = 0 to the curve at (0,0)
(:)

=> y x which are tangents


(a, 0)

00

as x

~ a

:. x

= a are the tangents to the curve at

y is imaginary when x < -a or x > a


:. curve completely lies within the region -a
~

x~a

284
y

Engineering Mathematics - I

x
(-a,D)

Fig. 4.26

4.1.21 Example
Yrace the curve

Solution:
Let F( x,y)= y( a
2

+ x 2 ) - a2x

=0

F( -x,y) =I:- F(x,y) =I:- F(x,-y), Hence the curve is not symmetric about both the axes. The powers ofy are odd. Therefore the curve is symmetric In opposite quadrants. F(O,O)=O. So the curve passes through the origin. The coefficient of highest power of x i.e~ of x 2 is y So y=O is an asymptote parreJ to x-axis. The coefficient of highest degree of y is x 2 + a 2 Hence the extreme points are A(a,aJ2) B(-a,-aJ2) Thus the tangents at A and B are parallel to x-axis. The shape ofthe curve is as shown below.

= 0 => x = ai

Curvature and Curve Tracing


y

285

Exercise - 4(E)
Trace the following curves

3. 5.

2 x-2 y =2 -x -1

4.

x 3 + / = ax 2

x> 0

9ai
y3

= x(x-3a)2
8.

7.
9.

=a 2 x-x 3
8a 3

i(a-x)=x 3

;a>O

y= --x 2 +4a 2

10.

i(a+x)=x 2 (b-x)
3

11. i
13. i

= (x-a)(x-b)(x-c) = x (3a-x)
x+a
2

; a,b,c>O

12. y=x

15. y2 =(X-2)2(X-5)

17. xi =4a 2 (2a-x)


4.2.0 Tracing of curves (polar form)
The equation of the curve in polar coordinates may be in one of the following three forms

F (r,B)=O

,r=F(B),

B=F(r)

A study of the following points will simplify the tracing I. curve is symmetric (a) About initial line B = 0 if F(r,-B)

= F(r,B)

286

Engineering Mathematics - I

(b)

About pole '0' if F(-r,B)

= F(r,B)

or

F(r,J[ + B) = F(r,O)

e = 1[/2

0=0 Pole 0

Fig.4.27(a)

(c)

About 8

= J[
2

if F(r,J[-8)

= F(r,8)

(d)

About 8 = J[ if F(r, J[ -8) = F(r,8) 4 2

(e)

3J[ . 3J[ About 8 = - If F(r,--8)=F(r,8)

2.

(a)

Values of 8 for which r at the pole

=0

gives the equation of the tangents to the curve

(b) (c)

F(r,O) = 0 gives the points of intersection of the curve with the initial line J[ F(r, -) = 0 gives the points of intersection of the curve with the line 2 8=J[ 2

Curvature and Curve Tracing

287

3.

(a)

If 'i and r2 are the least and greatest values of r then the curve lies in the annulus between circles of radii Ii and r2

(b)

Curve does not exist if r is imaginary for values of () or if for values of r

B is imaginary

4.

.. I ' h e1r > 0 I r I mcreases -dr < 0 I r I decreases . h . In t Ile region 111 w lIC 111 t at regIOn dB dB () =rr/2
y

__

~~-..J...

o _________
0=0

~ .

--.

o
Fig.4.27(b)

Fig.4.27(c)

5.

Let

p(r,B)
tan

be a point on the curve and P T is the tangent to the curve at P, OR

radius vector and is the angle T P R. Then (i) (ii) (iii) 6. 7.

=r

dB gives equation ofPT

dr

= 0 gives tangent parallel to initial line


do V'
Jr =-

. gives tangent

1./(/r. ..

to Il1Itla I I'me

If the curve meets the initial line at two distinct points and curve is symmetric about the initial line then part of the curve forms a loop between these two points. If for any value of B (sayB ,) such that It r
0-->00

= 00

then B = B1 is an asymptote to

the curve

288

Engineering Mathematics - I

8.

Sometimes it may be convenient to change the equation of the curve from polar to Cartesian form by substituting respectively

x = rcosO, y = rsinO
y

9 = 1t/2
y

--nf~~Y===~)---7X

9=0

Few solved examples are given below

4.2.1 Example
Trace the cardioid

r -a(l +cosO) = 0----(1)


Solution:
F (r,O)
=

r -a(l +cosO) = F(r,O) curve is symmetric about the initial live.


1[

When 0 =

we get r = 0

:. curve passes through pole and

o=

1[

is the tangent at the pole

Max IcosOI

:. Max r = 2a

:. The curve is entirely within the circle of radius 'a'. Hence no asymptote to the curve.

0
r

1[/4

1[/3

1[/2

21[/3

1[

41[/3

31[/2

51[/2

21[

2a

a(l + 1/J2)
0
=

3a/2

a/2
1[

a/2

3a/2

2a

r = 2 a when

0 and r = 0 when 0 =

.'. The curve intersects the initial Iine at (2a, 0) and (0, 1[ )

------------------~~--------------------------------------

Curvature and Curve Tracing

289

. b The tangents to the curve are gIven y tan


tan = a(l + cosO) when initial line ..

AI 'I'

de =r dr

a(e-sine)

= -cot e

= tan

(1l2 + ( )...(2) 2

e=

0 , (2) gives = ~ (ie)The tangents at (2 a ,O)is perpendicular to the

Fig. 4.28

4.2.2 Example
Trace the curve r

= a(l- eose)
8 = n/2

Solution:

(+2a,n)

J--------.....
Fig. 4.29

8=0 (0,0)

~---

........

290

Engineering Mathematics - I

()

0, 2J[ 0

J[ 7J[

J[ SJ[

J[ 3J[

4' 4
a(l-

3' 3

2' 2

--

2J[ 4J[

J[

3 ' 3

YJ2)
= tan2

a
() = J[

3~

2a

r = 0 when

() = 0,2J[ and r

= 2a when

:. The curve intersects the initial line at tan =

(0, 0), (2a, J[)

a(l-cos())
asin()

()

:. tan = 0 when () = J[ (ie) the tangent at (2a, J[) is perpendicular to the initial line. (work out remain ing points as in 3.2.1)

4.2.3 Example:
Trace the curve r - a (1 + sin ())

..... (1)

Solution: r = a when () = 0, J[
r=Owhen ()=-J[/2 and r
...... (2)

= 2a

J[ when () = -

:. The curve intersects the initial line at and intersects the line () = J[/2 at F

(a, 0), (a, J[)


and

(2a"~-i)

(0, - J[/2)
(r, ())

(r, J[ -

()) = r - a ( 1+ sin ( J[ - ())) = r - a (1 + sin ()) = F

:. curve is symmetric about () = ~ The equation of the tangent at the pole is () = -~ (from (2)) Maxlsin the circle r

()I =1

:. Max r = 2a Hence curve completely !ie~ ".'!!hin the region of

= 2a and there are no asymptotes to the curve.

Curvature and Curve Tracing

291

0 r

7r/6

7r/2 57r/6 7r 3(1/2


II

27r/6 37r/2 117r/6 27r a/2


0

3(1/2 2a

(1/2

--------~--~~--~------~.O=O

0= -rr/2

Fig. 4.30

4.2.4 Example:
Trace the curve r - a sin 0

=0

Solution:

7r/12 a 2

7r/4 a

7r/3

57r/12

7r/2
0

-a 2

J3

a 2

When 0 = 0 we have r = 0 :. pole lies on the curve


F

(r,7r+O)

r-asin(27r+20)=r-asin20=

(r,O)
...... (1)

:. curve is symmetric about pole.

F (r, ; - 0 ) = r - a sin ( 7r - 20) = F (r, 0)

292

Engineering Mathematics - I

and

(r, 3; -8 ) = r -asin(3ff -

28) =

F(r,8)
...... (2)

... curve is symmetric about the lines 8 = ff14 and 8 = 3ff14

from (1) and (2) it follows that the curve is symmetric in all the four quadrants.

r
pole.

=0

gives 8

= O,ffI2,ff,3ff/2

these four lines are tangents, to the curve, at the

Max r

Max la sin 281 = a

:. The curve completely lies within the region of

the circle r = a . The line 8 = ffl4 meets the curve at (a,ffI4).


0= rc/2

o =rc ----.-,;:~~rr_Illll:iiiii:::-----__1~ 0 =0

e =3rc/4
Fig. 4.31

Note: Similarly trace the curve r


4.2.5 Example:

= a cos 28 .
...... ( I)

Trace the curve r2 - a 2cos 28 = 0

Solution:
8
r

ffl6 a/J2

ffl4
0

ff13 to 2ff13 imaginary

3ffl4
0

5ffl6 a/J2

ff

Curvature and Curve Tracing


Jr

293

=0

gives eos2B

= 0 => f) = 4

curve passes through the pole and 0

= -

Jr

are the two tangents at the pole

F(r,-fJ)

= F(r,fJ) = r2

:. curve is symmetric about the initial line.

F(r,Jr -0)

_a 2 eos(2Jr - 20)

= r2

_a 2 eos20 = F(r,fJ)

curve is symmetric about 0

=~
eos(2Jr + 2fJ)

F(,., Jr + fJ)

= ,.2 -

([2

= F(r, 0)

curve is symmetric about the pole

8=0 __

________

~~

______

~~~~x

Fig. 4.32
Since leos 2fJI ~ 1 ,Max r

=a =a = a 2 => r = a

Curve lies completely within the circle r

B = 0 gives r2

curve intersects the initial line at (a,O) and (-a, 0)

r2 is -ve When Jr < 0 < 3Jr (": cos 20 < 0) 4 4


curve does not exist (above the initial line) in this region. Differentiating (1) w.r.t
I

fJ I
2

dr _a sin 2B dr 2 2 2B 0 => -=---2 r-+ a SIn dB dB r

294

Engineering Mathematics - I

dO r ff tan = r - = r. 2 = -cot20 = tan(-+ 20) dr _a sin 20 2

Thus when O=O}

tan = co

O=ff
Hence the tangents at 0 When (i.e.,) the radius vector 0

=0

and 0

= ff

are

.lIar

to initial line

%is tangential to the curve at the pole


r

(': 0

%gives

= 0)
4
also is tangential to the curve at the pole.

Similarly the radius vector 0

= 3ff

4.2.6 Example:
Trace the curve

r - a cos 30 = 0 - - - -(1)

Solution:
F (r, -0) = r -acos30 == F (r,O)

Curve is symmetric about initial line Line 0

=0

intersects the curve at

(a, 0 )

Since Icos 301 ~ 1 , from (1), Irl ~ a .Curve completely lies within the region of the circle r

=a = (2n + 1)ff/6( n = O/oS)

r=O when 30=0

:.30=(2n+l)ff/2, n=0,1,2, .....

(i.e.) curve passes through the pole when 0

These six lines are tangential to the curve at the pole The part of the curve from 0

= to 0 to

ff is AA, 0 .

Curvature and Curve Tracing

295

This has a reflection AA20 in the initial line. Thus AAIO A2A is a loop. F (r,4n/3 -B) = r -acos( 47l' - 3B) = F (r,B) The curve is symmetric about B = 27l'/3

OBIB is the part of the curve

from B = 27l'/2 to 27l'/3. This has a reflection OB2B in line 0 ThusOBI BB2 0 forms a loop.

= 27l'/3

F(r, 8; -B ) = r -acos(87l' - 3B) = F(r,B)

Curve is symmetric about B = 4~


0= 1t/2
B

.........

..... .........

A2

(a,O)
() :::

.... ..... 111t/6

....

(-a,1t/3)

Fig. 4.33 OCIC is the part of the curve from B = 7l'/6 to 7l'/3 and

OC2C is its reflection in B = 4~ :.OCpC20 forms a loop.


It can be seen that

OCPC20 is a reflection of OBI B820 in the line B = 7l' acos3B -1 = -cot3B -3asin3B 3 when B ~ 0
..LIar

tan =

~ 00

:. The tangent at (a,O) to the curve is

to the initial line.

296
4.2.7 Example: Trace the curve r2 - a 2 sec 2 f) Solution: The given curve can be written as
f)

Engineering Mathematics - I

=0

F(r, 0) = r2 cos 2 f) - a 2 = 0 - - - -(1)

=0

gives r

= a .Curve docs not pass through the pole.


:. Curve is symmetric about the pole

F(-r,f)

= F(r,f)

F(r,-f)

=,.2 cos 2 (-f)-a 2 = F(r,f) =0


2

Curve is symmetric about the initial line f)


F(r,TC -0) = r2
2

COS

(TC -f)-a 2 = F(r,f):. Symmetric about f) = TC


2

Since cos 0 S; 1 (i.e.,) IcosOI S; 1 we get r2 2:: a Curve does not exist in the region
l' --) 00

,.2 < a

TC as f) --) -

2
f)

:.0 = - is an asymptote to the curve.


2
-

TC

0
a

TC

TC

TC

TC

6
l'

4
J2a

3
2a

2
00

+ 2a

-J}
df) dr

r=-

dl'

df)

= a-

sec- f) tan f)

= -) cos 2 f)cotf)
a-

l'

tan=rdf) =cotf)=tan(TC -f)) :. =TC/2 when f)=O showing that dr 2

the tangent ate a, 0) is ~/ar to the initial line .

Curvature and Curve Tracing

297

(-a,O)

-\---~-~I-

Fig. 4.34

4.2.8 Example
Trace the curve

,.2 - a

cos 2(} = 0

Solution:

() = 0

gives

r = a :. curve intersects initial line at (a,O)

,. = 0

gives cos 2fJ

= 0 ~ B = 7r/4

pole lies on the curve

and () = 7r /4 are two tangents to the curve at the pole

Icos201 S 1 ~

IrI sa. Curve completely lies within the region of the circle

I'

=a

Curve is symmetric about the initial line. F F

(-1',0) =(rr _a 2 cos20 = F (1',0) (r,7r-(})=r 2 -a 2 cos(27r-20)=


0

symmetric about the pole F

(1',0)

symmetric about

0=7r/2

0 a
I'

Jr/6 a/J2

7r/4
0

7r/3

Jr/2

37r/4
0

imaginary

Curve does not exist in the regions

7r/4 < B < 3Jr/4

and -

3Jr/4 < 0 < -Jr/4

298

Engineering Mathematics - I

The curve forms a loop bctween (a ,0) and (0,0) and has reflection in B = 1(/2 Diffcrentiating (1)2r~

dO

= -2a 2 sin20

tan

dO =r- =
dl'

~2

a 2 sip 20

= -eot20

tan (1(/2 + 20)


=

0= 0 gives
line.

1(/2
=

Thus the tangents at 0

0 (ie) (a ,0 ) and ( - ( l ,0) are perpendicular to the initial


y

Fig. 4.35

4.2.9 Example:
Trace the curve Solution: F (r, -0) = r -

r - {a + beosB} = 0
{a + beos ( -B)} = F (r, 0)

Curve is symmetric about the initial line. Since leosBI ~ I we have

IrI ~ a + b
= a+b

The curve completely lies within the region of the circle. r

o =0 gives r=a+b :.curvemeets 0=0 in A(a+b,O) o= 1( gives r = b curve meets B = 1( in B ( a - b, 0)


{l -

..
Curvature and Curve Tracing

299

Thus when When

a*- b curve meets the initial line at A and B

a = b we get r = 0 curve passes through the pole.

Curve meets the line B = 1/2 at (a, n/ 2) . Curve passes through the pole when () = cos--!

(-{l/ b) (since r = 0)

Hence the tangent to the curve at the pole is the line B = cos"! ( (i) (ii) does not exist when a > b is B
=

-a/ b)

which

cos-!(-l)=n when a=band

(iii) exists when a < b

0
r tan = r -

n/3 a+b/2 .

1/2

2n/3 a-h/2
= 00

--

a+b

a-b

dB

dr

= a+hcosB
-hsinB

showmg that tan

when is

:.

= n /2

(ie) the tangent to the curve at

(a + b, 0)

.l/llr

to the initiallinc.

Further *- 0 for any value of 0 and hence no tangent to the curve is parallel to the initial line When a =h tan When Wht1f\
=

l+cosO . . -cotB/2=tan(n/2+0/2). smO


=

n we get

n (ie) the initial line is a tangent to the curve at (0, n)


~ 00

a*- h we have tan

as () ~ n (i.e.) The tangent to the curve at

(a - b, n) is also perpendicular to the initial line.

300

____E_n--:9:::...ineerin9 Mathematics - I

I (a+b,O) I I a>b
Fig. 4.36 (i)
(2a,0)

a=b
Fig. 4.36 (ii)

a<b
Fig. 4.36 (iii)

4.2.10 Example:
Trace the curve r

= a ( sin f) + 1/sin f))

..... ( I)

This example illustrates that changing the coordinate system from polar to cartesian facilitates the tracing.
(I)

can be written as

,.1 = a (r sin 0 + ~ 1 r SIn f)

..... (2)

Substituting r cos f) = x and r sin f) = y (2) reduces to


....(3)

No constant term in (3) :. curve passes through origin Lowest degree terms equated to zero gives The tangents at (0,0) are imaginary.

2/ + x = 0 => x yJii
2

--------------------=-----~------------------------------------

Curvature and Curve Tracing

301

x = 0 in (3) gives y = 0,0,2 a


y-axis cuts the curve at (0,2 a) and (0,0) is an isolated point Equating coefficient of the highest dt'gree terms in y to zero gives y = () (i.e.) x-axis is an asymptotes to the curve. F (-x, y)
=

(x, y) :. curve is symmetric about y-axis

Differentiating (3) W.r.t 'x',

dy

2x ( a - y) . (dY ) dx = 3/ +X2 -4ay .. dx (O,la) = 0

The tangent at (0, 2a) is parallel to x - axis


(0,2a)

y = 2a

o
Fig. 4.37
From (3)

x = y

J2ay y-a
Exercise 4.2

when y < a or when y > 2a ,clearly x is imaginary (i.e.,) The curve exists only in the region a < y ~ 2a

Trace the following curves 1. r 2 cos20=a


l

4. r=3+2cosO 7. r=asin40

2. r=l+J2cosO 5. r=asin30
l 8. r=a(coso+----) cosO

3. r=asin 2 0secO 6. r=a(cosO+secO) 9. r2 =asin20

a2 )0. r = a(I-sinO) 11. r2 = - cos20

302

Engineering Mathematics - I

4.3.0 Tracing of curves when the equation is given in parametric form:


Suppose the equation of the curve is in the tonn x

= ./; (t)

and y

= ./; (t)

..... (1)

where t is the parameter. The study of the following points are useful for tracing the curve I. If for some value for I , say I) ,

.I; (t) = 0 and


.t; (I)

.t; (I) = (l

then the curve passes through the origin. 2. If.1; (I) is an odd function and is an even function

then the curve is symmetric about y-axis. 3. If

J; (I)

is even and

J; (I)

is odd

then the curve is symmetric about x - axis 4. Intercepts on X(Y)a.xis are obtained by solving respectively. 5. Greatest and least value of exists. 6. 7. If

.1;(1)=0 (.t;(t) =0)

.I; (I)
00

and

.t; (I)

give the region in which the curve

It (t)

or

1; (I) tends to

as I -) t) then t = t) is an asymptote to the curve. to the

Y) = 0 (d dx I~II
x-axis.
(:

indicates that t = t) is a tangent to the curve parallel

8. 9.

) -) 00 as I -) ') then I

= I)

is a tangent parallel to the y-axis.

If It(t+a)=j;(1) and .t;(t+a)=.t;(t) then the curve is periodic of period a

10. Sometimes it may be convenient to transform the equation of the curve from parametric to cartesian form for tracing the curve

4.3.1 Example:
Trace the curve x

= at 2 ,y = 2at

Curvature and Curve Tracing

303

Solution:
Eliminating t from x and Y

= 4a 2t 2 = 4a.at 2 = 4ax
y

~~+-

__

______-+x

(0,0)

l = 4ax ---...;..Fig. 4.38

This is a parabola with vertex at origin y aXIs is a tangent to the curve at the origin.

4.3.2 Example:
Trace the curve x = acos/,Y = bsint

Solution:
Eliminating t from both x and Y

(= J+( ; J~

1 wh ich is an ellipse (standard fonn)


y (O,b)

---------+----~~----~--------~.x (-a,O)
(a,O)

(O,-b)

Fig. 4.39

4.3.3 Example:
Trace the curve x
1 = (2 ,Y = t-3

304

--------------------------------------

Engineering Mathematics - I

Solution:
Eliminating't'

2 y2 =t (I-t/{f
(i.e.,)

=x(l-73'f =i(3-X)2

9i = X(3-X)2 -----(1)
y

=0 gives x =O,x =3.


at (3,0).

The curve passes through origin and again intersects x - axis

F(x,-y)

= 9y2 -x(3 _X)2 = F(x,y)

The curve is symmetric about x - Q.'Cis and hence it forms a loop between (0,0) and (3,0) y

(3-x)Fx
3

which shows that the curve does not exist for x < 0

(i.e.,) to the left of Y-axis Lowest degree terms equated to zero gives x curve at origin.

=0

(i.e.,) y-axis is a tangent to the

Coefficient of x 3 is I (a constant) and coefficient of

is a constant.

Hence, there are no asymptotes parallel to either x or y-axis Substituting, y

= mx + c
3

in (I) and rearranging


2

_x + x 2 (9m +6) + ........ = 0

fA (m) =-1

a constant,

fA (m) =0 gives

=J{i

:. No oblique asymptotes exist

Fig. 4.40

Curvature and Curve Tracing

--------=-----------------------------------------dy =![l-X] Ix 2 ~

305

Y (d )

dx ,~I

0:. The curve is extreme at x = 1

elY) ( dx
4.3.4 Example:

=+ ___
(3,0) -

1 J3

:. J3Y = (x - 3) are tangents to the curve at (3,0)


Trace the curve x = a(t + sin I), Y = a(l + cos t)

Solution:
For no value of f both x and Y simultaneously vanish :. The curvc does not pass through the origin. x is an odd function while y is even :. The curve is symmetric about y -llxis

x(t) = 0 gives t

=0

.Correspondingly x = 0 and y = 2a

dy =dYidt =_ llsint =-tany,;=tan(TC-t/) dx dx/dt a(i+cost) .2 12


When 1=0 slope tan = tanTC ~ = TC :. The tangent at (0,2a) is parallel to x - axis

-TC

llTC

_5% -~ -a(~+ 5;) -a(; +1)


a(l+ ~)
0

5% ~ a(I+;) a(~+ 5:)


a

TC

(lTC

2a

(/(1+~)

306

Engineering Mathematics-I

y(t) = 0 gives cosl = -1 ~ I = 7l",37l", ..... .


(i.e.,) 1= (2n + 1)7l"

n=1,2,3, ....

corresponding x is

a7l",3a7l", ....

Further x ~ 00 as I ~ 00 and

IYI ~ 2a

:. The curve completely lies within the region 0 ~ Y ~ 2a and is period of period 27l"
y

Fig. 4.41

4.3.5

Example:

Trace the curve x

= a(t -sinl);y = a(l-cost)

Solution:

X(I)

=0

only when 1=0

y(t) = 0 gives 1= 2n7l"


x(O)

n=0,1,2, ....

= 0 = y(O):. curve passes through origin.

Since Icos'l ~ I we have y 2 0 The curve is completely above x - axis and lies within the region 0 ~ y ~ 2a

(y = 2a when'
The curve meets x -

= (2n + 1)7l",n = 0,1,2, .. ) axis at x = 2an7l", n = 0,1,2, ....

y is an even function and x is odd

Curvature and Curve Tracing

307

:. curve is symmetric about y-axis

LI x(t)
t~oo

= 00

but LI y(t) is finite


l~cIJ

:. There are no asymptotes to the curve tan = :

= cot ~ = tan ( ;
I

~)
are parallel to y-axis

~=---

Jr

2 2

The tangents to the curve at t

= 2nJr, n = 0,1,2, .......

The curve is periodic of period 21f


y

-4a1t

~------~------~--~--~--------~----~x

-2a1t

2a1t

4a1t

Fig. 4.42

4.3.6 Example:
Trace the curve x

= aeos 3 e,y = bsin 3 e

Solution:
The functions cos 3 e and sin 3 e are periodic of period 2Jr . Hence it is sufficient to trace the curve for one period. For no value of

e both
=0 =0

x and

y vanish.

(0,0) does not lie on the curve

x( e)

gives gives

e=~ , e = O,Jr

yeO)

308

Engineering Mathematics - I

:. The curve meets x - axis at x = a and y-axis at y = b Since Icos 0


3

01 s:; 1 and Isin '01 s:; 1 we have Ixl s:; a, Iyl s:; b
Jr/6 3J3 --a Jr/3 Jr/2
0

e
x

2Jr/3

5Jr/6 -2J3a

Jr

8 8

a/8 3J3 b

-a/8

8
-

-a

1 -b

8
dy
= - - tan

~J3 b
8

tan = tan

dx

=0

when

e = (2n+ l)Jr

(i.e.,) The tangent to the curve at these points is parallel to x - axis tan ~ 00 when

(-2-

2n+l) Jr
e there is -x
for Jr -

:. The tangent to the curve at these points is parallel to y-axis It can be observed that for corresponding to x for some and corresponding to x for some

e there is
(O,b)

for - e .

:. The curve is symmetric about both the axes

o =... nE-_ _-+ __~3!Jii-(a,o)


(-a,O)
0=0

0= -n12
(O,-b)

Fig. 4.43

Curvature and Curve Tracing

309

4.3.7 Example:
Trace the curve x = a[ cose +

~ log tan ~ J,:I = asin e


2

Solution:

yeO) = 0 but x(O):f:- 0 . (0,0) docs not lie on the curve


yeO) = 0 gives

e= 0

and lyllll'Lx

=a

x is an even function and y is odd. So the curve is symmetric about the x - axis
Corresponding to each x( e) there is -x for 1C :. Curve is also symmetric about y-axis Since Isin el
-(I

S; 1

we have

IYI S; a.:.

The

curve entirely lies in the region

S;

Y S; a .

x(
Similarly,

~) = a [ cos ;

+ log tan : ]

= a [0 + log 1] = 0

x[ -;] = 0
=a
and y( -; )
=-1

Corresponding y values are y(; )

Thus the curve intersects the y -axis at (0, a) and (0, -(I)

tan~ = <!v dx
:.=1C_

a -sine+ - .~ [ = sinti = cos' 0


acosO

= cot 0 = tan (1C _


2

sinOcosO

e)

2
Hence,

e e = ~ and = 1C
when

=0

when

e = -~

310

Engineering Mathematics - I

(i .e.,) The tangents to the curve at Further


.". X -

e =:= 7r/2

are parallel to x - axis

e~

00

or

-00

according as

e ~ 0 or 7r

axis is an asymptote to the curve.

(O,-a)

Fig. 4.44

4.3.8 Example:
Trace the curve x = - - , ,y = - - , a > 0

3at l+r'

3al 2 l+t'

Solution:
X
3 3 3 = (3a)3 - , .I,y = (3a)3 -3 .1 6

l+r

1+1

.". x 3 + y3

3 3 3a )3 27a t 3 ) = = ( __ 1\1 +/ 3 3

1+1

(l+t

=3a'-3 ' - - 3 = 3axy


Thus the Cartesian form of the curve is x + For tracing the curve see example 1.3
3

3at 3at 2 l+t l+t

3axy

4.3.9

Example:

Trace the curve

a(l-t 2 ) y 1+ t 2 '

=- 2
1+ t

2bl

Curvature and Curve Tracing

311

Solution:

x a2
Thus

(1_12]2 i
= 1+t 2
2
'

b2
( see examp Ie 3.3 .L'"')

2 2 ~ + L -_ I
a
b

Exercise 40
I. x

2.

= aCt +sin t),y = a(l + cost) x = a sin 21(l + cos 2t), Y = a cos 2t(l- cos 2t)
= asin 0

3. x = a[ cosO -log(l +cosO) ],y 4. x = aU -sint),y = a(l-cost)


Exercise 3.1 I . An asymptote to the curve
(i) x-a=O (ii) x+a

i (a + x) = x (3a - x) is
2

=0

(iii) x-3a=O

(iv) none of these

I ADS: (ii)
2. The curve a 2y2 (i) x-axis

=x2 ( a2 (ii) y-axis

Xl) is symmetric about

(iii) both the axes

(iv) none of these

I ADS: (iii) I
3. The curve x 3 +

i = 3axy

is symmetric about the line .............. .

[ADS: y = x)
4. If the tangents to the curve

= (x - a)( x - b)2 ,( b > a,)

at the point x = bare

inclined at angle 0, tan 0= .............. .

[ADS:
5. The two tangents to the curve

.jb-a )

= x 3 at the origin are real and distinct.


I ADS: false)

312

Engineering Mathematics - I

6. For the curve r

= a sec B tan B the origin is a cusp.


[Ans: true) cos t) is symmetric about x-axis. [Ans: false)

7. The curve x

= a (t + sin t), Y = a (1 -

8. x - 2a = 0 is an asymptote to the curve

(2a - x) = x 3
[Ans:true)

5
Application of Integration to Areas, Lengths, Volumes and Surface areas
5.1 LAGRANGE'S METHOD OF UNDETERMINED MULTIPLIERS The definite integrals are useful in formulating important physical applications like (i) lengths (ii) areas and (iii) volumes and surgace areas of sol ids otrevolution. 5.1.1 (a) The area bounded by a curve y = f(x} , the axis of x and the two ordinates x = a and x = b is given by the definite integral.
S:ydx= J:f(x)dx
y

= f(x)

. x'-~----!---

o
y'

"'---=--x

Fig.5.1.1(a)

Similarly the area bounded by a curve x = fry) the axis of y and the two abscissae y = c and y = d is given by the definite integral.

S:xdy = S:j(y)dy

314

Engineering Mathematics - I

x' ---:,-+----------------, o x
y'

(b)

Fig.5.1.1(b) If the equation of the curve is in prametric form, then the area
=

ll

I,

dx y - dt or dt

II

dy x - dt dt

(c)

where tl' t2 are the limits of integration depending on the boundary of the curve. The area enclosed by the polar form of the curve r = f(B) and two radii vectors (} = a, (} = f3,, is

= fPCd(}=~
a

fP[r(})Jd(}
a

(area of sector OPQ

- r d(})

1 2

o~~----------------

Fig.5.1.1(c)

5.1.2 Example Find the total area within the curve c?y

c?x2 ,,
/ , / 'y

x4

"
Y = - x" " " "",

Y
,, ...........8

=x
A

x ' ---~---~~~~~~~-~x

,,

,,

,,

y'

,,

Fig. 5.1.2 --

Application of Integration to Areas, Lengths, Volumes and Surface Areas

315

Solution: The curve has two equal loops between the lines x = a and x = -a and is symmetric about x axis. The total area within the curve = 4 (the area of the half of the loop i.e., 'OABO')

= 4 Laydx
=4

fo -va
a

ax

1~2--2

-x dx

=~x_l fa~2_x2j2(_2x}lx
a

-2

0
3

( 2 2 _ -2\a -x 2 )4( 2~=--\O-a J2 3 3 a 2 o

3a

Sq.units
=

5.1.3 Example: Find the complete area of the curve a 2y2


y

:x3(2a - x)

x = 2a B

x'

0
(0, 0) A(2a,0)

y'

Fig. 5.1.3 Solution: The curve is symmetrical about x-axis it cuts the x-axis at the points 0(0,0), A(2a,0). The curve consists of a loop lying between x = 0, x = 2a The required area =20ABO
= 2
=

fo ;dx
2a X 3/ 2.J2a - x
o a 2a sin2 ()

2f
=

dx

Substituting x

316

Engineering Mathematics - I

We have

dx = 4as in e cose x=O=>O=O


x=2a=>O=Jr/2

Area

=~
a
=

Jll
0

(2a)12 sin 3eEa cose.4asine cose de


2 sin 4

32a 2

J:

e cos 2 e de

6.4.2 5.1.4 Example: Find the area of the segment cutoff from the parabolay y = 4x -1. Solution: The given curves are y = 2x Y = 4x - 1

/2 2 = 32 a 23.1.1 --Jr = 1111 Sq. units

2x, by the straight line

..... (i) ..... (ii)

x'-----Ib-~_1_-=--------

y'

Fig. 5.1.4
Solving (i) and (ii) we get the points of intersection as

A(.! I} J.! -.!} 2' 'Lll8' 2


The required area
=

area AOBA (shaded region)

= area CBEAOOC - area BOADOCB =

J ! {y + 1)dy- J
1 -124

1 -12

y2 dy (from equations (i) and (ii) respectively), 2

~ ~[~2 +yL -[Y:L


= 32 Sq. units
9

Application of Integration to Areas, Lengths, Volumes and Surface Areas

317

5.1.5 Example: Find the area between the curve.xlY


y

a2(y
B

- x 2)

and its asymptotes.

x' ---j===::;>+-:;::::=::::f-..!..--- x

'y

Fig. 5.1.5
Solution: The given equation can be written as

y2{a 2 _X2)= a 2x 2 => y2 =

a- -x
The asymptotes to the curve are given by

~2X2 2

a 2 _x 2 = O=> x::;:a The curve is symmetric about both the axes and passes through the origin. The shaded portion is the required area. The complete area = 4(areaOAB in the first quadrant)

= 4 Laydx
=

4J" 12ax
0

va -x 2
~2
1

dX=-2J" -2ax ,~dx oi2 2)1/~

-x

= -

2a X

2 - X )

12

10

= -4a[:2 -J a -

Jl0 I

2
=

--4a[O - a]

4a2 Sq.units.

5.1.6 Example:
Find the area bounded by the curves

= 9x, x 2 = 9y,

Solution:
Solving

9x and.xl

9y

The points of intersection of the two curves are 0(0,0) A(9,9)

318

Engineering Mathematics - I

x'----+----~=F=-.:=--~-----x

Fig. 5.1.6 The required area = area OBACD


= =

area ODACO - area OBACO

S:=oydX - S:=oydx (parabola y = 9x) (parabola x 2 = 9y)


009

X2 = f 93 J";dx- f9 dx = 27 sq. units


5.1.7 Example:

Find the area bound by the cissoid x


Solution: The equation of the curve is

asin 2t, y

asin 3 t . and Its asymptote. cost

asin 2t, y

= ---

asin 3 t

cost
y

x=a
x,-----l..~;;;;;;;~~~--x

y'

Fig. 5.1.7

a 2 sin 6 t cos 2 t

a-x

Application of Integration to Areas, Lengths, Volumes and Surface Areas

319

The equation of the given curve is transformed into cartesian form. The curve is symmetric about x-axis and x = a is the asymptote. The required area = 2(shaded area)

=2Ja ydx =2J: _x_ o a-x


0 (

1/2 )

' dx

Writing

asin 2 B, dx=2asinBcosBdB

4a

2fl! 2 .4 23 I n Sin ede = 4a .-.-.042 2

4 5.1.8 Example: Find the area included between the cycloid x = a(e - sinO), y = a(1 - cosO) and its base. Solution: The equation ofthe curve is x = a(B- sinO) y = a(1 - cosO)
y

x ' - - - - - - - - - : : ' I ' -.......~.........'-'-'~.........'---'-:::-...".----- x

e =0

e = 2n

'y

A (2an ,0)
Fig. 5.1.8

The required area = area OABO


=

f02;, dx J2l! Y dx .dO


o

=
=
=

dO

f ;(1 2 0

cose )a(I - cose)de


?

4a

2f 2l! Sin . 4-de e = 8a- fl! 4e Sin -de


o

320

Engineering Mathematics - I

? 8a-.2

",2

sin 4 tdt

()

(taking -=t) 2

371a2 Sq.units

5.1.9 Example: Find the area between the curve x Solution: The required area
= =
=

a(O + sinO), y

a(1 - cosO) and x-axis.

2 area OAB
2f"ydx .dO =2f"aQ-cosO)aQ+cosO)dO o dO 0 2a .2
2

"/2

sin 2 0dO
y
.-------f------. A

x,---=--~~~~~~l--- x o =-1t 0 0 =0 8
'y

Fig. 5.1.9
=

4a .-.-

1t

2 2

= mJ Sq. units
5.1.10 Example: Find the complete area of the curve given by the equations.

acos3 fJ, y

bs in 3 ()

Application of Integration to Areas, Lengths, Volumes and Surface Areas


Y
8(0, b)

321

x'---~?-+=~----x

A(a, 0)

Y'
Fig. 5.1.10

Solution:
The required area

= 4 area OABO

=4Jaydx =4Jo

1t 2

y dx de de

4 I:'2bsin3B~3Bcos2BsinB)

= 12ab
=

J sin e cos e
3 1 1
1f

1t/2

de

12abx-.-.-.-

642 2

= 81fQb Sq. units.


5.1.11 Example:
Find the area of loop of the curve

-? =

a 2 cos2f)

e =1[/4
x'----~~--------~~------~~~~

e =0

c
Y'

Fig. 5.1.11

322 Solution:

Engineering Mathematics - I

The required area


= =

4 areaOABO

2f"4~9 =
o 2

f" 4r2d9
0

fo
2

"!4

a cos 29 d9

= -~in29]o 2

a2

,,'4

a2
5.1.12 Example:

Find the area of the curve r


Solution:

a(l + cosO)

B
() = 1t

c
A

Fig. 5.1.12

Required area 2 . (area OABCO) r2 =2 -d9


=

"
a

= f: a Q +cos9 )2d9
2

J:
8a

= 4a 2 = 4a 2
=
2

4(cos % Jd~ f"o cos ~9 2 f cos t .2dt


2
2

"/2

(where t = 0/2)

---=--

3 I 1r 422

3Jlll 2

Sq. umts

Application of Integration to Areas, Lengths, Volumes and Surface Areas

323

5.1.13 Example:
, =

Find the area of the portion included between the carbo ids , a(l - cosB').

a (l + cosB') and

Solution:
Required area
=

4(OCBDO)

=4

[I

1t 0

2,2 d8

1
+ cas8 )
8 =0
A

4-~-~r::---_~ r = aQ

Fig. 5.1.13
= 2 0 =

1t / 2

1 {, )2 a-V -cas8 d8

2a 2 2a
2

L1t/2a 2 Q- c~s8 )2d8


{

[8 - 2sin8]

~!2 +~.~}= a2 (3n -8) Sq.units


2

5.1.14 Example:
Find the area afthe curve

r2 =

a2sin28.

8=~
4

=n/4
x

Fig. 5.1.14

324

Engineering Mathematics - I

Solution: The total area of the curve = 2 area of one loop of the curve
1 = 2 . -1 fll .!2r 2de = f1l 2? a- sin 2ede

0 2

~ [- cos28] ~ 2 =~ n + 1]=a2 Sq . units


2 2
Exercise 5 (A)

1.
2.
3. 4. 5.

Find the whole area of the ellipse ~ + [;2 = 1 Find the whole area of the curve x 2(x 2 + .I) Find the area of the curve a2x 2
=

a 2(x 2 -

.I)

(Ans:

1t

ab]

[Ans: cl(Jr - 2)J

y(2a - y)

(Ans: Jra2 ] Find the area bounded by the curve xy = 4el(2a - x) and its asymptote. (Ans: 4Jra 2 ) Find the area included between .I = 4ax and y = mx
8a 2 (Ans: - 3 3) m 4a(x + a) and

6.

Find the area included between the parabolas .I .I = 4b (b - x)

7.

3 2 2 Find the area common to the circle x + y2 = 9 and parabola x = 8y

(Ans:

~(a + b}Fab )

1 {r;:; . [ADS: "3 2,,2 + 27 Sin

-1(2J2i} - 3- ) I
3JTa 2

8. 9.

Show that the area of the loop of the curve ely Find the area of the loop of the curve r
=

r(2a - x)(x - a) is -8-

asin2B.
JTa2

[Ans: 10. Find the area common to the circles r


=

aJ2. - 2acosB
[Ans: el(Jr - 1)]

Application of Integration to Areas, Lengths, Volumes and Surface Areas

325

5.2.1 Lengths of plane curves:

(a)

The length of the arc of the curve y = fix) included between the points whose abscissae are 'a' and 'b' is s=J h
<J

(d)2 dx I+~
dx

or

(b)

The length of the arc of the curve x = f(y) included between the points whose ordinates are 'c' and 'd' is
d

s=J ('

1+dy ( dy )

dx

(c)

The length of the arc of the curve x = fit), y = g(t) included between two points whose parametric values are 'a' and '/3' is

(d)

The length of the arc of the curve r = j(B) included between two points whose vectorial angles are 8/ and 82 is

s=
(e)

J9,

9??

r-

+( r -

dr
)

de

dt

The length of the arc of the curve 8 = j(r) from r = r/ to r = r2 is given by s=

,. , J,,-

1+ r dr

(de )2 dr

5.2.2 Example:

Find the complete length of the curve


x2(a2
-

x 2)

8a2

326

Engineering Mathematics - I

Solution:
y

x'------4--------lIf-------+------ x
A'(a,O) A(a, 0)

'y

Fig. 5.2.2
The curve is symmetrical about both the axis, one loop is formed in between x and x = a and another loop is formed in between x = 0 and x = - a. The total length of the curve Total length = s = 4
=
=

4(1ength OABO)

f:
dx

I+( :

dx

.... ( I)

The equation of the curve is

:x2(a2 - x 2 )

8a2y2

Differentiating with respect to 'x'

16a 2y dy =2xa2 _ 4x 3
dy _ x(a 2 _2X2) dx 8a 2 y

x2(a2 _2X2 dy )2 1+ ( dx =1+ 64a 4/

Substituting for y2 from the equation of the curve 8a2y2 = x 2(a 2 - x 2 )

Application of Integration to Area!, Lengths, Volutnes and Surface Areas

327

9a 4 -12a 2 x 2 +4X4 8a 2{a 2 -x2)

.... (2)

=
s=
5.2.3 Example:

.J2 2a2 sin- I (I}=2ha. Jr


a .
2

.J271

Find the length of the loop of the curve

3ay2 = x(x - a)2


Solution:
y

8
x'-------*J.U.jtJ.LL~~+_-- X

(0,0) 'y

Fit. S.l.3

328

Engineering Mathematics - I

The curve is symmetrical about x - axis, the loop is formed between lines x and x = a, differentiating 3ay = x(x - a)2 w.r., to x.

6ay dy dx

= x.2{x-a)+ {x-a)2

dy = (x-aX3x-a) dx 6ay dy )2 1+ (dx (x-a)2(3x-a)2 1 + -'---------''------'::--::-----"-36a 2y2

... (1)

Substituting 3ay2 = x(x - a)2 in (I) we get

1+ (-

dy )2 {x-aY{3x-aY = I + -'---------''--'--------'-dx 12ax{x-a)2 12ax+9x 2 +a 2 -6ax 12ax

1+

(:r
r

(3~2+;)2

.... (2)

The length of the loop of the curve

=2

(3x+a) dx o 2Fa-Fx

s=

2,,3a
=

~Ja3-Fx+ax-12dx
0

1 ,,3a

r::;- L2x

r:

32

+ 2ax

12] a
0

= ~ [2a 3/ 2 + 2aFa]= 4~
,,3a ,,3 5.2.4 Example: Find the perimeter of the loop of the curve 3ay r(a - x)

Application of Integration to Areas, Lengths, Volumes and Surface Areas

329

Solution:

x'-------;~t..J.J,.t..J.J,."'f__:__--

Fig. 5.2.4
The curve is symmetrical about x-axis and the loop of the curve lies between x and x
=
=

a.
=

Perimeter of the curve

20ABO

s= 2

(4a-3x) dx o 2J3a.Ja-x
a

s = _1-

fa a+3{a -X~lx
0

afj

.Ja-x

-1-[-2a{a-x) 2 -2{a-x)'2] ~
afj
Ir:;- [0 + 2afa + 2a 3 !2]= 4a/ fj

a-v3

5.2.5 Example: Find the length of the arc of the parabola y2 = 4ax cut off by the line 3y = 8x.

330
Solution:

Engineering Mathematics - I

x'-----~!OII"I'!J

...------x

Y'

Fit. ,.2.6
Solving the equations of the J>araboLa anct the fine gives the points of intersections

0(0,0) and A

(~: ' 3; )
2ydy =4a dx
-=-

y=4ax

dy dx

2a y

1+

(dy)2 =1+L dx 40
2

The length of the arc OBA of the

s=
. a

_1

[y ~y2 +4a2+ 40 log~~~y24a2 }T2


2

2a 2
=

2..

Jo

a[~~ + IOg2]

Application of Integration to Areas, Lengths, Volumes and Surface Areas

331

5.2.6 Example:

Find the length of an arc of the cycloid x = a(t - sin t), y = a( I - cos t).
Solution:
y

------~o~--~a-n--~~a~n----A~------x

(2a1t,0 )

Fig. 5.2.6

dx dt

= a(l- cost), dy = asint


dt

(~~J +(~J =~2Q-costY+a2sin2t] 1/2


=

2asint/2

The length of an arc of the cycloid

= 2

Io" 2asin 7i dt

=
=

4a[- 2cost/2] ~
8a

5.2.7 Example:

Find the total length of the curve


X2/3 y2/3

a 2/ 3 + b 2/ 3 =I

332 Solution:
y
B(O,b)

Engineering Mathematics - I

A(a,O) x'-----E:-~-~------x

y'

B'(O,-b)

Fig. 5.2.7
The parametric form of the curve is
x = acos 3 (J, y = bsin3 0

The total length of the curve = 4. length OABO

s=4

f1t2[(-3asinecos2e)+~bsin2ecoseJ
0

:\2J12

de

Substituting and
clcos 2o + b 2sin 2 0 = z2 (b 2 - a 2) 2sinO cosO dO
=

2z dz

s = 12

z 12 Z3/ h z. ( 2 2) dz = 2 2 a ,b -a b -a 3 a
h
3 _

~ 4 ~ (b
b--a-

a3

)= 4(a

+ b + ab)
a+b

5.2.8 Example:
Find the length of the arc of the curve given by x = asin21(J + cos21), y = acos2t(J-cos2t) measured from the origin to any point.

Application of Integration to Areas, Lengths, Volumes and Surface Areas

333

Solution: x
=

asin2t(1 +cos2t)

dx dt = 2acos2t(1 + cos2t) + asill2t( -2sin2t) dx dt

= 2a(cos2t + cos4t)
=

dx dt
and

4acos3tcost

.... ( I)

acos2t(1 - cos2t)
= -

dy dl

2asin2t(1 - cos2t) + acos2t(2sin2t)


.... (2)

dy dl = 2a(sin4t - sin2t) = 4acos3tsint


The length of the curve from origin to any point

L (~;

r r
+(;
lIa

dt

Using (I) and (2)

f~ J(4a cos3/COS/)2 + (4acos 31 sin 1Ydl s = f'4a cos 3tdt = sin 3/11
s=
0 3 0

s= 5.2.9 Example:

-Sin I

4a . 3 3

Find the perimeter of the cordioid r

a(1 + cosO).

Solution:

------~~------~-----------x

e = 1t

0=0

Fig. 5.2.9

334

Engineering Mathematics - I

a( I + cos 0)

:=)

dB

dr

-a sin 0

The perimeter of the cordiod


=20ABO
=

2 fox
o

1'2

+(~
2

dO

= =

2f" Ja 2 Q + COSO)2 + (- asinO )2dO


2

L" J2a
x

Q+cosO )dO

f" 4a COS2~ dO o 2 0 2 f 2a cos-dO


2
2

,..,

= =

4a.2.sinB/ 8a

20

5.2.10 Example:
Find the perimeter of the curve r
=

2acosB.

Solution:
The equation of the curve is r
=

2acosB.

It is a circle passing through pole whose centre is on the initial line at a distance 8/2 from pole.

0=0

Fig. 5.2.10

Application of Integration to Areas, Lengths, Volumes and Surface Areas

335

The perimeter of the curve

=20ABO =2J
= 2
n'2

r2+(dr)2dB
dB
2asinB)1 dO

f: ~(211~-;;~OJ ~-(12

= =

4a2
2aJ(

J(

5.2.11 Example
Find the length of the arc of the parabola Ijr
=

1 -t cosOcut off by its latus rectum.

Solution:
LSL' = 21 is the latus rectum of the parabola.

Fig. 5.2.11
The length of the arc L' AL = 2AL

=2

;2

1 r+ -

(dr)2 dB
(IB
=

Equations of the curve is Ijr logr =

1 + cosOc logl + log(l + cosO)

~ dr = 0 _ - sin 0 rdO l+cosO

336

Engineering Mathematics - I

dr -=rtanB/2 dB
The length of the arc = 2
=

1t/2 ~ 2

r + r- tan-9/2d9

f rsec9j2d9 I 2 fo 1+ cos9 .sec9j2d9 2 fo 2cos 9 2 .sec9j2d9 9 I sec-.sec 9j2d9 fo 2


2
1t2 1t 2

1t/2 0

1t!2

= / L1t/2 ~I + tan 2 9j2 sec 2 9j2d9


writing tan Bj2
=

t
I

sec 2 B/2.-dB = dt 2

= 2{~F2 +~log(1 +F2)]


=

l[ F2 + log(1 +

F2)]
=

Exercise - 5(8)

1.

Find the length of the arc of the parabola y

4ax cut off by its latus rectum.


[ADS: 2a[F2+log(l+F2)]}

2.

Find the perimeter of the loop of the curve 9ay

(x - 2a}(x - 5ai

(ADS: 4.fja J

Application of Integration to Areas, Lengths, Volumes and Surface Areas

337

3.

Find the length of the arc of the parabola x2 = 4ay from vertex to one extremity of the latus rectum. [Ans: a[ 12 +Iog(l +

12)]J

4.

Find the length of an arc of the parabola y

= x2

measured from the vertex. [Ans:

~Jl+4x2
2

+-.!.-sin- I {2x)] 4
=

5.

Find that the length of the arc of the curve y

log tanh (x/2) from x

1 to x
2

e + [Ans: log ( -e- ]


6. Find the length of the arc of the curve y
=

I)

x(2 - x) as x varies from 0 to 2.


[Ans: -.!.-log(2 + 2

J5)+ J5 ]

7. 8.

Find the length of the curve x

a(B + sinO) y
=

a(l- cosO)
=

Find the length of the arc of the curve x

eOsinB, y

[Ans: 8a) eOcosB from B = 0 to

1[/2

9.

Prove that the loop of the curve


(3

X = (2,

= (- -

is of length 4fj
=

10.
11.

Find the perimeter of the cardioid r

a(l- cosO)
=

Show that the arc of the upper half of the curve r

[Ans: 8a) a(l - cosO) is bisected by

e=
(a)

21[/3

5.3.1 Volume and Surface of solids of revolution:


Volume of the solid generated by the revolution of the area bounded by the curve y = f(x), the x-axis, the ordinates x == a and x == b about the x-axis is (b) Volume of the solid obtained by the revolution of the curve x abscissae y = c and y = d about the y-axis
=

J:

1t)12 dx.

fry), the y-axis the

Ld

1tX

dx.

338

Engineering Mathematics - I

(c)

Volume of the solid obtained by the revolution of the curve x


x-axis is f
'2 ny2

}(t), y

$(t) about

']
(d)

dx dl dt

= f '2 n ~ Cr)r
']

dfCr ).dl dt
=

Volume of the solid obtained by the revolution of the curve x


y-axis is f'21t\"2 dy dl = f'2n[f'Cr)Y d$Cr).dl

j{t), y

i...t) about

']
(e)
IS

dt"

dl

Volume ofthe solid obtained by the revolution ofthe cure r = j{ fJ) about the initial line

S n\"sIno
OJ

02

f.

f\)2

d{rcose )d0 .

de

(f)

Volume of the solid obtained by the revolutuon of the curve r perpendicular to initial line
=

j{fJ) about the line

dv f rrx- dy = 12 n \" cose )2 -"-.de dO


h?

f.

81

82

n \" COSo

f.

0)2

d{rsine),lO

0]

de

.U'

(g)

The volume of the solid generated by the revolution about the initial line (x-axis) of the area bounded by the curve r = j{ fJ) with the radii vectors B = a, B = {3 is
=

O=~

2nr 3 SIlIO '_0 d{\ 0


3

O=a

(h)

The volume of the solid generated by the revolution of the area about the line B = ni2 (y-axis) of the area bounded by the curve r = f(e) with the radii vectors

B=a, B={3is
=

o=~ 2n -r3 cos OdO 8=a 3

5.3.2 Example:
Find the volume of the solid formed by the revolution of the loop of the curve y(a + x) = x 2(a - x) about x-axis.

Application of Integration to Areas, Lengths, Volumes and Surface Areas

339

Solution:
y

= 0 gives x = 0, a

:. The loop is formed between x = 0 and x = a x = - a is the asymptote to the curve.


y

x=-a

Fig. 5.3.2
:. The volume formed by the revolution of the loop about x-axis

(Jr x2 (a-x)l
1(

a+x

ex

~ 1{- ~ + ax' -2a'x+2a'log(a+x)I


= 21(a 3 [ log 2a - log a -1 ] = 2Jra [IOg2-1] cubic units.
5.3.3 Example:
Find the volume of the solid generated by revolving the curve xy y-axis.
=
3

4(2 - x) about

340

Engineering Mathematics - I

Solution:
y

x' -------,o..-+----f.,-,,;-,~O)r- x

Fig. 5.3.3

The given curve can be written as

xcY+4)=8
The volume of the solid obtained by revolving the given curve about y-axis

= 2n
Substitutingy

)2 J (~ y+4
OC!

64

dy

= tanO ~

dy dO

= 2sec 2 OdO

= 8n
= =

1t /

I +cos2e de

8n [ e

+2 sin28

1t

4n2 cubic units.

5.3.4 Example:

The part of the parabola y2 = 4ax cut off by the latus rectum revolves about the tangent at the vertex. Find the volume of the reel thus generated.

Application of Integration to Areas, Lengths, Volumes and Surface Areas

341

Solution:
y
L(a,2a)

x'------------+-M+--+-------------x
J?--+--4.I

L'

y'

Fig. 5.3.4
Volume of the reel generated

=2fo
Jf
=

211

1[-

[ '}Y
y4a

1 Y-

]2<l
0

8a 2 [
4Jfa 3

= --

cubic units

5.3.5 Example:
Find the volume ofa sphere of radius 'a'.

Solution:
Equation of the circle of radius 'a' is x 2 +
y

a2 .

x'------------~~~~~~~~---------------x

(-a,O)

(-a,D)

y'

Fig 5.3.5

342

Engineering Mathematics - I By revolving this circle about x-axis we get a sphere of radius 'a'.
Volume of the sphere
= rr

~"rry-dx

(2 ') ~11 \q - x- dx
ll

4 3 . "3 JlU cubic Ul1lts.

5.3.6 Example:

Find the volume of the solid generated by the revolution of the curve x 3 = bsin () about x-axis.
y

(l

em;3 (),

Solution:
B(D,b)

x'

(a,D) B'(O,-b)
'y

Fig. 5.3.6
The volume of the solid generated by the revolution of the curve x
=

aeos 3 (),

hsin3 () ((i.e.,) x: ',33 + <~:


a-

.h-

1)

IS

dx =2fO 21tJ' de .dB = 2fO rr(bsin e y~3acos2esine )de


2
7t

11/2

32JlUh 2 - - - cubic units.

105

Application of Integration to Areas, Lengths, Volumes and Surface Areas

343

5.3.7 Example:
Find the volume of the solid fonned by the revolution of x
=

a(

e- Sillf/),

a(l - cosf/) about its base.

Solution:
y

o = n/2

Fig. 5.3.7
Volume obtained by the revolution of the area OABO about the base (x-axis).

O=21t

()=o

dx y2(10 . dO
-

= na

3f8=21t1J 8=0 ~

cosB

)~

dB

= na"

.8

21t

0=0

2sin 6 O/2dO
(e12 = t => dB = 2dl)

16na3.2 J1t o

sin6 tdt = 32u3n(6 -I 6 - 36 - 5 .n I 2) 66-26-4

5,(2a3 cubic units.

5.3.8 Example:
Find the volume generated by revolving the curve r = a( 1 - cosq) about the initial line.

344

Engineering Mathematics - I

Solution:
O=~ 2

o = It
A

Fig. 5.3.8
The volume generated by the curve
=

2n 3 2n 3

f1t r3 sin8 d8
0

f1t a Q-cas8)1 sin8 d8


3

2na J1t Q --cas8 3 0

ysin8 18

1- cosO = t sin OdfJ = dt [


and():O~

= - - cubic units.
3
5.3.9 Exam'pre:

8Jfa 3

Find the volume orthe solid formed by the revolution of the curve r (a<b) about the initial line.
Solution:

a + hcosO

Volume

2n = 3
= ~

f1t r3 sin8d8
0

')n 3

f1t { ,a+hcos8 )3 sin8d8


0

(a+bcOS()=t

~ sint1f() = - ~ ,t :a+b ~ a-b)

Application of Integration to Areas, Lengths, Volumes and Surface Areas

345

21t 3 3b

U -

u+h

p(_ dt) b

= - 21t

SU-h t3d!
u+b

==

~~[,;[

~[(a+bt -(a-b)4]
6b

41l'Q(2 2) -3-\a + b cubic units.

5.3.10 Example:
Find the volume of the solid generated by revolving the lemniscate? about the line B=
=

a2 c:os2B

tr

Solution:

Fig. 5.3.10
The curve is symmetric about q = tr/2 Volume
=

23. 1t I1t 4,3 case de


3
0
1t

=
=

~ S4(a 2COS2e)2 cosede


3
0

i3 1ta

I1t4 (cos2e l2 case de


0

346

Engineering Mathematics - I

(taking

.J2 sinO =

sint =>

.J2 cos(}dO =

cos/dt)

2.J27lZJ3 [4 4 -37C] --I -3 4 4-22


- - - cubic units. 8

.J27C 2a3

Exercise - 5(C)
1. Find the volume of the solid generated by revolving the clips :: x (a) About the major axis

~: = I

(b)

About the minor axis

[ADS:
2. The curve + x) = by the curve.

37lZJ b J

yea

r(3a - x) revolves about the x-axis. Find the volume generated


[ADS: ~(8Iog2 - 3)J

3.

Show that the volume of the solid generated by the revolution of the curve (a -x)y

= a x, a~out its asymptote is -2-.


2

7C 2a3

4.

Find the volume of the solid generated by the revolution ofthe curve y(a2 + x2) about the asymptote

a3

Application of Integration to Areas, Lengths, Volumes and Surface Areas

347

5.

Find the volume of the solid obtained by revolving the loop of the curve a 2 == x 2(2a - x)(2a - x)(x - a) about x-axis.

(Ans:

60

6.

Find the vloume generated by the portion of the arc y ==

JI + x"

lying between

0 and x

4 as it revolves about the x-axis.


(Ans: 767[/3)

7.

Show that the volume of the solid generated by the revolution of the cycloid

8.

. . 3 , 1 87[' IS - 7[" l - 2 3 Find the volume of the solid generated y revolving the cycloid x y = aU + cosO) about its base.

==

. a( 8 + SinO), Y ==

aU -- cosO) about the y-axIs

a(8 + sinO),
IAns: 5~l31

9.

Find the volume of the solid generated by revolving

a2cos28about initial line.


7[(1'

(Ans:

12

Ii r ( h ) h] l3log"\/2 + 1 -"\/2 I

10.

Find the volume of the solid generated by revolving r and e == 7[/6 about the initial line.

acos38 between 8 == -7[/6

(Ans:

197[(1' 968 )

5.4.1 Area of the Surface of revolution


(a) Surface area of the solid generated by the revolution about the x-axis of the area bounded by the curves y = fix), the x-axis the ordinates x = a, x = b is

I
(b)

21ty Is ==

Ii>
X=U

ds 21ty - Ix

X=Q

dx

Surface area of the solid generated by the revolution about y-axis of the area bounded by the curve y = fix), the y-axis and the abscissae y = c, y == I is

Y=J 21tX cis == IJ


Y={

21tX -

X=Q

cis (~V dy

[ d~==
dy

1+(dX)2]
dy

348

Engineering Mathematics - I

(c)

The parametric form is

f
(d)

'=/2

/=/1

ds .21ty-dt dt

[ d~
dt

==

(dX)2 + ({~y)2l
dt dt

The polar form is - )de I - 21trsine (dS de


O?

91

5.4.2 Example:
? '0 ? '3 ?', Find the surface area of solid generated by revolving the curve x-i-' + y' == a-I

about x-axis.
Solution:

The parametric form of the curve is x

acos3 e, y

asin 3 B.

Y
B(O,a)

x'

A'(-a,O) 8'(0,-a)

Y'
Fig. 5.4.2
The surface area of the solid due to revolution about x-axis
== 2(surface area of the solid generated by revolving an arc in the first quadrant of the astroid is)
=

ds " 21ty-.de f de dx d 41t f Y - ) +(2) .de de' de


2
?

lt/2

41t

It/2

asin 3 e ~( \.3acos 20 sine )2 +( 3asin 2 e cose )2de

Application of Integration to Areas, Lengths, Volumes and Surface Areas


"n

349

12na 2
2

0' -

sin-le cosO dO
ffn

sinSe - 12JlU 2 12JlU [ - 5 - j0 = - 5 - Sq. units.

5.4.3 Example:

Find the area of the surface formed by the revolution of the ellipse x2 + 4y about its: (a) major axis
Solution:

16

(b) minor axis

Equation of the ellipse is

~ +L
16

ely dx

x 4y

16y2
(a)

+X2

16/
Surface area formed by the revolution about major axis -l ds = 2 2ny-dx o dx

350

Engineering Mathematics - I

.Jl[~(~ r Jl] =
=

-x' +

~: Sin-{ )I

8"[1 + 4"9

Sq. units.

(b)

Surface area formed by the revolution about minor axis

41t

L2 J

Xl

+ 16yl dy
2

= 41t

J:

J16-4 y 2 +16y dy

8Jl. s: (1 r

+ y' dy

Application of Integration to Areas, Lengths, Volumes and Surface Areas

351

5.4.4 Example:
Find the surface area formed by revolving cycloid x = a(B+ sinO),y = a = (/ - cosO) about the tangent at the vertex.

Solution:

=-1[ a1[

y
a1[

=-1[

x' - - -.........-.....;~"""'"--..I---- X
y'

0=0

Fig. 5.4.4
Surface area required

= 2(surface area generated by revolving the arc


=

in the first quadrant about OX)

ds 21ty- dB

de

= 4 IX
II

1t)'

y)2 de (dX)2 +(d de de

. -cos e -e de =161t a-. IX smry

(% = t => dB = 2dt)
= 321tary

X/2 0 sin 2

t cost dt

= --

32JlU 2
3

Sq. units.

352

Engineering Mathematics - I

5.4.5 Example: Find the area of the surface of reel thus generated by revolution of the part of the parabola = rax bounded by the latus rectum about the tangent at the vertex.

Solution:
y

x'------+-~-+_------ x

y
dy

Fig. 5.4.5
=

4ax

2a
y

dx

Surface area

fo 21tX-dx dx
)2 dx

ds

d =2fa 21tX 1+.1:'. ( dx o

4n

fo" x.J x 2 + ax dx

= 4n

J:[(x+~r -(~rl2dx

Application of Integration to Areas, Lengths, Volumes and Surface Areas

353

4lT

o
= JZa
2

[3J2 -log(J2 + 1)] Sq.units.

5.4.6 Example:
Find the area of the surface of revolution formed by revolving the curve r about the initialline~
=

2acosB

Solution:
Equation of the circle is

2acosB

dr ' B = -2 asm
dB

x'-------~I----o

....--x

y'

" The surface area = J 21ty -dO dO


2

Fig. 5.4.6

ds

lIi2

21trsinO r2 + ( dO
2

dr
)

dO
2 2

J:/ 21trsinOJ4a 2cas 0 + 4a sin 0 dO = 81ta J sinO cosO dO


=
2 2

"/2

4mr Sq. units

354

Engineering Mathematics - I

5.4.7 Example:
r

Find the surface area of the solid formed by the revolution of the cardioid = a(J + cosO) about the initial line.

Solution:

Equation of the curve r


dB

a(J + cosO)

dr . B -=-asm

0=0

The surface area =

Io"2ny-de de
ds

Fig. 5.4.7

= 2n = 2n
=

L" rsine

r2 +(*

I:
2
2

de

2 rSineJa (i +cose

y +a 2sin 2e de
2

L" a(i + cose)sine .Ja 2(i + cose)2 + a = 16na I" COS3~ sin ~ cos ~ de o 2 2 2 e sm"2 . e d8 = 16na I" cos "2
2n
0
4

sin 2e de

16a 2n - - cos 5 -

[25 2 eJ"
Sq. units

= --

32mi
5

Application of Integration to Areas, Lengths, Volumes and Surface Areas

355

5.4.8 Example:

Find the surface of the solid generated by revolving the lemniscate,.2 about the initial line.
Solution:

a 2cos2B

Fig. 5.4.8

Equation of the curve is ,.2 Surface area


=

" ds fo 21ty-dO dO
4

a 2cos2B

41t

In

11/4

dr rsinO r2 + ( dO

2 )

dO

41t

1[/4 0 rsinO

~ a4 ~ r- +-~ sm-20 dO r-

41ta 2 [_ cosO ] ~

356

Engineering Mathematics - I

Exercise - 5(0)
I. Find the total area of the surface obtained by revolving the ellipse its major axis.
a-

x~ + y~ = 1 about
b-

2. 3.

Find the surface ofa sphere of radius 'a'. (Ans: 4Jlu 2 ] Find the surface of the solid generated by revolving the arc of the parabolay bounded by its latus rectum about x-axis. 3 Find the area of the surface generated by the revolution of the cycloid x y = a(l - cost) about x-axis. (Ans:
=

4ax

~7lU2(2J2 -I)J
=

4.

a(t - sint), 64
2

[Ans: 5.

7m )

Find the area of the surface of the solid formed by the revolution of the cardiod r = a(l - cosO) about the initial line. (Ans:

SJl"a )

32

6.

The lemniscate? = a2cos2B revolves about a tangent at the pole. Show that the surface area generated is 47lU2

5.5.1 Double and triple integrals:


Letj(x,y) be a continuous and single valued function of x and y within a region R bounded by a closed curve 'c' and upon the boundary c. Let the region R be subdi vi doo in rrty mrrtne- into n subregi ons of areas 8R\, 8R2 .... 8Rn

Let (x" y,) be any point in the subregion of area 8Ri . Consider the sum

The limit of this sum as n ~ 00 (i == 1,2, .... ) is defined as the double integral ofj(x,y) over the region R and is written as

fff(x,y}iA

Application of Integration to Areas, Lengths, Volumes and Surface Areas

357

Hf(x,y}ixdy
II

Lt

n~oo ,=\

I f(x" yJ) R,

(a)

Suppose the region R is described by the inequalities c ::::; y ::::; d and g(y) ::::; x ::::; heY)
y
y=d ...--_ _.,....::--....fX = h(y)

x = g(y)

x'---------+--------x o
Y'
Fig. 5.5.1 (a)
Then
t

y-c

ff f(x,y )dydx=Jff(x,y )dxdy = f fX=II(Y)f(r,y)dXdy x=g(y)


II II
Y~

="

(b)

Jfthe region R is described by inequalities a ::::; x ::::; band g, (x) ::::; y ::::; h,(x)
y

x ' - - - - -....... oof----I----""----x


y'

Fig.5.5.1(b)
Then (c)

ff r(x,y}ixdy = fff(x,y}iydx = f f y=g\ (.) f(x,y)dx.dy


II

x=h

y=lI\ (.)

II

x=a

If the region R is bounded by the lines x = a, x = b, y = c, y = d (rectangle) Then

Hf(x,y}dxdy
II

f ff(x,y}dydx= f ff(x, y}ix dy


c

"

" h

( a

Note: The order of integration is immaterial for constant limits

358
5.5.2 Example:
Evaluate

Engineering Mathematics - I

2 I I{x + y2 }Ix dy
o
I

Solution:

I 2dy I-+2y ---y 03 3


2

o
=

il

2 7 Y 7 I Y +- dy=-+-yl 3 3 3 0

-+-=-

1 7 8 333

5.5.3 Example:
4

K-~

Evaluate

Ixydydx
o

Solution:
4 J4-x
4

I'=J4-x

I
I

fxydydx = f
0
x=l

f [xydy] dx
0

y=K-~

f
x=l

fxydy.dx
0

4f~(4 -X}tx = 4x _~14


x=l

9
2

Application of Integration to Areas, Lengths, Volumes and Surface Are."'''

359

5.5.4 Example:
1 2- r

Evaluate

o J~'

J Jx dXdY
2

Solution:

v=1

J1(2- Y )' -l(J.i~)\~v


)'=1

y~O

-1

J 8-

V1

-12)1 + 6v -'

2) V- l IV
~

\'~O

1[S-1-6+2-lJ
67 60

5.5.5 Example:
Find the value of Hxy(x+ y}/xdy taken over the region enclosed by the curves

x and y

x2.
y

Solution:

y=x

x' _ _ _ _ _

~~:-:.....-----

y'

Fig. 5.5.5

360

Engineering Mathematics - I

R is the rogion bouuded by the curves y = x and J' =

x~

1=

ff'"y(x + y')dxcly
II

x5 x5 x7 x8 I 10+]5-14- 24 10
I I I 1 -+-----

10

15

14

24

=-

56

5.5.6 Example:
Evaluate x2 + y2
=

IfR 1- Y
A

dx{1y where A is the area in the positive quadrant of the circle

1.

Solution:
y

x'----------~r-~~~~~~~------x

8(1,0)

y'

Fig. 5.5.6

Application of Integration to Areas, Lengths, Volumes and Surface Areas

361

= -

ofx[~ -/'2-~--] ()
I I

_I

~ 1- (2

Ix

= --

fX{I[-Q-X 2 )]2 -I}dx

o
I

= -

f{x x}It
2 -

o
J ]1 -x 3 X- --+-

2 ()
1

= -+-=-

-I

5.5.7 Example:
Evaluate ffe
tlHhY

dt dy over the triangle x

0, y = 0, ax + by = I

Solution:

x:: : Ol----t---"
x'------------~----~~----~~----x

AU,a)

Fig. 5.5.7

362

Engineering Mathematics - I

1 = ffea<+hY dx dy

1= I I'"
,=0

lY: '-S-f:/\ e
y=o

+hI' I I -(Y(X

I
= _

-;-R~ e ,(I-a<) _e
llX+) -----

lLt

+O

1dx

bo

~[.:. -.:. - 0 + ~l b a a a
ab

5.5.8 Example:
Evaluate ffydxdy where R is the region bounded by the parabolas y
R

4x and

xl

4y.

Application of Integration to Areas, Lengths, Volumes and Surface Areas

363

Solution:
y

x'--------~~--~------x

y'

Fig. 5.5.8
Solving the curves i' = 4x, x 2 = -/y

X2 )2 ( - 4 =4x
x= O,x= 4 (0,0), (4,4)

1= ffydxdy
11

48 5

364 5.5.9 Example:


Evaluate

Engineering Mathematics - I

ff(f; - y2 }iydx
II

where R is a triangle with vertices at (0, 0), (10, )),

(I, I).

Solution:

8(1.1) Y

=1 ,....-.,------""!:II ... A(10.1)

x ____________ ________________---------x
~

0(0.0)
y'

Fig. 5.5.9
The triangle OAB is within the limits y
~

lOy and 0 ~ y

~)

ff(J~ - y dydx) =
2
II

J J(FxY Y

x~IOy

y2)dxdy

y=o x=y

JelY ~~~y- /y
[

3 ]IOY

Application of Integration to Areas, Lengths, Volumes and Surface Areas

365

Exercise -: 5(E)
I.
1. Evaluate the following double integrals:
2

f f(x 2 + y2 ~xdy
0

IAns: - I
3 x+2

32 3

2.

f f~vdx
-I

x2

IAns:

-I
3

3.

} Jdxdy
J

(x + y)25 IAns: log-I 24

II

~1I2_x2

4.

f
o

fidydx
0

25(/5 (Ans: -15- 1


II

5.

f f(x 2+ y2 )ixdy
0

ah (J IAns: 3\U- + h- ]

J)

[Ans:

--I
4

3Jru 4

366

Engineering Mathematics - I

2a-x

8.

f
o

fxy{O;dx
);2

3a 4 [Ans: - ] 8
9. Find the value of ffxydxdy taken over the positive quadrant of the ellipse

~: + ;~ = I

a Ja 2 -y2
10. f
o

f
0

~a2 _x 2 -

y dxdy
7fa
3

(Ans: - ] 6
x=1 y=x
y

II.

f eX dxdy
e-\ [Ans: - )
2

x=o y=O

12.

[Ans:

7f

log(.J2 + 1)1

13.

j fSin(x+ y)dxdy
x

[Ans: I]

Application of Integration to Areas, Lengths, Volumes and Surface Areas

367

14.

Evaluate H-,ydxcZV where R is the quadrant of the circle x 2 +


x~O,y~O.

y2 = {/2

when

{/4

[Ans:

-I
8

15.

Evaluate Hxydx((v whose R is the region bounded by x-axis, ordinatex ~ 2a and the curve x?

.Jay.
[Ans:

3
=

a4

16.

Evaluate and y
=

H(x + )')d'({~}' whose R is the triangular region bounded by y


/I

2x, y

3 ~ x.

17.

Evaluate and C(9,

Hxydx(~Y
~7).

where R is the triangular region with vertices A(~6, 2), B(~ 1,3)

[Ans:
18.

----:n- 1
~ 1

~1025

Evaluate Hxydn'y over the region in the positive quadrant for which x + y

I [Ans: 241

5.5.10 Change of variables:


The variables x, y in Hf(x, y ~/xdy are changed to It, v with the help of the relations
II

x = j(u, v), y = filt, v) then the double integral is transferred into

fIt!; (11, v)f2 (It, v)]!JI}illdv


1/'

dx dx du elv where J = dy cZY and 'R' is the region in the uv plane corresponding to the region du dv
R in the xy plane.

368

Engineering Mathematics - I

5.5.11 Changing from Cartesion to Polar co-ordinates: x = reosO, y = rsinB


dx (be
J = dr dO =ICOSB -rsinBI =r dy dy sinO rcosB
---

dr dB Jff(x,y)dxdy =
/I

Jff~cos9,rsinO] /Jld9dr
/I'

= Jff[rcosO,rsinOp'dltlr
/I'

Note: In polar form dxdy is replaced by rdBdr

5.5.12 Example:
Evaluate quadrant.

Jf~ a 2 - x 2 - y2 dxdy

over the semi circle

xl + Y

ax in the positive

Solution:
Substituting x
=

reose,

y = rsinB, in xl + Y = ax
,.2eos2 0 + ,.2sin2 0
=

an'osO

aeosO

which is the equation ofthe given circle in polar co-ordinates.

x' --------~I'-.-lo._~-_+-_o A(a,O)

Y'
Fig. 5.5.12
From the figure it can be sedn that

OP

aeos8

Application of Integration to Areas, Lengths, Volumes and Surface Areas

369

for the upper halfofthe circle, Ovaries form 0 to value of 0, r varies from 0 to

7T "2 where as for any intermediatary

or i.e., () to acmO.
1[

JJ~a2-x2-idx(ZV= f
II

2 acosO,--_ _ _ __

fJa2-r2cos20-r2sin20rdrdO
r~O

I) ~O

where R is the shaded region.

1t

~ f~
3
0

3 2

-sin 0)dO
2

5.5.13 Example:
{/

2 J \ a - y-

Evaluate f o

f{x 2 + y2 }Ix~v by changing into polar coordinates.


0

Solution:
From the given limit x = ~ a 2
-

it is clear that one of the boundaries is the circle x 2

+ y = (r, taking x = rcasO, y = rsillO. The given rigion is the first quadrant of the
circle. Here r varies from '0' to
'(I'

and 0 varies from '0' to


1t

7T "2.

Ja 2 -y2 2 a f f~2 + y2 )dxdy = f fr2.rdrdO


a
1t

O~~O

370

Engineering Mathematics - I

(14

1l

=-x-

8
5.5.14 Example:
00 W

Transform the integral I Ie - '+Y dxdy to polar coordinates and evaluate it. o r=d Solution: The limits of x and yare both from 0 and' 00 '. Therefore the region is in the first quadrant where r varies from '0' to ' 00 ' and B varies from '0' to Substituting x
=

(2 2)

1l

rcosB, y = rsinB, and dxdy = rdrdB.


1t

1t

1t

I --2
2
-r

e [2jW
0

1t

de

1 ? =-

rde =-[e] J' 2 0

Changing of order of inte8,ration:


The double integration can be integrated with respect to y first and then with respect to c or it can be integrated with respect to 'x' first and then with respect to y'. In the former case, the limits of integration are determined for the given region by drawing strips parallel to y-axis while in the second case by drawing strips parallel to x-axis. 5.5.15 Example:
, a 2a-x

Evaluate by changing the order of integration I


o "

Ixydx:v
a

Application of Integration to Areas, Lengths, Volumes and Surface Areas

371

Solution:
The given limits are

x:O~a,y:~~2a-x
a

i.e., the region is bounded by x = 0, x = a and y =

~ y = 2a - x i.e., x + y = 2a.
a

x' _ _ _ _ _ _.-.."""'....._ _ _ _ _---::a...-_ _ X

Y'
Fig. 5.5.15
a

J Jxydxdy
x2/a

2a-x

Hxydxdy + Hxydxdy
OA(,O ('AIl(,

y=a x=[:ry

y=2ax=2a-y

Jxydxdy +

Jxydxdy

1 2(/ d Ji Y+2" JY(2a- yydy


(/

5.5.16 Example:
a

Change the order of integration and evaluate

J J(x 2 + y2 }txdy
x
a

372

Engineering Mathematics - I

Solution:

The given limits are x = 0 x = 0 and y =


y

~ a

and y = .[; i.e., a

ay = x.

x'------------~~-------------x

Y'

Fig. 5.5.16

2J~2 y2)1xdy =:tEX2 y~dx}y


+ +
a

f~ i 3
I ( 3

- a 3 l + ai - ay4 } y 3

a3 a =-+28 20
5.5.17 Example:
a

Evaluate

f fx 2dxdy by changing the order of integration.


o
0

2&

Solution:

The given limits are x = 0, x = a and y = 0, y = 2.[;;; i.e.,

= 4ax.

Application of Integration to Areas, Lengths, Volumes and Surface Areas

373

x=a

x' -----...",..jl--""-::-I------ x

y'

Fig. 5.5.17

3"

2a [

[') Y
4a

a -

]3] dy 3"[a y - 64a


I
3

Y7]2(1
0

5.5.18 Example:
4

Change the order of integration and evaluate Solution:

f yfx
4

2 X

2 dxdy

+y

x=4

x'------..,t"f'---~~---

y'

Fig. 5.5.18

374
The given limits are y =

Engineering Mathematics - I

= 4 and x = y, x = 4.

r -I dx= I7r 7r [ x ]4 =7r = ian -dx=0

5.5.19 Example:
a vaL _yL

'22

Evaluate by changing the ordr of integration f o

fxydxdy
0

Solution:
y

x'------------+---~+_~--~-----------x

y'

Fig. 5.5.19 The given limit are y = 0, y = a and x = 0, x = ~a2


_ /

i.e., x 2 + y2 =a2

X
o

xL
2

2l~ dx
0

Application of Integration to Areas, Lengths, Vo'lumes and Surface Areas

375

Triple integration:
Let u = j(x,y,z) be a single valued function of the independent variables x, y, z defined through the region V. Divide the region V into 11 subregions t5V I' t5V 2 ... t5V nand P(x l , YI' z) be any point inside or on the boundary of the subregion t5V /' then the sum
II

under the limit Lt


11

If(x"ypzJdv, is defined as triple integral.


II

~oo ,~I

Lt
11
~

If(xpy"z, )dv,
00
,~I

HJf(x,y,z}1v
/'

5.5.20 Example:
\

Evaluate

JJ J(x + y + z }ixdyd::.
0

x+z

-I

x-z

Solution:
\ z x+z

Jdz Jdx J(x + y + z }ixdydz


-I 0

x-z

Jaz fi2z(x + z)+ 4xz}ix


-\ 0

376

Engineering Mathematics - I

JZ 3 + 2z 3 + 2z 3dz
-I

1 [ 4]1 =SJ.::\lz=S 24 =0
-I -I

5.5.21 Example:
2

Evaluate
Solution:

J J JeX+Y+ZdXdydz
t"dy

x+y

000

H Je'[J'dZ H'LT+[[e'.(e' r
fe<[ feY{e-HY -\ }IY}b:
o
0

e - 3 7< +e-rdx ---e-o 2 2

4<

Application of Integration to Areas, Lengths, Volumes and Surface Areas

377

5.5.22 Example:

Evaluate
1 1

I=

f f[xz t~dnly
\'=0

r:::

1,2

f .~ - X3
\'=-0

1 \=1

dy
t:..::y2

y=()

f (I6
1

y4 _0_+dy

y6l
3

~ [~< +~;I 3~
5.5.23 Example:

Evaluate
Solution:

4[-~+-S'11 x 42
z=O

~1

X {-}

J4;

]2.[; dz
<=0

4 [ 2r In::dZ z2 Jo
= 1f

=81f

378 5.5.24 Example:

Engineering Mathematics - I

Evaluate HJryzdzdydx over the volume enclosed by three coordinate planes and the
I'

plane x + y + z = I.

Solution:
The plane x + y + z = I meets the coordinate axes in A( I ,0,0),8(0, I ,0) and C(O,O, I).

z
C(O,O,1)

x
Fig. 5.5.24

WX;adZdyd!~ ,1, :I('JpIz }!YdX

1(2
I I-x

XY[

r' }n
dy

J JX;[(I-X- y )2_ 0}/YdX


x=o y=o

J JXy(I+X2+y2_2X-2y+2Xy~ydx
x=O ),=0

I-x

Application of Integration to Areas, Lengths, Volumes and Surface Areas

379

5.5.25 Example:
Evaluate

ff~X2 + i
I'

z2 }Izdydx: where V is the volume of the cube bounded by the


=

coordinate planes and the planes x

= z = {[,

Solution:
z

Fig. 5.5.25

ff~x2 + y2 + z2 )lzdydx =
I'

'f 'f
x~o

'f(x + y2 + z2
Z~O

)Iz(zvch

\'=0

(/

x=o

J ))

ra- +-+-dx
3 4

= [ ~' a' + ';' x+ ~' x

=d

380

Engineering Mathematics - I

5.5.26 Example:

Evaluate by tripple integration the volume of a hemisphere of radius o.


Solution:

Fig. 5.5.26

The volume of the hemisphere

V=4

J J [z]ga -r
2
y~O

r;;C;'1-

,---2 -1'2

dyd"(

X~O

= -1rG

2 3

Application of Integration to Areas, Lengths, Volumes and Surface Areas

381

Exercise - 5(F)
1.
I.

Evaluate the following integrals by changing the order of integration:


3

[4-:':;'

J
x2

J(x+ y}lxdy
241 IAns: 60

2.

J fx{x + i }Ixdy
2
0

29 56 IAns: 24 I

" 2 ,2,,1,,2_x
3.
0

f
2-x

fy 2dx((V
0
({~

IAns: - + - 1 16 32 4.

lW4

J J!...dxdy v
x .

IAns: 2 log2 I

II

j;

5.

f f

fxy(X + y}lxdy
I'

IAns:
41 2\'at

,.
Jdydx

3 56

6.

x2/4a

IAns:
2

-I
3

16a

7.

Jfx
I 3

+ y dxdy
IAns: 10)

382

Engineering Mathematics - I

II.
I.

Evaluate the following tripple integrals:


u x y

f f fxyzdxdydz
000

a6 [Ans: 48]

2.

f 'J 1-](> + i
o
0 0

+ Z1 }lwlydz
I [Ans: 20]

3.

f II'
()

, , J-XIY~ dydz
0

[Ans:
122

3"]

4.

f f fx yzdxdydz
(J

III
5.
() () ()

[Ans: I]

f f f(x + y + z)dxdydz

[Ans:
I

2]

JI-x 2 ~~2_y2
f
0

6.

f o

fxyz dtdydz
0

I [Ans: 48]

Application of Integration to Areas, Lengths, Volumes and Surface Areas

383

7.

JJ
I x

Fv
Jxyz dxdydz
0

(Ans:] (
I

13 1 1og3 ) 9-6 ]

8.

JJ
0

I-x x+y

Je dxdydz
0

1 (Ans: -] 2
4

9.

JJ
0

!BY

Jz dxdydz
0

(Ans: 16]
o J 02_x 2
niX

10.

o _J02_x2

J J

Jz dxdydz o

"This page is Intentionally Left Blank"

6
Sequences of Series
6.0 Sequence A function fN ~ S, where S is any nonempty set is called a Sequence i.e., for each nE N, ::l a unique elementj{n) E S. The sequence is written asj{I),j{2), j(3), ..... j{n).... ,and is denoted by (j(n)}, or <j(n, or (/(n. If j{n) =an ,the sequence is
written as ai' a 2 an and denoted by , {an} or < all > or ( all ). Here j{ n) or all are the

d h terms of the Sequence.


6.1.1 Example: 1 ,4,9, 16, ......... n 2
, (or)

< n2 >

386

Engineering Mathematics - I

6.1.2 Example:

~3 ,~,-;-, ~ (or)(~) I 2- J n n

6.1.3 Example: 1, 1, 1. ..... I.. ... 0r<l>

6.1.4 Example: 1 ,-1, 1, -1, ......... or (( - I

r-

I )

Note

1. 2.

If S c R then the sequence is called a real sequence. The range of a sequence is almost a countable set.

Sequences of Series

387

6.1.5 Kinds of Sequences 1. Finite Sequence :A sequence < all > in which an

= 0 Vn > mEN

is said to

be a finite Sequence. i.e., A finite Sequence has a finite number of terms.

2. Infinite Sequence: A sequence ,which is not finite is an infinite sequence.


6.1.6 Bounds of a Sequence and Bounded Sequence 1. If :3 a number 'M' ~ an:::; M, Vn E N, the Sequence < an > is said to be
bounded above or bounded on the right.

Ex:
2. If

I,.!.), ,....... here all :::; 1Vn EN


2 3
:3 a number 'm' ~ a" ~ m, Vn E N, the sequence < a" >
IS

said to be

bounded below or bounded on the left. Ex : 1 , 2 , 3 ,..... here a" ~ 1 Vn EN

3. A sequence which is bounded above and below is said to be bounded.


Ex:
Let

an = (-1

r (1 +;)
2
3/2 3 -4/3 4

5/4

2-1 __

o
-1 -

From the above figure (see also table) it can be seen that m :. The sequence is bounded.

-2 and M

l.
2

388

Engineering Mathematics - I

6.1.7 Limits of a Sequence A Sequence < (Ill > is said to tend to limit 'I' when, given any + ve number' E however small, we can always find an integer 'm' such that and we write Lt
all

"

Ian -II <E, Vn ;:::: m,

n->co

=I
2

or

(an

~ I)
>~-.

Ex:

If an

n2 + 1
2n +3

then <a
n

6.1.8 Convergent, Divergent and Oscillatory Sequences ). Convergent Sequence: A sequence which tends to a finite limit, say' I' is called a Convergent Sequence. We say that the sequence converges to 'I' 2. Divergent Sequence: A sequence which tends to oo is said to be Divergent (or is said to diverge). 3. Oscillatory Sequence: A sequence which neither converges nor diverges ,is called an Oscillatory Sequence. Examples

3 4 ,-,..... 5 here 1. Const'der the sequence 2, -,

234

an =1 +-

1 n

The sequence < all > is convergent and has the limit 1

nnE 1 Suppose we choose E= .001, we have - < .001 when n> 1000. n
2. If all

1 1 1 1 an -1 = 1+ - -1 = - and - < E whenever n > n

1 =3+(-lr--<a/l > converges to 3.


'n'
2

3. If an =n 4. If an 6.2

+(-lr .n,<an > diverges.

= ..!. + 2 (-1
n

r '< an > oscillates between -2 and 2.


+ ..... is called an
co

Infinite Series

6.2.1 If < U > is a sequence, then the expression u1+ u2 + u3 + ........ + un II infinite series. It is denoted by

Un

or simply

Un

11=1

The sum of the first n terms of the series is denoted by sn i.e.,

sn = U, +u2 +u3 + ...... +un;sps2's3' ....sn are called partial sums.

Sequences of Series

389

6.2.2 Convergent, Divergent and Oscillatory Series Let be an infinite series. As ~ 00, there are three possibilities.

Iu"

(a)

COl1vergent series: As n
Lt
11----)00

oo,s"

a finite limit, say's' in which case

the series is said to he convergent and's' is called its sum to infinity. Thus
8"

=S

(or) simply LIs"


III

=8
+ 1I} + II] + ..... + 11" + .. .1000 = s. (or)

This is also written as (or) simply (b) (c)

00

UII = S

11=1

IlIlI = s.
8 11 ~ 00
8 11

Divergent series: If

or

-00,

the series said to be divergent.

Oscillatory Series: If

does not tend to a unique limit either finite or

infinite it is said to be an Oscillatory Series. Note: Divergent or Oscillatory series are sometimes called non convergent series.

6.2.3 Geometric Series . 1 1 II-I TIle senes, +x+x- + ..... x + ...


(i) Convergent when

IS

Ixl < 1, and its sum is


=

_I_ I-x

(ii) Divergent when x ~ 1. (iii) Oscillates finitely when x

-I and oscillates infinitely when x < -I.

Proof:
The given series is a geometric series with common ratio 'x'
sn

=- I-x

I-x"

when x *1 [By actual division - verify]

(i)

When

Ixl < 1:
LI s
n;->oo n

n->oo

Lt - - - Lt (XII] - - =-1- x n->oo 1- x 1- x

( 1)
I-x

[ since xn ~ 0 as n ~ 00 ]
. 1 :. T he senes converges to - (ii) When x ~ 1: sn

=- x-I

x" -1

and

sn ~ 00

as n ~

00

:. The series is divergent. (iii) When x = -1 : when n is even,

sn ~

0 and when n is odd,

sn ~

:. The series oscillates finitely.

390

Engineering Mathematics - I

(iv) When x < -1, s"

~ 00

or

-00

according as n is odd or even.

:. The series oscillates infinitely.

6.2.4 Some Elementary Properties of Infinite Series 1. The convergence or divergence of an infinites series is unaltered by an addition or deletion of a finite number of terms from it. 2. If some or all the terms of a convergent series of positive terms change their signs, the series will still be convergent.
3. Let

Iu"

converge to's'

Let 'k' be a non - zero fixed number. Then Ikll" converges to h. Also, if 4. Let (i) (ii)

I
II"

u" diverges or oscillates, so does


converge to 'I' and

ku"
'111 '.

v" converge to

Then

(u" + v,,) converges to ( 1+ 111 ) and I(u" -v,,) converges to (/-m)

6.2.5 Series of Positive Terms Consider the series in which all terms beginning from a particular term are +ve . Let the first term from which all terms are +ve be ul
Let

Un . be such a convergent series of +ve terms. Then, we observe that the

convergence is unaltered by any rearrangement of the terms of the series.

6.2.6 Theorem If Iu" is convergent, then It un


n->oo

= o.

Proof:

Sn=u l +U2 ++U" sn_1 = ul + u2 + ...... + U,,_I,' so that, un = sn - sn_1


Suppose

IU n =/ then It sn =/ and Lt sn_1 =/


n---+oo
n~oo

It un = It (Sn-Sn_I);
n~oo

n---+oo

It s,,- It
n~oo n~oo

S,,_I

=/-/=0

Note: The converse of the above theorem need not be always true. This can be
Observed from the following examples.

Sequences of Series

,
1+ - + - + ....... + - + .... ;
2.7) it is clear that

391

(i)

Consider the series,

1 2

1 3

1 n

lin

= -, It

1 n

n~oo

lin

=0

But from p-series test ( (ii) ConsIder the sertes,


lIl/

I! is divergent. n
I
~ nconverges,

-2

1 1 1 1 + -) + -) + ..... + -) + ..... . 1 2- 3n-

lin = 0, by p series test, clearly Ir n~OCJ Note: If Lt lin ::t:- 0 the series is divergent;
IJ-too

= ~, It

Ex:

2n -1 1'" = - 2 ,here Lt n

lin

Il---Ht)

=1

lin

is divergent.

Tests for the Convergence of an Infinite Series In order to study the nature of any given infinite series of +ve terms regarding
convergence or otherwise, a few tests are given below.

6.2.7 P-Series Test


fi' . ~1 = -1 1 Th e ' 111 illite sertes, ~ +1 - + - + ...... ,
n~1

n"

1"

IS

2"

3"

(i) Convergent when p > I, and (ii) Divergent when p ~ 1. [JNTU Dec 2002, A 2003]
Pro(~r:

Case (i) Let p> I . J) > 1 3" > 2'" => _1 < _1_

'3"
2

2"

-+-<-+-=2" 3" 2" 2" 2"


Similarly,

111111114 -+-+-+-<-+-+-+-=4" 5" 6" 7" 4" 4" 4" 4" 4"
-+-+ .... +-<-,
8" 9" 16" 8"
1 1 1 8
and soon.

Adding we get

"-<1+-+-+-+ ....
I.e.,

1 2 4 8 ~ n" 2" 4" 8" 1 1 1 1 n" < 1+ 2(,,-1) + 2 2(,,-1) + 2 3(,,-1) + ..... .

392

Engineering Mathematics - I

The RHS of the above inequality is an infinite geometric series with common ratio

2,,-1 < 1(since p > 1) The sum of this geometric series is finite.
Hence

f~ n
11=1

is also finite.

:. The given series is convergent.

Case (ii) : Let p = I;


We have,

1 1 1 1 I - = 1+ - + - + - + ...... n" 2 3 4 1 1 1 1 1 -+- >-+- =3 4 4 4 2 111111111 -+-+-+->-+-+-+-=567888882 11 111 11 -+-+ ....... - >-+-+ ..... - = - and so on 9 10 16 16 16 16 2
I_I = 1+(!+!)+(!+!+!+!)+ ..... n" 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 1 1 ~1+-+-+-+ .....
2 2 2

The sum of RHS series is

00

1 (Since sn = 1 + n ~ = n; 1and /1~'" SII = 00 )


00;:.

:. The slim of the given series is also Case(iii):Let p<l, Since 1 I7=1+

f_ln
11=1 P

(p

= I ) diverges.

+ 1 +..... 2P Y

1 1 1 1 p < 1,- > - - > - ...... and so on 21' 2' JP 3'

1 1 1 1 I->I+-+-+-+ ....... P n 2 3 4
From the Case (ii), it follows that the series on the RHS of above inequality is divergent.

I Jl is divergent, when n
P

P< I

Note: This theorem is often helpful in discussing the nature of a given infinite series.

Sequences of Series

393

6.2.8 Comparison Tests 1. Let Un and

Vn

be two series of +ve terms and let

VII

be convergent.

Then

I
U

Un

converges,

1. If un ~ Vn' \:;f n EN

2. or

-.!!.. ~

k\:;fn EN where k is> 0 and finite.

vn

3. or

un vn

~ a finite limit> 0

Proof:
1. Let

Vn

=I

(finite) + ...... ~VI

Then, u l

+u2 + .... +lln

Since I is finite it follows that

+v2 + ..... VII + ..... ~l


UII

>0

is convergent

2.

un vn

~ k ~ UII ~ kv \:;fn EN, since


ll ,

VII

is convergent and k (>0)

IS

finite,

Ikvll is convergent:. IU
un n-'>oo vn

is convergent.

3. Since Lt

is finite, we can find a +ve constant k,3

~ < k\:;fn EN
vn

:. from (2), it follows that 2. Let

IU
EN

II

is convergent

I
I

UII

and

I
If If

Vn

be two series of +ve terms and let

VII

be divergent.

Then

Un

diverges,
un ~ VII' \:;fn un vn

* 1.
or or

* 2. * 3.

~ k, \:;fn EN where k is finite and"* 0

If Lt ull is finite and non-zero.


n-'>OO Vn

Proof:
1. Let M be a +ve integer however large it may be . Science a number m can be found such that VI +V2 + ..... +vn > M, \:;fn > m

VII

is divergent,

u +u2 + .... +un > M, \:;fn > m(un ~ vJ


l

394

Engineering Mathematics - I

I
2
11,

1I"

is divergent

2:: kv,,\:;In

I
3.

v" is divergent ~

kv" is divergent

I
Since Lt

u" is divergent

~ is finite, a + ve constant k can be found such that

un

> k, \:;In

(probably except for a finite number oftenns ) :. From (2), it follows that

Un

is divergent.

Note: I. In (I) and (2), it is sufficient that the conditions with * hold \:;In> mEN Alternate form of comparison tests : The above two types of comparison tests 2.8.( I) and 2.8.(2) can be culbed together and stated as follows:
If

Iu"

and

Vn

are two series of + ve terms such that Lt


"->00

un =

vn

k,

where k is non- zero and finite, then diverge.

u" and

Vn

both converge or both

Note: I. The above fonn of comparison tests is mostly used in solving problems. 2. In order to apply the test in problems, we require a certain series Vn whose

nature is already known i.e., we must know whether divergent. For this reason, we call

Vn

is convergent are

Vn

as an 'auxiliary series'.

3. In problems, the geometric series (2.3.) and the p-series (2.7) can be conveniently used as 'auxiliary series'.

Solved Examples 6.2.9 Example Test the convergence of the following series:
(a)

-+-+-+-+.....
00 [ ~ (n
4

3456 1 8 27 64

(b)

-+-+-+-+ .....

4567 1 4 9 16

(c)

+1) 1/4 -n ]

Sequences of Series

395

Solution
(a)

Step 1:
To find "ul/" the

d"

term of the given series. The numerators 3, 4, 5,


=

6 ...... ofthe terms, are in AP.

n'" term tl/

3 + (11- 1).1

n+2
111/

3 2' 33 43 Denomlllators are 1 ,-, , ..... n ,,, term = n \ ;

= --3n

n+2

Step 2:
To choose the auxiliary series

VI/ .

In 1I11 , the highest degree or 11 in the

numerator is I and that of denominator is 3. :. we take,


VII

= ----:l=I = 2
n

11

Step 3 :

It
1/-->00

~=
vl/

I/~OO

2 It n+2xn = Lt n+2 = It 3

I/~OO

11

I/~OO

(1+~}=1
11

'

which is non- zero and finite. Step 4: Conclusioll:

It ~=1
n-----}oo

VII

:. IUI/

and

v" both converge or diverge (by comparison test). But


=

I
(b)

VI/

= ~n6

1 ,,-?
7

is convergent by p-series test (p

2 > 1); :.

Ill"

is

convergent.

-+-+-+-+ .....
1 4'-9 16 Step 1 : 4 , 5, 6, 7, ..... in AP , tn Step 2 : Let " ~ v"

= 4 + (n -1) 1 = n + 3

n+3

= -1
11
,,~oo

. be tIle auxi'1'lary series

Step 3: Lt
I/~'"

~ = Lt (11~3)xn = It (1 v" nI/~OO

+l) = 1,
n

which is non-zero and

finite.

396

Engineering Mathematics - I

Step 4 : :. By comparison test, both


together. But
1 Iv" =In

utI and

v" converge are diverge

is divergent, by p-series test (p

= 1); :.

Iu"

is

divergent.

=n

1+-' -.+ ~G-l)~+ . . _1 4n 2! n


3;n 7 + .... =

=n[-'-.-~+ . . .J
4n 32n

= 4~3 -

~3 [~- 3;n
!, and I

+ ....

.J

Here it will be convenient if we take v"

=~
n

n~oo

Lt utI = Lt -1-4 + ..... ) = which is non-zero and finite vn n~oo 4 32n 4

(! -

:. By comparison test, by p-series test convergent.

Un

VII

both converge or both diverge. But


=

IV

1
n =-3

is convergent. (p

3 > 1); :.

Iu"

is

6.2.10 Example
If u
n

2-+-1 {j'--3n-

~hn3 +3n+5

show that

Un-

is divergent

Solution As n increases, utI approximates to


~ 3n 2
l

r:::-?

Jl3

II

n73

2/

3/ 3

II

~2n 3 = 2Y.; x nYt = 2}~ . nX2

Sequences of Series
Ii

397
U )13

If we take vn [(or) Hint: Take vn

= - 1-/
1

nl12

Lt -.-!!.. n-->""VII

=-I
274

which is finite.

= ~ , where
n' ,

II and 12 are indices of 'n' of the

largest terms in denominator and nominator respectively of ull Here


VII

=-3-2 =-1 ]

n4

nl2

By comparison test,

VII

and

U II

converge or diverge together. But

" L..,. VII

,1. =, L..,.-I,-' IS d' Ivergent by p Wl2

. test (smce . senes p

= -1 < 1)
12

L un
6.2.11 Example

is divergent.

Test for the convergence of the series. Solution Here, Take

Jf ~ J! ~
+ + +

+ ......

un

=~

n:
2

1;

1 1 vn =-1-I =-0=1, Lt u.
n2

----

n-->"" V

Lt )
11-->""

11

= 1 (finite)

1+n

VII

is divergent by p - series test. (p = 0 < 1)

:. By comparison test,

Un

is divergent, (Students are advised to follow the

procedure given in ex. 1.2.9(a) and (b) to find" un" of the given series.}

6.2.12 Example
1 1 1 Show that 1 + IT + l2 + ....... + l!:! +..... is convergent.
Solution

un

1 l!:!

(neglecting 1sl term)

1 1 1 - - - - < -----==,--- = 1.2.3 ......n 1.2.2.2 .....n -ltimes (2n-l)

398

Engineering Mathematics - I

"1I" < 1+-+-? +-, + ..... . ~ 2 2- 2'


which is an infinite geometric series with common ratio

~ <1
2

" 2,,-1 1 IS . convergent. (1.2.3(a)). Hence :. ~


6.2.13 Example
Test for the convergence of the series,

I "/I

is convergent.

_1_ + _1_ + _1_ + ...... . 1.2.3 2.3.4 3.4.5

Solution
u Take

"

1 . n(n+1)(n+2)'
1

V"=-3

,,~ao V

Lt

U"
n

= n~ao Lt

( 3 1 n 1+-n

n)(1+2 )= 1 (finite)
n
and

By comparison test, series test,

I
~
n

U" '

v" converge or diverge together. But by pis convergent.

v" =

is convergent (p = 3> 1 ); :. Iu"

6.2.14 Example
If u" =

-J n4 + 1 - -Jn4 -1, show that I


u"

Un

is convergent. [JNTU, 200s]

Solution

= n2 ( 1+ n1)2 4

n 2 ( 1- n 4

1)2

~n2[(1+ 2~4 - 8:' + 16~12 - ....)+- 2:4 - 8:' -16~12 - .....)]


=n
Take
2 [-;-

n
'

~ + .... J = ~ [1 + ~ + .... J 8n n 8n
u'
-E...
,,~ao

vn

= -2
n

hence Lt

v"

=1

Sequences of Series

399

:. By comparison test,

lin

and

v" converge or diverge together. But

Vn

=~
n

is convergent by p -series test (p = 2 > 1):.

Un

is convergent.

6. 2.15 Example

1 1 1 I-' Test the senes - - + - - + - - + ..... lor convergence.

l+x

2+x

3+x

Solution

un
Take then
VII

=--;

n+x

=-,

UII

n n+x

1+~
n

Lt
n~""

(_1_] 1; I
=

VII

1+n

I! n

is divergent by p-series test (p =1 )

:. By comparison test, 6.2.16 Example Show that Solution

Un

is divergent.

fSin(!) n
n=1

is divergent.

Take
SIn U Lt --E... n~"" V n

n = n~"" Lt ( ) 1
_

. (1) sint =
I~O

Lt -

(where t

= 1n) = 1

Yn
~

Iu I
, n

VII

.both converge or diverge. But

VII

is divergent

(p -series test, p

= 1);

:.

Un

is divergent.

400

Engineering Mathematics - I

6.2.17 Example
Test the series

L sin

-I ( : )

for convergence.

Solution
_I 1 u =sm _. n n' 1 vn =n

Take

/1---*00

u sin ( ()) ( . . _ 1 ) Lt 2..= Lt ( ) ;= Lt - . - =1 Takmgsm '-=() v tHoo 1 8---*0 sm () n


/I _

-{~)

n
But

L v"

is divergent .Hence

L u"
33

is divergent.

6.2.18 Example
Show that the series 1 + - 2 + - 3 + - 3 + ..... is divergent.

22

234

Solution
Neglecting the first term, the series is 1 + - 2 + - 3 + - 4 + .....

22

33

n"
U -

"~(n+l)"" ~ (n+l)(n+l) ~ n(l+~).n"(I+~J


1
Take vn =-

234 nn n-

.Therefore
nn

1
e

which is finite and

L vn = L! is divergent by p -series test (p n L un is divergent.

1)

Sequences of Series

401

6.2.19 Example
. 1 3 5 . SIlOW t Ilat t Ile series - - + - - + - - + .......00 IS convergent.

1.2.3
3

2.3.4
5

3.4.5

Solution

--+--+--+ .......00
1.2.3 2.3.4 3.4.5

Iii

term~ u" ~ n(n+l)(n+2) ~ n' (I+~)(I+~)


Vn = - 2

2n-1

1 ( 2- n )

Take

1 n

it un

n~oo VII
it
HOO

= it
HOO

_I (2 -~ ) (_1 )
n
2

(1 + ~'~)(1 + 2n)
0 )

Un Vn

=(

1 +0 1+0

2)(

=2

which is finite and non-zero converge or diverge together is also convergent.

:. By comparison test
But
LVII =

Llln and
1

LVII

L n1

-2

is convergent. :.

LUll

6.2.20 Example
Test whether the series

L J;; ,J;;+l II~I n + n+ I


00

is convergent

Solution
The given series is 1 L-==---== J;; +.j;;+1
00

11=1

402

Engineering Mathematics - I

Take

which is finite and non-zero Using comparison test But

I I

Vn =

Un

and

Vn

converge or diverge together.

is divergent (since p

= Ii)

Un

is also divergent.

6.2.21 Example
Test fo~ convergence

f[ ~n + 1 - nJ [JNTU 1996,2003, 2003s]


3
n=1

nih term

Un

= n[(1
=

+~))~ -1) .~+ n -1] = n[1 +~+ 3n Jj U~ 1.2 n ..... -1]


+ ...... = :2

3:2- 9:5
I
Un

(1- 9:3 + ......) ;


)= lj *0

Let

Vn =-2

Then

f~L

X=n~Jlj - X
and

1 n

n 3 + ....

:. By comparison test, But

Vn

both converge or diverge.

Vn

is convergent by p -series test (since p = 2 > 1)

convergent.

6.2.22 Example
Show that the series, for p 5, 2

~ +~ +~ + ....... P P
JP

is convergent for p > 2 and divergent

Sequences of Series

403

Solution

n term of the given senes =


Let
liS

III

= --~ =
n"
'

n +1

n ( 1+ In)

n"

( 1+ 1~)
11
,,-1

Lt u = l:;t: O I = _1_. n,,-I '11-"') /v ... L 1111 and L VII both converge or diverge by comparison test. BlIt LVII = L }~>-I converges when p -I> 1 ; i.e., p >2 and diverges when
take v
n/
lI

p -1 ~ 1 i.e p 6.2.23 Example

2; Hence the result.

Test for convergence

+ L (?II 73J 3 +1
OCJ

2 1

11=1

Solution

"" J 2"(1+ 3~,,)r'


Take
V n -

" Jf. VII


U
_.

l3

11 (

'~3 1 ) J

3"'

--'!...-

1+ 3 2 - [ 1 1,' + n

I )1,3

1l-7r:iJ

Lt !!A = 1 :;t: 0; :. By comparison test, v


ll

L un
2

and

VII

behave the same way.

BlIt L... vn

"

L... 11=1 3

~(2)"2 = ~ 2+ (2)3 - +3 3 3

+ ..... , W lIC 1

I. I. a geometflc 1 sefles Wit


IS

common ratio

)34, I) :. LVII is convergent. Hence LUll


1

is convergent.

6.2.24 Example

. Test for convergence of the sefles,


Solution

4.7.10

7.10.13

10.13.16

+ ..... .

and

4,7, 10, .............. is an A. P; 7, 10, 13, ............ is an A. P; 10, 13, 16 , ............. is an A. P;

'II 'II

til

= 4 + (n -1) 3 = 3n + 1 = 7 +(n-l)3 = 3n+4 = 10 + ( n - 1) 3 = 311 + 7

404

Engineering Mathematics - I

ll=
II

n2
(3n+1)(3n+4)(3n+7)

=---:-----:------:-----;----;----;-

3n(1+

" 3n

).3n(1+4

3n

).3n(1+ 7/ ) 3n

27n(1+
Taking vn

/3n

1, )(1+ 4 ;' )(1+ 7/ ) 13n /3n


LUn and L vn
=

=!
n
27

,we get

Lt
IHOO

~ = _1_:;t: 0;
v
II

:. By comparison test, both

behave in the I. :.

same manner. But by p -series test, divergent.

VII

is divergent, since p

Lilli

is

6.2.25 Example
Test for convergence

",hn2 -Sn+1 ~ 3 2 4n -7n +2

Solution

n term of the gIVen senes = un


Let

Iii

.J2n2 - Sn + 1 3 2 4n -7n +2

vn
L

=-2

nloo ~ = IH~
L

lin

nloo

:. By comparison test,

l l

n 2 - / n + / n- n 2 n3 /~ +~<3) x-I

(4-

~/ ~/?

J
0

2 - / n + / n2
/n
3

~/ V J

(4 _ 7/ +

2/) 'n

= 4 :;t:

r;; '112

L un
=

and

L vn

both converge or diverge. But

VII

is

convergent. [p series test - p

2 > I] :.

L un

is convergent.

6.2.26 Example

" Test tI1e senes ~ un ,w hose n Iii term

( IS

I .) 4n 2 - I

Sequences of Series

405

Solution

1
Ull

= (4n 2 -/.);

Let

VII

=-\, n-

Lt
11->00

_llil
VII

=Lt l rn
Il->ao

2
2

4-

n /'n

)1=-4 *0 "
o

:. I

Ull

and

Vn

both converge or diverge by comparison test. But

VII

IS

convergent by p -series test (p

= 2 > 1) ; :.

UII

is convergent.

6.2.27 Example
If un

= (; ).Sin (;), show that


1
-?

IU

II

is convergent.

Solution
Let
VII

n-

,so that

'" VII is convergent by lJ -series test. ~

11->00 ( V

ll Lt _" - LI sin

- n->ao n

(1) sin I ) n - It ((1 n ) - 1l~<X' I

where t = lin, Thus Lt

(~J =1 * 0 :. By comparison test, I is convergent.


Jl~<t)

VII

Un

6.2.28 Example
Test for convergence Take vn

1tan(l;>
I VII
(~s in above example)
VII

= II ~/; Lt [ulIl ] = 1 * 0

In

n--->oo

Hence by comparison test,

IIIIl converges as I

converges.

6.2.29 Example
Show that fsin
11=1

2(~) is convergent. n

406

Engineering Mathematics-I

Solution
Let un =sm- n

. ?(I) ; Take vn =-? 1


nI/~Cf)

Lt

(~)= Lt
V
n

n~oo

where

Lt (lin / ) = 12 = 1 0 /v :. By comparison test, I and I behave the same way. But I is convergent by p- series test, since p 2 > 1; :. I
t = II ;

( l
sin 1/
,'n
n

. ' ) 12 <n =Lt(smt) 1, t


I~O

In

n~oo

:;t:

UI/

Vn

Vn

UI/

is convergent.

6.2.30 Example:
Show that

f
U
II

n=2/

V ( 1/) is divergent. log n


log 2 < 1 => 2log 2 < 2 => 1/

Solution

= Inlogn' II .

> II . 12log2 72'

Similarly

}jIOg3> X,.Xlogn> Yn,nE N

L In 1/ Iogn > L In II ; But L II In


u/I ~ vn"i/n then

is divergent by p-series test.

By comparison test, given series is divergent. [If

Vn

is divergent and

IU

is divergent.]

(Note: This problem can also be done using Cauchy's integral Test. See ex 1.6.2)
6.2.31 Example
Test the convergence of the series +ve. Solution Th e n Ih term 0 f th e senes

00

(c + n

rr (d + nr' ,
,

where c, d, r, s are all

n=1

= un =

(c+n) (d+n)
r (

Let

- Then vII = r+.\

U/' _
Vn

--------=-----n
1+

J +~- J (1+~J (1+ ~J


.n" (

Sequences of Series

407

Lf
11-)00

1111 -_

vJl

1 --," -;-- 0 :. L)III and " ~ v" both converge are diverge, by comparison

test. But by p-series test,

VII

converges if (r + .\) > 1 and diverges if (r + s) ~

:. L

II"

converges if ( r + s ) > I and diverges if (/"1 s) ~ I.

6.2.32 Example
Show that
~
1

~n

-(1+ 1 )

"is divergent.

Solution
11
"

=n

-(1+ 1 )

"=--

n.n 1n
11---)00

Take

VII

1I 1 1 =- ; Lt -" = Lf -

"

11-+00

In

= 17:- 0

For let

Il-)ct)

1 1 1 Lt -v = y say; log y = Lt - - .log n = - Lt -.-!1 = 0 n ,,-too n 1


II
11-)00

= eO = 1

(:)
L
1I"

using L Hospitals rule)

By comparison test both test,

and

LV"
L
lIlI

converge or diverge. But p-series diverges.

VII

diverges (since p

I); Hence

6.2.33 Example
Test for convergence the series ~

(n+ar II~I (n + b)" ( n+ c )"

, a, h,

,p, q, r, being +ve.

Solution

408

Engineering Mathematics - I

Take

v
II

1 u =. It = 1"* 0 . I1P+lJ-r' II~OO V '


_II

Applying comparison test both Rut by p-series test,


~

II

lin

and

VII

converge or diverge.

VII

converges if (p+ q -r) > I and diverges if (p + q -r)

I.

Hence

lIlI

converges if (p + q - r) > 1 and diverges if (p + q - r) ~ I.

6.2.34 Example Test the convergence of the following series whose nl" terms are:
(a)

(311+4) ( 211 + 1)( 211 + 3)( 211 + 5)

(b)

tan-;

11

(c)

(d)

(3 +5
(e)

11

11 )'

11. 311
Hillt:Take

Solution
(a)
VII

=~;Iv" 11-

is convergent;

,,~oo

It

(u,,)=~"*o (Verify) v 8
"

Apply comparison test:

lIlI

is convergent [the student is advised to work out this problem fully]

(b) (c)

Proceed as in 1. 2.16;

Iu"
;

is convergent.
)11

Hint: Take v"

=-2

1 11

,,~oo

It -"
VII

(u) = It ((l+J~lr = 3e = 1 "* 0


II~OO

1 + 3/~

-?

e-

v" = -\- is convergent (work out completely for yourself)


11

(d)
U"

~ 3" +5" ~ 5"

II

+(~J]

;Take v" ~~ ; "If.

(Un)

~ ~l ,,0

Sequences of Series

409

LUll

and

VII

behave the same way. But

L v"

is convergent since it is

a geometric series with common ratio

~<1
5

:. LUll
(e)

is convergent by comparison test. since

1 1 - - ~ - \;fn EN,
n.3" 3" '

n.3";:::: 3n ;
.....( I)

L -3;;n. <L -:;-;


_1

The series on the R. H .S of (1) is convergent since it is geometric series with 1

r=-<1. 3

:. By comparison test

II.
n. 3"

IS

convergent.

6.2.35 Example Test the convergence of the following series.


(a) (b)

21+~+3 J + J 1+~+32+4 2 +.............. . 1 +2-+3- 1-+2 +3 +4 12+22+3 2 12+22+3 2 +42 1+ 3 + + +............. . 3 3 3 1 +2 3 1 +2 +3 C+2 3 +3 3 +4 3
1+

1 +212+22

~+2J

Solution
U _
n -

(a)

1+2+3+ .... +n _
12 + 22 + 32

(n+ 1) n-2

J - n ( n + 1) _on (2 -t-_ 1) - (2 n + 1) + .....w 6


n .....'" VII

Take

Vn

=-

U = Lt ( 3n 3 Lt _" - ) =-*0 n ..... '" 2n + 1 2

I
But
(b)

Un

and
Vn

VII

behave alike by comparison test.

is diverges by p-series test. Hence

Un

is divergent.

(2n+ 1) 12+22+ .... +n2 n(n+1)~6-- 2(2n+1) un = 13 + 23 ( )2 = 3n (n + 1) - + .....n 3 = 2 n +1 n ---4

410

Engineering Mathematics - I

Hillt: Take vn

=!
n

and proceed as in (a) and show that

IU

II

is divergent.

Exercise 6(a)
1. Test for convergence the infinite series whose nih term are:
(a)

1 n-Fn

[Ans: divergent) [Ans : convergent) [Ans : divergent) [Ans : convergent)

(b) (c) (d)

.Jn~I-Fn
n .Jn2 + I-n Fn n 2 -1 .Jn3 +1-N 1

(e) (f)

[Ans : divergent] [Ans : divergent]

~n(~+I)
Fn n 2 +1 2n3 +5 4n 5 +1
1 + 3- 1 + 1 + T2 + 1 + T3 + ............

(g) (h)

[Ans : convergent] [Ans : convergent]

2. Determine whether the following series are convergent or divergent.

(a) (b) (c)


(d)

[Ans : divergent] [Ans: convergent] [Ans : divergent] [Ans : divergent] [Ans : convergent]

12 22 32 2+ IOn r+23+]T+ ........ + n3 +..... .......

J1 +.J2 + .J2 +J3 + J3 + J4 +...... ........


234 2+-2 +2+ ............... 345
1 1 1

(e)

2+-3 +4+ .......... 123

Seq uences of Series

411

(f)
(g)

~ ~4n2 +2n+3 f(8 Yn -1) ....................


J

00

~n2 + 1

(Ans : divergent] (Ans : divergent]

(h)

(i)

+9 123 - + - + - + .......... . 1.3 3.5 5.7


J

3n L 5n
00

+8
...................... ..

(Ans : convergent]
(Ans : divergent]

6.3 6.3.1 0' Alembert's Ratio Test


Let (i)

LU

beaseriesof+vetermsand(ii) Lt un +J
II~OO

un

=k(~O)

Then the series

L un
n~oo

is (i) convergent if k < 1 and (ii) divergent if k > I.

Proof:Case(i): Lt un + J =kI)

un

From the definition of a limit, it follows that

3m > 0 and 1(0 < I < 1) 3 ~ < IV n ~ m

un

i.e.,

U m+ J Um

<I ,

U m+ 2 U m+ J

< I ,..........

Um

+ Um+J + Um+ 2 + .............. =

Um

[1 + uu

+ um+ 2 + ..... ]

um

< um(1 +1 +/2 + ...) = um.-I-(I < 1) I-I 1


But
Um . - -

I-I

is a finite quantity:.

L un
00

is convergent

By adding a finite number of terms u J + u2 + ...... + um- J ' the convergence of the series is unaltered.

L un
n=m

00

is convergent.

412
U

Engineering Mathematics - I

C(l!t'e (ii)

Lt ---.!!.l. = k > 1
n-->oo

11n

There may be some finite number of terms in the beginning which do not satisfy the condition ull +' 21. In such a case we can find a number 'm'
Ull
3

u +' 21, 'lin 2 m


ll

UII

Omitting the first 'm' terms, if we write the series as u,

+ 112 + llj + ......... , we have

!!2. 2 1, u3
u,
112 U,

21, u4 2 1 .......... and so on

u3

+ 112 + ...... + till = u,

(1 + u +
2

ll,

113 tl2

.!!2. + ..... J
u,

(to 11 terms)

2 ull (1 + I + 1.1 + ....... to n terms)


II

Lt
n~oo

Iu" 2 Lt n.u, which ~ 00; :. IU


11=1
Il~CO

Il

is divergent

6.3.2
Note: 1
The ratio test fails when k = 1. As an example, consider the series,
p

I~ n
n='

Here

Lt ---.!!.l. = Lt - n-->oo

U
n

n-->oo (

n P n + 1)

= Lt
n-->oo (

1 -,In

1+ 1/ )

=1

i.e.,

k = I for all val ues of p,

But the series is convergent if p > 1 and divergent if p::; 1, which shows that when

k = 1, the series may converge or diverge and hence the test fails.

Note: 2 Ratio lest can also be stated as follows:


If

Ull

is series of +ve terms and if Lt


11-->00

~ = k ,then u +'
ll

Un

is convergent

If k > 1 and divergent if k < 1 (the test tilib

'.I.

hen k

I).

Sequences of Series
-~---~ ~--------~----

-----

413

Solved Examples Tests for convergence of Series

6.3.3 Example
(a)

-+--+---+ ................ .
1.2 2.3 3.4
x"
111/

Solution
Xl/II

= n (11 + 1) ;111/+1 = (11 + 1)( n + 2)


Xl/+I

,
1

~/!.!..'.l=
1/" (n+

1)(n + 2

n(n+1)

x"

~ (I + ~

r.
and divergent when

Therefore

LI
11----)00

_1/_,1

II

=X

1111

:. By ratio test

IUI/
J (

is convergent When

Ixl

<

Ixl>

I;

When x = I, ul/

1, 1 II ) ; fake vn = - 2 ; Lt _1/ = 1 n- 1+ lin n v1/ .


11->00

:. By comparison test
Hence

IUI/

is convergent.

Un is convergent when
3

Ixl ~ 1
1

and divergent when

Ixl > 1

(b)
Solution

1+ 3x + 5x 2 + 7 x + ...... .

Un

= (2n-l)xn-l;ul/+
lin
1/-->00

=(2n+l)x"

ul/+ I L t (2n 1) x=x -+ L1-=


1/-->00

2n-l

:. By ratio test

Un is convergent when

Ixl < 1

and divergent when

Ixl > 1
When x

= 1: ul/ = 211 -1; Lt un = 00;


11----)00
00

:.

UI/

is divergent.

Hence IlIl/ is convergent when


1/

Ixl < 1 and divergent when Ixl ~ 1

(c)

I-+- n- + 1
1/;1

414

Engineering Mathematics - I

Solution
U n

=2 -- .
2 (

x" n +1'

U
n+1

=----

X"+

(n+l)2 +1

Hence

-;;: =

un +1

n +1 ) n 2+ 2n + 2 x
2

Lt un +1 = Lt

1 +

n~'"
:. By ratio test,

Un

II~'" n2(1+~+2) 2
n n

>;:2)

(x)=x
and divergent when

L un

is convergent when v =n n2

Ixl < 1

Ixl > 1

When

1 x=I'u = - - . Take n n2 + 1 '

:. By comparison test,

LU

is convergent when

Ixl ~ 1

and divergent when

Ixl >1
6.3.4 Example Test the series Solution
n~'"

f (n: -1}n, x> n +1

0 for convergence.

U" =(:::: )X";U"" =


Lt un+1 n~'" un

[~:: :i: :: ]X'HI


2

1 = Lt [( 2 n + 2n ) ( n + )] x n~'" n + 2n + 2 (n 2 - 1) .

4 n (1+2/n)(1 +l/n) =nIf", [ n4(l+2/n+2/n2)(1-l/n)


:. By ratio test,

=x

LU
U

is convergent when

x< 1 and divergent when x> 1 when


=-0

x = 1,
n

=2 --

n2 -1 n +1

Take vn

1 n

Sequences of Series

415

Applying p-series and comparison test, it can be seen that

L un is divergent when

x= 1.

.'. L un

is convergent when x < 1 and divergent x ~ 1

6.3.5 Example

Show that the series 1+ ~

2P 3P 4P
+ l] +

l1 + ..... , is convergent for all values ofp.

Solution

n~oo

Lt .un +1
un

n~oo

Lt [(n+IY x In + 1 nP

l.fl]=

n~oo

Lt {

(n + I)

(n+I)P} n

= Lt (
n~oo

) x Lt 1+ - )P n + 1 n~oo n

(I

= 0 < 1;

lll/

is convergent for all 'p'.

6.3.6 Example
Test the convergence ofthe following series

-+-+-+-+ P P P ........... .
Solution

1 F

1 3

1 5

1 7

u =
1/

(2n-IY'

ul/+ 1

un

(2n+ly (2n-Iy _ 2P .n P(I-l/2nY. (2n+ly - 2P nP(I+l/2ny ,


1/+1

=---

Lt un+1 =1
HOO

un

.'. Ratio test fails. Take v

1 = _. n nP'

-E... vn

nP

(2n -I)P

U . Lt -E... = -1 ( I)P , I/~OO V 2P , 2 P 1-n 2n

which is non - zero and finite 7 .'. By comparison test,

LU

ar.d

vn

both converge or both diverge.

H6

EngineerinG M~th~ni1!!l'S~

But by p - series test, when p ~ I

VII

-=

I -I

'~onverges when p > I and di\ c,

:'t_ '

11"

:. I
6.3.7 Example

iI"

is convergent if /'

I and divergent if p ~ I .

Test the com crgence of till'

"cric~

L.. - 1/,

" ' (n -1- l).\""


I 11

-,--.X

>0

Solution

( n + I) x"
lin =
1

( n + 2) X"-l I
;1I1Itl - - - - , - , -

(11+1)

;
I

1 I

LI
11->''0

-111/

illi rl

..: ' L, ! ,,- _.. ,

" ,.w

II

: , "" - - - ,

.x = X

+ 11 ( 1+ 1 )' n, \.. n

By

i'".1i

j()

test,

UII

converges when x < 1 and diverges when x > 1 .

When ..x= I ' I II = - I n3 Take v"

n+ I

= -~ ; By comparison test
n

UII

.is convergent ( give proof)

.'. I

UII

is convergent if x ~ 1 and divergent if x > I.

6.3.8 Example Test the convergence of the series


(I) L.. -+-2
II_I

. ~(n2
00

2"

1) (.. 1 2.5.8 2.5.8.11 ... ) 1 1.2 1.2.3 II) + - - + + ... (III - + - + - - + n 1.5.9 1.5.9.13 3 3.5 3.5.7
00 00

Solution

2 1 (n2 1) n (i) I ---;+-2 I-II + I-2 2 n 2 n


=
II-I 11=1 11=1

Let

Sequences of Series

417

U
11+1

= (n+1)2

.1l11+1

= (n+1)2 ~
2"tl
11
2

2"rl'

U"

I1~OO lin

_ L Lt1111+1 -t-. 2
11-+00

1(1 +1)2 --< _1 1


n
2

By ratio test
convergent. :. The given series (ii)

Un

is convergent .By p -series test,

v"

IS

(I

Un

v,,)

is convergent.

Neglecting the first term, the series can be taken as,

2.5.8 2.5.8.11 --+ + 1.5.9 1.5.9.13


Here, 1sl term has 3 fractions ,2 nd term has 4 fractions and so on . :. nih term contains (11 + 2) fractions 2.5. 8....... are in A. P. 1. 5. 9, ....... are in A. P. term = 1 + ( n + I ) 4 = 4n + 5

t ( n + 2t
(n + 2
U
n

term = 2 + ( 11 + 1 ) 3 = 3n + 5 ;

=----'--~

2.5.8 ..... (3n+5) 1.5.9 ..... ( 4n + 5)

un+1

2.5.8 ..... (3n+ 5)(3n+ 8) = 1.5.9 ..... (4n+5 )( 4n+9 )

un +1 _ (3n+8) . -;,:- - (4n + 9) , Lt u +1 = Lt n HOO un HOO n ( 4 +


l1

n(3+~)

!)

=l
4

<1

By ratio test,
(iii)

Un

is convergent.
nih

1,2,3, ........ are in A. P 2n+ 1

tenn =

n ;

3.5. 7 .......... are in A.P.

d"

term

418

Engineering Mathematics - I

1.2.3 .....n [ un = 3.5.7 ..... (2n+l)


n 1

U +
Il

1.2.3 .....n(n+l) [ = 3.5.7 ..... (2n+l)(2n+3)

U +

=(~)
2n+3

n.(l+!)

n~oo
:. By ratio test,
6.3.9 Exercise

Lt

UIl +I

= Lt
/HOO

Un

n(2+~)

n =

! <1
2

L un

is convergent.

Test for the convergence of the series


Solution

1.2.3.(....n ) 3.5.7 ...... 2n+ 1

1.2.3 ...... n 1.2.3 ...... (n+l) un = 3.5.7 ...... ( ) ; Un +1 = ); 2n+l 3.5.7 .....: ( 2n+3
U n +1

= n+l .
2n+3'

Lt
/HOO

U,,+I

un
:. By ratio test,
6.3.10 Example

= Lt n(l+ un HOO n( 2+

/~) =!<l . %) 2 '


)

LUll

is convergent.

Test for convergence L..


11=1

~ 1.3.5 .... (2n-l)


2.4.6 .... 2n

.x - x> 0

I(

Solution

The given series of +ve terms has u" and

1.3.5 .... (2n-l)


2.4.6 .... 2n

.x -

nl

U,,+I

= 2.4.6 .... (2n+2 ) x

1.3.5 .... (2n+l)

Sequences of Series

419

Lt 1111+1
IHOO

U//

2 1 x = Lt ( ~ //-->00 2n + 2 )
u//

Lt
IHOO

2n(1 + 1

2n .x=x 2n( 1+ 22n)

By ratio test,

is converges when x < 1 and diverges when x > I when

= ),

the test fails.


U
II

Then

1.3.5 .... (2n -1)

:. I

2.4.6 ..... 2n

<1
UII

and

Lt u//
11-700

;f::.

U/I

is divergent. Hence

is convergent when x < ), and divergent

when x ~ 1

6.3.11 Example

2 x +6 x 2 + ........ + ( 2// 2 ) x /I-I + ..... ( x > 0) Test for the convergence of 1+ 5 9

2/1+1

Solution
Om itting 1" tcnn,

II,

=( ~: :~ ) x'-' ,(n " 2)


2//+1 + 1) '/1-->00
u

and

'II,' arc all eve.

U
IHI

= (2"+1 - 2) x/l. Lt (~) = Lt (211+1 - 2) x ( 2// + 1) X


(
ll

11-->00 2"+1 + 1

2/1 - 2 .

2n+1 (1- 12/1) 2// ( 1+ 12/1)


=

//~~ [ 2//+1 (I +

l' )2/1 (1- 2 ).x = x ; '2/1+1 , 2/1


= -n - ; Lt
2/1-2 2 +1
un

Hence, by ratio test, When x Hence

Un

converges if x < 1 and diverges if x> 1.


u/I

= ), the test fails. Then


Un

= 1 ;f::. 0;

:.

Un

diverges

IHOO

is convergent when x < ) and divergent x > 1

6.3.12 Example
Using ratio test show that the series

00

(3 -4i)"
n!

converges

/1=0

Solution

_ (3-4i)"
un -

In! ,un+1 -

I .

_(3 -4i),,+1 /

. /(n+l)! '

420

Engmeerlng ---------------------------------=--

MC3tht::rnatl~~

II ',,,,

1II1tl)_ 1 I (3-4i)_0 ---<1 1 t ( --llil ":'h n + 1 II

Hence, by ratio test,

l:

1111

l:onverges.

6.3.13 Example

. . - 2 x + - 3 x 2 + - 4 x 3 + ........00 ( DlsclIss tI le nature 0 f t he series, x0 >)

3.4

4.5

5.6

Solution
Since x > 0 , the series is of +ve terms;
llil

(n + 1) = (n+2)(n+3)x
(

II

> Zln+1

(n + 2) X/HI = (n+3)(n+4)

Lt IIn+ I II~OO - - ; ; : -

[(n + 2)2.X
n + 1)( n + 4)

= Lt
HOO

r 2 (1 + 7;;)2
n
2

n 1+

Yn + j~2 )

.x

= X.

Therefore by ratio test,

Un

converges if x < 1 and diverges if x> 1

When x = 1, the t(.st falls; Then un Taking v

=(

n+2 n+3

(n+l) )( ) ;

=!.
n
'

n~oo

Lt = un = 1 :;t: 0 vn

:. By comparison test by p-series test. (p

IU

and

Vn

behave same way. But

Vn

is divergent

.. I :. I
.

= 1); =1

Un Un

is diverges when x

is convergent when x < 1 and divergent when x ~ 1

6.3.14 Example
~ DIscuss the nature of the senes ~

3.6.9 .... .3n.5n ( )( ) 4.7.10 ..... 3n+l 3n+2

Sequences of Series

421

Solution
Here,
U
n

3.6.9 ..... 3n 5" . 4.7.10 ..... (3n+l)(3n+2)' 3.6.9 .... .3n(3n + 3)5"+ 1

U II + I

= 4.7.1O ..... ( )( )( ); 3n+l 3n+4 3n+5 = Lt (3n+2)(3n+3).5


11->00

Lt
11->00

11 I ~
llil

--'-----_-'--c-'---,-----_'---:-

(3n+4)(3n+5)

Lt
11->00

5.9n2 (1 + 2 3" )(1 + 3/3' Inn 2 9n + 4 3n )( + 5, 3n)

(1

)1 = 5 > 1

:. By ratio test,
6.3.15 Example

lin

is divergent.

Test for convergence the series

00

n l - II

Solution
1I11

= n ; u +1 = (1)-11 n+ ;
I-II lI

':;,:' = =
(n;I,!"
n~'" U

n(n:l)"

=~C:J
e

Lt un+1 = Lt
11->00

!.[_l_,]" =O}=O<1
n

1+ 1,'

II

,'n

:. By ratio test
6.3.16 Example
Test the series

I
00

Un ,

is convergent

~ ,for convergence.
~

11=1

Solution

2n 3
Un

= ~ ;

U II

+I

2(n+ 1)3 = In + 1

422

Engineering Mathematics-I

lln+1

= 2(n+l)3 x

~
2n
3

= (n+l)2 = (1+;~r

un
Lt
:. By ratio test,
6.3.17 Example

In + 1
--.!!..l

n3

= 0 < 1;
is convergent.

n-+oo Un

L u/l

Test convergence of the series Solution

L~ nn

2/1 ,

un +1 = 2

1111

+ (n + I)! /1 ( ~ )11 ~=2 (n + 1)"+1 . 211 n! n+ 1

n 1

Lt
IHOO

--.!!..l

= 2 Lt

ull
LUll

Hoo(l+ )-~r

=-

< 1 (since 2 < e < 3)

:. By ratio test,

is convergent.

6.3.20 Example Test the convergence of the series


(a)

L un
(b) (d)

where u/I is

n2 + 1 3/1 +1
1.2.3 ....n )2 ( 4.7.10 .... .3n+3

--,(a>O) (2n+lf
~
~1+3n

x n- I

(c)

(e)

3n + 7n ( 5n 9 +

11

)xn

Solution
(a)

Lt
n-+oo

3/1 +1] u = Lt [(n+l)2 +1 x (~ ull n-+oo 3n+1 + 1 n2 + 1

I)

Seq uences of Series

423

-<1 3
is convergent.
xn

:. By ratio test,
(b)

LUll
n+ I un

Lt
11-->00

(u )= Lt [ (2n + 3r x~(2n+lf] x
n-->oo n I -

= Lt
IHOO

[ 2a na (l+ }Snf
=
/I

2 n (I+!' )a . 2n .x = X

aa

By ratio test,

LUll

convergence if x < 1 and diverges if x> 1.


1I

When x = 1, the test fails; Then,

1 (2n+

If

; Taking v
II

= _1 a
n

awe have,

Lt
n-->OO

(Un) =
Vn

Lt
n-->oo

(_n_)a =
2n + 1

Lt
n-->oo (

1 = _1 a 2 + ;!~r 2

* 0 and finite

(since a > 0).

:. By comparison test,

un

and

VII

have same property

But p -series test, we have


(i)
LVII convergent when a> 1

and

(ii)

divergent when a

:. To sum up, (i) (ii) (iii) (iv)

LU x > 1, L
x < 1,
x
=

is convergent Va. is divergent Va.


un

un

L x = 1, a ~ 1, L
1, a> 1,

is convergent, and is divergent.

un

424

Engineering Mathematics - I

(c)

~= IHoc> ltll

Lt

Lt
IHoc>

I.2.3 ....n(n+I) 4.7.1O .... (3n+3)]2 x-----'--------<4.7.IO .... (311+3)(3n+6) 1.2.3 ....n

Lt [
IHoo

(n + I) X]2 3 ( n + 2)

=! < I
9

:. By ratio test,
(d)

IlIlI

is convergent

= LI

:. By ratio test,
(e)

U"

is convergent.

U I ~= HOC> lIlI

LI

LI
Hoc>

lr 3 ( n + 1)3 + 7 ( n + I
S( n + 1 + II

Sn 9 + II ] xx 3 3n + 7

= Lt
n->oc>

--"...!..
U"

= Lt
n->oc>

f3n3(1+

~ )3 +7n2(1+ .1.1)2 Sn9(I+l!'s/ 9) ] .n n x n xX 3 9 Sn (I + V)9 + II 3n + 7;1 .n / 3n

(I

3)

3n
=

Lt
n->oc>

{(I + .1/)3 +2_(1 + 1/)2} n 3n n


i

Sn 9 +
x

(1 I/VS

Sn
:. By ratio test,

9 {(

I+ }~r + SI~_}
=~
6

3n

(1 + .%n

)
xx
=X

3)

I
9 (

Un

converges when x < 1 and diverges when x > 1.

When x = 1, the test fails, Then


U

= 3n3(1+ jjn)
Sn n

(1+ l~n)

"
Taking
Vn =

1 + IYsn 9)

Sn

(I + IYsn
U" =

9)

~, we observe that

"->OC>~

Lt

l;f: 0
S

Sequences of Series

425

:. By comparison test and p series test, we conclude that

L un

is convergent.

:. L u"

is convergent when x::::; 1 and divergent when x > 1.

Exercise - 1(b)
1. Test the convergency or divergency of the series whose general term is :

(a) (b) (c)

x"
n

I Ans:

nx n-I .......................... .

(~:.
lfl

:n

Ixl < legl, Ix ~Ildgt ] I Ans : Ixl < legt, Ix ~Ildgt I Ixl < legl, Ix ~Ildgt Ixl < legl, Ix ~Ildgt
I
I

"'

I Ans :
[ Ans :

(d)

(:::: )X" ......... .


4"lfl
nil
(

(e)

[ Ans: cgt.] [ Ans: dgt.]

(f)

(g)

n 3 +1 )"

(3 + 1)
n

[ Ans: cgt.]

2. Determine whether the following series are convergent or divergent :

(a)
(b) (c)
(d) (e)

- + - + - + .............. 1.2 3.4 5.6 X x2 x3 1++-2 + ............. . 2+-2 2 34 - - + - - + - - + ..... . 1.2.3 4.5.6 7.8.9 1+-+-+-+ ..... - 2 - + ....
2 5 10 n +1
X X
2

x2

x3

(Ans:

Ixl::::; legl,lxl > ldgt Ixl : : ; legt, Ixl > Idgt Ixl::::; legt, Ixl > Idgl Ixl::::; legt,lxl > ldgt Ixl > legt,lxl::::; Idgt]

] ] ]
J

I Ans :
( Ans : (Ans: [Ans:

x2

1.2 2.3 3.4 -+-2 +-3 + .............. .


x x x

426

Engineering Mathematics - I

6.4

Raabe's Test

Let

I u" be series of +ve terms and let E!. {n(:.:, - I)} ~ k


L
un

Then (i) If k > 1, ~>n is convergent. (ii) If k < 1, is divergent. (The test fails if k = 1)

Proof:
Consider the series

Case (i): In this case,


n-+oo

Lt n{~-l} =k
U + n 1

>1

We choose a number 'p' 3 k > p > 1 ; Comparing the series which is convergent, we get that of terms
un U + n 1 Vn

U"

with

Vn

un

will converge if after some fixed number

> Vn+1

= -;;-

(n+ l)P
p(p-l) 1 .-+ ......... from (I) L2 n

i.e. If.,

n ( - - 1 > p+
Un+1

Un)

i.e., If

n-+oo

Lt n(~-I P
U + n 1

Sequences of Series

427

i.e., If k > p, which is true. Hence can be proved similarly.

Llln

is convergent .The second case also

Solved Examples 6.4.1 Example Test fe>r convergence the series

x+-.-+-.-+--.-+ ..... 2 3 2.4 5 2.4.6 7


Solution Neglecting the first tern ,the series can be taken as ,

x
3

1.3

1.3.5

x
7

2.4.6 7 1.3.5 .... are in A.P. nih term = 1+(n-1)2=2n-1


2.4.6 ... are in A.p. n'h term
=

-.-+-.-+--.-+ .....
2 3 2.4 5

1.3

1.3.5

2 + (n

-1) 2 = 2n

3.5.7 ..... are in A.P nih term = 3+(n-1)2 = 2n+ I


uti ( nih term of the series)
=

1.3.5 .... (2n-1)


=----'----;------::--"--

21l 1

2.4.6 .... (2n)


1l1l+1

2n+1

1.3.5 .... (2n-1)(2n+ 1)

2n

() 2.4.6 .... ( 2n)2n+2

. 2n+3

1.3.5 .... (2n+1) X 2n +3 2.4.6 ... .2n (2n+1) -;;:- 2.4.6 .... (2n+2)"(2n+3)"1.3.5 .... (2n-1)" X 2n + 1
lIn+1 _

(2n + 1)2 x 2 ( 2n + 2) ( 2n + 3)
II
1 ( 4n1+-2n

1)2
x
2

LI ~ = LI
IHOO

Un

n~oo 4n

1+ 22~ )(1+ ~~ )

= X-

:. By ratio test, If

LU"

converges if

lxl < 1 and diverges if Ixl > 1

Ixl = 1 the test fails.

428

Engineering Mathematics - I

Then

x2

=1

and

~ = (2n + 2)( 2n + 3 )
1111+1

(2n+

1r

~ -1 = (211 + 2)( 2n + 3) _ 1 = 6n + 5
111/+1

(2n+1)2
ul/ n ul/+ 1

(2n+l)2

LI
tHOO

{ (

1J}

= l I (

2 6n + 5n I/~OO 4n 2 + 4n + 1

1
3
=- >

n
=

2 (

6+

Lt
11-->00

~)

(4 + ~ + _\ ) 2 n n-

By Raabe's test,

UI/

converges. Hence the given series is convergent when

Ixl ~ 1

an divergent when

Ixl > 1 .
3.6.9 3 x + ..... ;x> 0 7.10.13

6.4.2 Example Test for the convergence of the series

1+-x+--x +
Solution Neglecting the first term,
ul/

3 7

3.6 7.10

ul/+ 1

= 7.10.13 .... ( ) ( 3n+7 ).x 3n+4

3.6.9 .... 3n 1/ .x 7.10.13 .... 3n+4 3.6.9 .... 3n(3n+3)

1/+1

lIl/+1 lIl/

= 3n + 3.x
3n + 7
UII

; Lt
1/-->00

lIll+1 lIlI

=X

:. By ratio test,

I
_

is convergent when x < I and divergent when x > I.

When x

= I The ratio test fails. Then u 3n + 7. lin 1 _


ll

1I1/+1 -

3n+3' lIn+1

4 3n+3 3n+3 3

11-'>00

LI {n(~-l)}= Lt (~)=i>l
lln+1
11-->00

--~-----------------------------------------------------------

Sequences of Series

429

:. By Raabe's test,

LUll

is convergent .Hence the given series converges if x ~ 1

and diverges if x> 1.

6.4.3 Example Examine the convergence of the series

f 12.5 2.92.... (4n-3)2


11=1

42.g2.122 .... (4n)2 12.5 2.92 ( 4n ~ ~


7 (

Solution
U
II

= ---------'-------'-

3)2 4-.8-.12-.... 4n )2
12.5 2.9 2.... ( 4n 4-.8-.12 .... 4n
=

litH

3)2 (4n + 1)2 1= -~--~---2--'---(-----')2'---(--'--------'-)24n+4


lI

Lt u
n->oo

un

( 4n + 1)2 ~ 11->00 ( 4n + 4
Lt

= 1 (verify)

:. The ratio test fails. Hence by Raabe's test,

LU

is convergent.

6.4.4 Example
Find the nature of the series

L (l!:!)2 x
~

(x > 0)

Solution
ull

(l!:!)2
~
_

II

.x ; un + 1 = 12n+2 .x

(l~l)2 11+1

ulI +1 ull

(n+l)2 X' (2n+l)(2n+2) '


n2 ( 1+ 1 / ')2 ;' n

Lt un+1 = Lt 11->00 U n->004n2(1+}/ n , 2n


:. By ratio test,

)(1+2/) 2n

.x = ~

L un

converges when:! < 1, i. e ; x < 4; and diverges when x >4;

When x = 4, the test fails.

430

Engineering Mathematics-I

When

x = 4 ~ = (2n + 1)( 2n + 2 ) '1l11+1 4(n+l)2


_" -1=
lln+1

-2n-2
4 (n + 1

. 2 ( n + 1) ,

-1

II-->if.>

LI

[n(~-11]= -1 <1 2
li

ntl

:. By ratio test,

lin

is divergent

Hence

Un

is convergent when x < 4 and divergent when x> 4

6.4.5 Example
Test for convergence of the series
~

,,4.7 .... (3n+ 1)


1.2.3 .... n

x-

Solution

_ 4.7 .... (3n+1)


lin -

n.

4.7 .... (3n+l)(3n+4)


1.2.3 ....n n + 1 .
() X

n+1

1.2.3 ....n

'U n + 1 -

n-->oo Un

II Lt ~ = Lt [(3n+4) .x] n-->oo ( n +1 )

= 3x
3 3

:. By ratio test

I
3

Un

converges if 3x

<1 Le., X <! and diverges if x >! ;

If

x=

!, the test fails


1 [
II ]

When

x ~:3' n u.:, -1

~n

[(n+ 1)3

3n + 1 -1

n 3n + 4

[-1 ]

~-

(3+ ~

n--><Xl

Lt

n[~-I] = -! <1 3
II
11+1

:. By Raabe's test,
:.

IU

is divergent.

" lin ~

. convergent wl IS len I x <d - and 'Ivergent w Ilen x

1 ~-

Sequences of Series

431

6.4.6 Example
1 est for convergence 2 + -

3x

4x 2 5x ++ ~ + ........... (x > 0 ) 2 3 4
tl -

Solution
The
nih

term

II

=(n+l)x
H

I
'

11

II

Hel

_ (n+2) (11+1) X
I

.tl.

II'HI

'--;;,:lr
2

_11(11+2) (11+1)2 .x
X

11

Lt
H-N,

_H_'

= LI

11
tl

H~-'UJ

1(1+ 2) 11 .x = (1 1 11 + )1

:. By ratio test,

IU

11

II

is.convergent if x < I and divergent if x > I

Ifx= I, the test fails. Then

Lt
II--'>UJ

11

II

_tl -

1 = Lt

IIl/el

1] -1 [ n(n+2) 1 =LtI1 =0<1 [11 ( 111] +


(11 + 1)11
,I/---W'

11->00

2)

:. By Raabe's test

III//
.

is divergent

:. I
.

Zlil

is convergent when x < I and divergent when

x 21

6.4.7 Example
FlI1d the nature of the series - + -

3 4

3.6 3.6.9 + + ......00 4.7 4.7.10

Solution
1I11

3.6.9 ..... 3n 3.6.9 ..... 311(311 + 3) 1= = 4.7.10 ..... ();1I1/+ )( ) 3n+l 4.7.10 ..... ( 311+1 311+4
3 3 =~. LI llll+1 3n + 4' /1--'>00 llll

1111+1

= LI

ZlII

) 3n = 1 11->00 3n( 1+ 4 ) 3n

3n(I+3

Ratio test fails.

tl--'>oo

LI 11 { - [ ,lll/+1
Zltl

I}]

- LI [ n (3n+4 --/1--'>00 3n + 3

I)]

432

Engineering Mathematics - I
11

= Lt
:. By Raabe's test 6.4.8 Example If p, q > () and the series

,,->003(n+1)

n Lt 11->003n(1+,]n)

=- <1

U"

is divergent.

1 p 1.3.p(p+1) 1.3.5 p(p+1)(p+2) 1+"2 q + 2.4.q(q + 1) + 2.4.6 q(q + l)(q +2) + ....
is convergent, find the relation to be satisfied by p and q. Solution

un

1.3.5 ..... (2n-1) p(p+l) ..... (p+n-1) . I [negle"tmg l' term 1 2.4.6 .... .2n q(q + 1) ..... (q + n-1) 1.3.5 ..... (2n-1)(2n + 1) p(p+ l) ..... (p + n -l)(p+ n) 2.4.6 .....2n(2n+ 2) q( q + 1) ..... ( q + n-1)( q + n) (2n+1) (p+n). (2n + 2) (q + n) ,

lI"tl =

--;z- Lt
11->00

U,,+l _

~ = Lt [2n (1+ 12n ) n (1+ ~'~ ) J= 1


lI"
11->00

2n( 1+ 1"2n)" n( 1+ ~~)

:. ratio test fails. Let us apply Raabe's test

,~.H::':, ~1)]~ ,~.H ~::~)~~::~~ ~1}]


11->00

1 Lt [n {2q ( n + 1) - (2n + ) + n 2 ( 1+ ~/~ ) ( 2 + },~)

nIl
2

Lt 2q(1+ )~)-p(2+ II->ool 2

J~)+11=2q-2p+l

Sequences of Series
~

433

Since

L..,.llil IS

convergent, by Raabe's test, is the required relation.

=> q - p >

Yi,

2q-2p+l >1 2

Exercise 1 (c)

1. Test whether the series

00

Un

is convergent or divergent where


2n

II
II

2 2.4 2.6 2..... ( 2n - 2 )2


3.4.5 ..... (2n-I)(2n)

[ADS:

Ixl:::; legl, Ixl > Idgl ]

2. Test for the convergence the series

f 4 .7 . 10 ..... (3n+l) x"


I

lfl

[ADS:

1 I Ixl < -egl,lxl ~ -dg/] 3 3

[ Ans : divergent] (ii)

3.4 5.6 3 + ..... ( x> 0) x +4.5 - x 2 +-x 1.2 2.3 3.4


[ ADS: cgt if x :::; 1 dgt if, x > 1 ]

(iii)

~ 1.3.5 ..... (2n -1) xn ( ) L.. . ( ) x>O 2.4.6 ..... 2n 2n + 2


[ ADS: cgt if x :::; 1 dgt if, x > 1
X + (1l)2 x 1+ (U)2 II l1
2

(iv)

(lJ)2 x

l2

..... .

(x > 0)

[ ADS: cgt if x < 4 and dgt if, x ~ 4

6.5

Cauchy's Root Test


Let

L un

be a series of +ve terms and let LI u/n = I . Then


n-->co

I'

L un

is convergent

when I < 1 and divergent when I> 1

434

Engineering Mathematics - I

Proof:
I,' II

(i)

Lt u/" =1<1=>3a +venumber 'A'(!<A<1):HI,/" <A,Vn>rn


I1~OO

Since A < 1, Hence (ii)

(or) u ll <A",Vn>rn

A" is a geometric series with common ratio < I and

therefore convergent.

UII

is convergent.

Lt
11-->00

UII

/11 = I> 1

II

:. By the definition of a limit we can find a number r 3 i.e., ull > Vn > r i.e., after the 1sl 'r ' terms, each term is> 1.

u/ > 1Vn > r


'II

Lt
11-->00

2>11 =

00

:.

LUll

is divergent.

Note:
When

Lt{ In)
Un
n-->oo

1, the root test can't decide the nature of

LUll' The

fact

of this statement can be observed by the following two examples.

1. Consider the series


2. Consider the series

I Yn3 :-LfU'/" =Lt n


1/
11-->00 11-->00

-3

1 ) J~

= Lt ( V1
11-->00

nl II

)3 =1

L Yn,

in which

LfUlly" = Lt ~ = 1
11-->00 11-->00

n11l

In both the examples 'given above,

LfU/" = 1. But series (1) is convergent

1/

(p-series test) And series (2) is divergent. Hence when the limit= 1, the test fails.

Solved Examples 6.5.1 Example Test for convergence the infinite series whose
(i)
1 (ii) 1

nIh

terms are:

(iii)

n'"

Oogn)"

[1 +~r

Sequences of Series

435

Solution

. Lt u
,

1n

n~co

II

= lI~oo Lt = 0 < 1' n2

By root test

Un

is convergent.

(ii)

u
n

1 ~. 1 u n = - - . (log n)'" n log n '

Lt u 'n
n->oo

,.

1 n->oo log n

Lt --=0<1
'

By root test,
(iii)

Un

is convergent.

6.5.2 Example Find whether the following series are convergent or ,) i vergent.
(i)

'" 1 I-n-1
n=13
1/ In

Solution

7n

1/

n~ct)

Lt un Yn

= n----+oo Lt

=-<1

1 3

'

By root test,
(ii)

Un

is convergent.

111 1+-2 +3+-4 + .....

234

436

Engineering Mathematics - I

Solution
1I
11

1 ' Lt U in 1/ == Il~OO Lt ( - 1 )}~ = 0 < 1 nil 'Il~OO n nil

By root test,

lin

is convergent.

(iii)
Solution
U
n

-'=--'----':--=----

[(n+1)x n"+1
Lt
Il~OO

Lt
n---j.c:/J

u};, =
n

[{(n+1)x ],'n
n"+ 1

II

1]), _ Lt [{ ( n + ] ) X}" .n-->oo n n

n-->oo

n + 1) ' Lt ( - x '1 I

nl n

:. I
fails. Then

(l+!)X.+, = Lt x.+,=x n n'II n-->oo n/ n Un is convergent if Ixl < 1 and divergent if Ixl > 1 and when Ixi = 1 the test
Lt
n-->oo

Take

vn =-

Un = (n + 1 .n = (n + 1 = (1 + !)n ; vn n"+ 1 nn n
:. By comparison test,

1 n

11-->00 VII

Lt-"=e>l

Uti

is divergent.

(I

Vn

diverges by p -series test)

Hence

Un
,/

is convergent if

Ixl < 1 and divergent Ixl ~ 1


Ull

6.5.3 Example

If un =

,,2'

show that

is convergent

(n+l)

Sequences of Series

437

I n n II n /1 )" Lt u" " = Lt 2 ; = Lt = " = Lt ( "~a) II~OO n + 1)" ,,~oo n + 1) ,,~oo n + 1


(

Ill
2

Lt [_1_]" = < 1 ;:. "u" converges by root test. ,,~OO l I e L. +n

6.5.4 Example

Establish the convergence of the series


Solution
U
11

~ + ( % + ( % + .' ......

(_n_)" . . . . .
2n+l
II~OO

(verify);

,,~oo n

Lt u };,
UII

= Lt (_n_)=!<1
2n + 1
2

By root test, 6.5.5 Example

is convergt:nt.

Test for the convergence of Solution

Ioog --.x
11=1

/I

n+ 1

U/I

[_11 ]~ .x";
1+n
n

Lt u"v,,
,,~oo

= Lt

Il---+oo

[_11 JI
1+n

=x

IU is convergent if Ixl < 1 and divergent if Ixl > 1. When Ixl = 1 : un = J n ,taking vn = ~ and applying comparison test, it can n+I n
:. By root test, be seen that is divergent

U/I

is convergent if

Ixl < 1

and divergent if

Ixl ~ 1 .

438

Engineering Mathematics - I

6.5.6 Example

Show that
Solution

~ ( n~ _ I) n converges.

Un

=( nYn -If
unYn
= Lt
n . . . . . ct)

Lt
n~oo

(n~-I)=I-I=O<I(since

Lt
1l~Cf)

n'~:' =1);

:. L

Un

is convergent by root test.

6.5.7 Example

. the convergence 0 f the series whose nI h Examine term IS


Solution

--

n + 2 )n .Xn n+3

2 Un = ( n + )n .xn;
n+3
:. By root test,

n~

Lt

unYn =

n~<XJ

Lt

2 (nn+3 + )

L un

converges when

Ixl < 1 and diverges when Ixl > 1

When

Ixl = 1 : un = (n +
e
e

n+3
2

2) ; Lt Un
n~<XJ

= Lt

2)n (1+( 1+3)


n

n~<XJ

nn

- 3 = - '" 0

:. L un
Ixl~l.

and the terms are all +ve . is convergent if

is divergent. Hence

L un

Ixl < 1

and divergent if

6.5.8 Example Show that the series,

-HI +[~: -H' +[:: -H + ... u" ~ [(n :":t -n: r~ ( n: T[( n: r r
[~:
3

isconvergent

-1

Sequences of Series

439

Lt un
IHOC)

~
II

=-.--=--<1

1 1 1 e-l

1 e-l

:. By root test,

LUll

is convergent.

6.5.9 Example
Test

Llllll for convergence when u


111=1

00

-Ill

(1+2 mfll

Solution

Hence Cauchy's root tells us that

LU

is divergent.

6.5.11 Example:
Test the convergence of the series '" ~ ~ 112

Solution
II II

Lt
11-)-00

U /n
n

= n--.r:1J Lt - = 0 < 1 en

n/n

:. By root test,

LU

is convergent.

6.5.12

Example
Test the convergence of the senes,

-2

( n + 1 .x 2 32 2 x + - 3 X + ... I + ...... , x > 0 1 2 n'H

r l

440

Engineering Mathematics - I

Solution

n~oo

Lt unYn
I

= Lt

[(

II~OO

n+I ) 11 .xn ]);, n"+ 1


1
I/.x n l II

= Lt [ (- - ) .-/.x]
II~OO

n+I n

n)'n

= Lt
n~oo

[( + -1). 1]
n

I.I.x = x SInce Lt n/V n = 1]


II~OO

[.

:. By root test,
When x Then

L un
(

converges if x < 1 and diverges when x> 1 .

= 1 , the test fails.


II11

I)n _. 1 1 = 1 +. , Take vn =n n n

Lt un
n~oo

= Lt
II~OO

Vn

(1 + !)n =e 0 n
:;t:

By comparison test and p-series test,


Hence

L un

is divergent.

L un

is convergent when x < 1 and divergent when x ~ 1.

Exercise 1 (d)
1. Test for convergence the infinite series whose (a)
(b)

d h terms are:
[ Ans : convergent] [ Ans : convergent]

1 2" -1 1

..............................
n :;t: 1)

---'2::--n (

(log)

(c) (d) (e)

3n+ 1 )n ................................ . ( 4n+3 x

[Ans:

4 4 Ixl < -cgt,lxl ~ -dgt ] 3 3


~

[ Ans: cgt for all x

0)

[ Ans: convergent) [ Ans : convergent]

(t)

Sequences of Series

441

(2n2 -I
(g)

(2n )211

[ Ans: convergent]

(h)

(n}~ -I
n-I
(

rn
_112

[ Ans: convergent] [ Ans : divergent] [ Ans : x < 1 cgt, x


~

(i)

-n) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

(j)

(n:l)"'(x>o) ........................ .
1+2+)2+43 + ..... ,x>O

1 dgt ]

2. Examine the following series for convergence : x x2 x3


(a)

................. .

[ Ans: x

1cgt,x > Idgt ]

(b)

~+(H

+UoJ + . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..

[ Ans : convergent]

6.6 6.6.1 Integral Test


+ve term series,

(1)+(2)+ ..... +(n )+ .....


where (n) decreases as integral

n increases is convergent or divergent according as the

(x) dx is finite or infinite.

Proof: Let Sn

= (l) +(2)+ ..... +(n)

From the above figure, it can be seen that the area under the curve y = (x) between any two ordinates lies between the set of exterior and interior rectangles formed by the ordinates at n = I, 2, 3, .....n, n + I , ..... . Hence the total area under the curve lies between the sum of areas of all interior rectangles and sum of the areas of all the exterior rectangles. Hence {(l) + (2) + ..... + ( n)}

.. Sn ~

r+ (x)dx ~
1

{(2)+ (3) + ..... + ( n+ I)}

(x)dx~Sn+I-(l)

442

Engineering Mathematics - I

v= O(n)

P,
P 2

Q
3
0
1

Cn +1

Bntl

Il
3
A)

11~1

AI

2 A2

n
An

+1

As

n ~ 00,

Lt SI1 is finite or infinite according as [

(x)dx is finite or infinite.

Hence the theorem.

Solved Examples 6.6.2 Example


Test for convergence the series

1 I --n logn
00

n=2

Solution

- xlogx

dx - n~oo It [ r' 1 dx] 1 xlogx

11~00

It [log log

x]~ =

00

By integral test, the given series is divergent.


6.6.3 Example
Test for convergence of the series

Solution

[ _1 xP

1 dx - It [fdx] x
11~00
P

p 1

It [ x- + ]11 n~oo - p + 1 I

_1_ Lt [ n l - p -1 ] 1- P IHOO

Sequences of Series

443

ClIse (i)

If P > I, this limit is finite;


ClIse (ii)

,,1 . L..J IS convergent. n" ,,1 . . L..J- IS dIvergent. n" n"


IS divergent.

If P < 1, the limit is in finite;


Ca.\e

(iii)

Ifp= 1, the limit Lt


11...--.)00

logxl;' = Lt (logn)=oo;:. I_l11-)00

Hence

I_ln"
00

is convergent if p > I and divergent if p :S

6.6.4 Example
Test the series

n "-2 ~e"

for convergence.

Solution
1111

-2

n = (n){say); e"

(n)

is +ve and decreases as

n increases. So let liS apply the integral test.


dx
00

1(x){lx= x
I I

I e-,2
1e -"2

=! le- dt{t=x
1

,dt=2xdx}

2I

-I 1

1(0 --;; 1) = 2e 1' W I . h fi . = -"2 lIC IS illIte.


00

By integral test,

IlIl1

is convergent.

6.6.5 Example

1 Apply integral test to test the convergence of the series "-sin -

~n2

(7f)
11

Solution
Let (n)

= ~2 sin ( :
00

); (n) decreases as
00

11

increases and is +ve .

J(x)dx =

2 X

1 J-2

sin

(}x
7f X

444

Engineering Mathematics - I

Letix =t

-! sintdt = !costl~/=!
TC

finite,

TC

/2

TC

_TC/ / x

2dx = dt

Yx2dx=- ~dt
:. By integral test,

Un

converges x

= 2 => t = ~ x = 00 => t = 0

6.6.6 Example Apply integral test and determine the convergence ofthe following series.
(a) (b)

(c)

Solution
(a)

(n) -

3n is +ve and decreases as n increases - 4n 2 + 1 2 j(x)dx= ~x dx (4X +1=t=>Xdx= Ysdt ) I 14x +1 x=l=>t=5,x=00=>t=00

00

dt] = Lt [3 - f-log t -log 5] = I ( x ) dx = Lt [3 8 t 8


I

n~oo

00

n-->oo

:. By integral test,
(b)

Un

diverges.

( n) =

3n +2

~n3

decreases as n increases and is +ve

j(x)dx =
I

dx 3x +2 1 OOfdt 1 = (; = (;[logt]5 = 00
1

1~X3
5

00

[where t= 3x + 2]

By integral test,
(c)

Un

is divergent.

(n) = _1_ is +ve, and decreases as n increases.


3n+l
00

1 1 dt 1 f(x)dx= f-dx= f--[t=3x+l]=-logtl~=00 I I 3x+ 1 4 3 t 3


00 00

Sequences of Series

445

:. By integral test,

Un

is divergent.

6.7 6.7.1 Alternating Series


A series, u l - u2 + u3 - u4 + - + ..... + ( -1 ),,-1 un + ..... , where un are all +ve, is an alternating series.

6.7.2 Leibneitz Test


If in an alternating series
(i) (ii)
un

I (-1 ),,-1 .u

n '

where

un

are alI +ve,

n ........ oo

> un+I ' Vn, and Lt ull = 0, then the series is convergent.

Proof:
Let u l
-

u2 + u3 - u4 + ...... be an alternating series (' un 'are all +ve)

Let ul > u2 > u3 > u4 , Then the series may be written in each of the following two forms: ......... (A) (UI -U 2)+(U3-U4)+(U5-u6)+
ul

-(u 2 -U3 )-(U4 -u5 )-

............ (B)

(A) (B)

Shows that the sum of any number of terms is +ve and Shows that the sum of any number of terms is < ul . Hence the sum of the series is finite. :. The series is convergent.

Note:
If Lt ull
n--.<XJ

-:t:-

0, then the series is oscillatory.


Solved Examples

6.7.3 Example . 1--+--1 1 1 ..... Cons!derthe series

234

In this series, each term is numerically less than its preceding term and ~O as n~oo. :. By Leibneitz's test, the series is convergent. (Note the sum of the above series is Loge2 )

nih

term

6.7.4 Example
Test for convergence

L (-I ),,-1
2n-1

446

Engineering Mathematics - I

Solution
The given series is an alternating series We observe that (i)
un

I (-1 ),,-1

un

,where
Un
/1---700

U
n

= _I_

2n-I

> 0, Vn (ii)

un

> Un+ I ' Vn (iii) Lt

=0

:. By Leibneitz's test, the given series is convergent.

6.7.5 Example
111 Show that the series S - 1- - + - - -

3 9

27

+ ...... converges.

Solution
The given series is series in which 1.

~ ~

( ),,-1
-1 1 3n-

= "'(_1)/1-1 u" L.J


I

where

u, = _1_1 is an alternating
I

3/1-

un

> 0, Vn 2.

un

> U/I+1' Vn and 3. Lt


ll---7oo

un

= 0;

Hence by Leibneitz's test, it is convergent.

6.7.6 Example
Test for convergence of the series, - - - ~ + - - 3 - +..... , 0 < x < 1 1+x 1+x- 1+x Solution n-1 n-1 ( -1 ) .xn The given series is of the form'" = "'(-1) u,
X
2

x3

L.J

1+ XII

L.J

where Further,

x"
UII=--II

. I+x'
U
II

Since O<x< 1, ulI>O,Vn;

-u

n+1

=-n ----

x"

l+x

X"+1 I+XIl+1

x" _X"+1
=--:-----:--:------;-

x" (I-x)
1 )

( 1+ x" ) ( I + x"+
0< x < 1 +ve.
~

all tenns in numerator and denominator of the above expression are

Again,

x" ~ 0 as x" ~ 00 since 0 < x < 1; .'. Lt

II~OO

U = --.
II

1+0

o =0

:. By Leibneitz's test, the given series is convergent.

Sequences of Series

447

6.7.7 Example Test for convergence Solution The given series is an alternating series "(-1)"-1 L..J ull where Again,
1111

L ----r========
00

(-1 ),,-1

1I~2 ~11(11+1)(n+2)

~11 ( 11 + 1)( 11 + 2)

; u > 0, \1'11 ;
ll

~(11+1)(n+2)(n+3) >~n(I1+1)(n+2)

~(11+1)(n+2)(11+3) < JI1(I1+1)(11+2) ,\1'11


I.e.,

Further,

Lt u
IHOO II

= Lt
11-->00

J 11 ( 11 + 1)( 11 + 2 )

=0

By Leibnitz's test,

f( -1)"-1 un
2

is convergent

6.7.8 Example Test for the convergence of the following series,

---+---+--+ 6 11 16 21 26 ....
Solution Given series,

L (-1)
00

n-I

- - = L (-1)
511 + 1 '

11

II-I

Un

is an alternating series

n=1

u =-->0\1'11 .
n

11 511 + 1 11 11+1

-1
(

-----

511+1
n

511+6

511+1
1 5

)(

511+6

Un

< Un+ I' \1'11

Again,

Lt u = Lt --=-:;t:0
n-->oo

11 IHOO 511 + 1

Thus conditions (ii) or (iii) of Leibnitz's test are not satisfied. The given series is not convergent. It is oscillatory.

448

Engineering Mathematics - I

6.7.9 Example Test the nature of the following series.


(a)

00

-1

r-

f;z +J;+i
u,,=
U" -

(b)

r--I --'--::--'
(

-1
2

n +1

(c)

Solution
(a)

1
I

vn+vn+l U,,+I
=

~>OVn

f;z + J;+i - J;+i + J n + 2

:. By Leibnitz's test the series converges.


(b)

u" =-2->0,Vn; - 2 - > 2 =>U" >un+I,Vn; n +1 n +1 (n+l) +1


n-->oo

Lt

UI/

=0
1
1

:. By Leibnitz's test, given series converges.

(c)

un

= I ~.l

> 0, Vn ;

In + 2 > In + 1 => I ~
6.7.10 Example

1 < I ~.1 1 => UI/ > lln+P V n ~~


I ')

By Leibnitz's test, given series converges.

Test the convergence of the series

111 sJ2 - sJ3 + sJ4 - +..... .

Solution
The series can be written as
(i)

00

(_1)"-1
-'-;=====

n=1

sJ;+i

U
/I

=---;==

SJn+l

(ii)
(iii)
n-->oo

Lt un

=0

'

By Leibnitz's test, the given series converges.

Sequences of Series

449

6.7.11

Example
Test for convergence the series, 1-

h + ~ - ~ + .....

Solution
The given series can be written as

(-If (omitting \'1 term) I-2n


lI

1 1 1 1 ->OVn; ->--=>u >lll/+I'Vn; Lt -=0 2n 2n 2n + 2 2n


IHOO

:. By Leibnitz's test,

(-If I-2n

is convergent.

6.7.12

Example
Test for convergence the series, 1- - + - - - + ..... .

1 3!

1 5!

1 7!

Solution

General tenn of the series is /-1)"-;


The series is an alternating series; (

2n-I ! 2n-I !
1 ) > OV n

1 1 1 >( ) => Un> Un+ I' Vn EN; Lt ( ) =0 2n - 1 ! IHOO 2n - 1 ! ( 2n - I! )


By Leibnitz's test, given series is convergent.

6.8

Absolute convergence A series UII is said to be absolutely convergent if the series

IU I IS
II

convergent

6.8.1
Consider the series

1 1 1 IU =1-+-+ ...... 3 +3"--3 2 34 1 1 1 1 Ilun l=1+-3 +3"+-3 + ...... = I-3 2 3 4 I n By p - series test, IUn is convergent (p = 3 > 1 )
II
00

450

Engineering Mathematics - I

Hence

I I

Un

is absolutely convergent. is a series of +ve terms, then

Note:
1. If

Un

lIlI =

IUI/ I

For such a series, there is no difference between convergence and ahsolute convergence. Thus a series of +ve terms is convergent as well as absolutely convergent. 2. An absolutely convergent series is convergent. But the converse need not he true. Consider

I (_1)"-1.-!= 1-1..+1.. -1..+ ..... . n 2 3 4


1

This series is convergent (1.7.3) But

I I(-1 ),,-1 )~I =1+ ~ + ~ + ~ + ....... is divergent (p-series test). Thus I is convergent need not imply that II I is convergent (i.e., I is not absolutely convergent).
Un UII

Uti

6.9 6.9.1

Conditional Convergence [fthe series is divergent and

Ilu,,1

Un

is convergent, then

Un

is said

to be conditionally convergent.

6.9.2

Consider the Series

1-1..+.!-1.. ....... 234


But

IU

II

is convergent by Leibnitz's test. (Ex. 1.7.3) is divergent by p - series test.

IUn I= 1+ ~ + ~ + ~ .....
Uti

:. I
6.10 6.10.1

is conditionally convergent.

Power Series and Interval of Convergence A series, ao + a1x + a2 x 2 + ..... + anx n + ..... where 'an' are all constants is a
power series in x. It may converge for some values of x .

. Sequences of Series

451

Lt
n~<Xl

UII +I till

= Lt
n~<Xl

a/HI x (I st term is omitted.)


all

=kx (say) where


Then, by ratio test, the series converges when i.e., it converges '\Ix The interval power series.
E (

Lt
n~'"

a ll +1 = all

Ikxl < 1 .

~1 , ~ )(k *- 0)

(~1 ~

,)

is known as the interval of convergence of the given

Solved Examples 6.10.2 Example


Find the interval of convergence of the series

I \
'"

II

11;1

Solution

"Lf.( U~:, )="Lf.(n: l)'x =H.[ ~.~


1

J:

=
E

By ratio test, the given series converges when When x

= 1, L un = L

in

Ixl < 1, i.e., x

(-1,1)

3'

which, is convergent by p series test.

:. L un
6.10.3

is convergent when x

=1

Hence, the interval of convergence of the given series is (-1, I]

Example Test for the convergence of the following series.


(a) (b)

1-

YJ2+ YJ3- YJ4+

1+

X2- }i2- ~2+ Ys2+ ~2- (;2- h2+ . . . .

452

Engineering Mathematics - I

(c) (d)

I-X~+X~-~+ ......... .
I(-I)"(n + l)x
o
n ,

with x

<-.!..
2

Solution (a) The series is of the form

L (-I),,-I un

where

un =

y.;;;
is divergent, by

It is an alternating series where (i) un > OV n (ii) Un > 1l,l+IVn and

(iii) Lt
n~oo

un = 0;:.
series

By Leibnitz test, the series is convergent. 1+

Again

the

YJ2 YJ3 YJ4


+ +

+ ......

p - series test.
Hence the given series is conditionally convergent. (b)

L lu,,1 = L;;:2
p=1

00

which is convergent by p - series test.

The given series is absolutely convergent.


It is convergent.

(c) The given series is

"(_I)n-l. x . ="(-1 ),,-I U . Iu ~ (2n-2)! ~ n' n


U n +1 = -

2n-2

I=_x __ (2n-2)!
=0 < 1
is absolutely

2n-2

u"

1 1 21 ; Lt -lln+1 .x (2n -1 )(2n) tHoo ll"


i.e.,

By ratio test, the series convergent Vx; (d) Here,

Llu,,1 converges Vx;

L u"
sl

n1 Iunl =(n + I)xn;1 un + 1 1= (n + 2)x + (neglect 1

term)

Lt ~ = Lt
IHOO

lu I
Iunl

(n + 2)

IHOO

(n + 1)

Ixl = Lt
IHOO

(1 +

7n) ~ Ixl = Ixl < 1 (1 + Yn)

(": x < 12 )

}i

:. Llunl

is convergent Vx, i.e., given series is absolutely convergent

and hence convergent.

Sequences of Series

453

6.10.4
Show that the series 1 + x + x/6 + x/6 + ..... converges absolutely \;Ix Solution

Lt
'1->00

IU'HII =13 =0 < 1 when


lUl I
n

x*-O [since .

111" 1= (n-I)!' Ix"-II Iu 1= Ix"l ] n!


IItl

:. By ratio test, When x

Ilunl

is convergent \;Ix *- O.

:. Ilu,,1 converges ~ Ill" is absolutely convergent


6.10.5 Example
Show that the series, 1 Solution

= 0, the series is (1 + 0 + 0 + ...... ) and is convergent


\;Ix.

~ + ~ - ~4 + ........
3 33

is absolutely convergent.

, which is a geometric series with common ratio


:. It is convergent. Hence given series is absolutely convergent.

~ <1
3

6.10.6

Example Test for convergence, absolute convergence and conditional convergence of the series, 1 ] 1 1--+---+ ......... .

13

Solution The given alternating series is of the form Hence,


u" > O\;ln EN;

(-1

r-

Un'

where,

un

= _1_ .
4n-3

U,,+I = 4 (n+ 1) -3 = 4n+ 1


4

u -u
n
,,+1

=-----

(4n - 3)( 4n + 1) 1 I.e., un > un+I ' \;In EN Lt II = Lt - - = 0; n-+oo 11 fl~a) 4n - 3 All conditions of Leibnitz's test are satisfied. I Hence (-1 un is convergent. (4n - 3)( 411 + 1)

1 1 4n - 3 4n + 1 4n+I-4n+3

- - - - - - > 0, \;In E N

r-

454

Engineering Mathematics - I

lu 1=-1-. 4n - 3
/l '

Take v

11'

=! .
n

Lt
//--+00

lunl = Lt
v"
,,--+00

By comparison test, But by p -

I series test, I

111// I and

n I n( 4 - 3 /) n

=! *- 0
4

and finite.

v" behave alike.

v" is divergent (since p = 1) .

Ilu// I
6.10.7

is divergent and :. The given series is conditionally convergent.

Example
Test the series

I (_1)"-1.
//=1

I, ,for absolute / conditional convergence.


}\1 n

Solution
The given series is an alternating series of the form Here
(i)

I (-1 r-Iu// .

un = 3vn "

Vn EN

(ii) 3(n+l3n=>3-Fn+l >3,Jn,Vn.

1 1. :. 3.Jn+l <3,Jn ,I.e.,


And Lt

\-I

ll'/+I

<u//,vnE

n~oo

un =

Lt
n---)-oo

, =0 3" n
1

:. By Leibnitz's test, the given series is convergent. But

I
1

(_1)//-1.__ = 3,Jn

I_I3,Jn

is divergent by p- series test (since

p= -<1)

:. The given series is conditionally convergent.

6.10.8

Example
Test the following series for absolute / conditional convergence.
(a)

(c)

I(-If-I , sin(~a) //=1 n


,,=0

(b)

I(-I)"-I.~
n=1

n +1
n

(-1)" (2n)!

(d)

" (_1)"-1.
L..J

nJr
e3n+1

Sequences of Series

455

Solution
(a)

1 [ ] lu,,1 = Isinnal 112 < n 2 since Isin nal < 1

considering

VII

II = 1112

and using
lin

comparison and p - series tests, we get that absolutely convergent.


(b)

I lUl I is convergent I

is

By Leibnitz's test, the series converges.

. Tak1l1g v"

=-

. ,by companson and p- series tests,

"n. n- +1
2

~ - ,- , IS

seen to

be divergent. Hence given series is conditionally convergent.

(c)

Take

lu,,1 = _1_; 2n!


Jt'''
;

Lt
,,->0')

II I I= 0 < 1; By ratio test, I lUl I is convergent;


III +
lIlI

Hence given series is absolutely convergent.


(d)

lu,,1 = e~)"+I
Example

By root test, is convergent,

given senes is absolutely

convergent. [In problems (a) to (d) above, hints only are given. Students are advised to do the complete problem themselves]

6.10.9

Find the interval of convergence of the following series.


(a)

:t (_1)"-1 xX
,,~I

(b):t (_1)"-1 n(x: 2)" 3


II~I

(c) Solution
(a)

log(l+x)

Let the given series be

lIlI ;

Then

\ "\ \"+1\ Iunl = ~ ; lun+,1 = X 3


n
(n+ 1)

/3 [_1 1J' lxHx:


00

1+-n

:. By ratio test, i.e.,

Ilu,,1

is convergent if

Ixl < 1

I Un is absolutely convergent if Ixl < 1 ; :. I u" is convergent if Ixl < 1

456

Engineering Mathematics - I

1 1 1 Ifx= I,thegivenseriesbecomes 1-23"+ 33 - 4 3 + ....... .

. W h IC I 1 IS

." 1 IS . convergent. convergent, sIllce ~ -3 n


=

Similarly, if x convergent.

-1, the series becomes

I
is

-~ = -I ~
n

which is also

Hence the interval of convergence of (b) Proceeding as in (a),


Lt-=-IHOO

UII

(-1 ~ x ~ 1)

lulI+11

:. I U is convergent if Ix + 21 < 3, i.e., if -3 < x+ 2 < 3, i.e., if


II

Iu'"

Ix+21
3

-5 < x < 1.
If x = -5,
Ifx= I,

lIlI

=I (-llll-I .n

,and is divergent ( in both these cases


Lt
ll--i.rJJ

IU = I( -1)"-1 .n, and is divergent


II

UII:I;

0 )

Hence the interval of convergence of the series is (-5 < x < I)


(c)

log (I +x)=
=

x--+---+ ...... . 234

x2

x3

X4

I( -1)"-1 ~ = IU
00 II

n=1

'n

II

(say)

IUnl=-;-; lun +1= :+1 lun+11 1 I x I= I I Lt - = Lt Iunl (1 +~)


1

Ixnl

111+11

/1-+00

/1-+00

By ratio test, i.e.,

I lUl I is convergent when Ixl < 1


x
" 1 - -1 + ....... , ~ u = "( ~ -1 )11-1 . -1 = 1- -1 + ll

I Un

is absolutely convergent and hence convergent when -1 < < 1.

When x = -I,

which is convergent by Leibnitz's test. (give the proof)

Sequences of Series

457

Whenx= 1,

:L>n

-(1+~+!+~+ ...... ) 234

which is divergent,

L~ n Hence I
since

is divergent by p -series test (prove). is convergent when -1 < x ::; 1

Un

Interval of convergence is ( -1 < x ::; 1 ).

Exercise -1 (e)

1. Use integral test and determine the convergence or divergence of the following series:

Ln
00

1
2

[ Ans : convergent]
1

2.

~ n{logn )2
l-~

[ Ans : convergent]

2. Test for convergence of the following series: 1 1 1

+l:!: -l2 + ......................................

[ Ans : convergent]

2.

~(2n-I)(2n)
I

'"

{-If-l

[ Ans : convergent] [ Ans : convergent]

3. Classify the following series into absolutely convergent and conditionally convergentseries: [ Ans : abs.cgt ] [ Ans : abs.cgt ]

3.

I L

{-If
n{logn)2

[ Ans : abs.cgt ]

4. Find the interval of convergence of the following series 2n x n


1.

[ Ans :

-00

< x < 00 ]

458

Engineering Mathematics - I

[ Ans : - 1 ::;; x ::;; 1 ]

r Ans : -1 < x ::;; 1 ]


5.
(a) Show that 1- - 2 + - ? (b) Show that 1 -

111 - 2 + .... is absolutely convergent. 2 3- 4 111

J2 + j j - J4 + ....

is conditionally convergent.

Tests of Convergence - A Summary


I. The geometric series when x::;;-1 2. If

Lx
n=1

00

n I -

converges if 1x 1< 1 , diverges if x ~ 1, and oscilates

L u"

is convergent, Lt ull
n->oo

=0

[The convergent need not be necessary ]

3. P - series test:-

f~ n
11=1

is convergent if p > 1 and divergent if p::;; 1

4.-C-omparison lest :- The series


divergent if Lt
n->oo VII

LUll

and

L vn

are both convergent or both

~ is finite and non - zero.

5. D 'A/ember! 'sRatio test:-

L un

converges or diverges according as

Lt
n->oo

2:':l.

< 1 or > 1

ll

Alternately, if Lt
n->oo

~ >1 u
ll

or < 1) . If the limit = 1, the test fails

6. Raabe's test:

L un

converges or diverges according as

.~HU::1 -I}]> lor <I .


7. Cauchy's root test:

LU

converges or diverges according as Lt (Iflimit = 1, the test fails.)

n->oo

(U}) < lor>

Sequences of Series

459

8. Integral test: A series

L (n) of +ve terms where (n) decreases as n increases


co

is convergent or divergent according as the integral

J (x) dx is finite or infinite.


L (-1 ),,-1 un
n=1
co

9. Alternating series - Leibnitz 's test: An alternating series


if(i) un

convergent

= ull +1' \In

and (ii)

Lt un
Il---+CO

=0

10. Absolute / cO':lditional convergence: (a) un is absolutely convergent if

L Iun I is convergent.

(b) (c)

LUll is conditionally convergent if LUn is convergent and Llun I is


divergent. An absolutely convergent series is convergent, but converse need not be true . i.e., a convergent series need not be convergent.

Miscellaneous Exercise - 1 (e)


1. Examine the convergence of the following series:

111 1.2 3.4 5.6 22 32 2. -3-+-3-+-3-+ ..... . 1 +1 2 +1 3 +1 2 22 23 3. -+-+-+ ...... . 1 2 3 1 2 3 4. 1+2 + 1+22 + 1+23 + .....

1. - + - + - + ........................................... .

( cgt.] ( dgt.] ( dgt.] ( cgt.]

3 X x2 x 5. --+--2 +--3 + ..... (x>O) ........ l+x l+x l+x 2 3 3x 4x 6. 2x+-+-+ ..... (x > 0) ..........................

( cgt. if

x~l dgt. ifx> I]

27

( cgt. if x ~ 1 dgt. if x > 1)


(dgt.]

7. 1+!+ 1.3 71.3.5 +....

................................. 2.4.6 32 32.5 2 32.5 2.7 2 8. 2" + -2-2 + 2 2 2 + ... ... ............................... 6 6 .8 6 .8 .10 2
2~4-

[ cgt ]
(dig.]

9. 3.4 + 4.5 + 5.6 +....

................................

1.2

2.3

3.4

460

Engineering Mathematics - I

10.

(l!)2 (tJ)2 2 (lJr ~ tJ .X+ l1 x + 12 x + .... (X>O) .............


........................ . ............ .

[ege ifx<4,dgt. if x24 ]


[ egt.if x::::; 1, dgt. if x > I] [ egt if x < 1, dgt. if x 2 1 ]

X x2 x3 II. 1+ 22 +j2+4T+ ..... (x>O)

12.

3x 5)2 x 2 4+ +(6)3 +x3+ ..... (x>o)

(4

13.

L(l+~r
a" 2:--2,a<1
l+n

[ dgt. ] [ egt. ]

15.

[egt.] [ Abs. egt.]

111 16. 1 - - + - - - + - + -..... 2.2 3.3 4.4

2. Examine for absolute and conditional convergence of the following series:


I. L.,;

n "(_I)n 33 n
3 2

.......... ......... ............. ....

[ Abs. egt.]

2.

(-l .n 2: 2f
n

[ Abs. egt. ] [Cond. cgt]

[ Cond.egt.]

3. Determine the interval of convergence of the following series:

x 2 x 3 X4 x+-+-+-+ ..... 234


2. L.,;

.............................. . [-3<x<1 ]

" (x+lf

n.2"

Sequences of Series

461

Exercise - 1 (g) (Objective type questions)


1. The infinite series convergent oscillatory . 1+n 2. T he senes - - 2 1+n (i) convergent (iii) oscillatory (i) (iii) (ii) (iv)
IS

divergent ndne of these

I ADS :(i) ]

(ii) (iv)

divergent none of these

I ADS :(ii) ]

3. The senes 1.J}- 2J2 + 3J3 - 414 + .....


(i) (iii) oscillatory conditionally convergent (ii) (iv) absolutely convergent none of these [ADs :(ii)]

4.

The series (i) (iii)

1-.!. + ..!. -.!. ......


234

IS

oscillatory convergent

(ii) (iv)
X

divergent none of these


X
3

I ADS :(iii) ]
.

5. The interval of convergence of the series (i) (iii)

X--+---+ ...... ,IS


(ii) (iv)

-oo<x<oo -1 < x :-::; 1


IS

234 -1 < x < 2

none of these

I ADS :(iii) ]

6. The series _1_+~+~+ .........00


1.2 3.4 5.6
(i) (iii) convergent oscillatory

(ii) (iv)

divergent none of these

I ADS :(ii) ]

123 . 7. T he senes - + - + - + .........00 , IS 1.3 3.5 5.7


(i) (iii) conditionally convergent divergent (ii) (iv) convergent none of these

I ADs :(iii) ]

8. The senes - + - P + - + - P + ........00 V 2 JP 4

.2345

is convergent if

(i) p < 2 (ii) p= 2 (iii) p> 2 (iv) none of these 9. The series 6 - 10 + 4 + 6 - 10 + 4 + 6 - 10 + 4 + 6............. 00 is (i) convergent (ii) oscillatory (iii) divergent (iv) none of these

I ADs :(iii) I
[ADS :(ii)]

462

Engineering Mathematics - I

10. The series - + - + - + .........

111

2.4

4.6

6.8

IS (ii) (iv) divergent none of these

(i) (iii)

convergent oscillatory

[Ans :(i) ]

2. Indicate whether the following statements are true or false: 1 I. The series " is convergent. LJ 1+ Til
2. The series
3. The series

[ False] [ True] [ False]

n +5 2n2 + 7 is not convergent.

.. ................... .

1 1 1 U + 12 + lJ + ........
x
3

. d' IS Ivergent... ................ .

4. The series x - - + - - + - ....... , converges when -1:s x :S 1.. 3 5

[True]

(_1)"-1
5. The series " LJ n.5/l
is absolutely convergent. ........................ [ True]

6. The series x + 2X2 + 3x 3 + 4X4 + ....00 is convergent if x> I........


7. The series x + -

[ False]

+ - + ........00 is divergent if x ~ 1 ............... [True] 2 3 x 2! 3 3! 3 4! 4 8. The series 1+-+2"x +-3 x +-4 x + ...... +00 is convergent 2 3 4 5
if x> e 9. The series [ True]

x2

x3

-"J;; ( 1 + .);; )

is divergent ............................ .

[ False]

10. The series

1 +"3 2 x + ( 4" 3)2 x 2+"5 ( 4 )3 x 3+ ....... IS . convergent "2


[ True] [ False]

ifx< I .

II. The series 1- 2x + 3x 2 - 4x 3 + .....00 ( x < 1) is divergent... ........ .


x . 12. The senes - - .
2 3 4

--2

13. The senes -3- - --3- + --3- + ......00 converges absolutely ...... [True]

l+x sin x

x +-x 3 - -x . T] 4 + ......00 IS convergent ...... [ rue l+x l+x l+x sin 2x sin 3x

Sequences of Series

463

14. The series

I (~1-1

is conditionally convergent.

[ True]

15. The sertes whose n

Ih.

term

IS

3n + 5

(n+2)"
I

is convergent.

[ False]

3. Fill in the Blanks :

1. The geometric series

L ar l 00

converges if_ _ _ __ is convergent, n->oo Lt

[ Ans: 1 r

1< 1]

11=1

2. If a series of +ve terms "" L.. 3.

un

un =- - -

[Ans: 0 ] [ ADs: convergent. ] [ Ans: ::;; 4]

I {{!n +I-n}
3

IS _ _ __

11=1

4. If

L 3n3-4
00

1/=1

(n+5Y

is divergent ,value ofp is _ _ __

5. The interval of convergence of

u" where u"

~ ( :: :~
(un
11 1( )

r
is

x, is _ __
[ Ans: -1 < x < 1]

6.

L un

is convergent series of +ve series. Then Lt

11-00

----

( ADs: < 1]
7. The series 8 - 12 + 4 + 8 - 12 - 4 + ....... is

8. If

un >

0,

( ADs: Oscillatory]

V nand

LUll

is convergent, then Lt
11->00

[n {~-I}] is _ __ u
n 1

[ADS: > 1]

9. If the series
is- - 10. If

I(-Ifan,(all
~

>OVn) is convergent, then for all values of

n,!!JL
aMI

( ADS: > 1]

un =(I+!)-n2 , Lt u l/ n= _____
n
n->oo
lI

[ ADS:

1/e]

464

Engineering Mathematics - I

Tests of Convergence - A Summary

1. The geometric series


when
x~

00

X"-I

converges if Ixl< I, diverges if

x~ 1

and oscilates

n~1

1.

2. IfIll" is convergent, Lt u"


Il-~OO

=0

[The converse need not be necessary ]

3. p - series test:-

f~ n
,,~I

is convergent if p > I and divergent if p

~1

4. Comparison test: The series


n~oo

L u"

and I

Vn

are both convergent or both

divergent if LI u" is finite and non - zero.

v"

5. D'ALEMBERT'S Ratio test :

IU

converges or diverges according as <lor >1). If the limit

1l,,+1 < l o r > 1 (Alternately, L t -

I, the test fai Is.

6. Raabe's test:

U"

converges or diverges according as Lt


n-)oo

[n{~
Unt-I
n~oo

-I}] I I
> or <

7. Cauchy's root test: I

U"

converges or diverges according as Lt

(u~ J< 1 or> 1 ;

(If the Limit = I, The test fails).

8. Integral test: A series

L rj> ( n) of +ve terms where rj> ( n) decreases as n increases


00

is convergent or divergent according as integral

frj> ( x ) dx is finite or infinite.


1

9. Alternating series - Leibnitz's test: An alternating series


Un>

00

(-1 ),,-1 un (where

n~1

OVn ) is convergent if(i)

un

>

lin+1 '

Vn (ii) Lt
n~oo

Un

=0

10. Absolute/ conditional convergence: (a) LUn is absolutely convergent if II Un (b)

I is convergent.
is convergent and

IU

is conditionally convergent if

Iu"

II U" I

is

divergent. (c) An absolutely convergent series is convergent but converse need not be true. i.e., a convergent series need not be convergent.

Sequences of Series

465
Solved University Questions

1. Test the convergence of the series:

- - + - - + - - + ........ .
Solution Let ull be the Then,

123 1.2.3 2.3.4 3.4.5

d h term of the series;


U II -

1 n(n+1)(n+2) - (n+1)(n+2)

Let

1
VII

-2 ;

then, Lt

U
=
II

--'!.. 11->00 V

Lt (
tHoo

n +1 n +2

n2 )(

) =1

Lt
11->00 (

1+;; 1+;;

1) (

2)

Which is non-zero and finite. :. By comparison test, both But

LUll

and

VII

converge or diverge together.

VII

is convergent by p-series test (p > 1):.

LUll

is convergent.

2. Show the every convergent sequence is bounded Solution Let

(all)
all

be a sequence which converges to a limit '/ 'say. given any +ve number
E,

Lt
1l~C()

= I =>
E

however small ,

we can always find an integer' Taking


=

III ' , ) ,

Ian -II <E,

'ifn ~ m

jaIl -II < 1; I.e., (I - 1) < all < (i + 1), 'if n ~ m Let A = min {a"a 2 , am _,,(1 -1)} ,and fl = max {a"a 2 , am-,,(I + 1)} Then obviously, A ~ an ~ fl, 'ifn EN; Hence (an) is bounded.
1, we have,

3. Show that the series,

1 1 1 S =1--+---+ .......... converges. 3! 5! 7!

466

Engineering Mathematics - I

Solution
The given series is an alternating series where u" (i) (ii)
ll"

2)-1 ),,-1 u" '

=(

211-1 !

We observe that,

> 0 and u" > 1l,,+1' '1111 and


II

Lt

= Lt

,,--+00"

1 =0 IHoo ( 211 - 1) !

:. By Leibneitz's test [7 .2 ] the given series converges. 4. Show that the geometric series

00

qlll = 1+ q + q2 + ....... converges to the slim

111=0

1 - - when /q/ < 1 and diverges when /q/ ~ 1 l-q Solution See theorm 2.3 (replace' x ' by 'q') . 5. Define the convergence of a series. Explain the absolute convergence and conditional convergence of a series. Test the convergence of series

I[l+ J,;r'
Solution For theory part, refer 2.1,2.2, 8.1 ,9.1, and 9.2

Problem:

Let

u" = (1 + _l_)-n ; Lt (u~{,) = Lt (1 + _1_)-n J;; J;;


11--+00 ,,--+00

~ H-[l+
By Cauchy's root test,

J,;J

=7<1

Un

is convergent.

6.

Test the convergence of the series, 1+-x+-x +--x + .....

1 2

1.3 2.4

1.3.5 2.4.6

Given that x> O. Solution Omitting the first term of the series, we have, ------'--------'- x

1.3.5 ..... (211-1)


2.4.6 .... .211

and

Sequences of Series

467

UI/ = LUI/

1.3.5.(2n-l) 1/ 2.4.6 .... 2n


X ; UI/+ I =

1.3.5 ..... (2n+l)

2.4.6 ..... 2n + 2

).x;

n+1

1/100 ---;;: = 1/100 2n + 2 .x = x


By ratio test, is convergent when x < 1, and divergent when x > 1

L u n+ 1

L (2n + 1 )

The ratio test fails when x = 1 Whenx= 1,

~-1 = 2n+2 -1 =_1_


U n +1

2n + 1

2n + 1
1
)=!<1

n~oo

Lt [n(~-I)]= Lt (_n 2n +
U Il +1
IHOO

:. By Raabe's test,

LUI/

diverges.

:. The given series converges when x < 1 and diverges when x 21 . 7. Test the convergence of the series, 1 + ( 2 ) x

2"

( 3 )2 x 2 +"5 (4 )) x 3 +....... ..x > 0 "3 +"4

Solution
Neglecting the 1st term,

u"

=[(=:~H'
=

1/ u 1n
II

ll----too

Lt uny.n =

(n+l) - - X= _ _ n x n+2 1+2/ n

[1+ 1/]

x; By Cauchy's root test, " ~u// is cgt. when x < I and dgt. when x >

1; when x = 1 , the test fails. When

1, un

=(

(1 + l/~r
1+ 3/~

, )n;

IHOO

Lt Un = ee = -e1* 0
-2

:. LU

is divergent.

:. is cgt. when x < 1 and dgt. when x 2 1 .

468

Engineering Mathematics - I

8.

Test the series whose

nih

term is

(3n -1) / 2n

for convergence.

Solution
U

= n

(3n-l)
2"

. '

U
IHI

{3(n+l)-I}
=-'--------'-

2"+1

U,,+I _

un
:. By ratio test,

(3n + 2) 2(3n-l)
is convergent.

- - -- 1 <1 L (Un+1
n->oo Un

L un

9.

Show by Cauchy's integral test that the series

L
<X)

n;2

n(logn

converges if p > 1

and diverges if 0 < p ~ 1 Solution 1 Let ( x ) = ; x ~ 2 ; Then ( x) decreases as x increases in x(logxy


<X)

[2,00]

00

f(x)dx=f x(logx)
2

ax

<X)

log2

I --;;;
U

I-p

=~
P

II

00

log2

. I [Takmg log x = u, - ax = du x = 2 => u = log 2 and x x Case (i) : p > 1 => 1- P < 0 => Integral is finite, and

= 00 => U = 00 ]

Case (ii) : 0 < p ~ I => Integral is infinite. Hence, by integral test, the given series converges if p > I and diverges when
O<p~1

.
JI

10.

Test the convergence ofthe series

I (I + J,;)"""

Solution

Sequences of Series
1

469

L1
n~oo

U;,II

= -

1 <1 e

[2 <e <3I .

By Cauchy's root test,

u" is convergent.

11.

Test the convergence of the se'ries,

1)" " I -( .x)' 0 < x < I ,,~2 n-l


00 (

11

Solution
The given series is of the form

I (-1)" 11" ,where


lin

xn u" = ( ) n n-l
1I"

This is an alternating series in which (i) further L1


11-00

> 0 and

> 1l1l+IVn EN.

ll"

= o. Hence, by Leibnitz test, the series is convergent.


1
J.

12.

.
DISCLISS

. the convergence of the series,

2'1'1

r;; + r:; + t. + ......... . 3'1'2 4'1'3 5'1'4

x2

X4

x6

Solution

Iii

term 0 f th e series

x r--:-:; u = (n+2)'I'n+l
ll

2n

( . . I sl term ) omlttmg
2

21
X 1+2

"1I+1,J;;+2 rn+i
(n + 3)
2

llt

1=

(n + 3).J n + 2 ; ---;;: =

.x

LI
/HOO

~= I/~OO l rVn.M. (+ 3.~) 2l=x


LI
X
It"

By ratio test,
x
2

I converges if x > 1 , i.e., if Ixl > 1 ;


"II
2

< 1 , i.e., if

Ixl < 1, and diverges if


,

When x

= 1, u =
ll

(n+2) n+l

rn+i ;taking
n/ 2
]I

vn

= -3-'
n i2
=1

n~oo vn

Lt

U
_II

n~oo n%

Lt

(1 + ,'n 2/) \fIT?n hl


and

By comparison test,

Un

VII

both converge or diverge together;

470

Engineering Mathematics - I

But

L vn is convergent by p-series test. :. L un is convergent if Ixl ~ 1 and divergent if Ixl > 1


00

211

13.

<::1 Test the convergence of the series

" " x L..--~=

n~1 (n+ 1)J;;

Solution
X 211 U
n

x2n+2

(n+l)J;;'
=

. U
11+1

=----==

(n+2)rn+i

u n+1

un
By ratio test, When

vnvn+l. x2 = \jIT /~ .x 2 ; Lt n+2 (l+;ln)

,r-:-;

u n +1 =x2;

11-+00

Un

L un converges when Ixl < 1 and diverges for Ixl > 1


3/ (

Ixl = 1 , un =

1 .) taking 1 + 1/

VII

~
n/ 2

and applying the comparision

.n

test, we observe that Hence


14.

LUll

is convergent.

lin

converges when

Ixl ~ 1

and diverges when


2 3 4

Ixl > 1

Find the interval of convergence of the series,

~+~+~+ .........oo
234

Solution
. For tIle gIven serIes, un

x = --; un +1 n+1

11+1

1+ Lt un +1 = Lt ~ n~'" U n~oo ( 1+ 2/
n

II)

n+2
X=X

/n

By ratio test, When x Taking


=

L un
U
n

converges when

Ixl < 1 i.e., -1 < x < 1

1 =--

n+1

;-=--.,
Vn

un

1+;11

Sequences of Series

471

and, :. Both But

Lt un
II~'" VII

= 1 *- 0

and finite.

IU
=

II

and

VII

converge or diverge together.


n

Vn

diverges:.

IU

also diverges when x ~ I.

When x

-1, the given series is

I + -1 -1 + wIh I . . -1 -lIC IS a ternatll1g senes \\ 1111 2 3 4 5


Ut

> un+IVn and un

~ 0 as n ~

00

By Leibneitz's test

IU

II

converges when x =-1


~

.. Interval of convergence is [(-1, 1) i.e., -1


15.

x <1

~ 1.3.5 .... (211+1) Test the convergence of the series L.


11=1

2.5.8 .... (311+2)

Solution
un

= 2.5.8 .... (3n+2 );


2n+3. 3n+5'
UII

1. 3.5.... ( 2n + 1)

1.3.5 .... {2n+3) un +1 = 2.5.8 .... (3n+5 )

Un +1 _

Un

n~'"

Lt

~ = Lt r + (
2
Un

3
11 )] ) 11

n~'"

l3 + ( 5

= <1

By ratio test,
16.

is convergent. converges absolutely.

Prove that the series

(-If I--n(logn)3
"'f
2

Solution

I Iu 1- n(1ognr
n -

dx

= "'f d!
log2

X(logxf
g

r'

(where t = log x) By integral test

= - : -2 = - t

-11

log 2

,which is finite.

LlulIl

is convergent.

" L un

converg..:s absolutely.

472

Engineering Mathematics - I

17.

Test the convergence of the series L.J

'" (2n + I) X ,x> 0 3 n +1


II

Solution
l. . n/I! term 0 f t le given series,
U n

2n+ I =3-X
n +1
_

II

_[2(11+1)+1] n+1 un + 1 1 X (n+1) +1 Lt


IH"O

2n+3 n+1 ,x (n+1} +1


x --'-----'---

~I/~t
1111

II

1,1

(2n+3).x"H n + 1 + I}

11->00 { (

(113+1)

xn ( 2n + I)

x=.x

l1y ratio test, IlIlI converges if x < I and diverges if x> I. If x

I the test fails.

Whenx

I,
It

2n+ I . un = - , - ; Takmg
n +1
?

VII

1 2 n

'

II~'OO

LI _"
VII

2n + I = LI 3- X n- = 2"* 0
11->00

n +1

and filllte

I But I
Thus,

lin Vn

and

Vn

converge or diverge together.

converges:.

I
2

Un

also converges.

lIlI converges when x ~ 1 and diverges when x > 1.

18.

Test the series

00

(-I)" (log n )
'

for absolute/conditional convergence

II~I

Solution

Un = (-1)" (;ogn) ; IUIII=(lo~n)


n n

Sequences of Series

473

"'flO~, x dx -- ' 'f le-'dl


2

I/ [taking logx=l, x=e ' , /xdx=log/]

x-

log2

~ -Ie -, + e-, I:.2 ~ 0 - [I-log 2].e -'"" ~ i(!Og 2 -I),


which is finite. :. By integral test ~]un is convergent => (Note that 19.

I
I

1I11 converges absolutely.

UII

is cgt. by Leibnitz's test).

Test the convergence of the series

(log log n )"

Solution
Given that u,
I

LI u'1/ n
n-->oo n

= LI

n-->oo

[I] =
log log n

(log log n)"

0<1

By Cauchy's root test, 20.

Un

is convergcnt.

Find the interval of convergence of the series,


7 I x 3 1 3 x 5 1.3.5 x x+-.-+-.-.-+--.-+ ..... . 2 3 2 4 5 2.4.6 7

Solution
Term of the series, ull

1.3.5 ..... (2n-l)

2.4.6 ..... 2n

1.3.5 ..... (2n-I)(2n+l)

2n + 1 X211 +1

.(

Xlll'l

(neglecting I st term)

lI

+1

=
lI +1

) 2.4.6 .... .2n ( 2n + 2


= Lt [
n-->oo
Un

. (2n + 3)

Lt u
11-->00

un

(2n + 1)2 X2] (2n + 2)( 2n + 3

2 4 Lt [ n ( + + I n2) X2] = x2 I/-'>OO n 2( 4 + ~ + 6 n2

19

~/n

By ratio test,
2

converges when x < 1 , i.e.,

Ixl < 1 => -1 < x < 1

When x = 1 ,the test fails;

474

Engineering Mathematics - I

Then

~_1=(4112?+1011+6 -1)= ~11+5


u
ll

+1

411- + 211 + 1

411- + 211 + 1

Lt
IHOO

[11(~-1)]= Lt n2(8+1~)
lIn+1
IHOO

n ( 4 + 7~ + /~~2 )
2 2

=2>1

By Raabe's test,

LUll

converges when x

= 1, i.e., x = 1.

:. Interval of convergence of

lin

is

(-1:::; X:::; 1)

7
Vector Differentiation

7.1.1

Vector Point function and vector field


Let P be any point in a region 'D' of space. Let r be the position vector ofP. Ifthere exists a vector function F corresponding to each P, then such a function F is called a vector point function and the region D is called a vector field.

Note: In what follows i,j, k are unit vectors along X, Y, Z axes respectively
For example, consider the vector function

F = (x - y) i + xyj + yzk
Let P be a point whose position vector is
r = 2i

..... (1 )

+ j + 3k in the region D of space.


F = i + 2j + 3 k

At P, the value of F is obtained by putting x = 2, Y = I, z = 3 in F.

I.e.

At P,

Thus, to each point P of the region D, there corresponds a vector F given by the vector function (I). Hence F is a vecotr point function (of scalar variables x, y, z) and the region D

is a vector field.

476

Engineering Mathematics - I

Scalar point junctioll and scalar fielit


Ifthere exists a scalar 'f' given by a scalar function 'f' corresponding to each point P (with position vector r) in a region 0 of space, of' is called a scalar point function and 0 is called a scalar field. As an example, let P be a point whose position vector is r = 2i + j + 3k. Consider f= xyz + xy + z Then the value of f at P is obtained by putting x = 2, y = I, z = 3 i.e., At P,

f= 2.1.3 + 2.1 + 3 = II

Hence the scalar' II ' is attached to the point P. The function 'f' is a scalar point function (of scalar variables x, y, z), and 0 is a scalar field.

Note : There can be vector and scalar function of one or more scalar variables.

7.1.2 Differentiation of a vector


Ifr (u) = r,(u)i + r2(u}j + riu)k, (where rl' r2, r3 , are scalar functions of 'u') be a vector function of' u' , then,

dr du
ou

Lt

Or

Lt ou ~O

r{ u + ou) - r{ u)
ou

~Oou

= L.,-l=-l+-}+-

~ dr,.

du

dlj. du

dr2 . du

dr3 k du

Example
If r(u) = (3u 2 + 5u + 6) i + 3U7 - 4uk, Find dr , when u = 1 du

dr du

= {~(3U2 +5U+6)li+{~(3U2)}j+{~(-4U)}k
du

du

du

Note: We can apply the above rule of derivative to the case of partial derivatives also
ex : If A
=

(ryz)i + (xyz}j - (3;Jyz2)k

2 A find - - at the point (I, -I, 2)

axOv

Vector Differentiation

477

aA ay

{ - a (2 x yz ay

)t.

a {xy 2 }. j -a 3 ') ')} k 1+Z -{ 3xyzOy Oy

(x 2z)i + (2xyz)j - (6x1yz2) k

2xz i + 2yzj - 18x2yz2 k

At the point (I, -1,2)


ax~v

a2 A

4i - 4j + 72k

7.1.3 Application to space curves Let ret) = x(t)i + y(t)j + z(t) k represent the position vector of a point (x. y. z) on a
space curve whose equations are given by x time. dr dx. dy. dz Then -=-I+-J+-k dt dt dt dt and
x
=

x(t), y = yet), z

= z(t), where 't' is


(K + M, Y + ~Y, z + 6Z)

(i) dr represents the velocity vector v (or tangent vector) of the point (x, y, z) dt (ii) d 2 r represents the acceleration vector a at the point (x, y, z) dt 2 Ex: If a particle moves along a curve x
=

e-t, y

2 cos 2t, z = 2 sin 2t, where 't' is time.

I) find velocity and acceleration at time t = 0, and 2) find also their magnitudes
Sol:
r = xi
=

+ yj + zk

(e-t)i + (2 cos 2t)j + (2sin 2t)k

478

Engineering Mathematics - I

dr d v= - = dt dt
=

(e-~i

d d + - (2cos 2t}j + - (2sin 2t)k dt dt

(-e-t)i -(4sin 2t}j + (4 cos 2t)k

d 2 r dv d d. d a= -=-=-(-e-t)i-(4sm2t}j+ - (4cos2t)k 2 dt dt dt dt dt = (e-t ) i-(8cos 2t)j-(8sin 2t) k Putting t = 0 in (I), velocity as t = 0 is v = -i + 4k Magnitude = .... (2)

10
J65

putting t = 0 in (2) acceleration at t = 0 is a = i-8j Magnitude =

7.2 Gradient of Scalar Function 7.2.1 The Vector differential operator 'DEL' or 'NABLA', denoted as 'V' ' is defined by
V'
=i

-+ }-+ -

a .a ax ay

a az

(i,j, k are unit vectors in x, y, z directions)

This operator' V' ' is used in defining the gradient, divergence and curl. Properties of' V' ' are similar to those of vectors. The operator is appled to both vector and scalar functions.

7.2.2 Gradient
If ~ (x, y, z) is a scalar function, defined at each point (x, y, z) in a certain region of space and is differentiable, the gradent of as, grad ~ = V' ~ = 1-+ }-+k-- ~
~

(shortly written as grad

~)

is defined

.a .a ( ax ay

a) az

(which is a vector function)

Vector Differentiation :. If ~ defines a scalar field, 'grad' ~ or V ~ defines a vector field.

479

7.2.3 Physical significance of 'grad

~'

If ~ (x, y, z) = c (c being a constant) represents a surface, then 'grad ~'represents the normal vector to the surface at the point (x, y, z) For, if r = xi + yj + zk, is the position vector of the point (x, y, z) on the surface, we have, dr = (dx) i + (dy) j + (dz) k which is in the tangent plane to the surface of
(x, y, z)

(.,'

=c)

:. The vector' V ~' which is 1.- r to the tangent plane is the normal vector to
~ =

c at(x, y, z)

7.2.4 Directional Derivative


If a be any vector,

V~.a

lal

which represents the component of V

.'~

in the direction of

a is known as the directional derivative of' ~ , in the direction of a,


(1) Physically the directional derivative is the rate of change of' ~ , in the direction

ofa. (2) The directional derivative will be maximum in the direction of V a=


~

(i.e.,

V~) and the maximum value of the directional derivate = It~~


and \jJ are two scalar functions,
=

IV~I

7.2.5 Some basic properties of the gradient


If
~

'J) grad (~+\jJ)

grad ~ + grad \jJ(or) V(~+\jJ)= V~+V\I' V( + \jJ)

Proof: grad

(~+ \1')

{! (~+

\jJ)} i + { ;

(~ + \jJ)} j + {! (~+ \I')} k

480

Engineering Mathematics - I

o~. ~. ~ ) + (Oljl. = -I+-j+-k -I+-j+-k ox oy OZ ox ay OZ

8ljI. 8ljI )

= Y'~+Y'ljI

(2) grad (~ljI)= ~ (grad\fl) + ljI(grad~) (or) Y'(~ljI) = ~ (Y'ljI)+(Y'~)\jJ Proof: grad
(~ljI)

Y'(~ljI)

{! (~ljI)}i

+{;

(~ljI)} j + {! (~ljI)}k
<.

oljl a~). = ( ~-+ljI1+ ox ox = =

(8ljI
ay

~-+-

oy

O~). ~)k j+ (8ljI ~-+ljIOZ OZ

~(Oljl i + oljl j + oljl k)


ox

ay

+ ljI

oz

(o~; + o~ j + o~ k) = ~(Y'ljI) + ljI(Y'~)


ox oy OZ

~(grad \fI) + ljI(grad ~)

~)
(3) If ljI :;t: 0, grad ( ljI =

ljI (grad~ ) - ~(gradljl ) (ljI)2

(Proof is left to the reader.) Solved Examples

Ex. 7.2.6
Sol:

Iff= x2yz, find gradfat the point (I, -2, 1).


f= x2yz; ": grad ~ = Y'~ = 0/ + ay } + OZ k,
o~. o~. o~

o 0 0 gradf= -8 (x2yz); + - (x2yz}j + -8 (x2yz)k x ay 'Z


= (2xyz)i +(x2z}j + (x 2y)k

:. At the point (1, -2, ]), grad Ex. 7.2.7 Sol:

= - 4; + j - 2k

Find the unit normal to the surface xy +yz + zx = 3 at the point (I, 1, I). If ~ = c is a surface,
Y'~

is the normal to it.

Vector Differentiation

481

Here f= xy +yz + zx

= (y + z)i + (x + z)j + (y + x)k :. normal at(l, 1,1) = 2i + 2j + 2k 2;+ 2j + 2k . :. Umt normal = ~ 22 + 22 + 22

;+ j+k

J3
2e2x-ytz

Ex.7.2.8
Sol :

(a)

Find the directional derivative ofl= towards the point (2, I, 3).

at (1,3, I) in a direction

1 = 2e2x-ytz;

Vf = 2e 2x- ytz (2i - j + k )

Vll(1,3,1) = 2.e 2- 3+1(2i - j + k) = 4i - 2j + 2k


Let A = (1,3, I) and B = (2, 1,3), AB = (2-1)i + (l-3)j + (3-1)k = i - 2j + 2k = a (say)

. . I denvatlve . . JI1 . the d'IrectlOn . 0 f a = Vf. a DlrectlOna (4i-2j+2k).(i-2j+2k)


,Jl +4+4

= (b) Ans:

(4+4+4)
3

=4

In the 'Problem (a)' find the maximum value of the directional derivative

Maximum value of directional derivative = = I 4i - 2j + 2k I = ,J16 + 4 + 4 = 2 J6

IV11

Ex.7.2.9
Sol :

Find the acute angle between the surface point (2, 1, 1). Let 1 = xy2z = 4 be the surface (1)

xyz = 2 and:x2 + y + z3 = 6 at the

482

Engineering Mathematics - I

Normal vector to (1) at (2, 1, I) = Vfl(2 = ; + 4j + 2k = a (say).

1,1)

= 1(Vz); + (2xyz}j + (xy)k 1(2, I,

I)

Let g = (.xl y + .?) = 6 be the surface (2) Normal vector to (2) at (2,1,1) = Vg 1(2,1,1)= (2x; + 2yj + 2zk)i(Z,I,I)

= 4; + 2j + 2k = b (say)
:. Angle between the surfaces

= Angle between the normals to them = Angle between a and b


- cos -

_1(a,b)1 =cos -II


ab

4+8+4 .Jl+16+4.J16+4+4

cos

-1 (

16) J2t J24 = cos

-I (

6.J14 = cos

16)

-I (

3.J14

8)
-

7.2.10
Sol:

Find the constants p and q such that the surfaces px2 4x2y + z3 = 4 are orthogonal at the point (1, -1, 2) Letf= px2 - qyz - (p + 2)x = 0 be surface (1), and Let g = 4.xly + z3 = 4 be surface (2) Normal to (1) at (1, -1, 2) = Vf
(1-1

qyz

(p + 2)x and

"

2)=(81 ; + 81 j + af k 11(1_12) ax ay az

y"

= [(2px- P - 2); -{qz)j - (qy}k]I(I,-1,2)= (p - 2); - (2q)j -(q)k


Normal to (2) at (1, - 1, 2) = Vg 1(1,-1,2)

a (say)

= [(8xy); + (4x 2)j + (3z 2)k]1 (1,-1,2) = -8; + 4i + 12k = b (say)


Since the surfaces (1) and (2) are orthogonal, a.b = 0

:. -8(p - 2) + 4(-2q) + 12(q) = 0

=> -8p + 16 - 8q + 12q = 0

Vector Differentiation

483

=> -8p + 4q + 16 = 0 => 2p - q


=

..... (i)

Since the point (1, -1,2) lies on (1), we have,

p + 2q - p - 2 = 0 => q
from (i) we get,p = 5/2

I
:. p = 512, q = 1
=

7.2.11

If r = xi + yj + zk and r = Irl Let ~ = r3 Then, ax


a~
=

~ x 2 + y2 + Z2 show that grad (r3) = 3r r

Sol:

(x 2 +

T + z3)3/2

3 2"

(x 2 + T + z2)3/2-1 . 2x = 3x r
a~

similarly 8y
a~.

a~

3yr; and az 3zr


~. ~

grad
=

~=

- l + - ) +- k ax 8y az

(3xr) i + (3yr) j + (3zr) k

= 3r (xi + yj + zk) = 3r r
Aliter:
Ifr2
=

xl + T + z2, we have, 2r ar = 2x => ar _~

ax

ax

.. ar Slmtiarly 8y

=- .-

yarz =r'az r

grad ~ = Vr 3

a 3. a 3 . a 3 ..1 ar 2 ar. 2 ar = -(r )l+-(r )}+-(r )k =3r-i+3r -}+3r - k ax 8y az ax 8y az


..1 y. =3r -l+-)+r r r

[x.

zk] =3rr

7.2.12

Evaluate grad r" Let ~= rn

Sol:

= (xl + T + z2)nl2

~ =!!{x 2 + y2 + Z2
ax
2

r/

2 -

.2x =nx{x 2 + y2 z2

r/z-

484

Engineering Mathematics - I

o~ = ny sImilarly ox
grad rn = grad
~

..

(X 2 + y2 + Z2 )'?z/,I and -o~


oz

= nz x + y + z

(222)";-1

o~. ~. ~k = - I + - j +ox 0' oz

= n, {x 2 + y2 + Z2 )'fi- I (xi + yj + zk) = n rn-2.r


Aliter: g rad
~

o~ or. o~ or. o~ or 1+ (o~l. - j+ (~) - k=-.-I+-.-j+-.-k (-o~). ox oy OZ orox or0' oroz


r r r

= nrn- 1 . !.. i + nxn- I . y j + nxn- I . !... k = nrn-2.r


Ex.7.2.13 Sol:
If A is a constant vector prove that grad (r . A) = A Let A = A I i + Aj + A3k
r

(A I' A 2 , A3 being constant functions)

= xi + yj + zk
=

r. A

A1x + A2Y + A3z = f(say)

of ox = AI'

81

0'

81
= A2, OZ = A3

:. grad (r.A)

= gradf= 81 i+ 81 j+ 81 k ox 0' oz
~I(r).r

=A i+Aj+A k=A
I 3

Ex.7.2.14 Prove V Sol:


Let f=
~

(~(r=--

(r)
(r) -

81
ox

",I

ar

'Y

ox

I'X

(r).r

or ox or y
r

x
r

81 =~I(r)ar =~I(r).y 0' 0' r 81 = ~I(r) or = ~I(r).!...


OZ OZ
r

0'
or
z

-a =- (see Aliter of ex. 7.2.11) z r

.. V

(~ (r = V f=

81. of. 81 0/ + 0' ) +

oz'''
W
<j>1(r)r

<j>1(r)
(xi+yj+zk) =

Vector Differentiation

485

Ex.7.2.15 Find the equations for the tangent plane and normal line to the surface z = x 2 + at the point (2, I, 5).

.r

Sol:

Let r = xi + y) + zk be the position vector of any point P(x, y, z) on the surface. Let r l = xli + yJ + zl k be the position vector offixed point A(xI'YI' z,) on the surface. Then AP = (x - xI) i + (y - YI) + (z - z\) k Let n be the normal to the surface at A. Then, since AP is perpendicular to n, we have, (r-r\)n=O which is the equation to the tangent plane at A. Here, in the given problem r-r, =(x-2)i+(y-I)+(z-5)k and 11 = V (xl +
=

= r - r,

..... (I)

.r -

z) at A (2, I, 5)

(2xi + 2y) - k)I(2.).5)

= 4i + 2) - k

:. The tangent plane at (2, I, 5) is, (from (I,


4(x - 2) + 2(y - I) - I(z - 5)

=0

~4x

+ 2y - z = 5

.... (2)

From (2), the direction ratios of the normal Iine at A are 4, 2, -I :. Equation 10 tpt( pormal line at A are,
-- =

x-x)

y- Y) z-z) he \ w re abc
~,=--

(xl'YI' zl)

= (2,_1,5) and (a, b, c) = (4; 2, -I)

:. The equations of normal line are x - 2 4,

= Y -I = z 2 -I

From the above example. we have to remember the following :


Let (I)

c be any given surface and (xl' YI' zl) be a point on it; then

Equation to the tangent plane to

+=cat(xI'Y"z,) is

486

Engineering Mathematics - I

(2)

Equations to Normal line at (xl,y\, zl) are

= Y- y, = z-z, 8<1>/8x 8<1>/ay 8<1>/8z


x-x,

Exercise 7(a)
I.

If <jl

2xz3 - 3xlyz, find V <I> and IV<I>I at the point (2, 2, -I)
[Ans: (i) 22i+ 12}-12k(ii)2M3]

2.

3.

If V = 2x i - 3y) + z 3k, and <jl = 2xyz - 3z2, find V. V<I> and Vx V<I> at the point (1,2,3) [Ans . (I) - 426 (2) 6i + 352} t 156k] Iff=2xyzandg=xly+z,fing V (f+g) and V (fg) at the point(I,-I,0) [Ans : -2i + ) - k; 2k ] Evaluate V (3r
r
2 -

4. 5. 6.

4.,Jr + 1 ~)
~r

[AI:1S : (6 - 2~/2 - 2r -3) r ]

If <I> = r2 e- , show that grad <I> = (2-r) e-r r Find a unit normal vector to the surface z = xl + Y at the point (I, -2, 5) [Ans:

51 (2i -

4j - k)

7.

Finq the equations to the tangent plane and the normal line to the surface xz2 + xly = z - I at the point (I, -3,2)

. .. x-I y+3 z-2 [Ans: (I) 2x- y- 3z + 1 = (n) -2 =-1- =-3-

"

8.

Find ~uations to the Tangent plane and normal line to the surface y at the point (1, 5, -2)

= xl + z2

x-I y-5 z+2 [Ans: (i) 2x-y-4z= 5 (ii) -2-=-=1=--=-4


9. Find the directional derivative ofU = 4xz3 - 3x2yz at (2, 1, -2) in the direction of (3i - 2) + 6k). [Ans: 10. Find the directional derivative of <I> towards the point (2, 3, 1) [Ans : 8/3]

7]

384

= 4e2x- y+z at the point (1, I, -1) in a direction

Vector Differentiation

487

II.

Find the values of the constants a, b, c so that the directional derivative off= + byz + cz2x 3 at (1,2, -I) has a maximum magnitude 64 in a direction paraIlel to z-axis. [Hint:

axl

/0:./ at (I, 2, -I) is IlleI to z-axis.

:. Equate coefficients of i and j to zero and IV ~ = 64. Thus get 3 equations in a, b, c and solve them] [Ans: a =6, b = 24, c = - 8] 12. Find the acute angle between the surfaces xlz = 3x + z2 and 3x2 - l + 2z = I at thepoint(I,-2, I)

[Ans : cos- I - - ]

7J2

J3

13.

Find grad ~ if r = xi + yj + zk, r = Irl and

(i)

= Log r (ii)

I = r

(iii)

=r [Ans: (i) r/~ (ii) -r/~ (iii) r/r]

14.

Find the directional derivative of g = x 2 l + lz2 + z 2x 2 at the point (I, I, -2) in the direction of the tangent to the curve x = e-t, y = 2 sint + I, z = t - cos t at t = o. [Hint: Tangent vector to the given curve is

dx. dy. dz k -l+-}+dt dt dt

[Ans: 15.

J6]

Find the acute angle between the normals to the surface xy = z2 at the points (1,9,3) and (3, 3, -3)

16.

If r

= xi + yj + zk and

4> = x 3 +

Y + z3 -

3xyz, show that r, grad 4> = 34>.

488

Engineering Mathematics - I

7.3 7.3.1

The Divergence of a Vector Function


If A = A)i + A2k is a vector function, defined and differentiable at each point (x, y, z) in a certain region of space [i.e., A defines a vector field], then the divergence of A (abbreviated as 'Div A') is defined as, DivA= V.A

. a }-+ . a k a) = (1-+ ax ay -az' (A )1'+A21'+A3k)


=

(aA i + aA + aA3) ax ay az
I

(since i.i = j j = k.k = 1)

Note: (1) Div A is a scalar field


(2) V.A
7:-

A.V

7.3.2 Physical significance of the divergence


If A represents the velocity of fluid in a fluid flow, Div A represents the rate offluid flow through unit volume. (or) Div A gives the rate at which fluid is originating at a point per unit volume. Similarly if A represents the Electric flux or heat flux, Div A represents the amount of electric flux or heat flux that diverges per unit volume in unit time.

7.3.3 Some properties of Divergence


If A, B , are vector functions and '/' is a scalar function, then, prove that
(1)

Div (A + B) = Div A + Div B (i.e) V. (A + B) = -V . A + V .8

Proof Let A = A)i + Aj + A3k


B = 8 1i + B~ + B3k A + B = (A) + 8) i + (A2 + 8 2 )j + (A3 + 8 3) k Div A = -(AI +B l )+-(A 2 + 8 2 )+-(A 3 + 8 3 )

a ax

ay

a az

= (aA1 + aA2 + aA3)+(aBI + aB2 + aB3)

ax

ay

az

ax

ay

az

= Div A + Div B.

Vector Differentiation

489

(2)

Prove that, Div (fA) = (grad.f) .A + .f{Div A) i.e. V .(fA) = (V .f). A + .f{ V A) Proof: Let A = Ali + A'll + A3k then fA = fAli + fA'll + fA3k
V .(fA)

= ax (fA.)+ ay (fA2)+ az (fA3) = fQ~+A. af + f aA2 +A2 af + f aA3 +A3 8j


-Ox ax

ay

ay

az

az

..... (1)

..... (2)

..... (3) (1), (2), (3) => V .(fA) = (v.f).A + f(v .A)

7.3.4 Solenoidal vectors: A vector A is said to be solenoidal if Div A = 0


Solved Examples

Ex. 7.3.5
Sol:

If A = (.x2y) i + (xy2z)j + (xyz)k, find div A at the point (1, -1,2). A = (.x2y) i + (xyz)j + (xyz)k

. aA. aA 2 aA 3 DIVA=-+-+ax ay az
=
=

a 2 a 2 a -(x y) + -(xy z) + -(xyz) ax ay az 2xy + 2xyz + xy

= xy (2z ,+ 3)
:. At (1, -1, 2), Div A = (1) (-1) [4 + 3] =-7

490

Engineering Mathematics - I

Ex. 7.3.6
Sol:

If V = 2xyi + 3x2yj - 3pyz k is solenoidal at (1, 1, 1), find 'p'.


. Dlv V
=

a a 2 a -(2xy)+-(3x y)+-(-3pyz) ax oy oz

= 2y + 3xl - 3py
At (1. 1, 1). Div V = 5 - 3p Since V is solenoidal, Div V = 0 :. p = 5

3"

Ex.7.3.7
Sol:

Ifr = xi + yz + zk, and r = Irl, show that Div (r3 r) = 6 r3 r= ~X2+y2+Z2


:. r3 r = (xl+y +z2)3/2 (xi+yj+zk)

= Ali + Aj + A3k (say) then, A I = x(xl + y + z2)312


y(x2 + Y + z2)3/2

A2

A3 = z(xl + y + z2)312

oA2 .1. .. l similarly ~ =3y r+r~

oA 3 2 .. l =3z r+r

OZ

. oA I oA2 oA3 DlvA= - + -+ax oy oz


= 3r (xl + Y + z2) + 3r3 = 3r3 + 3r3 = 6r3 Aliter: r3 r = r3 xi + r3 yi + r3zk.

a Or x -8 (r3 x) = r3.1 + x . 3r2 -8 = r3 + x . 3r2 . x' x


r
=

r3 + 3xlr

Vector Differentiation

491

Similarly

ay

(~y) = ~ + 3yr and oz (r3z) = ~ + 3z2r

DivA=6~

Ex. 7.3.8

Evaluate Div [ r grad (r-3) ] or V. {rvC 3 )}

_ 4 or . ar . --4 -or k--3r _ --4 -i+-j+y. Z --3r -1-3r4 -j-3r ox c:y oz r r r

(x.

k)

-3r-5 (xi + yj + zk)

r grad (~) = -3r--4 (xi + yj + zk)

= Ali + Aj + A3k

(say)

where AI = -3r--4x, A2 = -3r--4y , A3 = -3r--4z

aA I = ~ [-3r--4 x]

ax

ax

= -3r--4 . 1 + x. -3. -4 r- 5 = -3r--4 + 12 x 2 r-6 Similarly,

. ::

= -3r--4 + 12 x r- 5

oA c:y2

=-3r-4 + 12yr-6

:. Div (r grad r-3) =

_I + __ 2 +_3

oA ax

oA

oA

Oy

az

= -9r-4 + 12 r-6 (x 2 +

y + z2) = -9r-4 + 12 r--6 . r2 = 3r-4

(Alternate method is left to the reader).

492

Engineering Mathematics - I
Show that V .(x" r) r" r

Ex.7.3.9
Sol:

= (n + 3) r". Hence show that r/f3 is solenoidal.

= r" (xi + yj + zk) = -a (xr")+


x

V .(r" r)

~, (yr")
v)'

+-

a az

(zr")

X y + z.= 3r" + n ['1-1 ( x.+ y.-

z)
r

3r" + n r"-2 . r2 = (n + 3) r"

Ifn = -3, (r-3 r) = (-3 + 3) r-3


r

=0

:. 3 is solenoidal
r

Ex.7.3.10 Prove that Div (CIA + C 2 B) = C I Div A + C 2 Div B, where CI' C 2 are
constants.

Sol:

Let A

= A I i + Aj + A3k

B = Bli+ Bj+ Bl CIA + C2B = (CIA I + C 2B I) i + (C IA2 + C 2B2U + (C IA3 + C 2 B 3 )k Div (CIA + C2B) =

a ax

(CIA I + C2B I) + Oy (C IA2 + C 2B2)

=C (MI+M2+M3)+C(aBI+aB2+
I

aB

ax

Oy

az

2ax

ay

az

3)

Vector Differentiation

493

Ex.7.3.11 If A = 2xi + 3yj + 5zk and f= 2xyz, find div (fA) at (1,2,3).
Sol:

fA

2xyz (2xi + 3yj + 5zk) = (4x 2yz)i + (6xyz)j + (10xyz2)k


=

a a a Div (fA) = ax (4x2yz) + ay (6xyz) + az (10xyz2)

= 40xyz
:. At (\,2,3), div (fA) = 240 Aliter: div (fA) = D.(fA) = (V f). A + f( V A)
Vf

= 2yzi + 2xzj + 2xyk


= 4xyz + 6xyz + \ Oxyz = 20xyz

V fA

f(v .A) = 2xyz (2 + 3 + 5) = 20xyz


Hence V .(fA) = 40xyz and at (\,2,3) V .(fA) = 240

Ex.7.3.12 Iff, g are scalar fields show that V fx V g is solenoidal

vfx V g

a.fjax agjax

aljay agjay

atjoz agjaz (Suffixes denote partial derivatives)

Div (V fx V g) = L ax Vygz - fzgy)


=

(!y gxz + gzfxy - fz gxy -

~fxz)

=0
:. V fx V g is solenoidal

494

Engineering Mathematics - I

Exercise 6(b)
I. If V
=

(xlz)i - (2y3z1)j + (vz)k, find div A at the point (I, -I, I) [Ans. - 3]

2.

Ifr = xi + yj + zk, find div r If F = (3,xyz2)i + (2xy3)j - (xlyz)k, and = 3xl - yz, find (i) Div F (ii) Div (F) and (iii) Div (grad); at the point (I, -I, I)

[Ans.3]

3.

[Ans. (i) 4 (ii) I (iii) 6 ] 4. If V = (3xly - z)i + (xz 3 + y4)j - 2x3z 2k, find grad (Div V) at the point (2, -I, 0) [Ans. - 6i + 24j - 32k] 5. Evaluate: (I) Div (r2r) (2) Div (r r) (3) grad Div (r/r) (4) div (r/r3) [ Ans. (1) 5r2 (2) 4r (3) -2r/r3 (4) 0 ]
6.

Show that V

3y4z2i + 4x3z7 + 6x2y3k is solenoidal

7.

Show that the vector F = (2xl + 8xyz)i + (3~y - 3xy)j - (4yz2 + 2x3z)k is not solenoidal, but G = xyz2 F is solenoidal. If a is a constant vector and V solenoidal vector.
=

8.
9. 10. 11. 12.

a x r, where r

xi + yj + zk, show that V is a

Determine the constant 'b' such that the vector, V = (2x + 3y)i + (by - 3z)j + (6x- 12z)kis solenoidal Ifr, and r2 are vectors joining fixed points A (x"YI' z,) and B(x2'Y2' z2) to a variable point P(x, y, z) prove that r, x r2 is solenoidal. If r

= xi + yj + zk and r = Irl

show that, Div (grad rn)

= n( n+ I )rn- 2 .
2n(2n -I) I n-?n+2 ,- 2 ] r-

If g = r-2n , find div (grad g) amd find 'n' such that 'g' is solenoidal. [A ns.

7.4

Curl of a vector function

7.4.1 If A is a differential vector function, then curl A is defined as, curl A = V' x A
j

k a/az A3

If A

= Ali + Aj + A3 k , then

Curl A = a/ax AI

a/ay A2

Vector Differentiation

495

(aAJ _

0'

aA 2 )i + (aA I _ aA3)j + (aA 2 _ aA I )k az az ax ax 0'

Note: The curl of a vector is also a vector

7.4.2 Physical significance of curl


Let r = xi + yj + zk be the position vector cf a point P(x, y, z) of a rigid body rotating about a fixed axis about the origin 0 with an angular velocity ffi = ffili + ffi.j + ffi)k. Then the velocity V of the particle P is given by,

i
V

j
ffi2

k
ffi3

= ffi

x r

ffil

Curl V=

a/ax

8/ay

a/8z

i (ffi 1+ ffi I) + j

(ffi2 + ffi 2) +

k ( ffi 3 + ffi3) = 2ffi

Thus the curl of velocity vector is twice the angular velocity of rotation.

7.4.3 Irrotational Vector: A vector V whose curl is zero is said to be an irrotational vector. 7.4.4 Properties :(1) V x (A + B) = V x A + V x B (or) curl (A + B) = curl A + curl B
Proof: Let A = Ali + A.j + A)k and B

= Bli + B.j + B)k so that

496

Engineering Mathematics - I

Curl (A+B) =

ajax ajay AJ+BJ A2 +B2


j
k

ajaz A3 +B3
j
k

= ajax ajay ajaz + ajax ajay ajoz = curl A + B


(2)

If is a scalar function and A is a vector function Curl (A) = ((curl A) + (grad) (or) V x (A) = ((V x A) + (V {P) x A
x

k Proof: If A = Ali + Aj + A3k, then cj>A = cj>Ali + cj>Ai + cj> A3

j
L\ x (cj>A)

= ajax ajay ajaz


cj>AI cj>A2 cj> A 3

= i[~(q,A3)-~(cj>A2)]+ j[~(cj>AJ)-~(cj>A3)J+ k[~(cj>A2)-~(cj>AJ)] ay az az ax ax ay =

"i[.I."'ay aA3
~

+ A aq, _.I. OA2 - A aq,] 3ay "'az 2az

= .I. L( aA 3 _ aA2)i + L(A aq, _ A acji '" ay az 3ay 2az


j k cj>ajax ajay ajaz
i

-?>

j k aq,jax aq,jay acj>jaz


i

AI

A2

A3

=cj>( V x A) + (V cj x A

7.4.5 Conservative vector field:


A vector field F, which can be derived from a scalar field q, such that F = Vcj>, is called a conservative vector field and q, is called the scalar potential ofF.

Vector Differentiation

497

Solved Examples Ex.7.4.6 If A = (xy)i + (yz}j + (zx) Ii; find (a) curl A and (b) curl curl A at (1,2, -3)

Sol :

= xyi + yzj + zxk


j

k
zx

(a)

curl A = V x A =

a/ax a/ay a/az


xy yz

a a].[ a a ] +k[-(yz)--(xy) a a] = I.[-(zx)--(yz) + } -(xy)--(zx) ay


& & & &

ay

= i(O =

y) + j(O - z) + k (0 - x)

-yi - zj - xk

:. curl A at (1, 2, -3) = -2i + 3j - k (b) curl A= V x (V xA)

=V
i

(-yi-zj-xk)

j
-z

a/ax a/ay a/az


-y -x

a a].[ a a ] +k[-(-z)--(-y) a a ] = i -(-x)--(-z) + } -(-y)--(-x) [ay & fu fu fu ay


= i(O - (-I) + j(O - (-1 + k(0 - (-I
=i+j+k

:. curIAat(I,2,-3)=i+j+k
Ex.7.4.7 Show that V = xi + Ij + z3k is irrotational -

Sol:

Curl V = V x V

a 3 a 2] a a 3] a 2)--(x) a ] = I.[-(z )---(y ) + }.[-(x)--(z ) +k[-(y ay az oz


&
fu

ay

=0

:. V is irrotational

498

Engineering Mathematics - I

Ex.7.4.8 If F = (4x + 3y + az)i + (bx - y + z)j + (2x + cy + z)k is irrotational, find the constants a, b, c
i j ajay (bx- y+z)

k
ajaz (2x+cy+z)

Sol:

Curl F =

ajax (4x+3y+az)

i[~(2X+CY+Z)-~(bXy+Z)]+ j[~(4x+3y+aZ)-~(2X+CY+Z)J ay az az ax
+

k[~(bXy+Z)-~(4x+3y+az)] ax ay

= (c -

l)i + (a - 2)j + (b - 3)k

Since F is irrotational, curl F = 0


:. c - I = 0, a - 2 = 0, b - 3 = 0

i.e., a = 2, b = 3, c = 1
Ex.7.4.9 If r = xi + yj + zk, and r = Irl, find curl (rn r)
Sol :

r = xi + yj + zk, r = Irl = ~ x 2 + y2 + Z2 rn r
=

(.xl + Y + :?)n/2 (xi + yj + zk)


j

k
ajaz
1/ 1

curl (rn r) =

ajax x(x 2 + y2 + Z2Y2


III

ajay Y(X2 +

+ Z2Y2

Z(X2 +

+ Z2 )"2

n x= I.[ z."2

(? + y-?+z-?h n (2 JLY- Y."2 x + Y 2 +z 2) 2z J

n 2 + y 2 +z 2 ).2z-z."2(x n 2 + y 2 +z 2 ).2x ] + ).[ x."2(X

= i(O) + j(O) + k(O)


=0

Vector Differentiation Aliter: rn r


=

499

rn (xi + yj + zk) j k ajaz zr"

curl (rn r) =

ajax xrn

ajay yr"

= "'.[ L..,l - a

ay
_ '" .[

( zr n) - a ( yr n)] = "'.[ ar - y.nr n-I ar] L..,l, z.nr n-I az ay az

L..,l

Y - y.n.r II_I -; f/zr n-I -;

z]
I)i + j - (x + y) k, F. curl F = 0 k ajaz -x-y

= i( 0) + j( 0) + k (0) = 0
Ex. 7.4.10 Prove that, ifF

= (x + Y +
j a/ay

Sol:

Curl F =

ajax

x+ y+1
= i

[-I -0] + j[O + I] + k[O -1]

= -;

+j - k

:. F curl F = -I (x + y + 1) + 1.1 + 1(x + y)

=0

Ex. 7.4.11 P(x, y, z) is a variable point and Q(xl' YJ, zJ)' R(x2, Y2' z2) are fixed points.
If U = QP and V = RP; Prove that curl (U x V) is equal to 2(U - V). P(x, y, z), Q = (xl' Yl' zJ)' R = (x 2, Y2' z2) :. QP = (x -xJ); + (y - YJN + (z - zJ)k = U RP

Sol:

= (x -

x 2); + (y - Y2 N + (z - z2)k
j

=V

k
(Z-Zl) (Z-Z2)

UxV= (X-XI)
(x-x 2)

(Y-YI) (Y-Y2)

= ~{(y =~

YJ) (z - z2) - (z - z\) (y - Y2)} ;

{y(z\ - z2) - z(yJ - Y2) + (yJ z2 - Y2 z J)}i

500

Engineering Mathematics - I

Curl (U

V)

I[ ~{x(y, -!

- Y2)- Y{X, -X2)+{X'Y2 -x2 y,)}

{Z{X, -X2)-x{Z, -Z2)+{Z,X2 -Z2XJ}}

= L(-(XI - X2) - (xI - X2);


= L -2(x l - X2 ); = 2L(X2 - xI); = 2(U - V)
Ex. 7.4.12 If F is a conservative vector field show that curl F = 0
Sol.
F is a conservative vecor field.

:. There exists a scalar field '~' such that F = ;


:. Curl F = ajax

V'"

'I'

8$. 8$. 8$ k = ax 1 + ~ J + az

ajaz a~jax a~j~ 8$jaz

ajay

== L

i( a ~ a ~
2 2

~az

az~

== 0

Ex. 7.4.13 Show that F == (6xy + iJ)i + (3r -z)j + (3xz 2 - y)k is irrotational. Find ~ such that F == V ~
i

Sol:

Curl F =

ajax 6XY+Z3

j k aj8y ajaz 3X2 -z 3xz2-

== i (-1 + 1) + j (3z2 - 3z2) + k(6x - 6x) ==0


:. F is irrotational L tF== e
V~==

-I+-J+ax ay az

8$. 8$. a~k

:. :

== 6xy + iJ

..... (I)

Vector Differentiation

501

a~
-

Oy
a~

3x2 -z
?

..... (2)

az

= 3xz~

- y

..... (3)

Integrating equation (1) with respect to x we get


~ = 3.x2y + xz 3 + fly, z)

... :. (4)

Differentiating (4) partially w.r.t 'y'


a~

af(y,z)

ay = 3.x2 +
From (2) and (5) we have

ay

..... (5)

af(y,z)

ay

=-z

..... (6)

Integrating (6) w.r.t 'y' we get fey, z) = -yz + h(z) Hence


I

~ = 3x2 + zx 3 - yz + h(z)

..... (7)

difffrentiating (7) w.r.t 'z' we get


..... (8)

Comparing (3) and (8) we have h l(z) = 0, :. h(z) = constant, 'c' say Hence ~ Aliter:
=

3.x2y + xz 3 - yz + c
~ =6xy+z3 -

(from 7)
.... (I)

ax

a~

ay

3.x2 - z

.... (2)

..... (3)

502

Engineering Mathematics - I

Integrating the above equations respectively w.r.t x, y, and z, we get

= 3x2y + xz3 + f(y, z) ~ = 3x2y - yz + g(z, x)


~ ~=
~

xz3 - yz + h(x. y)

.... (4) .... (5) ..... (6)

should satisfy all the above three equations simultaneously

(i.e.) (4), (5) & (6)

Note:

3x2y + xz3 - yz + c, where c is a numerical constant. [Herej= -yz, g = xz3, h = 3x2y will satisfy (4), (5) & (6)
:. ~ = fir) r = fir) (xi + yj + zk)
j o/Oy
%z

Ex.6.4.14 Iff(r) is differentiable, show that f(r)r is irrotational


Sol:

Curl (f(r) r)

%x

xj{r) y j{r) zj{r


=

I{; {zj{r)}- ! {y j{r)})


I{z./{r)~ - y./{r):)
I{z./{r)~ -y./{r);) =0
x

..
Sol:

f{r)r is irrotational
V is solenoidal

Ex. 7.4.1SlfU and V are irrotational, prove that U


Let U = Uti + U2i + U is irrotational

Ui
=

V=V t i+V2i+ Vi
:. curl U
=

=> Li[OU 3

oy

OU 2 ]

oz

..... (1)

sImilarly,

..

'" .[OV 3 oV 2] = 0 Oy oz
L-l - -

..... (2)

Vector Differentiation

503

}
VxV= VI VI
V2

k
V3 =1:;(U 2V 3 -U 3 V 2)

V2

V3

..... (3)
au 3 _ au 2 au I _ au 3 . au 2 _ au I From (I) ,we have, - - - - - , - - - , - - - 0' az az ax ax 0' I an d from (2) we have - - - -I- - - - , '0' az' az ax' ax 0'
_

..... (4)

av3 _ av2 aV _ av3 . av2

aV

..... (5)

Substituting the six equations of(4) & (5) in (3), we observe that all the 12 terms of (3) will get cancelled. Hence Div (U x V) = 0
~

U x V is solenoidal Exercise - 7(c)

I. If V = (2xz2);_ (yz)j + (3xz3)k, andf= xlyz, find the following at the point (I, I, I) (a) curl V (b) curl (jV) (c) curl (curl V) [Ans. (a) ; + } (b) 5; - 3} - 4k (c) 5; + 3k] 2. If 'g' is a scalar function, show that curl (g grad g) = 0 3. Find the value of the constant 'p' for which the vector V = (pxy - z3) + (p - 2) xl} + (I - p) xz2k is irrotational. [Ans: 4] 4. Find the constants a, b, c so that the curl of the vector A = (x + 2y + az); + (bx - 3y - z)j + (4x + cy + 2z)k is identically equal to zero [Ans. 4, 2, -1] 5. If r =

xi + y) + zk, r = Irl, show that curl (;Z ) = 0 and find a scalar function of' such
r r

that 2"= -v J,.f(a) = 0 where a>

o.
[Ans :f= log

(~)]

504

Engineering Mathematics - I

6. If r = xi + yj + zk, and p, q are constant vectors, show that (I) curl [(r x p) x q] = ( p x q) and (2) curl [(p.q)r)] = o.

7.5 7.5.1

Laplacian Operator: V2
V2 =

V.V

(i~+ j~+k~) ax j~+k~).(i~+ ry az ax ry az

a2 + a2 a2 ) . . ' + - 2 IS called the Laplacian Operator ( ax 2 ay2 az


2

'V2' can be applied to both scalar and vector functions as shown below.
V~=-+-+-

ax 2 ry2 az2

a2~

a2~

a2~

where '~' is scalar function If A = Ali + Aj + A3k, is a vector function, then V2 A =


=

a2 a2 a2 ) ( ax2+ ay2 + az2 (Ali + Aj + A3k)

(V2AJ+(V2A2)j+(V2A3~
~

7.5.2 Vector Identities: we shall give below some vector identities with proofs.
\. If '' is a scalar function curl grad

= 0, (or) V x V ~ = 0

Proof: Curl grad cjI= V x

acjl acjl. acjl ) (-i+-}+-k ax ry az


j

ajax ajry ajaz acjljax acjljay acjljaz


= L>[~(acjl)-~(a~)l ay az az ry

= 0, assuming that

'~'

possesses continuous second order

partial derivatives.

Vector Differentiation

505

(2)

IfY is a vector function, Div (Curl A) = 0 (or) V.(Vx Proof: Let A = Ali + A-j + A3k CurIA=

A) = 0

, 3" .(aAaA -) ay az
~I

Div (curl A) =

" a {aA3 aA)} ~--ax ay az a~A3 a2 A2 a2 A4 a~A3 a~A~ a~AI = -----+-----+----axay axaz ayaz ayax azax azay
grad (Div A) -

=0
(3)

If A is a vector function, curl (curl A)

V2 A (or)

Proof:

curlA=

3 " aAaA, ~l.( -) ay -az

Curl (curIA)=

a/ax a/ay a/az aA3_ aA2) aA I _ aA3) aA2_ aAI) ( ay az ( az ax ( ax ay

I[~(aA2 _ aA I)_~(aAI _ aA 3)]i ay ax ay az az ax

506

Engineering Mathematics - I

-'1 2A + '1('1.A)

(4)

'1.(AxB)=B.('1xA)-A.('1xB), (A, B are vector functions) (or) Div(AxB)=B.


curl A-A. curl B. Proof: Let A = A) i + A?J + A3k and B = B) i + B?J + B3k i

j A2 B2

k A) B)

B = AI
BI

i(A2B) - A)B2)

Div (A x B) = "-(A2B) -A3B 2) LJ


= "

a ox

L:.

(A OB3 + B OA2 + A OB2 + B OA3) 2 AX 3 AX 3 AX 2

ax

..... (1)

'1xA

a/ax
AI

..... (2)

Vector Differentiation

507

Similarly, A. (V'
x

B) = L.J AI

" (BB3 0' - BB?) Bz-

..... (3)

Expanding the summations of (I), (2) & (3), we observe that, Div (A x B) = B. (V' x A) - A. (V' x B)

7.5.3 Operation of V' on product of two functions Suppose ~ and 'P, are two scalar or vector point functions. When V' is operated on
the product of ~ and \j1, the following rule is useful. V' (~'P) = V' (~o \{J) + V' (~'P 0) wherein the suffix '0' indicates that the function is not to be varied, that is, V' is not to be operated on that function. After the completion of operation of V' the suffixes are dropped. While proving the identities the following are useful. (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g) (h) a.b = b.a a x b = -b x a axa=O a.(bxc)=(axb).c a x (b x c) = (a. c)b - (a. b) c (a. c) b = a x (b x c) + (a . .b}C a. a = a2 x operation is always between vectors only

vector identities using V' operation: (i) V' .(FG) = V' . (FG o) + V' . (FoG) = V' F.G o + Fo V' .G :. div (fG) = G. grad F + F div G (ii) V' x (FG) = V' x (FG o) + V' x (FoG) V' x (FG o) = V' F x Go V' x (FoG) = (V' x G)Fo=Fo(V' xG) :. V' x (FG) = V' F x G + F( V' x G) (i.e.) curl (FG) = (grad F) x G + F curl G due to (h)

508

Engineering Mathematics - I

(iii) V'. (F x G) = V' .(F x Go) + V'. (Fo x G)


V' . (F x Go) = (V' x F) .G o
=

due to (d) due to (a) due to (b) due to (d)

Go .( V' x F)

V' . (Fox G) = - V' . (G x F0)


= -

V'

(G. F0)

=-(V' x G). Fo =-Fo(V' x G) :. V'. (F x G) = G. (V' x F) -F. (V' x G)

due to (a)

Thus div (F x G) = G. curl F - F. curl G (iv) V' x (F x G) = V' x (F x Go) + V' x (Fo x G)
V' x (F

x Go) = (V' . Go) F -

(V' . F) Go

due to (e) due to (a) due to (e) due to (a)

= (Go V') F - Go (V' . F) V' x(FoxG)=(V'.G)Fo-(V'Fo)G = Fo (V' . 0) - (F o V') G :. V' x (F x G) = (G . V') F - G( V' .F) + F (V' .G) - (F. V' ) G

Thus curl (F x G) = (G. V' ) F - (F. V' ) G + F (V' .G) - G (V' .F)
"I-

(v) V' (F . G) = V' (Fo . G) + V' (F .G o) {


V'(Fo.G)=Fox(V' xG)+(Fo. V')G V' (F . Go)
=

due to (t) due to (t)

V' (Go. F)

Go x (V' x F) + (Go. V') F

:. V' (F . G) = F x (V' x G) + G x (V' x F) + (F . V') G + (G . V') F

Thus grad (F . G) = F x curl G + G x curl F + (F . V') G + (G . V') F (vi) curl (grad F) = V' x (V' F) = (V' x V') F = 0 (vii) div (curl F) = V' .( V' x F) = V' x (V' . F)
= ( V' x V' ). F = 0

due to (c) due to (d) due to (c)

(viii) curl (curl F) = V' x (V' x F)


= (V' . F) V' - (V' . V' ) F
= =

due to (e) (since V'. must not appear at the end)

V' ( V' . F) - V' 2 F

grad (div F) - V' 2 F

Vector Differentiation

509

Solved examples

Ex.7.5.4 If/= x 21z2, find V 2/ at (1,2, 1)


Sol:
V

Y
=

--J +--+-J-

ox- 0/

oz-

21z2 + 6x2yz2 + 2x2 1

:. at (1, 2, 1),

v2j= 16+ 12+ 16=44.


=

Ex.7.5.5 Show that, if r


Sol:

xi + yj + zk, r =

\rI, then

V 2r ll = n(n + 1) rll

~ = (x2 + Y + z2)n12, (:r = ~x2 + y2

+Z2 )

... (1)
02 (r n) = n ( n- 2)y 2 r n-4 + nr n-2 Similarly 2

, oy

... (2)

a ( n) ( 2)z-r J n-4 and 2 I! =n n+nr n- 2


oz

... (3)

3n,.n-2 + n(n-2) ~-4 (x 2 +y + z2)

adding (I), (2) & (3)

= 3n~-2 + l1(n - 2) r"-2

(": x 2 +

y + z2 = r2)

= n(n +

1) ~-2

510

Engineering Mathematics - I

Aliter:

ar 11-1 .x -a (r") =nr 11-1 .-=nr ax ax r


=

n,.rr2 . x
ll

~~II)= n(r 2
az

2.1 + x.{n _ 2)r"-3. ar) ax

~ n(,"-' + (n-2}r"-'. x:)


=

nr"-2 + n(n-2) r"--4. xl

... (I) ... (2)

a2 (r") =nr 11-2 +n (n- 2)r n-4 .y 2 Similarly -

, ay

and

n2 n4 ~ 2 ~n ) = nr - + n{n - 2 )r - .Z2 az

... (3)

Adding (I), (2) & (3) we get,

=> V2rn = 3nr"- 2 + n{n - 2)r n- 4.r2 = ,.rr2[3n + n2 - 2n] = n(n + I) r"-2
Note: Ifn =-1, we have

vt~ )= 0, which means that (.; ) satisfies the Laplace's equation

Ex.7.S.6 If V .U =0,

v .v =0, v xU=-at' v xV = at' show that Uand V satisfy


a2u
=

av

au

the wave equation V 2U Sol:

at 2 at

vx(vxU)= v x (_av) = -a{vxv)

at

= at

2 -a(au)_ -a u

at - ----ai2

... (1 )

Vector Differentiation

511

But

V x (V x U) = V (V .U) - V 2U

= - V 2U
from ()) & (2), Similarly; Vx (Vx and

(": V U

= 0)

... (2)

i'iu

a,2 = V2 U , which shows that U satisties the wave equation. au a at at


-a~v

v)= Vx- =-(Vx u)=-2

at

... (3)

vx(vxY)=V(V.Y)-V 2 Y=-V 1 Y(": V.Y=O) ... (4)

(3) and (4)

=> Y satisfies the wave equation.

Ex.7.5.7 If V.Y = 0, show that V x[V x {V x (V x V)}] = V 4y (or)


curl [curl {curl (curl Y)} ] = V 4y

Sol:

We know that V x (V x Y) = V (V .Y) - V 2y = - V 2y (": V.Y = 0)


= -

[from 7.5.2 (3)]

U (say)

Then the given expression = - V x( V x U) = V 2U - V CV .U) = V 2( V 2y) - V (V . U) = V 4y - V (V . U) V . U = V .( V 2y)


=

[from 7.5.2 (3)]

(": V 2y = U)

{~) ~}{V2V}

I {i ~ }.(V2(~i + V2i + V k))


3

V2(a~ + aV2 + aV3)

ax

0'

az

V2(DivV)= V2(0) =

(": Div Y

= V . Y = 0)

Hence the problem

512

Engineering Mathematics - 1

Exercise 7(d)
(I)

(2) (3)
Show that V-

ry( v. r" r) =-;-:t 2 ry () = ~ry d"<j> 2 df +-drr dr


1

(4)

Show that V-<j> r

show also that, if V-<j> = 0, then <j> = C] + -- where CI' C 2 are constants

~'ry

(5)

If r =

xi + )1 + zk,

prove that, curl

(k x grad

I -) + grad

(k.

I grad -) = 0

7.6 7.6.1
(I)

VECTOR INTEGRATION Ordinary integration of vectors


If A(u) = A](u)i + A2(u}j + Aiu)k be a vector function of a scalar variable 'u' (A,(u), Aiu), A 3(u) assumed to be continuous in any given interval), the indefinite integral of A(u) is given by.

fA(u)du = i fAl(ll)du+} fA" (u)du +k fA3(1l)du


(2)
If there exists a vector B(u) such that A(u) =

du

(B(u)), we can write

fA(U )du = f:U (B(ll ))dll = B(u) + c


(3) where c is a constant of integration independent of u. The definite integral of A(u) between the limits 'a' and 'b' in the above, is written as,
h b

fA(u)du = f- (B(u))du = B(u)+cl du a a a


7.6.2 Line Integrals:

= B(b) - B(a)

Let A(x,y,z) be a continuous vector function defined in the entire region of space. Let c be any curve in the region. Divide c into n intervals by taking points A = Bo, BI' B2 ... Bn(= B). Let Pi be any point in the interval B i_, Bi
0" ' .;.;.

Vector Differentiation

513

A= 8 0

Let ro' rJ ...... rn be the position vectors of points Bo' B)' B2 ...... Bn respectively. Let us consider the sum,

The limit of this sum as n ~ 00 and

1&,:1 ~ 0

is defined as the line integral of A

along the curve c and is denoted symbolically by

f A.dr or

f A.-dt; dt
fA.dr

dr

which is a scalar.

If c is a closed curve, the integral is written as

Cartesian form of line integral: If A=AJi+A-j+Ai dr = (dx)i + ({Mi + (dz)k,

f A .dr = fA1dx + A2 dy + A3 dz
c

Note:

f<l>dr, and fAX dr are also examples of line integrals.

7.6.3
(1)

Physical appliations:
Work done by a force (I) If A represents a force and dr is an element of the path of the particle along a curve c, then the line integral
{J

fA .dr

(P, Q are 2 points on c)

J'

represents the work done by force A in moving the particle from P to Q.

514

Engineering Mathematics - I

(2)

flow or circulation:
(2) If A is the electric field strength, the line integral given above i.e., JA.dr, is called the flow of A along c. If c is a closed curve it is often referred to as circulation of A around c.
{J

In general, the line integral JA.dr, will depend on the path from P to Q
/'

7.6.4 T"eorem: Prove that the necessary and sufficient condition for the integral fA.dr,
c

to be independent of the path c joining any two points is that A is a conservative vector field, (or) there exists a scalar field I/> such that A = VI/> (or) curl A = 0, [i.e., the work done by the force A in moving the particle from one point to another is independent of the path if A = VI/>]

Proof Let P = (x I ,y I ,Z I)' Q = (x2'Y2,z2) be any two given points on the curve c. Let A = VI/>
where I/> is single-valued and has continuous derivatives.
(J

(1)

Work done

JA.dr
(dxi+dyj+dzk)

I'

Q
p

fVI/>.dr=

G~ i-+j-+k01/> 01/> 01/ p ox ry oz

Qol/> 01/> 01/> (J J-dx+-dy+-dz= fdl/> = I/>(Q)-I/>(p) /' ox ry oz I' = ~(x2'Y2,z2) -1/>(xI'Yl'zl)
i.e., the integral depends upon the two points only but not on the path joining them. (This is true only if I/> is single-valued at all points P and Q). (2) The integral is independent of the path. Then,
(x,y,z) (x,y,z)

I/>(x,y,z)

f A.dr =
(Xl ,YI ,Zl)

f
(Xl ,)'1 ,zl )

dr A. ds ds

Differentiation with respect to's' gives

dl/> =A. dr ds ds

...... (I)

Vector Differentiation

515

But

d<j> =V<j>dr ds ds dr s dr ds

...... (2)

(I) - (2) => (A - V<j. -d = 0, which is true irrespective of-

:. A= V<j>

Solved Examples
4

Ex. 7.6.5:
Sol:

F(t) = (3t 2-t)j + (2-6t}j 2

4tk, find

(a) JF{t}dt

(b) JF{t}dt
2

(a) JF{t}dI=; J{3/

-/~t+ j J{2-61}dI-k J41dl

~ (I' - I~} +(21-31'); -2t'k+c


(b) fF{t}dt
2

=(/3 -~lj + (21 -3t 2)j - 2t 2 k + cj = 50; - 32j - 24k


2
2
x/2

Ex.7.6.6 Evaluate: n{3sin e)i + {2cose)j}ie


o

Sol:

Given integral
xl2
x/2

xl2

ri/2

=; J(3sine}de+ j J{2cose}de=-3cosel;
0 0 0

+2sinejJ o
~

=3;+ 2j

Ex.7.6.7 The acceleration a ofa particle at any time 't'


a

0 is given by,

= e-tj - 6(t + 1}j + (3sint)k

Find the velocity V and displacement r at any time 't' given that V = 0 when t = 0 and r = 0 when t = O.

Sol:

a = e-t ;

6(t + l}j + (3sint)k =

d 2r
-2

dt

:. V

~ : ~ Jadl ~ - e-t i - 6(1~ +I


= 0 when t = 0

lj -

(3cost)k + C,

..... (1 )

(C 1 is constant of integration) But V

:.-i-3k+C 1 =0=> C 1 =;+3k


Substituting in (I), we get Velocity V

= (I - e-t)i - (3t2 + 6t}j + (3 - 3cost)k

516

Engineering Mathematics - I

Integrating, r
=

(I + e-t)i - (t3 + 3t2)j + (3t - 3sint)k + C 2

..... (2)

(e 2 being constant of integration)

But r

= 0 when t = O.
=

:. (2) => + i + C 2

0 :. C 2 =

From (2), r = (t - 1 + e-t)i - (t3 + 3t2)j + (3t - 3sint)k

Ex.7.6.8 Show that

fFx--=Fx-+c dt dt
2

d2F

dF

Sol:

We know that

~(FxdF)=FX~(dF)+dFxdF
dt dt dt dt dl dl

Hence the result. Ex.7.6.9 If A = 2ti + 3t7 - (4t + 1)k, and B = ti + 2j + t 2k, find
2

(i)

Sol:

f(A x B}dt . o (i) A.B = (2t)t + (3t2) (2) - t2 (4t + 1) = 2t2 + 6t2 - 4t3 - t2 = 7t2 - 4t3
(ii)
o

f(A.B}dt

i
(ii) A x B = 21 t
=

3/ 2

(3t4 + 8t +2)i + (--4t2 - t - 2t3)j + (4t - 3t3 )k

-1--j-4k 5 3

196.

62.

Vector Differentiation

517

Ex.7.6.10 If F(2) = ; + 2j - 2k and F(3) = 6; - 2j + 3k,


3

dF du

evaluate IF.-du
2

Sol:

From vector differentiation,

d dF dF (dF) We get, -(F.F)=F.-+-.F=2 F.- so that du du du du '

F. dF 'du

=~~(F.F)=~~IFI2
2 du 2 du

But F(2) = ; + 2j - 2k ~

IFI2 = I + 4 + 4 = 9, when u = 2
= 36 + 4 + 9 = 49, when u = 3

and F(3) = 6; +2j - 3k ~ IFI2

3 dF I . IF.-du=-[49-9] =20 ., 2 du 2

Ex. 7.6.11 If F = (.xl

- 2y); - 6yzj + 8xz2k, evaluate IF.dr


c

from the point (0,0,0) to the

point (I, I, I) along the following paths


(1) x

= t, Y = t2 , z = t3 .

(2) the straight line from (0,0,0) to (I ,0,0), then to (1, I ,0) and then to (1,1, I) and (3) the straight line joining (0,0,0) to (1, I, I).

Sol.

(1) x = t;

Y = t 2; dy = 2t dt;

z = t 3, .

dx = dt;

dz = 3t2 dt,

when t = 0, the point is (0,0,0), when t = 1, the point is (1,1, I)

IF.dr= I(x 2 -2y}tx-6yzdy+8xz 2 dz


c c
/;1 1

J~2 -2t 2 }it -6.t 2 .t 3(2t}dt + 8t~3 J{3t 2 }it

J-t dt -12t dt + 24t dt


o

/;0

518
6 2 \, 24t lO 12t 7 (3 I -12t -t p t = - - - - - - ! 10 7 30

Engineering Mathematics - I

Irf
o

J~24t

Aliter:

12 12 1 252-180-35 37 = 5 7 3 105 105 2 2 2 3 Along C, F = (t - 2t )j - 6. t t j + 8.t.t6 k = - t 2 j - 6tJ + 8t7k dr = (dx)i + (dy}j + (dz)k = dt i + (2t dt}j + (3t2 dt)k
-----=
I

JF.dr
c

9 6 2 J(- t -12t + 24t ~t

(Taking dot product of F and dr)

1=0

37 (2) 105 Let 0 = (0,0,0), P = (1,0,0), Q = (I, 1,0), R = (I, 1,1 ). Then along OP, y = 0, z = 0, dy = 0, dz = 0 and x varies from 0 to 1.
2 :. JF.dr= J(x -2.0}tx-6(OXOXO)+8x(0)2(0)= Jx dx= 2
~ x~

.... (I)

Along PQ, x = I, z = 0, dx = 0, dz = 0 and y varies from 0 to 1.


I

:.

JF.dr=
I'Q

J(12-2y~-6y(0)dy+8.1.(0)2(0)= Jo=O

.... (2)

y=O

Along QR, x = I, Y = 1, dx = 0, dy = 0 and z varies from 0 to I.


2 :. JF.dr= J(12-2.IXO)-6.1.z(0)+8.1.z2.dz= J8z dz=%
QR z=O 0
I I

.... (3)

Adding (I), (2), (3), fF.dr

=~ + 0 +! = 3
3 3

(3)

The equation of the straight line joining (0,0,0) to (1,1, I) is

~ = = t (say),

so that x = t,y = t, z = t, dx = dy = dz = dt 't' takes values from 0 to I.


.. JF.dr = n~2 2t)- 611 + 8tJ }it = J(8t c o o
2
I I

2 5t - 21

'Vt

Vector Differentiation

519

Ex. 7.6.12 Find the total work done by a force F = 2xyi - 4zj + 5xk along the curve x = t2, Y = 2t + 1, z = t3, from the points t = 1 to t = 2. Sol: x = t2 , dx = 2t dt; y = 2t + 1, dy = 2dt; z = t\ dz = 3t2 dt
Total work done = fF.dr
c

= f(2xyi-4zj + 5xk}.{(dx}i + (dy}j + (dz}k} = f2xydx-4zdy+ 5xdz


c
2 2

= fl2J 2(21 + I}J2Idl _{4./ 3 )2dt + {5/2 )3/2 dl = f{8/ 4 + 4/ 3 -81 3 + 15/ 4)dl
'~I

1 5

23 713 638 23/ 4 -4/ } 11= [1 23--/4 ]2 = - (32-1)-(16-1)= - - 1 5 = f{ 5 5 5 5


3

Ex.7.6.13 If c is the curve y = 3x2 in the xy - plane and F = (x + 2y)i - xyj,


evaluate fF.dr, from the point (0,0) to (I ,3). S'ol: Since c is a curve in xy - plane, we take r = xi + yj, so that F.dr= {(x+2y)i-xyj}. {(dx)i+(dy}j} =(x+2y)dx-xydy. 1st Method: By taking the curve in parametric coordinates as, x = t, Y = 3t2, dx = dt, dy = 6t dt, so that t varies from
(0,0) & (1,3): We have
(1,3) 1

to 1 to get the points

fF.dr =
(0,0)

fv + 6t 2) dt -/{3t 2) (6tdt) = fv + 6t 2 -181 4)dt


0

'~O

= -+---1 = -+2--=---=-2 5 2 5
2nd Method:
1

t2 2

6/ 3 3

18t 5 1 5 0

18

18

11

>: =3x2, dy = 6x dx and x varies from

10

to 1.

.. fF.dr
c

f(x + 6x 2}Ix - x.3x 2.6x.dx

~( 2 , 11 = Jx+6x -18x 4 \ px =-o 10

520

Engineering Mathematics - I

Ex. 7.S.14 Find the work done by the force F in moving a particle once around the circle
'C' in xy - plane, ifthe centre of the circle is origin and radius is '2' and
F = (x +y + z)i + (2x + y}j + (2x - y +z)k. Sol:

xy - plane is z = 0,
:. F = (x + y)i + (2x +y}j + (2x - y)k and r = xi +yj
F. dr = (x
~

dr = (dr)i + (dy}j
y

+ y)dx + (2x + y)dy.


2sinS dS, dy = 2cosS dS

The equation of the circle is x = 2cosS, Y = 2sinS :. dx =


-

S varies from 0 to 2n Work done = fF.dr

2lt J(2COSS + 2sin sX- 2sinS)de + (2.2cosS + 2sin SX2cosS)dS o 2lt 2lt 2 2 2 2 J{- 2sin2S -4sin S + Scos S + 2sin 2S}ie = J{scos S - 4sin S ~S o 0

-~

2lt 2lt = n4(1 + cos2S)- 2(1- cos2S)}iS = J(2 + cos2S)dS = [2S + 3sin 2S~lt o 0 = 4n Ex.7.S.1S Show that the necessary and sufficient condition for a vector field V to be conservative is curl V = 0 Sol: a) Necessary condition: If V is conservative, :3 a 'cp' 3 V = V cpo curl V= curl (V cp) = 0 (see 7.5.2 (1)) b) Sufficient condition: Let V = V I i + V'li + V 3k
i j

Curl V = V x V

8/ Ox 8/ By 8/ 8z = 0

I(8V 8V )i = 0 By 8z
3 _ 2

.... (1)

Vector Differentiation

521

The work done by the force field V in moving a particle from (x\,y\,z\) to (x,y,z) is IV.dr
c

= Iv; (x,y,z)dx + V2 (x,y,z)ay + V3 (x,y,z)dz


c

where V is a path joining (x\,y\,z\) to (x,y,z) Let us choose a particular path consisting straight line segments from (x\,y\,z\) to (x,y\,z\) to (x,y,z\) to (x,y,z) and denote the work done along this path by a scalar function ~(x,y,z);
x
y

:.

~(x,y,z) = IV;(X'Yl,ZI)dx+ IV2 (x,y,zJly+ IV3 (x,y,z)dz


XI Yl

..... (2)

From (2), it can be seen that,

8cI>

8z = Vix,y,z)

.... (3)

.z

= V2 (X,y,ZI)+ V2(X,y,Z~

= V2(X,y,ZI)- V2 (x,y,z)- V2(X,y,ZI)


.... (4)

from
y

(1)

= V\(x,y\,z\) + V;(X,y,ZI~ = V \(x,y,z)

+ V;(x,y,z~

Yl

Zl

= V \(x,y\,z\) + V \(x,y,z\) -

V \(x,y\,z\) + V \(x,y,z) - V \(x,y\,z\)

.... (5)

(3),(4),(5) => :i+ : j + : k=V;(x,y,z)i+V2 (x,y,Z)j+V3 (x,y,z)k=V

=> V = V~ Hence the proof.

522

Engineering Mathematics - I

Ex. 7.6.16a) Show that F = yi + (2xy +z2)j +2yzk is a conservative force field.
b) Find its scalar potential. c) Find the work done in moving an object in this field from (1,2,1) to (3, 1,4)
j

Sol:

a) V x F= Max

a/fJy 2xy+Z2

a/az

2yz

= i(2z - 2z) + j(O - 0) + k(2y -2y) = 0


:. F is a conservative force field. b) Let 'cjl' be the scalar potential of F.
1st method:

:. acjl ax = y2
cjl =

.... (1) :=2Xy +z .... (2)

acjl_2 z az - y .... (3)

Integrating (1) w.r.t x, (2) w.r.t. y, & (3) w.r.t. z, respectively, we get,

xY + j(y,z),
=

cjl =

xY +yz2 + g(z,x), and


=

cjl

yz2 + h(x,y).

These equations will be consistent iff, g, h are taken as

j(y,z)
Hence cjl

yz2,

g(z,x) = 0, h(x,y)

xy.

= xy + yz2 + constant
c

2nd Method: Since F is conservative, JF.dr is independent of path joining


(Xl,yl,zl) to (x,y,z)

using method of problem 7.6.15(b),


x

cjl =

J&12}ix + J(2Xy + z/ }ry + J2yzdz = xy~ ( +(xy 2 + Z12 y) r+yz2 f


YI zl Xl
.Y]

XI

zl

= xYI - XlYI + xy +z 12y - ry I - ZI 2y I + yz2 - yz I 2 = xy2 + yr - x1yl2 - Zl2Yl = xy2 + yz2 + constant.
3rt/ Method: Since F. dr = Vcjl.dr = acjl dx + acjl dy + acjl dz =dcjl ,

ax

fJy

az

Vector Differentiation
d~ == cY)dx + (2xy + z2)dy + (2yz)dz == cYdx + 2xydy) + (z 2dy +2yz)dz

523

== d(xy) +d(yz2) == d(xy2 + yz2)

=>

~ == xy + yz2 +constant
1'2=(3,1,4)

(0,1)8

c) work done ==

f F.dr ==
c

fd~
IHI,2,1)

(3,1,4)

==

~(P2) - ~(PI) = xy + xz2

(1,2,1)

'=:-:::----i----"'I\( 1,0)

=(3.1 2 +3.4 2)-(1j2+ 1.1 2)=51-5=46.

Ex. 7.6.17 Evaluate f(x 3dy + y 2dx) where c is the boundary of the triangle whose vertices
c

are (0,0), (1,0), (0, I).


Sol:

Let I ==

f(x 3dy + y2 dx)


c

== II +12 +1 3, where II ==

f, 12 == f, 1 f
3=
OA AH

(i)

Along OA, y == 0, => dy ==


. 11 ==

HO

Jx 3 0 + 02 dx

== 0

(ii)

AlongAB, o
I

x+y=1 ,y=l-x=> dy=-dx,xvaries from

I toO.

:.1 2 = fx 3 {-dx)+{I-x)2 dx

= J(x 2_x 3 +1_2X)dx=_x


o

(iii)

Along BO,

==> dx = :. 13 =fo.dy+ i.o =


1

_~o =0_(_~_~)= __ 1
4
I

12

:. 1

= II + 12 + 13 = - 12

Ex.7.6.18: If 1= xy2z2 ,evaluate fldr where the curve 'c' is given by

x = (, Y = (2,

=(3

from t

to I .

524

Engineering Mathematics - I

Sol:

f=xy2 Z2 =/(/2y .(/3 dr=dx i+dyj+dz k

Y=1

11

2 2 dr =(dt)i + (2tdl )j + (3/ dl )k =(i + 2tj + 3/ k )dl


1

Jfdr
c

Jill

(i + 2tj + 3/ 2k )dl
13

=i

Jill + dl+ j J2/


0

12

dl+ k J3/ 13 dl
0

1=0

./12 I 2/ 1 3/ 14 I 1. 2. 3 =1- J+l-J+k- J=-I+-l+- k 12 0 13 0 14 0 12 13 14 Ex. 7.6.18: If A = 3zi - 2xj + yk , and c is the curve given by
x = cos I, Y = sin 1 , Z = 2cos I,
evaluate
c

JA x dr from I =0to I = 2
i j k A x dr = 3z - 2x y dx dy dz

1t .

Sol:

= (-2x dz- y dY)i+(y dx-3z dZ)j +(3z dy+2x dx)k


x

= cos I, Y =sin I, z = 2 cos I ~ dx = (-sin/)dl,dy = (cos I) dl, dz = (-2sin/)dl


~

:. (1)

Ax dr = i[(-2cos/)(-2sin/) - sinl . cost]dt +j[(sin/)(-sint) - 3(2cost)


sin2/)] dl + k(6cos2/- 2sint cost) d/.

(-2sin/)]dl + k[3(2cos/)( cost) + (2cos/)(-sin/)]d/.

=i(3sint cost) dt + j[(12 sinl COS/) -

1C/23 ft/2[ 1 Axdr=i J-sin2Idt+ j 6sin2t--(1-cos2/) dl .. c o 2 0 2

+ k ~3(1 + cos2/)-sin 2/}it


o

1C12

.3 (_COS2/)1C12.[ 1 sin 21 Jft/2 [ 3. COS2/]ft/2 = 1+ J -3cos2/--+-+k 3/+-sI02/+--

220

24

20

= {

3 -4 )(-1-1)+ j[-3(-1-1)- : + 0]+k[3;

+O+~(-l- ])]

= %;+(6-

:}+e;

-1)k

Vector Differentiation

525

Exercise - 7(e)
4

I)

IfU(t)=(2t2 -I)i+3tj+(2-t)k. Find (a)

JU(t)dt,(b) Ju(t)dt
2

3 2 t2 2/ \06 [Ans:(a) ( ~-I i+ 3t j + ( 2t2 k,(b) 3i+18j-2k]


11/2

12

2) Evaluate: J(6sillu)i -(3cosu)j +uk o [Ans: 6i-3j+-k] 8


2 2

1t

3) If A(s) = si - s2j + (s + l)k, B(s)

2si + 6sk find (a) JA.Bds, (b) JA x Bds .


o
0

[Ans: (a) 4) If A = ti - j + 2tk, B = t2 ;


1

3' (b) -

100

48i - 12j + 16k]

tj +2k, C = ; - 2j + 2k, evaluate


1

(a) J{A.(BxC)}dt,(b) J{Ax(BxC)}dt o 0

5. 37. 8 k +-} +- ] 2 6 3 5) The acceleration of a particle a at any time t ~ 0 is given by a = eli + (2cos2t)j + (2sin2t)k If the velocity V and displacement r are both zero at t = 0, find V and r at
[Ans' (a) -- (b)

I 3'

--I

any time t. [Ans: V = (el


-

I)i + (sin2t)j + (1 - cos2t)k,

r
3

=(i -t-I)+~(l-COS2t)j +(t -~Sin2t}]

6) Evaluate

fA. dA
du

du, given that, A(2) = 4i - 2j + 3k and A(3) = 2i + j + 2k [Ans: - 10]

526

Engineering Mathematics - I

Exercise 7(f)
I. If ~

= xyz, valuate I~dr, where c is the curve x = t3, y = t2, z = t, from t = 0 to I


c

[Ans: 2. If F

I I. I k i +4J+ J 7 1

= xi - yzj + z2k,
C

and c is the curve given by x

= t, Y = t3, z = t 2, evaluate

(i) IF.dl" and (ii) fF.dr, from t = 0 to t


e

= I.
.) [A ns: ( I 5. 7. 1\ k .. -71-I5J +1"2 ,(II) 23] 24

3. If A = (2x + 3)i + xyj + (zx - y)k, evaluate fF.dr along c where c is (a) the curve x

= t3,y = 2t2, z = t from t = 0 to I.

(b) The straight lines from (0,0,0) to (1,0,0), then to (1,0, I) and then to (1,2, I) (c) The straight Iinejoining (0,0,0) and (I ,2, I). 491 13 14 [Ans: (a) 105' (b) (c)

2'

"3]

4. If A = (3xy - 2r)i + (x - y)j, evaluate


by y

fA.dr along the curve c in xy - plane given


c

= x 3 from the point (0,0) to (2,8).


[Ans:

3.5]

1308

5. IfF = (2x- y)i + (x- 2y)j, evaluate fA.dl" where c is the closed curve shown in the
c

figure below.
y

Vector Differentiation

527

6. If A = (3x + 2y)i + (x + y)j, and c is the boundary of the tringle whose vertices are (0,0), (1,0), (0, I), evaluate fA.dr.
c

[Ans:

2" J

7. If A = (2x + y)i + (3x - 2y)j, compute the circulation of A about the circle C: xl + 4, traversed in the positive direction. [Ans: 81t] 8. Find the work done in moving a particle in the force field. F = 2x2i + (2yz - x)j + yk, along (a) the straight line from (0,0,0) to (3, I ,2) (b) the space curve x = 3t2, Y = t, z = 3t2 - t from t = 0 to t = I

1=

[Ans: (a)

6' (b) 3]

113

58

9. (a) Prove that V = (2x siny - 3)i + (x 2 cosy + z2)j + 2(yz + I)k is a conservative force field. (b) Find the scalar potential ofY. (c) Find the work done in moving an object in this field from (1,0,-1) to (2,
1t 2" ,I). 1t

[Ans: (b) x 2 siny + yz2 - 3x + 2z + constant, (c) 10. If A

2"

+ 5]

= (9xly -

2xz3 )i + 3x3j - 3x2z2k, (a) prove that fA.dr is independent of the


c

curve 'c' joining two given points. (b) show that there is a differentiable function <jl such that A = \l<jl and find it.

7.7 7.7.1

SURFACE INTEGRALS
Let S be a two-sided surface. Let one side be taken as the positive side. If S is a closed surface, the outer side is considered as the positive side. Let A be a vector function. Consider an element of area 'ds' in the surface. Let n be the unit normal vector to ds in the positive direction. It can be seen that A.n = A cose. (where '8' is the angle between A alld n and A = IAI) is the normal component of A. Let ds be a vector whose magnitude is ds and whose direction is that ofn. :. ds
=

n ds.

528

Engineering Mathematics - I

Then the integral,

ffA.ds = ffA.Il .ds


s

..... (1)

is an example of a surface integral which is also called as flux of A over s. If'f' is a scalar function,

ff4>ds

..... (2)

..... (3)

ffAx ds = ffA x nds

..... (4)

Note

are some other examples of surface integrals. (1) The surface integrals can also be defined in terms oflimits of sums. (see 7.7.2) (2) The notation surface s. (3) Sometimes the notation

If is also used to denote a surface integral over the closed


f may also be used for surface integrals.

(4) Surface integrals can be conveniently evaluated by expressing them as double integrals over the projected area of s on one of the coordinate planes {see 7.7.3)

Vector Differentiation
/

529

7.7.2 Definition of surface integral as the limit of a sum:

.,J------...... y

The area S is divided into 'L' elements of area Mill' m = 1,2, .... L, let
P'II =

(xm'YIII,zm) be any point in

&\)111.

Let A(xm,Ym,zl/.)= AHI

Let nlll be the positive unit normal to I'1S111 at Pm. Then (Am.nm) is the normal component of Am at Pm. Consider the sum,

/,

Am.nIllMm

..... (I)

1/1=1

The limit of the sum (l)as L ~oo such thatthe largestdimens~on of each I'1S", ~ 0 (if the limit exists) is known as the surface integral of the normal component of A over S an d denote d by ,

IIA.n.d'}

7.7.3 Evaluation of a surface integral


To evaluate surface integrals, it is convenient to express them as double integrals taken over the projected area of the surface S on one of the coordinate planes (xy,yz, or zx planes). If R is the projection of S on the xy - plane, it can be shown that

ffA.nds
,

, = ffA.n d\XdY
/I

n.k

From 7.7.2, the surface integral is the limit ofdle sum

/,

Am .nmMIII

..... (1)

111=1

530

Engineering Mathematics - I

;---~----~~~--.Y

The projection of ASmon thexy- plane is

Inm A.S'II/.kl (or) Illm.kIMi'm

which is equal

:. The sum (I) becomes

By the fundamental theorem of integral calculus the limit of this sum as L such a manner that the largest Llx m and AYm approach zero is

~ 00

in

IfA.n In.kl
R

dxdy
which is the required result.

Note: Similarly ifR is the projection ofS on yz and zx planes respectively, it can be seen as

ff A .nds = ffA.n dl'Y~ZI


R
nJ

and

ffA.nds = ffA.n dz~xl


S R

ln.]

7.7.4 Physical interprettion of surface integrals:


Let A denote the velocity of a moving fluid. Let S be a fixed surface in the fluid. Let ds be an element of surface. Then A.n ds = A.dS represents the amount offluid that passes normally through dS in unit time at any point. If the direction ofn is outward or positive, the amount offluid flow is positive. Similarly if dS' is another element for which n is in the negative direction, the fluid flow is negative at that point.

Vector Differentiation

531

to fA.nds and it is known as the total flux of A through the entire surface S.

s A can be a vector denoting physical quantities such as electric force, magnetic


A

n....---...---~C"

force, flux of heat or gravitational force etc. In all these cases, total flux of A through S.

fA.nds

denotes

Sioved Examples Ex.7.7.5 Evaluate

fJA.nd\" where A = {x + y2} - 2xj + 2yzk and S is the surface of the


z

Sol:

plane 2x + y + 2z = 6 in the first octant. A = (x + y)i - 2.>.] + 2yzk Let ~ = 2x + Y + 2z - 6


V ~ = 8q>i + aqy + 8q>k = 2i + j + 2k

ax

az

V~

2i+j+2k

Unit normal n to S = IV~I

= ~22 + 12 + 22
2i+ j + 2k 3

532

Engineering Mathematics - I

= .![2x+ 2y2 - 2x + 2y(6 - 2x - y)]


3
[Substituting 2z = 6 - 2x - y ( ... 2x + y + 2z = 6)]

= .!(12y-4xy)
3
If R be the projection of S on the xy - plane. - = -dxdy In.kl = -3 => ds = l/l.kl 2 2

dxdy

.. IfA.nds = If(A.n) dXdY /I /I ln.k I If .!(12y - 4);y )~dxdy /I 3 2


=

If(6 y - 2Xy}dXlry
/I

..... (I)

To evaluate this double integral over R, (i) Keep x fixed and integrate w.r.t. y from y w.r.t. x from x = 0 to x = 3. :. Given integral
3 6-2x

0 to (6 - 2x), ii) and then integrate

J J(6y-2xy)1ydx
J(3 -xX6- 2xY dx =
2 3 J(J08-108x+36x -4x }Ix

x=O y=O

3 3 3

TI3i _xy2 r:~x dx =

= [\08x-54x2+12x3-x4]~ =324-486+324-81 =81


Ex.7.7.6 If F = 4xzi -

yJ + yzk, evaluate
O~

IfF.nds where S is the surface of the cube


s

bounded by x =

x = I, Y = 0, Y = 1, z = 0 and z = 1.

Vector Differentiation

533
z

Sol.

The surface S can be divided into 6 faces (see figu --,

(i) S\: Face EPFA


(ii) S2: Face OBOC (iii) S3: Face PFBO
E f---+----(

(iv) S4: Face OCEA (v) Ss: Face POCE

x
(vi) S6: Face OBFA

IfF.nd5 = IfF.nds + IfF.nds + IfF.nds + IfF.nds + IfF.nds + IfF.nd.,. S ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ % On S \: n = i x = 1


1

IfF.nds =
SI

JJ(4Zi - y2 j + yzk }idydz JJ4zdydz


=
0 0 0

J2Z21~
0

J2dY = 2
0

On S2: n =

i, x
1

=
1

0
1 1

HF.n.d.,. =
On S3: n = j, y

JJ(- y2 j + yzk X- i)dydz JJ(O}lydz


=
0

= 0

o
1

o
1 1

=I
1

HF.n.ds=J J(4xzi-j+ zk).jdxdz =


.'13

J J(-I)1xdz= J-zi
0 0
1

dx= J-Idx=-l
0

OnS 4 :n=-j,y=O
1

:. HF.n.ds

J J(4xzi).(- j)dxdz J J(O)1ydz


=
0

= 0

On Ss: n = k, z = 1
1 1 1

:. HF.n.ds=J J(4Xi-/j+yk}kdxdy=
8S

J Jydxdy= J~ I
0 0 0

21

On S6: n = - k,

Z
1

=0
1

HF.n.ds
.'16

J J{- y2 j }(- k )dxdy =


0

. JJF.n.ds =2 + 0 - 1 + 0 + ~ + 0 = ~ .. 2 2

534

Engineering Mathematics - I

Ex.7.7.7 If A = z 2i + xlj - yZk, and S is the surface ofthe cylinder xl + Y = 16 included


in the first octant between z = 0 and z = - 5, evaluate jfA.n.ds s z

Sol:

f
S R

d~- ~~'
,. 5 R Q 4

r=-----'JL..-- y

,....

- ' z=Q

'<.

x
Project s on xz plane and let the projection be R. (See figure)

HA.n.ds = HA.n dx,d~,


n.)

..... (I)

The norma I to x 2 +

Y = 16 is

V(X2y2 )=~(X2 + y2) +~(X2 + y2)j

ax

ay

= 2xi+ 2yj
. Ul1Itnormaln=
A.n

~(2xY+(2yy = 2JX2+y2
Z

2xi + 2yj

2(xi + yj)

xi + yj =-4-

(.: xl + Y

16)

= ------'--

2X+X 2 y 4

.
n.J= :. From (I)

"4
=

J
S

JA.nds

J
R

V2X+X2y dxdz 4 y/4

[.: J
= 4z + 64zf = 820
3 3
0

x dx=4, o ~16 _x 2

Vector Differentiation

535

Ex.7.7.8 Evaluate

I I<I>nd~
s

where S is the surface of problem 7.7.7 above and

<I> =

x~z

Sol:

We have

If s

<l>nds =

1 If<l>nI
II

dxdz
n.)

xi+ yj using n = - 4 - ' n.j

"4' the integral on R.H.S. becomes,

80

-l+-}

64 Z. 3

64Z. 3 Z2 2

f
0

-.- -1+-)

I 64(z2. 83 2

.]1

=-.--;;-1+) =-1+.1

8 25(. 3 ~

.)

100(. 3

.)

Ex.7.7.9 If A = yi -+ (x - 2xz)j - xyk, evaluate


the sphere x2 +.0 + z2
=

I I{curIA).nd~
s

where S is the surface of

4 above the xy plane


Z

Sol:

I--~-+--Y

j
CurlA=

k
a/az

a/ax
y

a/fJy

x-2xz

-xy

536

Engineering Mathematics - I

= i{~(-xy)-~(x-2xz)} + j{~(y)-~(-xy)} +k{~(x-2xz)-~(y)}


~

&

&

fu

fu

= xi + yj - 2zk
The normal to the surface is V (xl + .0 + z2) = 2xi + 2yj +2zk

2xi + 2yj + 2zk Unit normal n = I ,,(2x)2 + (2y)2(2z)2 xi+ yj+zk 2


x 2y2 _2z2

(Curl A). n =

The projection of S on xy plane is the circle xl

+.0 = 4, Z = 0 (see figure)

.. f.f(curl A.n}ds = f [(CUr! A.n) I:'~f


=

fpX2 +i
/I

- 2Z2 ) dxdy
2
z 12

( 2 ) 3 x + y2 - 8dxd I 2 2 OJ x=-2Y=_~4_x2 ,,4-x y 2

f f

4x

Changing into polar coordinates by taking x = r cose, y = r sine, dx dy =r dr de, the integral becomes

de= f(8-8}ie=o
8=0

Vector Differentiation

537

Ex.7.7.10 Evaluate J JA.nds where A = yzi + zx} + xyk and S is the part of the sphere s x 2 + y2 + z2 = 9 which lies in the first octant.

Sol:

Untt normal n to S =

IV x

V x 2 + y2 + Z2
2

+ y +z-

'

2xi+2y}+2zk

xi+ y}+zk 3
nk= -3 .

~4X2 + 4y2 + 4Z2


A.n
=

(.: x2 +y2 +z2 =


z

9)

3xyz;

If R is the projection of S on xy - plane, we have,

Jsf A.nds

f fA.n d1xdY /I n.k I

= f f 3xyz dxdy /I z/3

=9 f fxy dxdy
II

The region R is bounded by x-axis, y-axis and the circle x 2 + y2 = 9; z = 0 chang,iog to polar coordinates, the last integral becomes
",/2 3 rr/23

9 J

f(rcos9Xrsin9)rdrd9=9 J[Jr 3 cos9sin9dr}19


0 0

8;0 r;O

1[/2(

4)3 811[/2 f ~ 1 cos9sin9d9=9.- fcos9sined9 o


4
0

': !cos9Sin9d9=2"

1[/2

I)

Exercise - 7(g)

I. If F = 18zi - 12x} + 3yk, evaluate J f F.nds where S is that part of the plane s 2x + 3y + 6z = 12 which is located in the first octant (Hint: Take projection ofS on the xy plane and ds =

dxdy -1-1 ) n.k


[Ans: 24]

538

Engineering Mathematics - I

2. Evaluate f f V.nd~ , where V = yi + 2xj - zk and s is the surface of the plane s

2x + Y = 6 in the first octant cut off by the plane z = 4


[Ans: 108] 3. If r = xi + yj + zk find the value of the integral f fr.nds over
s
x

a) the surface S of the unit cube bounded by the coordinate planes and the planes = y = z = I and b) the surface of the sphere of radius 'a' with centre at the origin [Ans: a) 3, b) 41ta3]

4. Evaluate f fF.d~ over the entire surface ~fthe region above the xy plane bounded s by the cone :l-

= x2 + Y and the plane z = 4, if F = 4xzi + xyzj + 3zk

5. IfS is the surface of the parabolic cylinder

y = 8x in the first octant bounded by the

[Ans: 3201t]

planes y = 4 and z = 6, evaluate f fF.nds, where F = 2yi - zj + x 2k s [Hint: f f F .nds = f fF.n


S R

dIY~IZ , where R is the projection ofS on the yz plane]


nJ

[Ans: 132] 6. Evaluate f fV.nds over the entire surface S of region bounded by the cylinder
S

x2 + :l- = 9, x = 0, y = 0, z = 0 and y = 8 if V = 6zi + (2x + y}j -

xk
[Ans: I81t]

7. Evaluate f f A .nds where A = zi + xj - 3yzk and S is the surface of the cylinder s

x2 + Y = 16 included in the first octant between z = 0 and z = 5


8. If V

= yzi + zxj + xyk and S is that part of the sphere x2 + Y +:l- =

[Ans: 90] 1 which lies in

the first octant, find the value of f fV.nds . s [Ans:

"8]

Vector Differentiation

539

9. Evaluate

JJ{(x
s

yz2)i _(2x2y)j + 2k}.ds over a cube with edges of length 'r'

parallel to the coordinate axes [Ans:

2"]

10. If V = xi + yj + zk, and S is the 'triangle with vertices at (1,0,0), (0, 1,0) and (0,0, I), find the value of I IV.ds . s [Ans:

2"]

II. If A = xi - yj + (z2 - I )k, find the value of I IA.nds, where S is the closed surface s bounded by the planes z = 0, z = I and the cylinder x 2 +

y=I
[Ans: 1t]

7.8 7.8.1

VOLUME INTEGRALS
Consider a closed surface in space enclosing a volume V. Then, integrals of the form I I IAdv and I I I~dv, [A is a vector function, f is a scalar function] are

"

examples of volume integrals.

7.8.2 Expression of volume integral as the limit of a sum: Let A be a continuous vector function. Let S be a surface enclosing the region D. Divide this region D into a finite number of subregions D, ... ,= 1,2, ..... n.
Let L1v, be the volume of the subregion D, enclusing any point whose position vector is rio Consider the sum
II

V =

LA~JL1v,
,;1

The limit of this sum as n ~oo such that L1V, ~ 0, is called the volume integral of A over D and denoted by I I I Adv
J)

If A = A I (x,y,z)i + Aix,y,z}j + A 3(x,y,z)k,

540
so that dv = dx dy dz

Engineering Mathematics - I

f f fAdv = iff fA,(x,y,z}lxdydz + j f f f A2(X,y,z}!xaydz +


D D D

k f f f A3(X,y,z}lxdydz
f)

Solved Examples

Ex.7.8.3 If F

(2x 2 - 3z)i - 2xyj - 4xk, evaluate f f fV.Fdv where V

IS the closed

region bounded by the planes x = 0, y = 0, z = 0 and 2x +2y + z = 4.

Sol:

VF

~(2X2 -3z)-~(2xy)-~(4x)=4x-2x=2x
ax

ry

az

2 2-x4-2x-2y 2 2-x 4-2x-2y .. f f fV.Fdv= f f f 2xdzdydx= f f [ f 2xdz ]dydx v x=Oy=o z=O x=o y=o z=O 2 2-A 4-2x-2y 2 2-x 2 2-x 2 2xz 2x(4-2x-2y}!ytlx= f f l dydx = f f f[ f(8x-4x -4xy)t(y]dx A=O y=O Z=O x=O y=O x=O y=O
2 2-x = f8xy-4x2y-2xy2fdx x=O y=O

f[8x(2 - x)- 4x 2(2 - x)- 2x(2 - X)2}1x x=O


=16--+8=-

64 3

8 3

Ex.7.8.4 Evaluate

ff j(V.A}tv over the region bounded by x + Y = 4, z = 0 and z = 3,


2

where A = 4xi - 2yj + z2k.

Sol:

a(4x ) --(2y a 2 a 2 )=4-4y+2z V.A=)+-(z ax ry az x=2 y=J4-x 2 3 .. fff(v.A}!v= fff(4-4y+2z}lv= f [J(4-4y+2z)dzf/ytlx v v x=-2 y=-v4-x~ 12 z=O

Vector Differentiation
)'~f4-x2

541

dydx==

J[

JC 2l - 12 y)dy]dx
y=-Y4-r;--- ?

x~-2

x r.-? x 2 n ==84[--v4-x 2 +2sin- ' C-)] ==84[O+2C-)-O]==84n 220 2

Ex.7.8.5 Evaluate

JJJ<I0v taken over the rectangular parallelopiped 0 s:; x < a, 0 s:; y < b,
J'

os:; z < c
Sol:

and ~ == 2{x + Y + z)
y + z)

fJfv ~ ff f2{x+ Y+ z}Jv ~ ,U[}{x +


== J2exy+ cy2 +e 2YI
x=O
2 2 a
b

}YdY

dx == JC2bex+eb2 +e b)dx==bex2 +(b e+be 2)xl


2 2

x=o

== a be + (J(b e + be 2) == abe {a +b + e) Ex. 7.8.6 If ~ == 4y + 2xz, evaluate


x2

JJJ~dv over the region in the first octant bounded by


J'

+1 = 9, z = 0, z = 2.

Sol:

JJJ~dv== JvJJ{4y+2xz}lv
I'

J.=3y=J9-x 2 z=2

J J
y=o

~2 ? 2 [J(2xz+4y}lz]dydx== JC4yz+xz )f dydx


3

x=O
3

==0

J[

~x2

~2

J(8y + 4xX/y]dx
0

JC4y2 +4xy)1
0 0

dx

o
3

= J[4(9-x2)+4x~9-x2]dx==108
o

542

Engineering Mathematics - I

Ex.7.8.7 Evaluate f f fFdv where F = xzi - 2xj + 2y.k and V is the region bounded by
v

the surfaces x

= 0, y = 0, y = 6, z =.x2, and z = 4

Sol:
z

s
\:

y=

.Q...~
z=x
2

z=4

\
x

I ,
'\

~y

=6
y

L _________ J//

-i

<

The region V is covered by (see the figure) (a) keeping x andy fixed and integrating from z = .x2 to z = 4 (base top of column PQ) (b) then by keeping x fixed and integrating from y = 0 to y = 6 (R to S in the slab) and (c) finally integrating from x = to x = 2 (where z =.x2 meets z = 4).

:. The required integral is


2 6 4

f f[

f(xzi-2xj+2y 2k)dz}1ydx

x=Oy=O z=x2

264

264

264

=i

f f[
26

fxzdz]dydx+j

f f[
26

f- 2xdz ]dydx+k

f f[

f2y dz}1ydx
2

x=O y=O z=x2

x=O y=O z=x2

x=O y=O z=x 2

24
J

4
J

26

4
J

= i f f x;
x=O y=O

dydx+ j f f- 2xz
x=O y=O

dydx+k f f2 y 2 z
x=O y=O

dydx

z=x2

z=x2

z=x2

Vector Differentiation

543

26

=i

J[ J(8X-~)dy}lx+j J[ J(2x
x=o y=O

26

26
3

-8x)dy]dx+k

J[ J(8i- 2x2 y)dy]dx


6

x=() y=O

~=o y~o

x=o

X5 J8xy-~ I dx+ j J2x'y-8xyl 2


6

)'~()

2 8 y3 2X2 3 dx+k J-'--_Y)'~O 3 3 x=() 6

Ix

y=O

=i

J( 48x - 3x
o

)dx + j J(l2x 3 - 48x)dx + k J(576 - 144x2 )dx


0 0

1 = i(24x 2 -:;- x 6 )
~

+ j(3X4 - 24x2) I + k(576x - 48x 3 ) I


~=O

x=o

x=o

= 64i -

4~i

+ 768k

Ex.7.8.8 Find the volume of the region common to the intersecting cylinders x 2 +
and x 2 +z2
=

r =b

b2 .
z

Sol:
x +z ::: b
2 2 2

/ I
",

/'"

I-

II

_''x +y ::: b

~o
x

V
y

Required volume is equal to 8 times the volume of the region shown in the figure (as the axes cut the volume into 8 equal parts one in each octant)

544

Engineering Mathematics - I

Exercise - 7(h)
1. Evaluate

Iff( 2x + y) dv where V is the closed region bounded by the cylinder


I ADS: - I
80 3

z = 4 - x 2 and the planes x = 0, y = 2 and z = 0 .


2.

If A = (2X2 - 3z)i - 2xyj - 4xk , and V is the closed region bounded by the planes

x=O,y=O,z=Oand 2x + 2y + z = 4,findthevalueof

Iff( curlA )dv


[ADS:

1u

-k) )

3.

Evaluate planes

Ifff dv where f

= 45x 2 y and v is the closed region bounded by the

[ADS: 128) 4x+2y+z = 8,x = O,y = 0 apd z = 0 4. If A = 2xzi - xj + y2 k and v is the region bounded by the surfaces x = O,y = O,y= 6,

z= x
5.

and z = 4, find the value of

Iff Adv
over the

ADS: 128i-24j+384k
rectangular parallelepiped,

Evaluate

ffI(Div A)dv
0~y
~

taken

o~ x ~ 1,
6. Evaluate

2,
[ADS:3 6 1

o~ z ~ 3 , where A = (X2 - yz) i + (i - zx) j + ( Z2 - xY) k


parallel to the coordinate axes where F

Iff(Div F)dv for the volume of a cube with edges of length unity
= (x 3 yz2 ) i - ( 2X2Y ) j + 2k
[ADS: 1/3)

Vector Differentiation

545

7.9

CURVILINEAR COORDINATES

7.9.0 The students are already familiar with the coordinate systems such as i) cartesian
ii) Polar and iii) parametric. A study of yet another coordinate system called "curvilinear coordinate system" will be now taken up.

7.9.1

Transformation of coordinates
Suppose the rectangular coordinates (x,y,z) of any point be expressed as functions of variables vI' v2' v3 as
...... ( I)

Let the above system of equations (i) be solved for vi' v2' v3 and another system of equations
..... (2)

Ifthe functions in (I) and (2) are assumed to be single valued and to have continuous derivatives, the correspondence between the variablesx,y, z and vI' v 2' v3 is unique. Thus, to a given point P with cartesian coordinates (x,y,z), we can associate from (2) a unIque set of coordinates (vl'v 2,v3 ) which are called curvilinear coordinates. The systems of equations (I) and (2) give the "transformation of coordinates".

7.9.2 Orthogonal Curvilinear coordinates


z
V3

curve

>-----------~-------------y

........

"

The surfaces vI = ci' v2 = c 2 ' v3 'coordinate surfaces'. (see figure).

= c 3. (cl'c2,

c 3 beIng constants) are called

Each pair of the above surfaces intersect in curves called 'coordinate curves or lines'. i.e., vI = c I and v 2 = c2 intersect in v3 curve, v 2 = c2' v3 = c 3' vI = c I in v 2 curve.

546

Engineering Mathematics - I

If the coordinate surfaces taken in pairs intersect at right angles the coordinate system is called 'an orthogonal curvilinear coordinate system'.

Note: The coordinate surfaces described above are similiarto the coordinate planes of the rectangular system and the coordinate curves are similar to the coordinate axes. Infact, the rectangular coordinate system is also an example of curvilinear system with VI = x, v2 = y, v3 = z; c I = c2 = c 3 = 0 7.9.3 Unit vectors of a curvilinear system
Consider the position vector r = xi + yj + zk, of a point P. using (I), it can be written as r = r(v l ,v2,v3)
(i)

A tangent vector to the VI curve at P(for which v2' v3 are constants) is


. ar/av ar av,

~. If e l is

av,

the Ul1lt tangent vector we have e I

I I'

lilly if

av aV3
2

ar , ar are tangent vectors to the v2 and v3 curves at P respectively and e2,

e3 are unit vectors in these directions,

we can write , av = A2 e2 ,
2

ar

av3 = A3e3

ar

where The unit vectors e I' e2 , e3 are in the directions of increasing v\' v2' v3 respectively. The quantities A\, A , A3 are called 'scale factors'. 2 (ii)

'Vv, ' is a vector at P normal to the surface


direction,

VI

= c 1. If EI is a unit vector in this

lilly the unit vectors, E2 = IVv


v2

VV 2
2

1'

E3 =

IVv: I at P are respectively normal the surfaces

Vv

c 2'

and

v3

= cy

Vector Differentiation

547

V3

curve

Thus, in general, at a given point P there exist two sets of unit vectors,
(i) el' e2, e 3 tangential to the coordinate curves and

(ii) E], E2, E3 are normal to the coordinate surfaces (see figure)

7.9.4 Representations of a vector


(a) A vector A can be represented in terms of the unit base vectors e], e2 , e3 or EI' E2, E3 in the following forms: (i) A (or)
= ale]

+ a 2e2 +a3e3

(ii) A = A]E] + A2E2 + A3E3'

Here a\, a2 , a3 or AI' A 2, A3 are the components of A in the two systems respectively (b) The vectors - , - , - and Vv" Vv J , Vv3 , are called

8r

8r

8r

av, av2 av3

'Unitary base vectors (need not be unit vectors in general). We can also represent A in one of the following forms; as

Here CI' c2' c3 are called the 'contravariant components of A and CI' C 2, C 3 are called the 'Covariant components of A

548

Engineering Mathematics - I

7.9.5 Arc length, area (surface) and volume elements


(i) Let r

= r(vl'v2,v3)

:. dr=

~dvJ +
8v J

ar dV 2 + ar dV3 =AJ(dvJe J+A 2 (dv 2 )e2 +A 3(dv 3)e3 ..... (3) aV2 aV3

Since ds 2 = dr. dr, the differential ds of arc length is given by,

ds 2 = AI2dvl2 +A}dv} +A/dv/ for an orthogonal coordinate system (.,' e l .e2 = e2e3 = e3.e l = 0) (ii) Let dvl' dv 2, be vectors specifying arc-elements along VI and v2 curves
respectively at point P. i.e., dV I = dr along VI curve and dV 2 = dr along v2 curve. Since v2 ' v3 are constants along VI curve and vI' v3 are constants along v2 curve, we have, from (3),

..... (4)
The area of the parallelogram formed with the vectors of( 4) as adjacent sides is the area element or surface element 'ds 3 ' on the surface v3 = c3 (see fig) and it is given by

ds 3 = Idv i
Oily ds I
dS 2
=

dv21 = IAIA2dvldv2e31 = AIA2dv ldv2

V2

curve

A2A3dv2dv3

= A3Aldv3dvi

are surface elements on surfaces VI = c i and v2 = c2 respectively. (iii) The volume element 'dv' for an orthogonal curvilinear coordinate system is equal to the volume of the parallelopiped whose coterminous edges are dv I' dv 2 , dv 3 i.e., Aldvle l, ~dv2e2' A3dv3e3 (see figure) :. dv

= I(Aldv1e(). (A2dv 2e2) x (A3dv3e3~ = AIA2A3 dv(dv2dv3 le(.e 2 x e31 = A(A2A3


dv 1dv2dv3 (.,' le 1.e2 x e31'; 1)

Vector Differentiation

549

7.9.6 EXPRESSIONS FOR GRADIENT, DIVERGENCE AND CURL IN AN ORTHOGONAL CURVILINEAR COORDINATE SYSTEM: 7.9.6(1) Gradient of a scalar function
c7v [ Ia~
~
I

~:

Prove that V'~ (i.e. grad~) =

el +~ c7v e2 +~ c7v e3
2 2 3 3

I~

I~

Proof: Let V'~

= gle l

+ g2e2

+g3e3' where gl' g2' g3 are to be determined

dr= -dvI +-dv2 +-dv3

ar

ar

ar

c7v1

c7v 2

c7v3

(A1el)dv 1 + (A 2e2)dv2 + (A 3e3)dv3


V'~.dr,

d~

d~ = A1g1dv 1 + A2g 2dv2

A3~3dv3

..... (A)
..... (8)

Again,

d~ = ~ dVI + ~

av

av

dv 2 +

av

~
3

d,V3

Note: The above expression indicates that V'

= [ ~a;
I I

el

+ ~ c7v + ~ c7v
2 2 3

e2

e3

~
3

7.9.6(2)

Ifvl' v2' v3 are orthogon~1 coordinates, prove that (a) lV'vII = A,I,(I= 1,2,3)

(b) e l = E1(I= 1,2,3) We know that, (from 7.9.6 (I))

V~=~ a~ +!2~ +~ a~
Al c7v1 A2 c7v2 A3 c7v3

550

Engineering Mathematics - I

Hence

lilly

e I e ~-] =~ I VV3 = -:;: = I V I= -:;:


n

v 2

-] 1\,2,

1\,3 ,

which proves (a)

(by definition, see 7.9.3(ii))

/= 1,2,3.

[from (a)]

y,
7.9.S. (3) Prove that, in orthogonal curvilinear coordinates,
V.(A,eJ=
1 A]A2A3 Ov]

a (A,AzA3) and hence show that,

1- (e xe ) = e, VV 2 xVV3 = 2 3 A2 A3 AzA3
A2A3 (VV2 X Vv 3) lilly e2 = A3A, (VV3 x Vv,) and e3 = A,A 2(Vv,
=

..... (C)

e]

VV 2

r
..... (D)

V.(A]e,)= VAA 2 A3 (Vv 2 x Vv 3)


=

V(A,A 2A3}(Vv2 x Vv 3)+ A,A zA3 {V.(Vvz x Vv 3 )}

V(A,A2A3).~ + A'A2A3{V.~} A2 A3 A2 A3

(Using (C)) Now,

Vector Differentiation (Writing the expression for V )


=

551

_I ~(_I_)+O+O
AI Ovl A2 A3

=0

AIA2A3 Ovl

a (AIA2 A3) a (A2A3AI)

..... (E)

(Operating V)

lilly, we get,
and

V.A 2 e2 ==

..... (F)

AIA2 A3 Ov2

..... (G)

Hence, if A == AIel + A2e2 + A3e3,

Div A = V.(Ale l + A2e2 + A3e3)


=

V.(Ale l )+ V.(A 2e2 )+ V.(AJ e3)

7.9.6 (4)

Prove that in orthogonal curvilinear coordinates,

Vx(AleJ==~~(AIAJ-~~(AIAI) and hence,


A3 AI Ov3 AIA2 Ov2

552

Engineering Mathematics - I

e .: VVI = -.L, we have,.

AI

V x (Ale l )= V x (A,A,Vv,) =V(A,AI)xVv, +(A,A,)(VxVv,)


(from 7.5.2 (i) curl grad
=

vI

0)

z [!l~(AIAI)+ e ~(AIAJ+!2.~(AIAJlx!l AI oV A Ov 1..,3 oV AI


I

(substituting for V)

..... (i)

lilly, it can be shown that


V x (A 2 e2)= ~~(A2AJ--e'-~(A2AJ 1..,11..,2 Ov l AzA3 OV3

..... (ii)

and

el - -0 ( ) ez 0 ( ) Vx (A3e3 ) = - A3A3 - - - - - A3A3 1..,21..,3 Ov z 1..,31..,1 Ov l


:. curl A = V x A = V x (Aiel + A2 e2 + A3e3)
= Vx

..... (iii)

(Ale,)+ V(A 2e2)+ V(A 3 e3)

1 _e_ A2 A3

{~(A3A3)-~(A2AJ1+~{~(A'AJ-~(A3A3)1
oV2 Ov3

1..,31..,1

Ov3

Ovl

(Adding R.H.S. of (i), (ii) and (iii))

Ale,
1..,11..,21..,3

A2e2

A3e3

--olov, olOv2 olOv3


A,/\',
"I

A2A2

A3 A3

Vector Differentiation

553

Ex. 7.9.6. (5) Derive an expression for V2~ in orthogonal curvilinear coordinates.
Sol:
(from 7.9.6(1

A=_I~
I

AI Ov I '
= V.V~ =

.. V2~

V.A

Note: In the expressions for V ,

grad~, Div A, curl A, and V2~ derived in 7.9.6(1) to

7.9.6(5), if we put vI = X, v 2 = y, v3 = z; AI =A2 = A3 = I, and e l = i, e2 = j, e3 = k; we obtain the corresponding expressions in (rectangular) Cartesian coordinate system. [The reader is advised to verify]

7.9.7 Spherical Polar coordinates (Spherical Coordinates) 7.9.7(1}


If we take vI = r, v2 = e, v3 =~, the curvilinear coordinate system becomes a "spherical polar coordinate system".
z

554

Engineering Mathematics - I

The equations of transformation are,

x = r sin ecos~,} y = rsinesin~

..... (i)

z =rcose
where r
~

0, O:s ~ < 2n, and O:s e:s n .

7.9.7(2)
(i)

Coordinate surfaces and coordinate curves.


The coordinate surfaces (level surfaces) in a spherical coordinate system are r = c] which are spheres with centre at.origin [or origin itself if c] e
= =

0]

c2 which are cones with verex at origin (lines if c2 = 0 or nand xy-plane if c2 = n12)

= c3 which are planes through the z-axis = c2 and ~ = c3 is the r--curve and it is a line
~

(ii)

The coordinates curves are: (a) Intersection ofe

(b) Intersection of r = c] and

= c3 is the e--curve. It is semi circle if c]


=

:j:.

(c) Intersection of r ",,-c] and e

c2 is the

~urve.

It is a circle (or point).

7.9.7(3)

Scale factors:
r

= xi + yj +zk
=

(rsinecos~)i + (rsinesin~)j + (rcose)k

~ = Or = (sinecos~)i + (sinesin~)j + (cose)k


Ovl
Or
A = ] 8r
=1

18rl=~(sinecos~)2+(sinesin~?+(cose?
=(rcosecos~)i+(rcosesin~)j-(rsine)k

8r = 8r Ov2 as

=r

Vector Differentiation

555

Ov 3

or = -or = (-rsm . 0 Sill", . .t.). . 0 cos", .t.) }. 1+ (rSIl1


0<1>

A =
3

lorl=~(-"sinOsin<l2 + (rsinOcos<l2 0<1>


=

r sinO

: .. The scale factors of spherical coordinate system are

A( = I,

A2 = r,

A3

r sinO.

7.9.7(4) Base vectors: The base vectors e (' e 2, e 3 are taken for the sake of convenience as er , eo' etjl respectively. They are,

e
r

e
(

_I ~=_I or = (sin Ocos<li + (sin Osin<lj + (cosO)k

AI Ov l

AI

or

eo = e2 =_1
=

AI GO

or = ~[(rcosOcos<li + (rcosOsin<lj -(rsinO)k]


r

(cosOcos<li+(cosOsin<jj-(sinO)k

and

eel> =e3 =_1 or

A3 0<1>

=-~-(-rsinOsin<li+(rsinOcos<lj
rsmO

= (- sin <Ii + (cos <I>

)j

From the above expressions, it can be observed that

e,..e s = es.eq. = er.eq. = 0


and

er xes =eq.; efJ xeq. =e,.; eq. xe r =eo;

[students are advised to verify the above equations] which show that "the spherical polar coordinate system is a right-handed orthogonal coordinate system".

7.9.7(5) Arc length, Area element, and volume element in spherical coordinates: A( = I, A2 = r, A3 = r sinO
I

.) dS 2 = 11.1 ~ 2d 2 ~2d 2 ~ 2d 2 VI + 11.2 V2 + 11.3 V3

(from 7.9.5(1))

= 12(dr)2 +r2(dO)2 + (rsinO)2(d<l>f


gives the arc length 'ds'.

556

Engineering Mathematics - I

and ds r , ds s ' dStjl are the area elements on the respective surfaces r

= cl'

= c2'
=

and

cj>

= c3.

iii) From 7.9.5(3),

dv

1..)1..21..3 dv)dv2dv3

= I.r.{rsin e)dr.d9.dcj>
i.e., dv = r2 sin edr.d9.dcj> is the volume element.

7.9.8 Cylindrical polar coordinates (cylindrical coordinates) 7.9.8(1)


In this case, we take,

Then the curvilinear coordinate system becomes a 'cylindrical coordinate system'.

The equations of trans,formation are x=pcose, y=psine, z=z. where

7.9.8(2)

Scale factors:
r

= xi + yj +zk
= (pcose)i + (psin e)j + zk

Vector Differentiation

557

-8r = -8r = (cos 8) I.+ (. sm 8) } av l 8p


8r I= -J cos 8 2 + sm AI = 8p 82 = I

8r 8r . ) i+ (pcos8 ) j == (-psm8 8v2 as

A2

=1:1=~(-psin8)2 + (pcos8)2 =p
A1 = I8r I= 1 8z

8r = 8r = k; 8v) 8z

:. scale factors are I, p, 1. 7.9.8(3) Coordinate surfaces and coordinate curves:


(i) The coordinate surfaces (level surfaces) in a cylindrical coordinate system are.

p = cl' which are cylinders coaxal with z-axis (or z-axis itself if c 1 = 0) 8 = c2' which are planes through z-axis and z = c3' which are planes (ii) Coordinate curves are: (a) Intersection of 8 = c2 and z = c3 is the p-curve which is a straight line.
(b) Intersection of p
~r

to z-axis

= c 1 and z = c3 is the 8-curve which is a circle (or Point)

(c) Intersection of p = c 1 and 8 = c2 is the z-curve which is a straight line. 7.9.8(4) Base vectors: (ep,eo,e z )
ep = _I 8r = (cos 8 )i + (sin 8)j

AI 8p

eo =_1 8r

1<.2

as

=~[(-psine)i+(pcose)j]
p
=

(-sin8)i+(cose))

558

Engineering Mathematics - I

1 8r e =--=k ~ A3 8z '

which shows that cylindrical coordinate system is a righthanded orthogonal coordinate system.

7.9.8(5) Arc length,Area element and volume element in cylindrical coordinate system:
(i)
=

12 (dpy + p2(de)2 + 12 (dzY


(dpy + p2(d8)2 + (dZ)2

gives arc length ods'.

ds p' ds s' ds z represent the area elements on the surfaces p respectively. (iii) Volume element 'dv':

c l ' 8 = c2 ' and z = c 3

l.p.dp.dedz = pdp.de.dz.

7.9.9: EXPRESSIONS FOR GRADIENT, DIVERGENCE, CURL, LAPLACIAN AND JACOBIAN IN SPHERICAL AND CYLINDRICAL COORDINATES: 7.9.9(1)
Gradient of a scalar function 'f Grad f= V j=---e l + - - e2 +---e3

18/

18/

18/

AI

av

A2

av

A3

av

(from 7.9.6(1))

Vector Differentiation

559

a) spherical coordinates:
Al = 1,
el
=C r

A2 = r,

A3 = rsin 0

=(sin8cos~)i+(sin8sin~)j+(cos8)k

e2 = Co = (cos8cos~)i + (cos8sin ~)j ~(sin 8)k

e, =e<l> =(~sin~)i+(cos~)j

v f= of e +! Wc or r as
r

+_I_ofe
0

rsine

as

<I>

b) cylindrical coordinates:

Al = 1,

A2 = p,

A) = 1

el =ep =(cose)i+(sine)j
e2

=eo =(~sine)i+(cose)j

7.9.9(2) Divergence of a vector function

If A = AIel + A2e2 + A3 e3, the expression for Div A is given by


Div A= 1

AIA2 A3 8v1

[~(AIA2A3)+~(A2A3AI)+~(A3AIA2)l(from 7.9.6(3 8v 8v
2 3

(a) In spherical coordinates

:. Div A =

r sll1e or

1.

[~~2 sin eA )+ ~(rsineA2)+ ~(rA3)l as o~ J


I

(b) In cylindrical coordinates


Al =1, :. Div A A2 =p,A 3 =1,
= VI

=p,v 2 =e,

V3

=Z

p op

1[0 0 0 J -(pAI)+-(A2)+-(pAJ
as

oz

560

Engineering Mathematics - I

7.9.9(3) Laplacian

(V 2 ): Let f be a scalar function. Then the expression for

V2 j

curvilinear coordinates is given by

[from 7.9.6(5)]

a)

In spherical coordinates:

Ai =1,

1.,2 =r,

1.,3 =rsiIl9,

Vi

=r,

v2 =9, v)<l>

V2j =

1 [ -a ( r2 . a ) +a (. OJ ) +a ( -1- aj sm9sm9- )] r2 sin 9 ar ar 09 09 a<l> sin 9 O<J>

= -- +- - +- - 2 2 + - - - + ---::---:----

a2j ar2

aj 1 a2j r ar r2 ae

cot 9 aj

r2 ae r2

1 sin 9

a2 f a<j>2

(after ditferntiation and simplification) b)

In cylindrical coordinates:

Al = I,

1.,2

= p,

1.,3

= 1,

VI

= p,

V2

= 9,

V3

=Z

..

V2j

![~(p Of)+~(! Of)+~(p Of)] pap op OOpOO OZ GZ


a2f ap2
1 af p ap 1 a2 j p2 09

= --+--+--2+ - 2
(after differentiation and simplification)

a2f az

7.9.9(4)

Curl of a vector function A.

If A = Aiel + A2 e2 + A3 e3 '

(from 7.9.6(4

a) In spherical coordinates:

Ai =1,

1.,2 =r,

A)

=r~';n9,

VI

=r,

v 2 =9,

v) =<j>

Vector Differentiation

561

..

curl A = r2 sin 8

er rea {rsin8}eq, ajar ajae aj~ AI rA2 (r sin 8 )A3

b) In cylindrical coordinates:

AI =1,

A2 = p,

A3 = 1, VI =P,

v2 = 8,

V3 = Z

7.9.9(5)

Jacobian:

(i) Orthogonal curvilinear coordinates: Let x = x{V"V 2 ,V3); Y = Y{V"V 2 ,V3); Z = z{V"V 2 ,V3) represent an orthogonal curvilinear coordinate system

Jacobian =

J(

axjavl ayjav l azjavl x,y,z ) = axjav2 ayjav2 azjav2 v" v2 ' V3 axjav3 ayjav3 azjav3

since

xi +yj + zk

[Scalar Triple Product]

562

Engineering Mathematics - I
(ii) Spherical coordinates:

x=rsinOcos<\>
y=rsinOsin<\>

z = rcosO, are the equations of transformation of spherical coordinate system.

. =.,(x,y,z) Jacobian -r,O,<\> ax/ar ay/ar az/iJr ax/a8 ay/ao az/80 ax/a<\> ay/a<\> az/a<\>
sin Ocos<\> rcosOcos<\> -rsinOsin<\> sinOsin<\> rcosOsin <\> rsinOcos<\> cosO - rsin 0

= r2 sinO
(iii) Cylindrical coordinates:

(or) [J = AIA2A3 = I.r.r sinO =

r2 sinO]

x = pcosO,y = psin 0, z = z, are the equations of transformation.

Jacobian =

ax/ap ay/ap az/ap J[x,y,z) = ax/88 ay/88 az/88 p,O,z . ax/az ay/az az/az
eosO -psinO sinO peosO

0 0
=

o
[(or) J
=

0
AIA2A3
=

Lp.l

p]

The summary of important results of this chapter is given in a table in the next page for the convenience of the student.

Cartesian Coordinates (x, y, z)


1)

Spherical Coordinates (r, 0, )


x

Cylindrical Coordinates (p ,0, z)

Equations of transformation of coordinates Scale factors Base vectors

x=x y=y

z=z
AI = 1,
i, j, k

=r sinO coS y =r sinO sin z = r cosO

x =pcosO y =psinO z=z

2)
3)

A2= I,A. 3= 1
e,= (sinO coS)i + (sinO sin)j + (cosO)k ep = (cosO)i + (sinO)j ee= (cosO coS)i + (cosO sin)j-(sinO)k ee= HinO)i + (cosO)j
e~=

(-sin)i + (coS)j

ez=k

4)

Jacobian (J)

8(x, y, z) a(x,y, z)

8(x, y, z) _ 2 Ll a(r. 0, ) - r smu

5) (Arc Length)2
6) Area elements
on the coordinate surfaces

(ds)2 ds,

=(dx)2 + (dy)2 + (dz)2

(dS)2

=(dr)2 + r2(d~)2 + r1 sin 2O(d)2


dsp =pdO d~

=dy dz ds 2 =dz dx
ds 3 dv

ds , = r2 sinO dO d ds e= r si nO d dr dSIj>= r dr dO dv = r1 sinO dr dO d

=dx dy

ds Q=d'" -, dp ds z pdpdO

7) Volume
element (dv,\

=dx dy dz

dv

= pdpdOdz

Cartesian Coordinates
(x, y, z)

Spherical Coordinates (r, 0, )

Cylindrical Coordinates (p ,0, z)

8)

Grauf

9)

Div A

()A I

-+-+Ox ay clZ

a~

a~

Div A =

....2

rsm

~ O[ ~

(Jr

(r2sinO AI)

go

(r sinO A2) +

~~ (r A3)]

10) Laplacian (v2j)

!!i.!J:i.iEJ. or + iJy2 + iJ z
2

~ 2!Ji. I 2:J. - ()02 +cotO!Ji. - ao tJr2 -r ar +r2 r2

f2:[ + I .!Ji. + I Sf Up2 Ii up 7Y a(J2

+iEJ.
at

co
::J
(l) (l) ~.

::J

+
r2sin O
2

!Ei U2
reo
(r sinO)e eI'

co
Q) (l)

::J

er r2sinO

11) CuriA

a/{)x
AI

OliJy
A2

alaz
A3

alar
AI

alfJo
rA2

()/af/J
(r sin{})A3

peo
(J/r)O

e:

cl/(Jp
AI

i.JI (Jz
A3

pA2

=r

s::

3 Q)

o en

Vector Differentiation

565

Solved examples

Ex. 7.9.10 Obtain the equations of transformation from cylindrical to cartesian coordinates.
Sol: Equations of transformation from cartesian to cylindrical coordinates are x=pcos8 ..... (1), y=psin8 ..... (2) z=z ..... (3) from (I) and (2), we get, p2 = x 2 + y2

~p=~X2 + y2 ,p> 0
y from (I) and (2), we also get - = tan 8

~8=tan-l(~)
:. The required equations are

p=~X2+y2, 8=tan-'(~}
Note:

z=z

If a point lies on z-axis, x = 0, y = 0 => 8 is indeterminate. These points on z-axis are known as singular points of the transformation. Ex. 7.9.11 Represent the vector A = 2xi - yj +z2k in cylindrical polar coordinates. Sol: The base vectors in cylindrical coordinates are ep =(cos8)i+(sin8)j
eo = (-sin8)i+(cos8)j

...... (\)
..... (2) ..... (3)

ez = k

Solving (\) and (2),. we get i=(cos8)ep -(sin8h


j

= (sin8)ep + (cosS)eo

Then

A = 2[(cosS)ep

-(sin8)eo~-[(sinS)ep +(cos8~o}y+z2e~.

A = (2xcosS - ysinS)ep -[2xsin8+ ycosSh + z2e~

= (2pcos 2S - psin 28 ~p - [2psin8cos8 + psin8cos8to + Z2 ez


(substitutingx= pcos8, =
y= psin8)

p(2cos2S-sin28~p -(3psinScos8)eo +z 2e:

566

Engineering Mathematics - I

Aliter: Since cylindrical coordinates form an orthogonal coordinate system, we can write A
as A = a,ep + a2ee + a3ez From (1) we find,
...

(I)

whereat'~, a 3 are to

be determined.

A.ep =a"

A.eo =a2 ;

A.ez =a3

..... (2)

For cylindrical coordinates, we have, x=pcos8, y=psin8, Z=Z given A becomes, A= (2pcos8)i-(psin8)j+z 2 k

..... (3)

ep = (cos8)i+(sin8)j } Also, eo = (-sin8)i+ (cos8)j


ez =k
using (3) and (4) in (2), we get

..... (4)

a, = 2pcos 2 8 - psin 2 8;
a 2 =-2psin8cos8-psin8cos8=-3psin8cos8; a 3
=Z2

A = a,ep + a2 ee + a3 ez = (2 cos 28 - sin 2 8) pep - (3p sin8 cos8) eo + z2 ez

Ex. 7.9.12
Sol:

Represent the vector A = xyi - zj + xzk in the spherical coordinate system. Since the base vectors er, eo'
A
= ecj>

are mutually orthogonal, we can write

a,er + a2 eO + a3eq,

..... (J)

where aI' a 2, a 3 are to be found. From (I) we get, A.er =a,. A.ee =a2 A.eq, =a3 For spherical coordinates, we have, x = r sin8 cos<j>, y = r sin8 sin<j>,
2
2

(2)

z
2

= r cos8

..... (3) ..... (4)

A = {r sin 8sin <j> cos <ji - {rcos8)j + {r sin 8cos8cos<jk Also we have,

er = {sin 8cos<ji + {sin 8sin <jj + {cos 8 )k


ee

={cos8cos<ji + (cos 8cos 4> )j - {sin 8)k


= (-sin4i+ {cosiJj

eq,

..... (5)

Using (4) and (5) in (2), we get,

a, = 1'2 sin 3 8sin 4>cos 2 4> - rsin 8cos8sin<j> + 1'2 sin 8cos 2 8cos4> .
a2 = r2 sin 2 8cos8sin <j>cos 2 <j> - rcos 2 8sin cp - r2 sin 2 8cos8coscp a3

= _1'2 sin 2 8sin 2 cpcos<j> - r cos 8 cos cp

Vector Differentiation

567

Hence
A = aler + a 2ee + 01 eq,
=

{r

sin} 8sin $cos 1 $ - rsin 8cos8sin $ + r2 sin Ocos 2 8cosc/>k + {r 2 sin 2 8cos8sin $cos 2 $ - rcos 2 8sin $ - r2 sin 2 8cos8cos$ ~o
1 2 2

+ (-r sin 8sin $cos$-rcos8cos$h

Ex. 7.9.13 Prove the following:


(i)

e = Seo+ {sin 8 )~eq,


r

(ii)

eo = -Ser + {cos8)~eq,

Sol:

(iii) eq, = (- sin 8 )~er - (cos8 )~eo where' ' denotes differentiation w.r.t. time 't'. (i) We know that
er = (sin 8cos$)i + (sin 8sin $)j + (cosS)k
" cos8cos$8 "} i + { " sinOcosc/>.$ "} j - (sin8)8k " er ={ sin 8(- sin$)$+ cos8.sin$.8+
=

e{(cos 8 cos $)i + {cos8sin$)j - (sin 8 )k} + <i>{{- sin8sinc/i + {sin8cos$)j }

" " = 8e e + sin 8.$eq,

(ii) ee

={cos8cos$}i + (cos8sin C/>}j - {sin 8}k

ee =( - sin8.8cos$ -cos8sin$~ } + ( - sin8.8s;". + coseco.~++ )j -(cOS8.e)k


= -

e{(sin 8cos$)i + (sin 8sin$}j + (cos 8 )k} + cos8.+{(- sinc/i + {cos$)j}


" " 8e r + cos8$eq,

= -

(iii) eo!> =(-sin$)i+{cos$}j

eo!>

=-cos$~i-sin$~j
(- sin 8 }~er - cos8~ee

..... (i)

= ~[- sin 8{sin 8cos$i + sin 8sin $ j + cos8k}


- cos 8 {cos 8cos c/> i + cos8sin c/> j - sin 8 k}]

568

Engineering Mathematics - I

= - coscj).cj)i - sin cj).cj) j

= e~
Ex. 7.9.14

from (i)

If ep , eo are base vectors in cylindrical coordinates, show that

(i)(ep)=ee o and
Sol:

(ii)(eo)=-eep,

where'.' denotes differentiation w.r.t. 't'

ep = (cosS)i+ (sinS)j

= e{(-sinS)i + (cosS)j}

eo = -sin Si + cosS j, eo = - S(cosS)i -e(sin S)j = -Sep

Ex. 7.9.15 Express the velocity V and acceleration a ofa particle in cylindrical coordinates.
Sol: In cartesian coordiantes, the position .vector r = xi + yj + zk .

. dr dx. dy. dz VelOCIty V = -=-I+-j+-k dt dt dl dt


Acceleration a=

-=-1+-, j+-k 2 2 2
dt dt dr dt

d 2r

d 2 x.

d 2y

d 2z

In cylindrical coordinates, x = pcosS, y = psin S , z = z and


ep=(cosS)i+(sinS)j, eo =(-sinS)i+(cosS)j, ez

=k

~'. i = cosSep - sin Seo ; j :::: (sin S)ep + (cos e)eo (Solving above equations for i andj)
:. r = (pcosS XcosSe p - sin See)+ psin e(sin Sep + cosSee)+ zez = pep + ze z

dr dp de dz . V = -=-e +P-P +-e .. dt dt p dt dt Z


o = pep +p Sea +zez

.: dez dt

=~(k)=O]
dt

(0) 0

(from Ex. 7.9.14)

Vector Differentiation

569 .

a = dt

dV

= dt [pep + pOeo + zeJ


(since

d.

= pep + pep + pOeo + pOeo + pOeo + ze z

....

..

..

....

ez = 0)

pBen + pep + pBeo + pBeo + pB(-Bep ) + ze z ' (using results of (ex 7.9.14

[p- pe 2 ]e p +[pO + 2pB]eo + zez


Ex. 7.9.16 If t

= xyz,

find 'gradf' in (a) Cylindrical coordinates (b) Spherical

coordinates Solution: In cylindrical coordinates (p,O,z), we have, x = pcosO,y = psinO,z = and


2

..... ( I)

f = xyz = p2 Z sin 0 cos 0 = p

sin 20

af = pz sin 20 af = p2 Z cos 20. at = p2 sin 20 ap 'ao 'az 2


:. (I) gives, gradf = Vf = (pz sin 20)e p + (pz cos 20)eo + (~ sin 20)ez
(b)
2

In spherical coordinates (r,O,tjJ), we have,

x = rsinOcostjJ,y = rsinOsintjJ,z = rcosO, and

Vf= af e +! af e +_1_ af e ar r r ao 0 r sin 0 atjJ ;


Here

..... (2)

f = xyz = 3r 2sin 2 OcosOcostjJsintjJ :. af ='csin2tjJ{-sin 3 0+cos02sinOcosO} ao 2

579

Engineering Mathematics - I

o~

aj

=rJsin20cosO.cos2~
)

:. from (2)

~l=(3r2sin20cosOsin+cos~~,. + '; sin2~{-sin30+2sinOcos20}ee


+ (r2 sinOcosOcos2~~~.
E.7.9.17 Itf= pzcosO (in cylindrical coordinates) find Vf. Sol: f= pz cosO.

-aj = zcoso of

op

00

-pzsin 0 aj = pcosO ' oz of

Hence Vf

op ep +p ae eo + oz ez
sin2Gsin+ in spherical coordinates, find Vf.

aj

I aj

= (zcosO)ep -(zsinO)eo + (pcosO}ez


Ex.7.9.18 Iff=
,.'2

Sol:

aj = 2rsin20sin4>

or

8f = 2r2 cos 20sin 4> -

ae
o~

aj =r2 sin20cos~

.. ~l

8j
= =

or e,. +-; ae ce + rsinO o~ e.p


z{(sin O)ep + (cosoh }-(pcosO}ez, in cylindrical

Jo/

Of

(2rsin20sinq,)e,. +(2rcos20sin~)eij + (2rcosOcos4e.p

Ex. 7.9.19 Show that the vectorfieldA = polar coord inates is solenoidal.

Sol:

IfA= Aiel' +A2 co +AJe z then, AI =zsinO; A2 =zcosO; A3 =-pcosO

Vector Differentiation

571

=
=

~[~(pz sinO)+~(zcOsO)+~(- p2 coso)l


p ap

as

aZ

~[zsinO-zsinO+O] = 0
p

:. A is solenoidal

Ex.7.9.20 IfA= ( r-cosOer +-eo +-.-Oe+ ,in spherical coordinates, find Div A.
r
rS1l1

Sol:

I I Here A =r 2 cosO, A2 =-, A3 = - . I

rS1l10

[4r -sin20+cosO+O ,.- S1l1 0 2


1.

4rcosO+2

cotO
r

Ex.7.9.21 Ifj= p2Z2cos20, show that V2j=2p2cos20


Sol: In cylindrical coordinates,
V j = - + - - + - -2 -+2
2

af ap2

1 af p ap

1 p2

a2 f
ao

a2 f

az

..... (I)

j
-

= p2 Z 2 cos20
2

Qf = 2 pz 2 cos2 0 . a j = 2 z 2 cos 20 . ap , ap2 ,

_'J

at ') as = -2p- Z 2 si1120'

572

Engineering Mathematics - I

:. From (1) we get,


yo2 f = 2Z2 cos 26 + 2Z2 cos 29 - 4Z2 cos 29 + 2p2 cos 29 = 2p2 cos 29 .

Ex.7.9.22 Using spherical coordinates, show that yo2r" = n{n + l)r,,-2 when n is a
Sol: constant and r = 0 if n<2 In spherical coordinates, 2 2 yo2f=a2f+~Of +_1 a f + cot 9 Of + 1 d f ar2 r ar r2 00 2 r2 a9 r2 sin 20 d~2 Here, f= rn 2 Of = nrfl-I. a f = n{n- 1)r"- 2

..... (I)

..

8r

' Br2

.. (I)

~ yo2f =V2r" = n{n-l)r"- 2 +~.nr"-I


r 2 sin29+cos 2 p, find
2

r 2 = n{n -1 )r"-2 + 211r"- = n{n + I )r"- 2 .

Ex.7.t.23 Iff=
Sol:

yo2f.

Of = 2rsin29. a

or

'

ar~

~ = 2sin 29

Of -=-sin2+

0+

a2f ' 0+

-=-2cos2~ 2

a 2 f 20f 1 a 2f cot90f a 2f yo2f - --+--+---+----+-::---::-.. - ar2 r ar r2 00 2 ,.2 a9 r2 sin 2 9 a~2 + [CO/9x2r2cos29+


r2
2

sm~9

X{-2COS2P)]

= .2sin 29 +~(2rsin29)+ ~(- 41'2 sin 29)+ co~9 x -2cos2p r r r = 2sin 29+ 4sin 29 -4sin 29 + 2cot9.cos20 -4cosec 29.cos2p
r

= 2sin 29 + 2 cot 9.cos 29 -4cosec 2 9.cos2P


r

Vector Differentiation

573

Ex.7.9.24 If A is a vector field, find curl A where,


(\) A=

{r:~sino~,+(~cosO}e+ r l2eq,

(2) A = {zcosO)ep -{ZSiIlO)eo


Sol: If A = Ale, + A2eO + A3eq., We have, in spherical coordinates,

CurlA=

reo alar a/ae r-smO


1 ~.

e,

{rsinO)eq,
a/a~

Al

rA2

(rsinO}A3
A =3

Here, AI =r sinO, A2

=~cosO,
r
e,

r2

{rsin O)eq,

:. Curl A =

\
2

ajar

a/ae
cosO

a/a$
(I/r}sine

r sin 0 r2 sin 0

==

r smO ae

~.

\ [- a {( -smO 1. ) - a (cosO )}e,+ {-a (r 2smO . )-a (sinO)} - - rea r a$ a$ ar r

r- smO r r
2.

1.

[~coso.e, +-;-sinO.re e _r2 coso.rsinoeq,] r

=
=

1 [\ sin 0 -r 3 smO.cosOeq, ] -cosO.e, +--ee smO r r


I

-3-e, +]ee -rcosOeq,


r r

cotO

we have, Curl A =

ep

pea
A2

ez
A3

a/ Bp alae a/az
AI

574

Engineering Mathematics - I

Here, A I =

cosO, A2 = -z sine, A3 = o.
I

:. Curl A =

a/ap

peo

ez

a/ae
-pzsinO

a/az
0

p zcose

a a .}e + {-(zcose)--(o) a a} = -I [{ -(o)--(-pzsme) poO az Paz ap pee

~[psineep +pcosOeo +(-zsinO+zsine)ezl


p

= (sinO)ep + (cose)eo

Ex.7.9.25 Show that the vectorfieldA= (pzsin2e)ep + (pz cos 2e)ee


irrotational.

+(~p2sin2e)e= is

Sol:

Here, AI =pzsin2e, A) =pzcos2e, A) -

=~p2sin2e 2

ep

peo

ez

a/ap
p pzsin2e

alae
p2zcos2e

~p2sin2e
2

a/az

Vector Differentiation

575

:. A is irrotational.

Ex.7.9.26 Show that div (curl A) = 0, where A is a vector function, in orthogonal curvilinear
coord inates.

Sol:

Let A = Aiel + A2e 2 + Aj e3 Then


Ale] A 3 e3

%v2

Ojov)

A2A2

A)A,

Dlv j = ~ A A A
I

. '"

2 3

[~( Ov VA A ) I
I 2 3

=0

576

Engineering Mathematics -

Exercise - 7(i)
l. Show that the spherical coordinate system is an orthogonal system. 2. Show that the cylindrical coordinate system is an orthogonal system. [Hint for I and 2: Show that e,.e 2

= e2 .e3 = e3 .e, = 0

etc 1

3. Express the vector, F = 2xi - 3y.j +z,Yk, in cylindrical polar coordinates. 2 2 [Ans: F= (2pcos S-3p 2 sin S}p

-~sjn2S+3p2sin2Sh +(pzcosskJ
~+COS2 Scos~k

4. Represent the vector, A = xyi + yzj +zxk, ill spherical polar coordinates.
[Ans: A = r2 sinS{sin 2 Scos 2 ~sin~+sinScosSsin2 + (sin Scos8cos
2

~sin~ + cos 2 8sin 2 ~ -

sin ScosScos~~o

+ (cosSsin~cos~-sinSsin2 ~cos~}~ 1
5. Express the vectors a) A = yi + xj and b) F = zi - 2xj + yk, in cyl indrical coordinates.

[Ans: a) A = peo b) F

= (zcosS - p sin2S)e p - (zsinS + 2pcos2S)eo + (psinS)ezJ


= -

6. Express the vectors a) A coord inates.

yi + xj, b) F

xi + 2y.i + yzk, in spherical polar

[Ans: a) A = r sinS eq, b) rsinS [{sinS(I + sin2~) + rcos2~ sin~}er + {cosS(l + sin2~)- rsinScosS sin~}e() + sin~cos~ eq,l 7. Find the gradients of the fol/owing function

i)f= pz sinS

ii)f=

sinS
-2-

[Ans: i) Vf = (zsin S)ep + (z cos S)eo + (psinO)ez ii)

Vf=~[(-2sinS)er + (cosO)eoJ
r

iii) Vf =(2rsin

~}r - (rsin 2S)eo -(~cosecscos2 ~sin~ )e~1

8. Find the divergence ofth fol/owing vector functions.


i) A = (cosS + sinS) ep + (cosS - sinS)e o + ez

ii) F =

~2 sinS}r + (~COSO )eo + rl2 e~ , iii) V = (pcosO)er + (psinO)eq,

Vector Differentiation

577

IAns: (i) 0

.. 4 . 0 1 cos 20 (II) rsm +2-.-r Sill 0

(iii) 3cosO )

9.

Show that the following vector fields are solenoidal.


(i)

A= (zcosO)c" -( z - sin O)co(ii) F = (~cot O)c r r

-~c() + (r cosO)c r

10.

Find the curl of the following vector fields: (i) A= (zsin O)C" + (zcosO)ctJ -(pcosO)c z (ii) F =(rsinO)c r

+(~COSB )c +(~ )e
r

(III)V

...

1 0 = -tan -e ,. 2

IAns:(i) (sinO-cosO)c p +(sin+cos)Cf) (ii) (,.\ cot 0


11.

jer -(cosB)c (iii) 1~2 c)

If ' f'

is a scalar function in orthogonal curvil inear coordinates v" v2 , V3 prove

that 'Vf' is irrotational.

7.10
Let

GREEN'S THEOREM IN THE PLANE

7.10.1 Green's Theorem:


(i) (ii) R be a closed region of the xy plane bounded by a simple closed curve C

P(x,y,) and Q(x,y) be continuolls functions of x and y having continolls aQ derivatives in R. Then r Pdx + Qdy = c - ap )d'Cdy .l 11 ax ay

J I

where C is in the positive direction.

Proof:

E
B

___ .l __
I
I I I

_ _7

o~----~c------------~--x

578

Engineering Mathematics - I

Let the equations of the curves DAB and DEB (see the figure) be respectively y = fl (x) and y = f2 (x). Let R be the region bounded by the curve C. Then,

oP " [ 12(X) oP } f f=-dxdy = f f -dy ix II CY x=c y=fI(x) CY

i.e.,

fp(x,y)ix = - f f~xdy II CY
=

..... (1)

lilly if the equations of the curves ADE be and ABE be taken respectively as

gl(Y) and x

g2(Y)' we have,

fiQ(g2,y)-Q(g\,y)}iy= fQ(g\,y)iy+ fQ(g2,y)iy


a
h

Thus

fQ(x,y)iy = I~Qdxdy
c
II

..... (2)

Adding (1) and (2),

'!

J pdx +Qdy = f' oQ _ oP xdy

}lox

oy

t r

Vector Differentiation

579

7.10.2 Vector notation of Green's theorem


Green's Theorem in the plane can be put in vector notation in the following way. Let F
=

P(x, y)i + Q(x, y)j

and r = xi + yj, so that dr


=

(dx)i + (dy)j
=

F. dr

P dx + Q dy
j

k
%z

Again,VxF=%x

o/ay
Q

P
=

OQ OP)

ox oy

k, so that

(v x F).k = oQ _ oP ox oy
Taking dR = dxdy, Green's theorem in the plane can be stated in the vector form as,

fF .dr
I.

JJ(V x F)JaIR
II

..... (A)

7.10.3 Physical interpretation of Green's theorem


Let F denote the force field acting on a particle. Then

fF .dr represents the work done in movi.g the particle around a closed

curve C. :. From (A) it follows that the work done is determined by curl F = V x F. 2. In particular, if V x F = 0 i.e., ifF is conservative (or F = V t) Then fF.dr = O. i.e., the work done is independent of the path. 3. Conversely, if the integral is independent of the path, i.e., if

fF .dr =0, then vx F=O


In the plane, V
x

F = 0 is equivalent to saying that :

~~

where F = Pi +Qj.

580

Engineering Mathematics - I

7.10.4 Application of Green's theorem to the evaluation of area of a simple closed curve.
The area bounded by a simple closed curve C
=

lfxu:y - ydx
c

Proof By Green's theorem, we have,

.fPdx + Qdy fI!~ {au - ap tXl~Y ax ay r


==
I"

if we put P =

y, and Q = x,

. ap I.e., - =-1, ay
:. We get,

aQ_ == I,

ax

au _ap =2, ax ay

fXdY - ydx =
I"

ff2dxdy
II

2A , where A is the required area.

i.e., A =

~fxdy 2 ('

ydx .

Solved Examples Ex. 7.10.5 Find the area of the ellipse ~+L = I. a 2 h2
Sol:
~ ~

Parametric equations of the ellipse are, = a cosO, y = b sinO dx = - a sine de, dy = b cose dO. :. By Green's theorem, Area of the ellipse
=

lfXdY - ydx
L

I
=-

2n

f(acosehcos 0 + bsinea sine}le


0

I 2n == - fahdO = rrah

Vector Differentiation

581

Ex. 7.10.6 Evaluate f(y - sinx}dx + (cosx}1y, a) directly and b) lIsing Green's theorem,

where c is the boundary of the triangle in xy-plane whose vertices are (0,0), (%,0) and (%,1) traversed in the positive direction.

Sol:

Let 1= f{y-sinx}d\" + {cosx)dy


X =1!

a)alongOA:

y=o,

dy=O
1['2 n<2

f(y - sin x}1x + {cos x }dy = f- sin xdx = cosxi


OA

=-1

alongAB:

d\"=O

.. f(y -sinx}lx + (cosx~/y = fOdy


Ali

1t

2 along BO: Equation of 013 is y = 2x , dy = -dx ,


7t

f(y-sinx}dx+cosxdy=
/JO

1[(2:
11
~

-situ )+;cosx}x

x 0 = -+cosx+-stnxi
1t 1t
11/2

2.

1t =(0+ 1 +0)- (1t -+0+- =1----.

2)

1t

1t

:. I = Sum of the integrals along OA, AB and 130


7t 2 7t 2 =-1 +0+1- - - - =- - - -

7t

7t

582

Engineering Mathematics - I

(b)

By Green's theorem,

'j c

J Pdx + Qdy =
8Q ax

Ii( 8Q - ~~ldX dy, dx dy


I I

Here

P = y-sinx, Q = cosx

= _ sin x
[ =

'ay

ap = 1

!,f( ~sinx~ l)dr try


7r

2x. 2x f 2 2 f --smx-- x = -- f xsmx d'(-- f xd'( o


2(
7r

<i[[ (~sinx~
2.

l)dy

Jd< = ~i ~ysinx~ y'l d<


7r

1C

1C

1C X~O

1C ()

Ex.6.10.7 Evaluate f(3x+4y)dx+(2x-3y)dy where C is the circle in xy plane with

centre at origin and radius 2 units.

Sol:

By Green's theorem,

fPdx + Qdy =
Here

8Q 8Pl dxdy, Ii(--dx dy


II

P=3x+4y, Q=2x-3y ;
=

8~=4
Oy

aQ =2

'ax

The given integral

ff(2-4)dxdy

= -2 ffdxdy = -2A,
II

where A is the area of the circle C.

= -2 x

1C

x 22

= -81C

Vector Differentiation

583

7.10.8 Verity Green's theorem in the plane for the integral 1(3x 2 - 8y2 )dx + 4( 4y - 6xy)dy
where C is the boundary of the region given by (I)
(2)
x = 0, y = 0, x

+ Y= I

(I) The given region is shown in the figure below.


y

._~

______ X

The points of intersection of y = x 2 and y = We have to integrate [ along (I) y = x 2 from 0 to A. (2) along y =

fx

are (0, 0) and (I, I).

fx
-

from A to 0, and add the two values.

Alongy=x2, dy=2xdx
x~1

:.1= f (3x 2
AU

8X4)dx + (4x 2

6x')2xdx = f(3x 2
X~O

20x 4 + 8x 3 )dx = x 3

4x 5 + 2X4 I =-1
0

Alongy =

fx ; x = y, dt = 2ydy

yeO II 0 5 :.1= J(3 y 4_8 y 2jdy+(4y-6x 3 )dy= J(6yS-22y3+4Y)(2Y~/y=y6_~y4+2y21=2 I 2 AO )' I

:.

5 3 1=-1+-=-

By Green's Theorem,
1Pdt + Qdy =
c

Ii OQ. OP)dXd )l ox ~v Y
.

Here,

3x2 - 8y ; Q = 4y - 6xy

oQ _ oP =-6v-(-16v)=IOy

ox

oy

584

Engineering Mathematics - I

:.I=f
2.

flOydxdy= f
R

I[E 1 I
x=O

flOydydx= fSy

J~ l dx =
x2

x=O y=x 2

fCSx-Sx )dx=2 x=o

Green's theorem is verified. The given region is shown in the figure below.
y

(0,1)8

x=O o~--~~----------x y=0 A(1,0)


AlongOA,
y
=

0 ::) dy = 0
I 3 2 f 3x dx = x 1= I I

:. Given integral =
y AlongAB, :. Given integral
o
=

x=o

I - x ::) dy =

dx
0

f~X2 -

8(1- x 2 )}dx + {4(1- x) - 6x(1- x)C-dx)} = fC-Ilx 2 + 26x -12) dx '


x=1

x=1

II 3 2 0 II 8 =--x +13x -12xl =--13+12=-

AlongBO, Given integral =

x = 0 ::) dx = 0
y=O
0

f 4ydy = 2y21 =-2


y=1 I

:. The given integral = 1 +

"3 - 2 ="3

By green's theorem,

1 aQ. ap)dXd Pdx + Qdy = f n Jl ax ay Y


C

Vector Differentiation

585

Here, P = 3x2 - 8y2,

Q = 4y - 6xy

aQ ap ax ay

= -6y - (-16y) = lOy

= 5(1-x)3i =-~(O-I)=~ 3x-1 0 3 3 Hence the theorem is verified.


(2,1)

Ex. 7.10.9
Sol:

Evaluate

J(10x
(0,0)

2x/ dx - 3xl.v dy along the path x4 - 6xl - 4.0 = 0

P = IOx4 - 2xl, Q = 3x2.0

-=-6xy-

ar

ay

=-

8Q

ax

The integral is independent of the path. Hence we can use any path. For example, if we use the path from points (0, 0) to (2, 0) and then from (2, 0) to (2, 1); we can evaluate the integral. (i) From (0, 0) to (2, 0) ; :. The tntegral = y= 0, dy = 0
4

2
o

lOx dx - 2x

512
0

= 64

(ii) From (2, 0) to (2, I);

x= 2, dx = 0

:. The integral = JIOx dx = 2x J= 64


o
0

2 2 2 5 4

12y 2 dy = -

4/1

=-4

:. The value of the integral = 64 - 4 = 60 Aliter: Since

ar = aQ, we know that {I Ox4 ay ax


xlI).
(2.1)

2x1)dx - 3xl.0 dy} is an exact

differential of (2x 5 The given integral =

(2,1)

J d(2x 5 - x /)= 2x
(0,0)

x y3 J= 2.25 - 2.1 = 60
(0,0)

586

Engineering Mathematics - I

Ex.7.10.10

X VerifY Green's theorem for f(e- siny)dx + (e-X cosy) dy where C is the
c

boundary of the rectangle whose vertices are (0, 0) (n, 0) (n, ~ ) and (0, ~ ) 2 2 traversed in the +ve direction.
Sol:
y

O(~O~,O~)----~'~----~A~(n~,O~)-x

By Green's theorm, fPdx+ Qdy =


c

In )l ax
Q
=

8Q - 8P)dXdY

ay

Here, P = e-x siny,


-

e-x cosy
=

aQ
8x

- -

ap

ay

= -

e-x cosy - e-x cosy

-2e-x cosy

fPdx+Qdy=
c

If -2e x cosydxdy
R
x x/2 x x/2

=-2
x

f [ f e-xcosdyJdx=-2 f eX siny fdx


x=o y=O x=()

=-2 fe-xdx=2e
c

xl: =2(e-

-1)

.....(i)

Again,fPdx+Qdy=f f+ f+ f+ f
c
c OA

AB BD DO

Along OA ; ..

y = 0,

dy = 0

fPdx+Qdy=O
OA

Alo~gAB:

n,

dx= 0

Vector Differentiation

587
1tI2

f Pdx+ Qdy
AB

Je
0

11

cosydy = e- 1I sin YI~/2 = e

11

AlongBD;

BD

Jp dx+Qdy= fe-xdx=~ -- 1
11

=-1 + e
11

11

Along DO ;

x = 0, dx =

JP
DO

dx + Qdy = feos ydy =


11/2

sinYI~/2 = - 1
..... (ii)

:. From (i) and (ii) it is proved that

J
c

p dx + Qdy =

H( 8Q - 8P) dxdy 8x
R

8y

Hence the theorem is verified.

Ex. 7.10.11
Sol:

Apply Green's theorem to obtain the area bounded by the curve


x2/3

+ y2/ 3 = a 2/3 , a>

The parametric equations of the curve are x = a cos3e, y = sin 3e. A rough sketch of the curve is given below:

x~'--~~~~~~-----x
(6

A'

=rc)

A(6

=0)

= acos3e,

= asin 3e

dx = -3 acos 2e sine de, dy = 3a sin 2ecose de

By Green's theorem, the area bounded by a simple closed curve C is given by

J(xdy- ydx) 2c

588

Engineering Mathematics - I

:. The area bounded by the given curve C


21<

J{acos 30.3asin 2 0cosO+asin 30.3acos 2 0sinO}dO

2 {)=o

= - JCos Osm OdO=-

ar
2 21t
0

22

3 3 af} (lr n:a sm-20dO=-lJ-cos40)dO=-2 br


0

2 2x

16 ()

Ex.7.10.12

Verify Green's theorem for J(2xy-x 2)dx+(x+y2)dy, where C is the c closed curve in xy-plane bounded by the curves y = x 2 and = x.

Sol:

By Green's theorem,

y A(1,1)

JPdx+Qdy= Jfc
C

aQ

- ap)dxdy ax ay
=

2 aQ ap Here, P = 2xy - x , Q = x +,1 - - -ry Y, ax

1 - 2x
o-=:;;~-----x

aQ of Jjr---)dxdy= J[ f (1-2x)dyJdx= JY-2xyl~:;; dx ax ry


I

y=~

x=() y=x2

()

= jr-v'x -2x-v'x _x 2 +2X3 )dx = '!:x 2 -2.'l:x 2 -~+2.~ o 3 5 3 40


=-----+-=-

4 I

5
r

30

..... (i)

Again fPdx+Qdy= fCPdx+Qdy)+ J(Pdx+Qdy)


~ ~

Along C I' Y = x2, dy = 2xdx, "x" varies from 0 to 1


1 I

:. fpdx+Qdy= f C2x 3 -x2)dX+CX+X4)2xdx= fC2x 3 +X2 +2X5)dx


(') x=o
0

Vector Differentiation

589

AlongC 2,

x=y, dx=2ydy,
o

'y' varies from I to 0


0

:. JPdx+Qdy= J(2/_y4)2ydy+(y2+ y 2)dy= J(4 y 4_2 y 5+2 y 2)dy


(', y=1 I

..... (ii) From (i) and (ii), the theorem is verified.

Exercise -7(j)
1. Evaluate 1(x 2 + y2)dx+3xy 2dy, (a) directly (b) by Green's theorem, where cis the circle x 2 + (Ans: 121t) 2. Evaluate 1(x 2 + 2xy)dx + (x 2 y + 3)dy around the boundary C of the region given by y = 8x and x = 2, (a) directly and (b) by Green's theorem. (Ans: 128) 3. VerifY Green's theorem for the integral 1(3x 2 + 2y)dx - (x + 3cos y)dy where Cis the boundary of the parallelogram with vertices at (0,0), (2, 0), (3, I) and (1, I) (Ans: -6)
(n,2)

y = 4, traversed in the +ve direction.

4.

Evaluate
y

J(6xy - /)dx+ (3x


(0,0)

2xy)dy along the cycloid x

= 8 -sin8,

= l-cos8. VerifY the result by using Green's theorem.

(Ans : 61t 2 - 41t)

590

Engineering Mathematics - I

5.

Using Green's theorem find the area bounded by one arch of the cycloid

x=a(B-sinB), y=a(l-cosB),a>O, and x-axis.


[Ans: 3J[a 2 ]
6. Evaluate f{2x 2 - y2 )dx + (x 2 +
c

i)

by Green' theorem where C is the boundary of

the surface in the xy plane enclosed by x axis and the semi-circle y

= ..Jl- x 2

[Ans: 4/3]
7. Evaluate f(cos x sin y - xy)dx + sin x cos y,using Green's theorem where c is the
c

[Ans: 0]
8. VerifY Green's Theorem in the plane for f{x 2_xy 3 )dx+ &2 -2xy)where C is the
c

square with vertices at ( 0,0) , ( 2,0) and (0 ,2) [Ans: 8]


(2,1)

9.

Evaluate

f (12 x3- 2x/ ) dx - 3x2y2 dy along the path x3- y3 + Y - 4xy


2 31(2,1) (0,0)

= 0

(0,0)

[ Hint: Proceed as in aliter of 7.1 0.9]


[Ans: 3x - x y
4

= 44 ]

Vector Differentiation

591

7.11

Gauss Divergence Theorem

7.11.1 Gauss' Divergence Theorem


Let (I) V be the volume bounded by a closed surface S (2) A be a vector function of position with continuous derivatives. Then,

A .ds fffV .A .dv ffA .nds 1


= =

where n is positive unit normal (outside drawn normal) to S.

Proof:
z

t------y
.....
R

x S is a closed surface Let any line II lel to the coordinate axes cut S in at most two points. Let z = gl(x, y) and z = gix, y) be the equations of the upper portion SI and lower portion S2 respectively. Let R be the projection of S on the xy-plane.

If A = Al i + A::J + A3 k

592

Engineering Mathematics - I

Then,

oA OA fff OZ 3 dv = fff OZ 3 dzdydx


v
v

ff[ S
II

Iq(x,y)
z~g2( x,y)

oA 0/ dz] dydt=

ff
II

AJX,y,Z)1

z~g,
z~g2

dydx

f f[A 3 (x,y,g,)- A 3 (x,y,g2)]dydx


R

For the upper portion SI' dy dx = (cosyl)dS I = k. n l dS I since the normal n l to SI makes an acute angle YI with k. For the lower portion S2' dydx

= (-cOSY2) dS 2 = --k.n 2 dS 2,

since the normal n 2 to S2 makes an obtuse angle Y2 with k.

:. f f A3(X,y,g, )lydx =:f f A 3k .n, dS, and


R "

So that, f f[A 3 (x,y,g,) -A3 (x, y, g2) ]dydx


II

= f f A 3k .n,dS, + f fA3k.n2dS2
8,
S2

= fA3k.ndS
s Similarly, by projecting S on the other coordinate planes, we get,

..... (I)

f f fO~, dv= f fAl nds


v

..... (2)

and f f f
v

oA2

cry

dv = f f A 2j.n ds
s

..... (3)

(I) + (2) + (3) =>

fff(o~, + O~2 + o~3)dV=


v

ff(A ,i+A 2j+A3k).ndS


s

i.e. f f fV.A dv = f fA.n dS which proves the theorem.


S

Vector Differentiation

593

7.11.2 (a) Express Gauss' Theorem in words and (b) obtain its Cartesian form.
(a) Gauss' Theorem states that "The surface integral of the normal component of vector A taken over a closed surface is equal to the integral of the divergence of A taken over the volume enclosed by the surface. Let A=A 1i+A 2 j+A 3k,

(b)

Then dlv A = V.A =

I ~-

aA aA? aA 3 + -"'- + --ax ay az

Let the unit normal n to S make angles

a,P,r

with the +ve coordinate axes so

that, cosa=n. i, cosp =n. j, cosr=n.kand cosa, cosp, cosr are the direction cosines of n

n = ( cos a )i +( cos P)+( cos r

[ n. i =

"I = cos a

etc.]

:. A.II =Alcosa+A 2 cosP+A 3 cosr Hence the divergence theorem can be written in Cartesian form as,

JJr{ aA + aA + aA )dXdYdZ =
v

Jl ax

ay

az

J J(A I cosa + A2 cos p + A3 cosr)dr;

JIA,dydz + A 2dzdx + A dzdy


3

Solved Examples Ex. 7.11.3:


Evaluate using the divergence theorem = J J F .n
s

d~

where

F = 2xyi + yz2 j + xzk and S is the surface of the parallelepiped bounded by x = 0, y = 0, z = 0, x = 2, Y = 1 and z =3 . Sol: By the divergence theorem; HF.n ds = JHV.Fdv s Here, V.F

=~(2Xy)+~(yz2)+~(XZ) ax ay ay
=(2Y+Z2 +x)

I IF.n ds = HI(2Y+Z2 +x)dv


s

594

Engineering Mathematics - I

I I Ie 2 y + Z2 + x)dxdydz = I I [ I(2y + Z2 + x)dz] dxdy


X;O y;O z;O
2 I 3 3 2 I

X;O y;O =;0

II2Yz+~+xz
3
I 2

dxdy== Ifc 6 y+9+3x)dxdy


0 00

00

I[ I (6y+9+3x)try]d\" = I 3i
0

I 2 3 22 +9y+3xyl dx== I(12+3x)d\"=12x+ ;


0 0 0

X;O y;O

=24+6= 30

Ex. 7.11.4 Verify the divergence theorem for F = (4xy)i - (j2)j + (xz )k, over the cub( bounded by x = 0, x = I, Y = 0, Y = 1, z = 0 and z = 1. Sol:
By the divergence theorem
II F.n dS == I I IV.F dv
\ V

Here F

= (4xy)i - (j2)j + (xz)k

a a 2 a V.F==-(4xy)--(y )+-(xz) =4y-2y+x=x+2y ax ay az


I I I I I I

I I IV.Fdv == I I Ie x + 2y)dzdydx == I I [ Ie x + 2y)dz ]a:vdx


v

x;Oy;Oz;O

x;Oy;O =;0
I I

== I
I I I

fi xz + 2 y z1 dydx
I

x;Oy;O

==

If I(x+2y)dy]dx=

Ixy+y
x;O

2
1

dx=

IeX+I)d~==~ +xl~==2
x;o

X;O y;O

To evaluate

IIF.ndS

The surface S contains 6 faces (see figure)


S) - Face EPFA, S2 - Face OBDC

S3 - Face PFBD, S4 - Face OCEA Ss - Face PDCE, S6 - Face OBFA


x

J---+--+---y

Vector Differentiation

595

The surface integral above 6 faces. on S" n = i,


J

IIF.ndS is equal to the sum of the surface integrals on the


J J J

x = I, F.n = 4y; dS = dy dz
J

:. JJF.ndS= J J 4ydydz= J[ J4ydz]dy= J


y;O :;0

4yzl~dy= J 4ydY=2/1~ =2
0

on S2' n = -i, x = 0, F.n = :.

F-O

:~O

y~O

IIF.n~S=O

on S3' n = i, y = I, F.n = -I, dS = dx dz.


I

:. I IF.ndS=

I[ I-Idz]dx= I-z dx= I-dx = --xl~ =-1

on S4' n = -i, y = 0, F.n =

:. I IF.ndS=o
84
11

J J
I

on S5'

= k, z = I, F.n = x ; dS = dx ely
J J J
1 2 1

:. I I F.lldS = I I xdxdy = I [ Ix dy 1 dx = I xy dx = I xdx = ~ = 85 X~O y=o X;O y;O x;(} 0 x=O 2 0


on S6' n = k, z = 0, F.n =

:. I IF.ndS =

Hence :. II F.ndS
8

= 2 - 1 + ~ =%

The divergence theorem is verified

Ex.S.11.5 : Sol:

If r = xi + Yi + zk, evaluate :.

IIr.n dS where S is any closed surface.


s

By the divergence theorem

:. I Ir.n dS = I I Iv." dv ,where V is the volume enclosing S. s v

596

Engineering Mathematics - I

V.r

= -(x) + -(y) + -(z) = 3

000

ox

0'

oz

:. I Ir.n ds = I I I3 dv = 3v

Ex.7.11.6 :

If '\jI' is a scalar function, prove that I I IV\jIdv = I I'P n ds

Sol: By divergence theorem


I I IV.Adv = I IA.n ds
Take A = \jIc, C = cli + c-j + c3k is any constant vector.
..... (I)

:.(l)=> JIIV.(lPc)dv= fI('Pc).nds


v

..... (2)

But,

= (V \jf).C = c. V \jf and (\jIc).n = c.(\jJl1) so that (2) becomes,

o 0 0 [ ":V.c=-(c ox l )+-(c~)+-(c oy- OZ3 )=0 ,


cl' c2 ' c3' being constant] [ ": a.b = b.a]

IJI(c.V'P) dv = JI{c.('Pn)}ds

=> c. JI IV'Pdv = c. JI'-IJn ds => JI IVlPdv = JI'Pn ds


v

(.: c is arbitrary)

Ex.7.11.7 : Ifs is a closed surface enclosing a volume V and ifF = (Ix)i + (my)j + (llz)k,

I, m, n being constants, evaluate JIF.nds

Vector Differentiation

597

Sol:

By Gauss' theorem HF.nds= Hfv .Fdv

V.F = -(Ix) + -(my) + -(nz) = I + m + n

a ax

ry

a az

:. HF.nds

Hfu + m + 11) dv

=(/+m+n)V

Ex.7.11.8: IfE=curlA,evaluate HE.nds wheresisanyclosedsurface


Sol:
By Gauss' theorem,

HE.n ds = Hf(div E) dv where V is the volume enclosed by s


.\' V

But Div E = div (curl A) = 0

[ See 7.5.2 (2) ]

:. HE.nds=O

Ex. 7 .11.9 : If s any closed surface and n is unit +ve normal to s, show that Hn ds = 0
Sol:
Consider a constant vector a
=

ali + ~ + a3k

( i.e.

al'

a2, a3 are constants)

Then, a[Hndv] = H(a.n)ds


=

Hf(V.a)dv

(by divergence theorem)


[ ':V.a=-) +_2 +_3 =0]

=0

a.

ax

aa aa ay az

Thus a. a.[ Hn dv] = 0 is true where a is any arbitrary vector.

:. Hnds=O

Ex.7.11.10 : Evaluate H(F.n)ds, where s is the region bownded byy2 = lx, x = 2,


s
Z = 3,

= 0,

and F = 2xi + 3yj +

"3 z3k, using Gauss' theorelll

598

Engineering Mathematics - I

Sol: By the divergence theorem,

ff(F .n) ds
s

= fff(V.F)dv
v

.... (1)

V.F

=~(2X)+~(3y)~~(Z3) = 5+z ax ay ay 3
= fff(5+z 2 )dv,

From (I), ff(l1~.Il)ds s

x=O Y= 2 Ex

f f

2.[i-;

5z + ~

3 3

dydx
0

~--------r-----X

f 96J2xdx = 96J2 ~
Evaluate
s

) 2

= 192J2
0

x=o

Ex. 7.11.11
2

ff( 2xi - 31 j + Z2 k ).n ds over the surface bounded by


Z

x + y2 ff(F .n) ds
s

= 1, z = 0,

= 2, using Gauss' theorem.

Sol: By the divergence theorem,

= fff(V.F)dv ,

Here,F= 2xi-3y2j+Z2k DivF

=~(2x)-~(31)+~(z2) ax ay ay
= 2-6y+2z
+1

ff(F.n)ds=

f f

f(2-6y+2z)dzdydx

x=ly=~O

Vector Differentiation

599

16[~~I-X2 +~sin-1 XJ1


2 2
.1

=8n

Ex.7.11.12:

Evaluate using the divergence theorem H(F.Il)dS where S is the surface


=

of the sphere x 2 + I + z2

h2 in the first octant and F = yi + zj + xk

Sol:

By divergence theorem, :. H F.1l d~' = HV'F dv


v

..... (i)

F = yi + zj + xk

V'.F= 0 :. H(V'.F) dv = 0
z

..... (ii)

~--+B--Y

x
Let us evaluate the surface integrals over the faces OAB, OBC and OCA.
b

Jj;2~)

f fF.n ds = - f fx dx(ry
OA B
x=O

(,,' n = -k)

y=O

600

Engineering Mathematics - I

Similarly

If F.ndv
DAB
3

If F.nds + If F.nds + If F.nds + If F.nds


OAB ABC
DCA

ABC

= -Jrb + If F.nds
AIlC

.... (iii)

From (i), (ii), and (iii), we get

0= -Jrb + If F.nds
ABC

If F.nds
ABC

Jrb 3

Ex. 7.11.13:
2

VerifY divergence theorem for F=4xi-2y2j+z2k taken over the region bounded by

x + / = 4,

= 0 and z = 3.

Sol: By the divergence theorem, we have

Iff DivFdv
(1) DivF

IfF.~ ds
s

.... ( I )

=~(4x)-~(2/)+~(Z2) =4-4y+2z
Ox

..
.,.

By

8z

L.R.S. 0[(1)

~ ,t~~l,JL (4-4y+2z)dz ]dydt

,Ll"
2
x~-2

[4z-4yz+z'JC

dydx~

)11

(21-12y)dy

Jdx

=42

f ~4_X2dx=84Jr
[Do the integration w.r.t.x yourself, taking x

= 2sin ()]

(2)

Evaluate of surface integral IfF.~ ds s

Vector Differentiation
Z

601

Z=3

The given surface of the cylinder can be divided into 3parts, namely (a) (b) (c) 8 1 : the circular surface z = 0
S2: the surface z == 3 (circular) and
I

S3: the cylindrical portion of 8: Xl + i

= 4,

z == 0, z

=3

we now find JJF.~ ds over SI ,82 , S3 .If we add them, we get R.H.S of (I).
(a)

on SI:Z=.O;

~=-k; F.~=-(4xi-2ij).k=0;:. JJF.~ds'=O.


s,

(b)

- - ( ) dxdy on S2:z==3; n=k ; F.n= 4xi-2y2j+9k .k=9; d\'=-I':' -I =dxdy

n.k

:. JJF.1i (is' = JJ9dxdy = 9A , where A is the area of the circle


s, x 2 + y2 s,

= 4, = 9J'l' (22) = 36J'l'

(c)

on S3: Let fjJ =x2+i-4=0;

n =- - =
!VfjJ!

V fjJ

2 ( xi + yi)

2~X2 + i

xi + yi ( . 2

SInce x + y

= 4)

F.n=

2 2 3 22 4x -y 3 =x-y; 2

To evaluate

JJF.1i ds, take x = 2cosB,y = 2sinB,


S3

602

Engineering Mathematics - I

and ds

= 2dO dz

; limits of z are 0 to 3 and those of 0 are 0 to 27r .


2lf

Hence

fJF.~ ds
S3

f f (8cos 0-8sin 0)2d 0 dz


2 3 3 2"
2 3

(}=02=0

2"

16

f [( cos 0-sin O)z ]


e yourself]

dO = 48
2=0

f (cos 0-sin O)dB =487r


2 3

(}=o

(}=O

[ Do the integration w.r.t.

:. R.H.Sof(I)= 0+367r+487r=847r;:. L.H.S= R.H.S Hence the theorem is verified.

Exercise - 7K
1. Verify Gauss's divergence theorem for A

= (x 2 -

yz)i +

(i - zx) j + (Z2 - xy)k

taken over the rectangular parallalopiped 0 ~ x ~ 2, 0 ~ y ~ 3, 0 ~ z ~ 1.[Ans:36] 2. Use the divergence theorem to find ff F.ndS, where
-s

f = (3x + 2Z2)i - (Z2 - 2 y) j + (/ - 2z)k and S is the surface of the sphere with centre at (2, -I, 3) and radius 2 units. [Ans:32 TC]
3.
Verify the divergence theorem for the vector cube function, bounded by unit A = (4xz)i - (i)j + (yz)k , taken over the x = 0, x = 1, y = 0, y = 1, z = 0 and z = 1.[Ans:3/2] 4. If r

= xi + yj + zk , and S

is the surface of the rectangular parallelepiped bounded

by planes x = O,y = O,z = O,x = a,y = band z = c, find the value of ffr.ndS s using Gauss's theorem. Verity your answer by direct evaluation of the integral. [Ans:3abc] 5. Use the divergence theorem to evaluate ffA.nds for A where s is the sphere given by (x _1)2

= (2x)i-(2y)j + (3z)k
[Ans:4 7r] constants surface show the that

+ i + Z2 = 1
I, m, n
being the

6.

If
s

V=(lx)i+(my)j+(nz)k

and

ff V.ds

= 327r (l + m + n). where


3

IS

sphere

(X-3)2 +(y-2i +(z-I)2

= 4.

Vector Differentiation

603

7.12

Stoke's Theorem

7.12.1 Stoke's Theorem


Let (1) S be an open, two-sided surface bounded by a simple closed curve C. (2) A be a vector function having continuous derivatives Then, fA.dr

H(Y' x A).nds = H(Y' x A).d\'

where C travels in the +ve direction and n is the unit +ve (outward drawn) normal to S.

Proof:

Let S be the surface. Let the projections of S on the coordinate planes be regions bounded by simple closed curves. Let 'R' the projection ofS on xy plane be bounded by C l . (see the figure above). Let the equation of S be z differentiable function.
=

<l>1(x, y) where <1>1 is a single valued, continuous and

Then

Y'x(Ali)=alax alay
AI

604

Engineering Mathematics - I

{V x (A]i}}.n ds =(8A] _ 8A] ).nds = {8A] (n.}) _ 8A3 (n.k)}ds

8z

8y

8z

8y

.....

(.)
1

The position vector r of any point on S can be taken as


r
=

xi + y) + zk

= xi + y} + t/>/x, y)k
8r _. 0+] and - - } + - k ay 8y

But

ay

8r

being the vector tangent to S, it is .i, to n.


3</>]
-

.. ay' n = 0

8r

n.} =

8y (n.k)

. 8AI 84>1 8AI :. (I) => { V x A\,)} . n ds = (---n.k--n.k)ds 8z ay 8y


..... (ii)

on S,

A\(x y, z)

= A\(x, y, 4>\(Y = G(x, y) (say)

8AI 8AI 8z aa -+-.-=ay 8z 8y 8y

:. (ii) becomes, { V
x

(A\i) ] .n ds

= - ay (n.k) ds = - 8y dxdy

aa

aa

r:

n.k. ds

dxdy]

H(VxA\i)}.nds=
,I

Jf- aa dxdy=fCdx-, by Green's theorem in the plane. Now ay ('


R

at each point (x, y) ofC, the value ofG is the same as the value of AI at each point (x, y, z) of C, and since dx is same for both curves, we have

Vector Differentiation

605

Hence,

H{V x(Ali}}n ds = fAldx


s
c

..... (iii)

lilly by projecting S on yz and zx planes, it can be shown that,

H{V x (A2i)}n ds = fA 2dY


s
c

..... (iv)

H{V x (A3 k )}.n ds = f A 3dz


s

..... (v)

Adding (iii), (iv) and (v),

HVx A.n ds =
s

A . dr f c

(since A. dr = AI dx + A 2dy + A 3dz) Hence the theorem is proved.


Ex.7.12.1 :(a) Express Stoke's theorem in words and (b) obtain its cartesian form. Sol :(a)

The I ine integral of the tangential component of a vector A taken around a simple closed curve C is equal to the surface integral of the normal component of curl A taken over a surface Shaving C as its boundary.

(b) As in 7.11.2(b)
A=A l i+Aj+A3k n = (cosa)i + (cos~)j + (cosy)k ) ajay k ajaz

Then,

Vx A = ajax
Al

A2

A3
_

=(aA 3 _
ay

aA2)i + (aA I az az

aA3)} + (aA 2 _ aA I )k ax ax ay

aA 3 aA 2 aA I aA 3 aA 2 aA I (V x A)Jl =( - -)cosa + ( - -)cos~ + ( - -)cos y ay az az ax ax ay

606

Engine~ring

Mathematics - I

Hence the cartesian form of the Stoke's theorem can be stated as,

=fA ,dx+A 2dy+A 3dz

Solved Examples
Ex.7.12.3 :
Sol:
VerifY Stoke's Theorem for A = (x - 2y)i + yilj + y2zk, where S is the upper half of the sphere xl + y2 + z2 = 1 and C is its boundary.

The boundary of the projection ofS in the xy-plane is a circle with centre at origin and unit radius. Its parametric equations are x = cosS, y = sinS, Z = 0, 0:::: S < 2n

dx = (-sinS)d9, dy = (cosS)dS. f Adr =f(x-2y)dx+ yz 2dy+ y2 zdz c c


21t

= f[cosS - 2sinS] (- sinS )dS


e~()

(.: z =0)
21t

_ 2~[-sin2S _2 n JI + I -cos2S]dS- cos2S - - + S -sin2SI -- o 2 4 2 0


i j

Y' x A =

ajax
(x-2y)

ajry ajaz = 2k
yz2 y2 z

H(Y' x A).nds = H2(n.k )ds = 2 Hdxdy


s

(n.k ds

dxdy and R is the projection of S on the xy plane)

Hence Stoke's theorem is verified.

Vector Differentiation

607

Ex.7.12.4: Prove that a necessary and sufficient condition that fF.dr for every closed
("

curve C is that '\I x F

=0 .

Proof: (a)

The condition is necessary: Let '\IF = 0; Then by Stoke's theorem, fF.dr


("

= If('\I x F).n ds = 0
S

(b)

The condition is sufficient:

Suppose that fF.dr


('

=0

around every closed path c.

Assume that '\I x F

"* 0

at some point P. then, assuming that '\IF is continuous,

there exists a region with P as its interior point where '\IF = 0 .Let S be surface contained in this region and let the normal n to S at each point has the same direction as '\IF . Then '\IF = an, (a being a +ve constant); Let C be the boundary of S.

Then by Stokes theorem, f F .dr = If ('\IF).n ds =a Ifn.n ds > 0 c s s Which is a contradiction to the hypothesis that f F.dr

=0 ;

:. '\IF

=0

Note: It follows that '\IF = 0 is also a necessary and sufficient condition for the line
integral f F.dr to be independent of path joining the points ~ and ~ .(see 7.6.4) I;
1'2

Ex.7.12.S

If r = xi + yj + zk , show that f r .dr = 0 c

By Stoke's theorem, Jr.dr


c

= If(Curl r).n ds
('

..... (1)

608

Engineering Mathematics - I

j
y

But curl r= a/ax a/ay a/dz =0

x
:. (1) => Jr.dr = 0
('

Ex.7.12.6:

If'f and 'g' are scalar functions, show that


Jf( grad g). dr =- Jg(grad j).dr
(' ('

Sol: By stoke's theorem,


J{grad (fg)dr
('

= Jficurl{grad(fg)}ln ds = 0, since curl grad (fg) = 0


S

.. J{grad (fg)}dr =0
('

..... (1) ..... (2) /

But grad(fg)

f(grad g) + g(grad j)

Hence the result Ex.7.12.7:

[from (1) and (2)]

If A is any vector function, prove by stoke's theorem that div curl A = O.

Sol: Let V be any volume enclosed by a closed surface S. Then by Gauss' divergence
theorem. We get,
JJJV.(curl A)dv = JJ(curl A).nds
..... (1)

Divide the surface S into two portions SI and S2 by a closed curve C. Then

JJ(curl A ).n ds

= JJ(curl A).ndst + JJ(curi A).n dS 2 = JA.dr c

JA.dr c

Vector Differentiation

609

= 0, by Soke's theorem, since the +ve directions along the boundaries ofS, andS 2 are opposite.
:. (I)

~ fffV.(clirl A)dv=O

Since this is true for all volume elements V, we have, V . curl A = 0


~

div(curl A) = 0

Ex.7.12.8: Use Stoke's theorem and prove that curl gradJ= 0, where 'f' is a scalar function.

Sol:

IfS is a surface enclosed by a simple closed curve C, we have, by Stoke's theorem,

H{curl(grad J)}.nd.. = f(grad J).dr


('

.... (I)

Now, grad! dr

=(8f i + aJ j ax 0'

+ 8f k ).( dx i + dy j + dz k) az

= aJ dx+ 8f dy+ 8f dz=dJ ax ay az


A

:. f(grad J).dr = fdf


(' A

= f(A) - f(A) = 0, where A is any point on C


:. (1) ~ ff{curl(grad f)}nds

=0

Since this equation is true for all surface elements S, we have, curl (grad j) = 0

Ex.7.12.9:

Veri1)r stoke's theorem for A = yj - 2xyj taken round the rectangle bounded by x = b, y = 0, y = a y
F~

y=a __~__~ ______~B

x=-b

x=b

--____

~----~--~----~~--L---~~X

y=O

610

Engineering Mathematics - I

k
0

Sol: curl A = ajax


y2

ajay ajaz = - 4yk


-2xy

For the given surface S, n = k :. (curl A). n


= -

4y

Hence ff(curIA).n ds
a
h

h
~h

= ff- 4 ydxdy= f[ f -4ydx]dy= f -4xyl dx= f- 8bydy


s

y=o

J.=~h

= -4by 2/ =-4a 2b o fA.dr


C

..... (I)

f+ f+ f+
DA AB BF

J
FD

fA.dr = y2 dx - 2xydy
AlongDA, AlongAB,
a

0, dy = 0, => JA.dr=O
DA

( .: A.dr = 0)

x= b, dx

:.

2 f A.dr= f-2bydy=-by2/: =-a b


AB

y=O

AlongBF,
-b

y=a,dy=O

:. JA.dr=
BF

Ja
b

dx

-2a2b

Along FD,

x = -b, dx = 0 o 0 2 2b :. fA.dr= f ydy=-bi/ =-a b


FD

:. fA.dr= 0 - a 2 b - 2a2 b - a 2 b
C

= -

4a2b

..... (2)

From (1) and (2), fA.dr = ffcurl(A).nds

Hence the theorem is verified

Vector Differentiation

611

Ex.7.12.10:

Use stoke's theorem to evaluate the integral fA.dr where A = 2y.i +3xY('

(2x +z)k, and C is the boundary of the triangle whose vertices are (0,0,0), (2,0,0), (2,2,0). ) k

Sol:

Curl A = ajax ajay ajaz 2 2/ 3x -2x-z


= 2}

+ (6x - 4y)k

Since the z-coordinate of each vertex of the triangle is zero, the triangle lies in the xy-plane.

:. n

k.

:. (curl A). n = 6x - 4y consider the triangle in xy-plane. Equation of the straight line OB isy = x By Stoke's theorem,
f A .dr c

fsf(CurlA)nds

(0,0)

A(2,O)

= f6xy - 2/ dx = f(6x - 2X2 )dx = 4 ~


2
x=O
0

2 1 = 33 .
=

Ex. 7.12.11
Sol:

Use Stoke's theorem to evaluate

ff(curlA)nds, where A
=

2yi + (x- 2zx)j

+ xyk, and S is the surface of the sphere .xl + Y. + z2 = b 2 above the xy-plane.
The boundary C of the surface S is the circle.xl + The parametric equations of C are x By Stoke's theorem, we have,
=

y. + z2 = b2, Z = o.

bcose, y

bsine, z = 0, 0 ~ e < 27t

fsf(CurIA).nds =cf A.dr

612

Engineering Mathematics - I

= f2ydx+(x-2zx}dy+xydz = f2ydx+xdy
('

(0: z=O,dz=OonC)

('

2"

f(2bsin8)(-bsin8)d8+bcos8.bcos8.d8
o

[-: x = bcos8 => dx = - bsin8 d8


and y = bsin8 => dy = bcos8 d8]

= h 2 ](cos 2 8 -2sin 2 8~8 = b 2 2][1 + cos 28 - (l-cos28)18 o 0 2

b2 [ 3sin28]b2 = - r(-1+3cos28)=+- -8+ =--.2n=-nb 2 2 222 o


h221t

J"

Ex.7.12.12

Apply Stoke's theorem to evaluate f A.dr .where A = (x- y)i + (2y + z}j +

(y-z)k and C is the boundary ofthe triangle whose vertices are

(~, 0, 0) (O,~, 0)
z

and

(O,O,~)

Sol:

LetA=

(~,O,O)
=

B=

(O,~,O) C= (O,O,~).
y

The equation of the plane ABC is (by intercept form),


x y z 1/6 + 1/3 + 1/2

I =>6x+3y+2z= 1

..... (I)

The direction ratios of the normal to (1) are 6, 3, 2 .. . 6 3 2 :. D IrectlOn cosmes are -,-,777 Ifn is the unit normal to the plane, n = A = (x - y)i + (2y + z}j + (y - z)k
i
j

..i +l j
7 7

+3. k
7

VxA= a/ax x-y

aj8y a/az =k 2y+z y-z

.. (Vx A}.n =3.


7

Vector Differentiation

613

:. By Stoke's theorem,
('

fA.dr = If (VF).n ds = ~ Ifds = ~ s 7s 7

(Area of triangle ABC)

..... (2)

To find the area of triangle ABC:

AB=

AC=

(H+(H ~ ~ (H+(H ~~
15' 15'
6 3 -1 2

Direction ratios of AB are -1, Direction ratios of AC are

!,

0 . 0

. . ratios . 0 f AC a r _-1 0.~Direction e..

flO' , flO

cos CAB = (

Ts )(~ )+
2

0 +0 =

)so
2 6

sin CAB =

.:i.-EO

:. Area of triangle ABC = 1. AB.AC sin CAB = 1.. 15

.JlO ._7_ = 2. 6 J50 72

('
Ex.7.12.13Evaluate
s

JA.dr=~x-2..=_1 [from(2)]
7 72 36
taken over the portion s of the surface above the
xy plane z 0,

If(curl A).n ds

X2+/+Z2_2/x+ft=0

if

A = ~::CX2 + /-z2)i and verity Stoke's theorem.


Solution:

Let'S' denote the portion of the surface, x 2 + y2 + Z2 - 2ft + ft = 0 above the xy-plane z= O. The surface S meets the xy-plane in the circle 'C', whose equations are
x + / - 2ft = 0, Z
2

= O.

614

Engineering Mathematics - I

:. The parametric equations of 'C' can be taken as

x == j + j cosS,

y== jsinS,

z=o

(0~S<2n;)

Let S) denote the plane region bounded by C.lfS) is the surface consisting ofS and SI' SI is a closed surface. :. From example 7.11.8 on divergence theorem, we have

=0
i.e., f f(Curl A).2 ds + f f(Curl A).n ds = 0 s [.: S) consists of Sand S)]

I.e., f f(Curl A).n ds - f f(curIA).kds == 0


s '"

f f(Curl A).nds = f f(curIA).kds


s

..... (I)

Now, curl A=

a/at

a/ay

a/az

i(- 2y - 2z) + j(-2z - 2x) + k(- 2x - 2y)

:. (curl A). k

= -

2(x + y)

:. From (I), ff{curIA).nds=-2 f f(x+ y}is

"

.'I'
~cosS.

Polar equation ofS) is r =

:. changing to polar coordinates,


It

2/eos9

ff(curlA).nds=-2 f s, 9=0

f(rcosS+ rsinS)rdedr
r~O

Vector Differentiation

615

= -

2 x -'- f(eosO + sin e )eos 8de = --3- feos OdO

8(,1t

16f31t

[.: feos 3 Osin Od8 = 0]


o

1t

16f3 1t,12 4 32f3 3 I n .3 - - x 2 feos Od8=---.-x-x-=-2nj 3 0 3 4 2 2

..... (2)

Again,

fA.dr
('

f(x 2 + i - Z2 }h: + (i + Z2 - x2~y + (Z2 + x2 -- y2 )1z


C

f(x 2 + i }Ix + (y2 - x2)1y


C

[.: on C

z = 0,

dz = 0]

2"

ftU + f cos 8)2 + f2 sin e](- fsine)de


2

o
21t

f [f2 sin 2e- (f + f cos8)21f cose)de


cosS)' + sin' S}(- sinS) + {'in'S""

fffiki +
=

(I + cosS' )}coril]nIl
3 eaU

f3[2I_ 2sin ede +2I_ 2sin 2ede.+ 2I_ 2cosed8 + 2I_ cos
o
21t
0 0 0

- f(I+Cos2e)de+ fSin ecos8de


o
=
0

21t

(on simplification)
..... (3)

f'(-2n)=-2nf3

(all other integrals vanish)

from (2) and (3), we have

f f(CurIA).nd\ = fA.dr
s ('

which verifies Stoke's theorem.

616

Engineering Mathematics - I

Exercise-7(1)
1.

f F=(xe )i+(3/)j-(z)dz,and
X

C is the X +y2=9,z=2, evaluate fF.dr


('

using Stoke's theorem. [Ans: OJ

2.

Apply Stoke's theorem to obtain the value of the integral

fV.dr ,where
('

and C is the boundary of the triangle whose veltices are (0,0,0),(1,0,0) and (I, I ,0) [Ans: I]

v = (3/)i + (2X2)j -(x+ 2z)k

3.

Verify Stoke's theorem for F = (2x - y)i - (yz 2)j - (/ z)k if S is the upper halt surface of the sphere x 2 + y2

+ Z1

= I and C is the boundary.

[Ans: Jr]

4.

If F = (y - z

+ 2)i + (yz + 4)j - (xz)k and S represents the surface of the cube x = 0, y = 0, z = 0, x = 2, y = 2, z = 2 above the xy plane , verify that
ff(Curl F).ds = F.dr ,C being the boundary of S traversed in the +ve direction. s c
[Ans: Each integral =-4]

5.

Find the value of the integral f(yz )dx + (zx )dy + (xy )dz ,using Stoke's theorem c where C is the Curve x 2 + y2

= 4, z = y2
[Ans:O]
2

6.

Verify Stoke's theorem for the function V = (3x )i + (2xy)j , integrated along the square x = 0, y = 0, x = I,y =) in thexy-plane.. [Ans: 0] Evaluate where c A = (2sinz)i-(3cosx)j+(siny)k; where C is the boundary of the rectangle by Stoke's theorem the integral

7.

o~ x ~ Jr,
[Ans:6]

0 ~ Y ~ 1, z = 0

Vector Differentiation

617

Exercise - 7(m)
1. If !(x,y,z)=x 1y lllzn-1 , find the directional derivative of direction of (i+2j+2k)

at (1,1,1) in the

[Ans: -(I + 2m+ 2n)] 2. Find the acute angle between the surfaces

1 3

x 2 + i + Z2

= 6 and 3xyz + i

Z-

xy + 3 =

at (1, -I, 2)

IAns: cos'( ~}
3. If

r = xi + yj + zk , and Div{(rx p)xq} = -2(p,q)

p, q

are

constant

vectors,

show

that

4. S. 6.

If F=(x 2y)i-(iz)j+(z2x )k,findcurIFat(1,-2,3) If !=xyz(x+y+z),provethat curl gradf=O A fluid motion is given by V=(z3)i-(i)j+(3xz 2 )k. Show that it irrotational. Find its velocity potential rjJ sllch that V
IS

= V rjJ
3

[Ans: rjJ = xz 3 _l_ + c ]

(2,1)

7.

Evaluate

J(4x -12x 2i)dx-(8x y)dy along the path x 3-3xi =2/


3 3

(0,0)

[Ans: 16] 8. If V=(xy)i-(yz)j+(zx )k and S is the surface of the cube bounded by


2

= 0, x = 2, y = 0, y = 2, z = 0, z = 2 , evaluate

J V.n ds

s
[Ans: 32/3]

9.

If
, x-

! = 4x + yz , evaluate

HJ!dv over the region in the first octant bounded by v


[Ans: 11/2]

+ y 2 = 1, z = 0, z = 3

618

Engineering Mathematics - I

10.

Express F = xi coordinates.

j + zk in (a) cylindrical polar coordinates (b) spherical polar

+(r sin OcosOcos 2

_,.2

sin 2 OcosBsin 3 - rsinBcosB)eo

+ (-rsinBsincos-r 2 sin 2 Bsin 2 cos)e~]


II.

Iff = pz sin 2B ,find grad f in cylindrical coordinates


[(zsin 20)ep + (2zcos 2B)eo + (psin 2B)ez

12.

If A

= (rcosB}er -(!sinB)eo +re~, find the


r

curlA in spherical coordinates


[Ans: (cotB)e r +2eo -(2sinB)e~]

13.

Verify Green's theorem in the plane for

f(x
('

y2)dx + (x 2 - 2xy)dy ,where C is


[Ans:1]
TCr 2

the boundary of the squart: bounded by O:S x:S 1, O:s y:s 1

14.

Using

Gauss

divergence

theorem,

prove is

that the

If F.n ds =
s

P,

where by

f = (y2 Z ); + (xz)j + (z2)k ,and


x 2 + y2 = r2 , z = 0, and z = I

surface

bounded

15.

Show that the Stoke's theorem, when restricted to the xy-p/ane, is Green's theorem in the plane. (Hint: In Stoke's theorem, take A

= Pi + Qj;

n = k; and ds = dxdy)

Vector Differentiation

619

Exercise-7(n)
I. I.

Choose the correct answer in the following questions


The tangent vector at the point t=1 on the curve x = t + 1, y
2

= 4t - 3, z = t 3 is
[b]

(a) 2i-4j+3k 2.

(b) 2i+4j+3k

(c) 2i-4j-3k

(d) 2i+4j-3k

The magnitude of acceleration at 0 = 0 on the curve x = 2cos30,y = 2sin 30,z = 30 is (a) 6


(b) 9

(c) 18

(d) 3

[c]

3.

if

1= xyz, the value of Igrad II at the point (I, 2, -I) is


(b) I (c) 2 (d) 3

(a) 0

Cd]

- 4.

-, The maximum rate of change of f


(a)

= x/ + yz + zx 2
(c) 3

at the point (I, I, I) is (d) none


Z2 =

Jli

(b) 0

Cd]

5.

The angle between the normals to the sphere x 2 + y2 + 2) and (2, 1,2)is
(b) 1C

9 at the points (1,2,

(d) -

1C

2
6. If a is a constant vector and r

[a]

= xi + yj + zk , then
(c) r

'\l(a.r) is
(d) r

(a) 0
7.

(b) a

[b]

If (x + 3y)i + (2 - 3y)j + (x + az)k is a solinoidal vector, the value of a is


(a) 0 (b) 1 (c) 2 (d) 3

[c]

8.

If r

= xi + yj + zk,

and a =
(b) I

~ r,
3

div ii =
(c) -1 (d) 2
[b]

(a) 0

620

Engineering Mathematics - I

Exercise - 7(0)
I. Iff(x,yx) = X lymz"_I, find the directional derivative of fat (1,1,1) in the direction of
(i+2j+2k)

[Ans:

"3

(I + 2m + 2n)

2. Find the acute angle between the surfaces x 2 +


3xyz + yz - xy + 3 = 0 at (1,-1,2)

y +:? = 6 and
[Ans: cos

_,(Fs] 3]

3. If r = xi + yj + zk, and p, q, are constant vectors show that


Div {r x p} x q}

=-

2(p.q)

4. If F = (ry)i - (y2z)j + (:?x)k, find curl curl F at (1,-2,3) [Ans: 6i - 2j + 4k]


5. Iff= xyz(x + y+ z), prove that curl gradf= 0

6. A fluid motion is given by Y = (z3)i - (y2)j + (3xz 2)k. Show that it is irrotational. Find its velocity potential

+such that Y =

V~

[Ans: ~ = xz 3
(2,1)

y3
- -

+c ]

7. Evaluate

f{4x -12x2 y2
(0,0)

)Ix - {8x y}Jy


3

along the path x 3 - 3xy

2; [Ans: 16]

8. IfY = (xy)i - (yz}j + (zr)k and S is the surface of the cube bounded by x = 0, x
2 , y=O " y=2 z=Oandz=2 , evaluate f V .nds s

[Ans: 32/3] 9. If f = 4x + yz, evaluate f f ffdv over the region in the first octant bounded by v
x 2 + y2 = I, z = 0, z = 3

[Ans: 1112]

Vector Differentiation

621

10. Express F = xi -

y.j + zk in

a) cylindrical polar coordinates b) spherical polar coordinates. [Ans: a) p(cos28 - pSin38)e p - psin8cos8(1 + psin8).ea + ze z b) (rsin 28cos2<jl- ~sin30sin3<jl + rcos20)e r + (rsinOcosOcos2<jl- ~sin20cos8sin3<jl rsin8cos8)ea + (- rsin8sincj>coscj> - ~sin28sin2cj>coscje.] 11. If/= pzsin28, find grad/in cylindrical coordinates [Ans: (zsin28)e p + (2xcos20)e a + (psin28)e z] 12. If A = (rcosO}er -(-;,sin 0

)eo + re4>, find curl A in spherical coordinates


[Ans: (cot8)e r + 2eo - (sin8)e.]

13. Verify Green's theorem in the plane for J(x 3 c boundary of the square bounded by 0 ~ x
~

-l )tx + (x 2 -

2xy}ty, where C is the

I, 0 ~ Y ~ I
[Ans: 1]

14. Using Gauss' divergence theorem, prove that

JF.nds = 1tr2[2 , where s

F = (y2 Z} + (xz)j + (Z2 ~ , and S is the surface bounded by

x2 + y2 = r2 , z =0, and

z=l 15. Show that the Stoke's theorem, when restricted to the xy plane, is Green's theorem in the plane
[Hint: In Stoke's theorem, take A = Pi + Qj; n = k; and ds = dx dy]

"This page is Intentionally Left Blank"

8
Laplace Transforms
8.1 Laplace Transforms
Introd uction
The theory of Laplace transform is an essential part ofthe mathematical background required by engineers, physists and mathematicians. It gives an easy and effective means for solving certain types of differential and integral equations. It is the foundation of the modern form of operational calculus, which was originated in an attempt to justify certain operational methods used by an electrical engineer Oliver Heavinide, in the latter part of the 19th century for solving equations in electromagnetic theory. The Laplace transform reduces the problem of solving a differential equation to an algebraic problem. It is particularly useful for solving problems where the mechanical or electrical driving force has discontinuties, acts for a short time only or is periodic but not merely a sine or cosine function.

8.1.1 A class of linear transformations of particular importance is that of the integral


transforms. The Laplace transformation (L.T) is a special case of an integral transformation and is defined h~'
cO

F(s) = L [f{t)1

Je-stf(t) dt
o

624

Engineering Mathematics - I

Def.

Piecewise continuity ofa function: A function off(t) is sectionally continuous (Piecewise continuous) in an interval o~ t ~ b iff(t) is continuous over every finite interval 0 ~ t ~ b except possibly at a finite number of points, where there are jump discontinuties and at which the function approaches different limits from left and right.

f(t)

Sectionally continuous function


Def.
Functions of exponential Order:A function f(t) is said to be of exponential order cr, as t
~
00

if 3 M > 0
.... (1)

3/f(t)/ < Meat, or equivalently, le--crtf(t)1 ~ M,


\;f

\;f

t~0

t ~ o. t2 is not of exponential order since

Remark: eat and sinbt are of exponential order, while e

which can be made larger than any given constant by increasing 't' indefinitely.

8.1.2

Conditions for L. T to exist


By using above remarks we can prove the conditions that are sufficient for the existence of Laplace transforms.

Theorem: Iff(t) is piecewise continuous in every finite integral [0, N] for N > 0, and of exponential order cr,that is If(t)1 ~ Meat, \;f t ~ 0 and M> o. (from I)
then the Laplace transform ofF(t) exists for all s>
00 00 00

0'

Proof: LetI = /F(s)1 = Je-stf(t)dt ~ ~ f(t)/ e-stdt ~ JM eate-stdt


o
0 0

M =-=s

cr

Here, s > 0' since I is non-negative everywhere. This shows that above conditions are sufficient for the existence of L [f(t)].

Laplace Transforms

625

Properties of Laplace Transforms

8.1.3

Linearity property: Let f,(t) and fit) be two functions on [0, co] such that the Laplace transforms L[f,(t)] and Lltit)] exist. If k, and k2 are two constants, then
L[k/,(t) + klit)] This property is valid since
00 00 00

k,L[f,(t)J + k2 L[fit)J

..... (i)

f[ktf; (t) + k 2 f2(t)]e-'1 dt

= fk\.!; (t)e-'I elt + fk2.f; (t)e -,I lit = k\L[j; (I)] + k 2 L[f2(t)]
~

0 0 0

This result can be extended to the linear combinations of more than two functions.

8.1.4

Iff(t) is piecewise continuous on [0, N] for each N > 0, and ttt) is of exponential order 0", that is by 8.10.1 (1), If(t)1 ::s Meat, V t ~ 0 and M > 0 and ifL [f(t)] = F(s) then we have
(1) L [eatf(t)]

= F(s-a) V s > 0" + a va> 0


e-aSF(s)

..... (i)

(2) L[f (tn .

where f,(t)

f(t -a) t > a} 0 t < a (a>O)

and (3) L (ttat

F(~)

(for any a> 0)

Proof(l)

_a_
--~------~----~~s

From definition, we have


00

L[f(t)]

= fe-Mf(t) dt = F(s)
o
00 00

so that

L[eatf(t)]

= fe-ot[eal f(t)dt
o

= fe-(s-a)1 f(t)dt = F(s - a)


0

626

Engineering Mathematics - I

Th is property shows sh ifting on the s-axis and is called the first shifting property. This means that replacing s by s - a in the Laplace transform corresponds to multiplying the original function by eat
00

00

(2)

L(fl(t) = fe-Ilf; (t)dt = fe-'If; (t)dt + fe-sl.t;(t)dt o 0 a


a
00

fe-.II.Odt+ fe-lIf(/-a) dt
o
00

from definition offl(t)

a
00

= fe-llf(t-a)dt== fe-I(p+a)f(p)dp
o
00

(where t = p+a)

= e -a.1 fe -P' f(p )dp == e -a.1 F(s)


o

(3)

This property indicates shifting on the t-axis and is called the second shifting property d L[f(at)] = fe-'I f(at)dt == fe-I(p/a) f(p)-' [taking t = pia]
00 00

o
=

a0 a a This property is known as change of scale property.

~ }e-IP/af(p)dP==~F(~)

8.1.5
(a)

Laplace Transforms of standard functions


L (e-at )

= -s+a

(s> a)

...... ( I)

Pro()f:

we have L(e-at ) =

r Je
o

-.1/

_ .e -aidt-

r Je
0

-(Ha)1

d _ - 1 [ -(Ha)I]OO t--- e 0

---

s+a

1 s+a

Ifa=OtheL(I)= -

1 s

(s> 0)

..... (2)

Also changing the sign of , a' we get L(eat )

= -s-a
2

..... (3)

(b)

L(sinat) =

a
S

+a

and L(cosat) =

s
s- +a
J

(s> 0)
from (a)

Pro()f:

1 s+ia L(cosat+isinat) = L(e lat ) = --.- ==-)-S -lU s- + a 2

Laplace Transforms

627

Equating real and imaginary parts we get L(sinat) =


S 2

a s 2 ,L(cosat) = 2 2 +a s +a
2

..... (4)

(c)

L(sinhat) =

a 2 and L(coshat) = -a
OI ol

s
2 2
-(I

(s>

laD

Proof:

L(smhat)=L

(e _e-

1 01 1 -01 =-L(e )--L(e ) 222

- -

2 s-a
Thus (sinhat) =
S

1 [1

-----

s+a
2

I]
s s
2
-(I

from (a)

a
2

-a

similarly we can show that L(coshat) =


(d)

(5)

L(tn) =

I(n + 1)

----;+]

[(n + I) > 0 and s> 0]

Proof:

OOfe-P.pnd =T(n+l)
o
S
n+1

'P
00

11+1

Since T(n+I)= fe-xxndx


o

and

T(n+ I)

n!

ifn is a +ve integer

:. L(tn) = ----;;-+J s From (6) we have

n!

..... (6)

1 L(I)= -, s

L(t) =

1
-2 ,

Solved Examples

8.1.6

Find the Laplace transform of 1. 2t3 + cos4t + e-2t 2. e2t + 4t3 - sin2tcos3t 3. cos(wt + ~)

4. 3t2 + e- t + sin 32t 5. cos32t

628

Engineering Mathematics - I

Sol: I.

2.

6 s 1 12 s 1 + - - =-+ +-L(2t3 + cos4t + e-2t ) = 2x-+ S4 S2 + 16 S + 2 S4 S2 + 16 S + 2 L(e2t ) + 4L(t3 ) - L(sin2tcos3t)

S - 2 + 4x7 - S2 + 25 - n 2 + 1 [.: sin2tcos3t = 3.

6 (5
1

1)

"2 (sin5t -

sint)]

L cos(wt + 13) = L[coswt.cosj3 - sinwtsinj3]

=cosfJL(coswt)-sinfJL(sinwt)= cos fJ 4.

+w L[3t2+e-t+sin 32t] = 3L(t2 ) + L(e-t ) + L (sin 32t)


S

-sm

fJ
S

w
+w

2 1 3 3 =3.-+--+ - -?-S3 s+1 2(S2+4) 2s-+36 =-+--+-------S3 S + 1 2 S2 + 4 2 S2 + 36 (.: L(sin32t) =


5.
2 1 3 1 3 1

4" L[3sin2t -

sin6t]

L(cos 2t) = L

[cos6t + 3cos2t] 4

4"

(s 3S) S2 + 36 + S2 + 4
Exercise 8(A)
8 3 1 Ans. - + - - + - S3 S2 +9 s+2 Ans. S
1 4

Find the Laplace transform of


1. 2.

4t2 + sin3t + e-2t (sin2t - cos2tf

S2 + 16

3.

Ans. !(!+_S_) 2 S S2 -64

4.
5.

Laplace Transforms

629

6.

cos 2 (2bt)

Ans. - - + ? ? 2 s s- + 16b-

1(1

s)
b

7.

162 Ans. -----::,---------:--(S2 -81)(.~2 -9)


sinhat- sinbt An s.
a
-?::-------::-)

8.

s- -(r

9.

S(S2 - 28) Ans. -----:----::--2 (S2 - 36)(5 - 4)

10.

coshat - cosbt

Ans.

s
2
S
-(I

s
2

8.1.7

Examples on properties 8.1.4


Find the Laplace transform of 1. e-btcosat 4. e-3t sin3t

2. t 3 e-4t
5. e-2t[2cos3t-3sin3t]
S

Sol.
1.

L( cosat)

=)

s- +0

(from 8.1.4( I) first shifting theorem)

2.

6 L(t3 ) = 4

By shifting theorem 8.1.4(1)


6 L(e-4t. t 3) = - - (s

+ 4)4

3.

. 3 L(sm3t) = -2-S +9 by 8.1.4(1), L( e sin3t)


2t

(5 _

3 2)2 + 9.

630

Engil~eering

Mathematics - I

4.

e-3t .sin3t L(sin3t) =- L


3

[~(3Sin 1 - Sin3/)] = ~ L(sin I) - ~ L(sin 3/) 4 4 4


1 1 3

By 8.1.4(1)

L(e

-3t .

sm3t) - 4

(s+

I 3)2

+I

5.

e-2 t(2cos3t - 3sin3t)


s L(2cos3t) = 2.2 s +9

L(3sin3t) =

~9
8

By shifting theorem 8.1.4( I)

2L(e-2tcos3t) - 3L(e-2t sin3t)


2(s + 2)
= (s

9 + 2)2 + 9 - (8 + 2)2 + 9
~9 .
8

8.1.8
SoL

If L[f(t)] = 'L[f(t)]
= S2

3s

find L[f(3t)]

38 +9
s

I
By 8.1.4 (3), L[f(3t)]
=

3")
8 2

38 +27

3(8)2 - +9 3

Exercise 8(8)
Find the Laplace Transform of 1. Ans. 4cosa 8-3 +sin-----,:----(s - 3)2 + 16 (8 - 3)2 + 16

2. 3.
cosh2t.cos2t Ans

~[ 8-2 + __ 8_+_2_] . 2 (8 - 2)2 + 4 (8 + 2)2 + 4

Laplace Transforms

631

4.

coshat sinat

Ans.

a(s2 + 2( 2)
S4

+ 2a 4

S(S2 -

5. 6.

cos3t.cosh4t e- 21(2cos3t-3sin3t)

Ans.
S4

7)

+ 625 -14s 2

Ans.
S2

2s-5 +4s+ 13
S3

7.

coshat cosat elsin4t.cos2t

Ans.
S4

+ 4a 4

8.

Ans.

3 (s _1)2 +36

Ans.

5s 2 -3s+2
S3

Ans.

6 n+ 1 (8 + a)"+1 + (.\'2 + 1)(s2 + a)

8.1.9

Property (4) : Effect of multiplication by t


If L[f(t)l = F(s) then L[tf(t)] = -FI(s)
00

Proof:

We know that F(s) = Je-"f(t)dt. o differentiating with respect to s


00

00

F(s)= J-[e-"f(t)]dt= Je-"'f(t)dt o 0

as
=

00

:. -FI(s)

Je-" [if(t)]dl = L[if(t)] o

8.1.10 Examples
I. 3- L(Ie -2')_ d 1 _ 1 ---------_o_ L( e-2')_ s+2' ds s + 2 (s + 2)2

2,

d d ( 2 2S2 L(lcosat)=(-I)-[L(cosal)]=-2 = 2 2 2 ds ds s + a (s + a )
L(t sin I) = _ _ d d..

s)

3.

(_I_) =
S2

+1

---,-2_s---,(S2 + 1)2

632

Engineering Mathematics - I

4.

L(atsinat-cosat)=aL(tsinat)-L(COsat)=a[-dd ( 2S S +a
s = a [ (S2 +a2f~ - (S2 +a 2) 2as] 2 2a s s = (S2 +a 2 )2 - (S2 +l?)

2)]- s 2+a 2
S

5.

L(1+tet)3 = L[I+3et+3t2e2t+t3e3t] = L(I) + 3L(tet)+ 3L(t2e 2t) + L(t3e3t)


2 3 d 1 d 1 d ( 1 ) '1 3 6 6 =~-3 ds (s-I) +3 ds 2 (s-2)ds 3 s-2 =2+ (s-1)2 + (S-2)3 + (s-3)4 1

6.

7.

L(te4t sin2t) = -L[e sm 2/1 = - 2 ds ds (s-4) +4


41'

d [

] by shifting property

=8.

d [ 2 ds S2 -85+20
2

= (S2 -8s+20)2
2

45 -16

l d d [ s -1 ] L(t2etcos4t) = ds2 L(e cos4/) = d~2 (s _1)2 + 16 by shifting theorem

=_~[

S2-2S-15]= ds (S2 - 2s + 17)2

3 2 (2s -6s -90s+94) (S2 - 2s + 17)3

Exercise 8(C)
Find the Laplace transform of the following:

1.

Ie-"'sjn2.

Ans.

H~
(s
(S2

3)' -

(X~~::15;),]

2.

3t te- sin3t

6s-18 Ans. (S2 _ 6s + 18)2 2s+4 + 4s + 5)2

3.

Ans,

Laplace Transforms

633

4.

2tsin3t-3tcos3t

9+ 12s -3s 2 Ans. 2 2 (s +9)


35-3 Ans.
2
?

5.

tetsin2tcost

(s - 2s + 10)=

8.1.11

Property (5) If L[f(t)] = f(s), then L

U .f(t)]

J/(5) ds
,

00

Proof:

f(s)= fe-'I/(t)dt Integrating bothsides w.r.t 's' between the limits s, integration on right hand side (R.H.S),
00

and changing the order of

J/(S)ds

'1Je-.\II(t)dS]dt = J-[e~\1 l(t)] "tL


=
0

00

dt

= Je-\I
0

I~t) dr

8.1.12

Examples Find the Laplace Transforms of the following

1.

~(1-cosal)
I

2.

~(e-I sinal)
I

Sol.1.

L(I-cosat) = L(l) - L(cosat) = - S

s
2
S

+a

l I s 1 2 L -(I-cosat) = - - 2 2 ds= logs--log(s2+a) t 2 , s s +a

)K
a
2

] [

]
0

00

1 s + a=-Iog 2 2 s

(2? 1

2.

L(e-tsinat) =

(s+l) +a

I ISlOat) . ] a2 (S+I)]OO 1t s+1 _I(S+I) L -(e= oof 2ds= tan - =--tan --=cot -[t s (s + 1) + a a ,2 a a

[-1

-1

634

Engineering Mathematics - I

3.

L(1-e2 t)

L(I) - L(e2t)

= ---

1 1 s s-2

21] I I)ds= [logs-log(s-2)Js 100 =Iog-(s - 2) I L[-(1-e ) = ---t s s-2 s s


4.
L(e-3tsin2t) =
---::---

2 (S+3)2 +4

L(!et
5.
L(eal )

3/

Sin2t)= }
s

(s

+ 3) + 4

22

ds=tan- I (S+3)00 2 s

1t =-=tan 2

_1(S+3) - - =cot _1(S+3) -2 2


I L(e ht )= - -

= --,

1 s-a

s-b

1 al -e bl] L [ -(e ) = t

XI
s

1) 100 ---- ds= [log(s-a)-Iog(s-bh,. s-a s-b

s-a log( - )] s-b

00

s-a s-b ) ( =-IOg(-)=IOgs-b s-a

Exercise 8(0)
Find the Laplace transfonn ofthe following:

1.
2.

1 -(1-cost) t
I _I -e SlOt t

Ans. 2"log - s Ans. coc 1 (s+l) Ans.log C+b) -s+a

1 (hI]

3.
4.

1 - (-at e - e-hI) t

! !

t t

(e-3tsin2t)

S-3) Ans. coC I ( -2-

5.

(sin2t)

Ans.

"4 log

1 (.'+4]
~

Laplace Transforms

635

6.

I - (coat - cosbt)
t

I Ans. -log 2 I Ans. -log 2

(S2+b 2)
2
S

+(1

7.

I - (I - cos3t) t

(S2 +9) --2S S-

8.

!
t

(sin3t)

Ans.

I [_) 4" 3cot

cot

_)

s] "3

8.2.1

Theorem: Iff(t) is continous t ~ 0 and of exponential order, say 0" and has a derivative ~(t) which is piecewise continuous on every finite interval [0, N] for each N > 0, then the Lapalce transform of the derivative ~(t) exists for s > 0" and
L{~(t)} = sLf(t) - f(O)
00

Proof:

L(f(t)]

je-'I f(t)dt
o
00

L(~(t)]

je-'I fl(t)dt
00

Integration by parts gives

L(~(t)] =

[e-.'I f(1)1 + s je-'I f(t)dt

o Since f(t) is of an exponential order, the integrand in first integral on the R.H.S. is zero at the upper limit when s> 0' and iff(O) at the lower limit. Thus, we have
00

L( ~(t)] If Lt f(t)
1-)0

= 0 - f(O) + S

je

-;t

f(t)dt =' sLf(t) - f(O)

= f(O+)

exists, but is not equal to f(O), which mayor may not exist then

L(~(t)]

= sLf(t) - f(O+).

Note:

Iff(t) and its derivatives ~(t), ~I(t) .............. fI- 1 (t) are continous t ~ 0 and are functions of exponential order for some M > 0 and 0', and the derivative fI(t) is Piecewise continous on every finite interval in the range t ~ 0, then the Laplace transform offl(t) exists when s> 0' and is given by L[fI(t)] = s"[Lf(t) - s" - If(O) - s" - 2 ~(O) ............... _tn - 1(0)] If n = 2, L [~I(t)]
=

s2[L(f(t] - sf(O) -~(O) and so on.

636

Engineering Mathematics - I

8.2.2

Example
Prove that L(cosat) =
S2

+ a2

Sol.

We can show this with the help of above theorem Let f(t) = cosat => f(O) = 1 then [I(t) [l1(t)

= -asint => fl(O) = 0

= -a2cosat

Hence, we have

= s2Lf(t) - sf(O) - fl(O) 2 :. L[-a cosat] = s2L(cosat) - s - 0 s2L(cosat) + a 2L(cosat) = s


L[fll(t)] :. L( cosat)

s2L(cosat) - s

8.2.3

+a Theorem: Iff is Piecewise continous on [0, N] for each N > 0 and is of exponential
S
I I order cr, then L ff(u)du = -L[/(/)] v s > CT, o s I

s
2 2

Proof.

Let p(t)

= ff(u)du. Then we have p1(t) = f(t) and f(O) = 0;


o

L[~(t)l =s.L[~(t)l-~(O) =s[L(~(tl =SL[!f(U)du1


:. L Iff(u)du [ o 8.2.4 Examples

= -L[I(/)] = -[L(f(/]
s s

III
I

Find the Laplace transforms of


I
I

I. fsin 2pdp
o

2. fp cosh p dp
o

3.

o p

mp

dp

4.

r p sm P je . - - d'P
P

Sol.

2 1. L(sin2t) = Z--4 = f(s) , say s +


112 fsin 2pdp =- f(s) = --=-2-o S s(s +4)

Laplace Transforms

637

2.
I (s + (1-) then L pcosh pdp = - I(s) =- ) ) o 8 (8- -a-)s
I

3.

. L(smt)=

I ~I ;

s +

(I .
t

-SlOt

00

0\

J-2s +1
I

ds

p dOp=Ijo() I -I L 'JSin -s =-cot s o P s s

4.

I L(sint)= -2-1 s + ds2 I L [ -ee' sint) ] = ooJ t (s -I) +1 ,

I ... L( etsint) = --.,,---(s _1)2 + I

sin p 1 1 1 :. L e P --dp = - I(s) = -cot- (s -1) o P s s

'f

Exercise 8(E)
Find the Laplace Transform of
I I

I. Jcos2pdp
0

3 2. Jpe- sin 4 pdp


0

3.

Jp sin 3pdp

Ans. I.

s
S(S2

+ 4)

2.

8(s + 3)
S(S2

+ 6s + 25)2

I _I 3. -cot s s

638

Engineering Mathematics - I

Laplace Transforms of Periodic Functions

8.2.5

A function f(t) in said to be periodic with period p>O iff(t+p) = f(t) for all t>O Since periodic appear in many practical problems and in most cases are more complicated than single sine or cosine functions, we find it useful to establish the following result:
I I' L([f(t)] = I-e- Ps fe-Slf(t)dt
o

Proof:

Let f(t) be a periodic function of period 'p' so that f(t) = f(t+p) = f(t+2p) = ...... .
00

I'

21'

L[f(t)] = fe -si f(t)dt


o

= fe -s/ f(t)dt +
o

fe -si f(t)dt + ............... .


I'

writing t = u+p
21' I'

now fe-ollf(t)dt= fe-o,(u+p)f(u+ p)du


I'

= e- Ps fe-OVlf(t + p)dt
o
I'

I'

(change u to t)

f -vlfCt )dt = e -1" Je


0

[.: f(t+p)=f(t)]

o
31'

similarly, fe-oIl f(t)dt


21'

= e- 21'S fe-ollf(t)dt
0

I'

and so on

I'

L[f(t)] = (1+e-ps+e-2ps + .................... 00) fe-ollf(t) o The expression within parantheses is a G.P. with c.r. = e-PS :. L[f(t)] = 1_:-1'$ Je-Slf(t)dt
o

Laplace Transforms

639

Solved Problems

8.2.6
l.

Find the Laplace Transform of


t - for 0 < t < P and f(t) = f(t+p) P f(t) = 1 for 0 < t < a and f(t) = -1, a < t < 2a and f(t) is periodic with period 2a

f(t)

=k

2. Sol.

Since f(t) is periodic with period p.

L[f(l)] =

l-e- sp

1. Je-s1f(l)dt=

l-e-"P

Je-"I.~dt
p

2.

f(t) is peirodic with peirod 2a

L[f(t)] =

1 2a si 1 [a 2a. Je- f(t)dt = Je-sl.l.dt + Je-'I (-I)dt 2as -2as 1 _ e1 e 0 0 0

_ 1 [{_e-SI}a -1_e-2a, - s - 0

SI {_e- }2aj_l 1 (l -a,)2 - s - 0 - s l_e-2as ' -e

--.

[1 - e- 2as ]_ 1[/f - e-'T --tanh 1 [-as ] -1 --. s 1+ e -2as s 2


S

e 2 +e

-~
2

1-

8.2.7

Find the Laplace transform of the rectangular wave shown in the figure:
f(t)

1s

b 2b

3b

Rectangular wave

640

Engineering Mathematics - I

Sol:

The period of the given function is '2b'. Hence L[f(t)]=


I

2h. -2h, Je-Mj(/)dt=


0

[ h .S1 2b -2h.\ J1.e- j(t)dt+ J(-I)e-S1dt


0
b

l-e

l-e

e 2 -e

hs

-bs 2

I bs =-tanhs 2

8.2.8
Sol.

What is the Laplace transform of the staircase function (fig(a)) given by f( t) = n+ I, np < t n+ 1)p for n = 0, 1, 2 ............ . The easient way of getting the Laplace transform of the staircase function is to consider it as the difference between the two functions shown in Fig(b) the transform ofthe linear function (t + p) can easily be found by using first shifting, P second shifting and change of scale properties. Thus, we have

f(t)

f(t)

P 2p

3p

(a) Staircse function (b) solution of the stair case function (c) Saw-tooth function.

Laplace Transforms

641

t The function fl(t) = - is called a saw-tooth function (fig(c and its transform is p
obtained as shown below.

L[ft(t)] =

1 P 1 1 [ -,I ]P _, fe-'I~d'= _.- _e_(_st_1) 1- e Ip p 1- e "P p S2


o
0

1- (1 + ps)e - P' ps2(1-e-"P)


This can be simplified to

L[ I' (I)] JI -

~[1 + ps P S2

p s(1-e- PS )

..... (2)

Thus from (1) and (2), we get

L[f(t)]=~(~+P)_~(I+PS_ p- 1 p s- s P S2 s(1-e P")


1

Exercise 8(F)
1. If Lf(t) = <I>(s), Prove that
L[~II(t)] = s3<1>(s) - s2 <I>(s) - s<l>l(s) - <l>1I(s)

2.

If

L[~I(t)] = Tan-I (+), f(O) =,2 and ~(O) = -1 find L[f(t)]

3.

A periodic function f(t) of period 2a is defind by f(t) = t, = 2a - t, for 0 .'S t .'S a, for a < t < 2a

show that L[f(t)] = 1 tanh

(as) 2

642

Engineering Mathematics - I

4.

Iff(t) = t2,

< t < 2 and f(t+2)

f(t)

find L[f(t)].

5.

Iff(s) = L(f(t), Prove that


L[Sdl SJ'(U)duj == o 0 s

F~) and hence generalise the result.

8.2.9

Laplace transform of the unit step function


The unit step function orthe Heaviside function is defined as H(t-a) = H(t-a)
=

ift<a,

lift < a

where a is a non-negative constant. In particular, when a = 0, we have

O,i/ 1 < H(t)= [l,ifl>O

The unit step function is the basic building block of certain functions whose knowledge greately increases the usefulness of the Laplace transformation. It is easy to show that the Laplace transform of H(t-a) is given by e- U \ L(H(t-a==s
00

00

L[H(t - a) == fe-vI H(t - a)dt = fe-VI O.dl + fe-\/l.d' o 0 a

-e -sl s o

00

e-as
s

8.2.10 Proof:

. 1 In Particular, when a=O, we get L(H(t = s Heaviside shift theorem: If Lf(t) = f(s), then L[f(t-a)H(t-a) = e-as f(s).
By defnition, we have
00

00

L[f(t - a)H(t - a) == fe- si f(t - a)H(t - a)dt == fe- si f(t - a)O.dt + fe- si f(t - a)l.dt o 0 0
00 00

== fe -s(p+a) f(p )dp == e -sa fe -sp (p )dp o 0

(consider p = t-a)

Laplace Transforms

643

8.2.1

Examples

Find the L.T. of the function


f(t)

=1
=0 =sint

1.

} if 0 < t < 1t if1t<t<21t

ift>21t

SoL

Let us represent f(t) interms of unit step functions as flt)=H(t)-H(t-1t)+H(t-21t) sint


-2 It' 1 -It' L[f(t)] = L[H(t)] - L[H(t-1t)] + L[H(t-21t)sint] = __ _ e _ + _e_ s s s

2.

Find L.T. oft2H(t-3) Let us express <I>(t) = t 2 as a function of(t-3) by using Talor's series, which states that f(x) - f(a) + (x-a) (a) +
(t 3)2

fI

(x-a)2 II 2! f (a) + ................. + ............. .

(t)=94-(t - 3).6+

2!

.2

Now, by the above result L[f(t).H(t-a)] = L[9+6(t-3) + (t-3fH(t-3)] = L[f(t-3).H(t-3)] = e-3S Lf(t) L[t2H(t-a)] 3.
Sol.
=

where f(t)

9+6t+t2

9 + -6 2 + ......... .] e-3s [ ? + 3 s s- s

Express F(t) = (t-2)2 when t>2 and f(t) = 0 when 0<t<2 in terms of Heavis ide unit step function and find its Laplace transform It is easy to see that F(t) = (t-2)2 = (t-2f.H(t-2) (since for t<2, H(t-2)=0 and for ~2, H(t-2)=1) where f(t) = t2 L[f(t).H(t-2)] = L[(t-2)2H(t-2)] = e-2s .Lf(t)
=e
-2,\

2! .3 s

644

Engineering Mathematics - I

Exercise 8(G)
I. Find the Laplace tranform off(t) using the unit step function, where
I
f(t) =

ifO<t<1 if3<t<4

2 ifl<I<3
4

-2 if 4 <I
I e-I 2e-31 6e-~1 Ans. - + - + - - - - [s s s s

2.

Determine the Laplace transform of the following function: (i) f(t)


=

6-2H(t-1t) - 4H(t-21t)

6-2e-7t'i -4e-2"" Ans.-----s


5 2-,

(ii) f(t)

e2I H(t-log5)

Ans. - 5-s Ans.


e
-(1\'

(iii) f(t) = (t-a)H(t-a)

-2

(iv) f(t)

t2 H(t-2)

Ans.

e-2"(2 4s 4s 2 ) --'-----.:3--...:...

(v) f(t)

H(t-e t )

1 Ans. s

(vi) f(t) = tH(t-2) (vii) f(t) = (l +2t-3t2 +4t3)H(t-2) 25 38 42 24] Ans. e-2s - + - + - + [ s S2 S3 S4
1
--

(viii) f(t) = sint.H(t-1t)

Ans. e-ltS

S2

+1

Laplace Transforms

645

8.3.1

Inverse Laplace Transforms


If L[f(t)] = F(s) then f(t) is called the inverse Laplace transform of F(s) and is denoted by L-I[F(s)] = f(t) if fl and f2 are continuous functios on [0, 00] such that L[f2(t)] or FI(s) = F2(s) (v- s>O) then fl(t) = fit) (v- t::::O) Some of the important properties of the inverse laplace transforms are analogous to the corresponding properties of Laplace transforms.
=

L[fl(t)]

1.

Linearity Property: If kl' k2 are any constants and F I(s) and Fis) are the Laplace transforms of fl(t) and fit) respectives, then
L-I[kIFI(s) + k2Fis)] = klfl(t) + k/i t). First shifiing property: If L- I [F(s)] = f(t), then

2.

jor t > a for t < a


3. Change of scale property: if L-' [F(s)] = f(t), then

4.

Inverse Laplace transforms of derivatives: If L-'[F(s)] = f(t) then

5.

Inverse Laplace transfonn of integrals: If L-'[F(s)] = f(t) then

6.

Multiplication by's': If L-'[F(s)] L-[sF(s)]


=

f(t) and f(O)

0, then

fI(t)
=

7.

Division by's': If L-I [F(s)]

f(t) then

646

Engineering Mathematics - I

. result can be extended to L- I ( - This s"


I I I

F(S)

ff..ff(u)du".
00 0

(the proof is left to the student)

8.3.2

Table of inverse transforms


L[f(t)] L(1)
L- I [F(s)]

I
= -

s
1

L- I L- I

(~)

L(e-at)

= --

s+a

L(tn )

n!
= S"+I

1-1

(_I ) s+a ( I) + I)!


=

e-at

S'1+1

(n

t"

if 'a' is a positive integer L(sinat) =

S2

a +a 2
s

rl (

s +a

2) =

~ sinat a
cosat

L(cosat)

=
S2

+a 2 a _a 2 s _a 2

L-I ( 2 S

s +a

2)

L(sinhat)

S2

L_ I ( 21 L- I (

s -a

2)=~sinhat a

L(coshat) 8.3.3

S2

S2

s 2 ) coshat _a

Using the above results inverse Laplace transforms of some simple functions can b~ obtained as below. Find the inverse Laplace transform of:
I. 2 - S2

2s+3

+9

3.

3s+5 2 9s -25

1_ 4._ 4s+5
8~4 s +

5. 4s-5

3 6.s+ 4

2s+ I 7. (s + 1)

s+3

Laplace Transforms

647

Sol.
I.

From the above table, we get

2.
=

2cos3t + sin3t

3.

I L- (

9s- - 25

3~+5

)=L-I(

3s )+L-I( 2 5 9s 2 - 25 9s - 25

)=~COSh(~)+~sinh(~)
3 3 3 3

4.

5.

6.

L- (_3_) = 3rl_1_ = 3es+4 s+4


I

41

7.

-2L-I(_s ) + L-I(_l )_" . L-I 2s+1 1 1 2 - .... cost+smt (s- + 1) s- + 1 s +1

8.

-I( S+3) -I(


-1--

s- + 4

=L

-1--

s ) +L s- + 4

-I(

-1--'

3 ) =cos2t+-sm21 3 . s- + 4 2

Exercise 8(H)
Find the invere Laplace transform of:
1. -+-+-S S3 S

+4

4s+ 15 5. 16s 2 _ 25

648

Engineering Mathematics - I

[2

Ans.

1.2+ - + e-4t 2 4.1 + t 2 + 24

2. 3cos4t + sin4t

3. 2cosh3t+sinh3t

,4

Examples 8.3.4
Find the inverse Laplace transform of:
1.

6s-4
--"-2- - -

s -4s+ 20

2. (s _ 3)3

3. (s _ 2)4

4.

s-2 + -=-2- - (s-l) s -4s+5


I
2

Sol.

4 L- I

1 ) + L-I (s - 2) (S-2)4 (s2-4s+5)


1 ') ) + L (s-2t

= L-I(
=

I ) + L- I ( (s - 2) ) (s-2i s2-4s+4+1

=L

-I(

-l(

S-2) (S-2)2 + 12

') et.t + e~t.cost

Exercise 8(1)
Find the inverse Laplace transform of:
(i)----

s+4 S2 -4s+ 13

(ii)

s +6 S2 -Ss +25

(iii)

-=----

4s+ 12 S2 +Ss + 16

Laplace Transforms

649

B.3.5

Method of partial fractions:


Whenever possible we exress the given function F(s) into the sum of linear or quadratic partial fractions as F(s) =

A Bs+C r + ? 2 r and then use the standard results to find the inverse L.T. (s + a) (s- + a )
r l [ S3 +

Examples (I) Find


Sol.

4] for all s>O, s +s

By partial fraction expansion, we have s+ 1 A Bs+C ---=-+---

S(S2 + I)

S2

+1

s+1 = A(s2+1) + (Bs+c)s = As2 + A + Bs2 + cs comparing coefficients of different powers of s from both sides O=A+B
)=

:. I = A, B =-1 .
..

s+1 1 -s+1 =-+-S(S2 + I) S S2 + 1

By the linearity property of L-I, we have

- - = L-l(I) - - L-1(-s- ) + L-1(-I- ) L-l(S+l) S3 + s ' S S2 + 1 S2 + I


2.
Sol.

. =I -cost+smt

2S2 -6s+5
If L[f(t)] =
S3

+ 6s2 + lIs -6 find [f(t)]

By partial fractions we have

J(s) =
S3

2S2 -6s+5 =_A_+_B_+_C_ -6s 2 +Ils-6 (s-l) (s-2) (s-3)

:. 2S2 -6s + 5 = A(s -2)(s -3)+ B(s -l)(s -3)+C(s -l)(s -2)
put s = I we get I =2A put s
=

A= 1/2

B=-1

650 Similarly s = 3 gives


C
. ..
=

Engineering Mathematics - I

5/2 . 2 (s-I) 8-2 2 8-3 2 2

L-I[f'( S.)]_ I L- I - I - L- I ( -I- ) +5 L- I ( A 1 1 -e 21 +-e 5 31 -- )_ --e

3.

If Lf(t) = (

3s+ I )( 2 I ' find f(t) s-I s + )

Sol.

By partial fractions we have


s -1 S2 + I :. Solving for A, B C

j(s)=~+ Bs+C

we have A = 2, B = -2, C = -I
L- I [j(s)] = 2C l _1__ 2CI _s_ + L- I _)_1_ S -1 S2 + I s- + I
=

2e t - 2cost + sint

4.

If L[f(t)]

s+2 (s + 3)(s + 1)3 find f(t)

Sol.

j(s) =

s+2
(s+3)(s+I)3

=~_I__ ~_I_+~ I +1 1 8s+3 8s+1 4(8+1)2 2(8+1)3

(after expressing the function in partial fractions)

:.rl[f(8)]=~rl-I--~rl-I-+ 1
8 8+38

8+14(8+1)-

+ I 1 2(8+1)3

=~e-31 - ~e-I -t ~/e-I +t 2e-1 = ~[(2t2 + 21 -1)e-' + e-31 ]


8 8 4 8

5.
Sol:

If L[f(t)]

(S2

(S2 + 2s - 42) + 28 + 5)(8 2 + 2s + 2) find f{t)

Let f(s)
:.S2

as+b 82 + 28 + 5 +

S2

c8+d + 28 + 2

+ 28 -4 =(a8 +b)(8 2 + 28 + 2)+ (cs + d)(S2 + 2s + 5)

Equating the coefficients of like powers of s we get a = 0, b = 3, c = 0, d = -2.

Laplace Transforms

651

3 :f(s)= s2+2s+5

2 s2+2s+2

3 (s+I)2+22

2
(s+I)2+12

:.L

-I(

f(s)]=3L

-I(

1 2 ? ) -2L (s+l) +2-

-I[

1 2? (s+l) +1-

6.

If L[f(t)]

2s 4s2 + 16 ' find f(t)

Sol.

By change of scale property we have

-I[

] =-cos 1 21 4s +16 2
2

2s

since L- I [

2 S

s +16

cos4t

e- 5
7.
If L[f(t)]
=

(s _ 2)4 find f(t)

Sol.

We know

rl[

(s - 2)4

1 L-I[_I]
= e 21

S4

e2/.~ = ~t3e21 3! 6

Thus by second shifting property

L- I
[

e -5s (S-2)4

={I 1 g

-(I - 5)3e2(t - 5)

ift>5 if 1 < 5

Exercise 8(J)
Determine the inverse Laplace transform of each of the following functions. (i)

3
s+2 s-5 S2 +6s+ 13

(ii)

s s2+2s+6 e -2 .. s(s + 1)

(iii)

2s+ 1 s(s + 1) S2

(iv)

10g(~) s+2

(v)

(vi)

(vii)

(S2 + 9)(S2 + 16)

652

Engineering Mathematics - I

(viii)

2S2 + s -I 0 (s - 4)(S2 + 2s + 2)

-(ix) log (I + Sl2 )

(x)
(8

+ 64)

(xi)

(xii)

s(s + I)(s + 2)(s + 3)


8 8 2

s (s4+s2+1)
s

(xiii)

+ lOs + 13
2 -

(xiv)

-I 0(8

5s + 6)
(xvi)

(8 + 1)(s2 +4)

(xv)

8+29

(S+4)(S2 +9)
48+4 (8 _1)2(8 + 2)

5s+3 (s -1)(s2 + 2s + 5) S2 + 1
s3

(xvii)

(xviii)

+3s 2 +2s

Ans.

. ) -1 (-2/ e -e -3/) ( IV t
(v) e-3tcos2t - 4e-3tsin2t (vi) 4(1 - e-2t)(t - 2)

(vii)

(~Sin4t -%Sin3t)

(viii) e4t - e-t(cos2t+2sint)

2 (ix) -(I-cost)

(x)

"8

sin2t sinh2t

(XI)

. I I _/ 1 -2/ 1 -3/ -.l--e +-e --e 6 2 2 6

(XII)

. J3 2(. T J5 t .sln 'ht] 2"


Sin

(xiii) 12et - 37e2t + 25e3t

(xiv)

I "3

(cost - cos2t)

(xv) e--4t - cos3t +

5 "3

sin3t

(xviii)

.! - 22

et

~
2

e-2l

Laplace Transforms

653

8.4

Convolution Theorem
If L[f(t)] = F(s) and L[g(t)] = G(s) the inverse transfonn of F(s). G(s) denoted by H(t), is called the convolution of f and g is defind as given below.
I

H(t) = (f*g)(t) = f(t-u)g(u)dll,vtzO o The convolution operation * has the following properties. (f*g)(t) = (g*f)*t), [f*(g*h)](t) [1'*(g+h)](t)
=

..... ( I)

v t
v- t v- t

~ ~ ~

0 (commutative) 0 (associative) 0 (dstributive)

[(f*g)*h](t) (f*g)(t) + (f*h)(t)

8.4.1

Theorem: Let f(t) and get) be the inverse transforms of F(s) and G(s) respectively, and satify the hypothesis of the existence theorem (8.10.2) then the the inverse transform h(t) of the product F(s) G(s) is the convolution of f(t) and get).
I

h(t) = (f*g)(t) = fl(t-u)g(ll)du o


I

i.e.

L-'[F(s)G(s)]

fl(t - u)g(u)du
o

..... (i)

Proof:

It is sufficient if we show that F(s) G(s)

L[

1 f

(l- u)g(u)du

1
g(u)du ]

Now F(s)G(s)

~ [fe" f( v)dv]
=
00

[V

Ile-(U+V)S J(v)g(u)dvdu = le-S(V+U) J(V)dV]g(U)dU'

rr llo

where the integration is extended over the first quadrant (u ~ 0, v .:=:: 0) in the uv-plane. We now introduce a new variable 't' in the inner integral of the last expression by taking v = t-u so that u + v = t and dv = dt (u being fixed during this integration). Thus

F(s)G(s) =

rr le->t llu

J(t - U)dt]g(U)dU =

Ile->t J(t -u)g(u)dtdu


0
U

654

Engineering Mathematics - I

al

F(s)G(s)= fTIe-SI!(t-u)g(u)du]dt= fe- jlr{t-u)g(u)du}tt


00 0 0

s, I

8.4.2 Examples
(I) Evaluate

~ r' [ s2 (s 1+ I )2l using the convolution theorem

Sol.

we have

L-'C, )~I

and

r'((S~I)' )~/e-'
2
U

By the convolution theorem


=LI [

1 y]= J(ue- -{t-u}du= J(ut-u )e- )du s s+1 0 0

2(

= [(ut -u2)e-u - (t-2u)e-u + (-2)(-e-U) = t-e-t + 2e- 1 + t-2


(2)

~valuate LLet F(s) =

(s +2 )

2 S 2 2] using the convolution theorem.


~s)

Sol.

~4

s s ' G(s) = - 2 - and Let s + s +4

= F(s) G(s)

_I s f(t) = L-I [F(s)] = L (-2-) = cos2t s +4

1 g(t) = L-l[G(s)] = r-I (-2-_) = ! sin2t s +4 2

f(u).;: cos2u CIld g(t-u) =

1 2" sin2(t -u)

Laplace Transforms

655

I I C l [tp(S)] = JCOS 2u -sin 2(1 - u) du

o
I

2
2u )dll

~ JSin 2t + sin 2(t 40

=~[sin2t.U+~COS2(t-2U]1 ~tsin2u
4 2 04
(3)
Evaluate LI [

s s+4
~

~1 using convolution theorem.


G(s) =

Sol.

Let F(s) = i...s)


=

vs+4 F(s).G(s)
I

- and choose
s

.. f(t) = L- [F(s)] =

(s + 4)

~
2

= e-4t

CI_1_ =e-41

s~

t~ = r;; r41 e1 2

'\I1tl

g(t) = L-1[G(s)] = L- 1 (-)

1 =1 s

e --4u
f(u) = rand g(t-u) = 1
'\I1tU

By convolution theorem
I

-4u

L-1[$(s)] = Jer- du o '\I 1tU

1 r

2!i

Je-

x2

dx

'\I 1t 0

where 4u

.xl

2du =xdx
I

(where erf(t)

2 r

Je-

dx

'\I1t 0

(erft stands for error function)

656

Engineering Mathematics - I

Exercise 8(K)
Using the convolution theorem find the inverse Laplace transforms of

(v) logs+2 S +1

(vi)

(s + 1)(s- + 1)

(ii)
-211

"3 (2sin2t-sint)

(iii)

"3 tsint

(iv)

I o

-/I

-e u

du

I f4 -cost-smt . ] (vi) -Le 2

8.4.3 Applications to differential equations


Suppose we wish to find the particular solution of the differential equation

lay" + /3y' + yy = J(t)

..... (1)

which satisfiestheinitial conditionsy(O) Yo and yeO) = Yo Taking the Lapa1ce transform on bothsides of (l) and using its linearity, it follows that

aL(y") + /3L(y') + yL(y) =

L[J(t)]

but L(y") = s2L(y) -sy(O) _yl(O)

L(y') = sL(y) - yeO)


a[s2L(y) - sy(O) - yl(O)] + /3[sL(y) - yeO)] + yL(y) and hence (as 2 + /3s + y)L(y) - L[f(t)] + (as + /3)Yn + ayJ

= L[f(t)]

=> L(y) = L[/(t)] + (as + /3)yo + aYb


as 2 + /3s +y
The function L[f(t)] is a specific function of s since f(t) is known; and since a, /3, y. and yJ are constants, L(y) is completely known as a function of s. The inverse Laplace transform of L(y) will be the solution of the given diff. eqn.

}'0

(Here it is assumed that the functions f( t), y, y' and y" must have Laplace transforms).

Laplace Transforms

657

Solved Examples

8.4.4
2

' d th i ' 0f d2 y +dy - 2Y = smt ' w h'IC h satls 'files t h'" , e so utlOn e Imtla I cond'ItlOI1S y = 0, Fm dt dt
Sol.
y' = 0 when t = 0 Applying the Laplace transforms to both sides of the given equation and by linearity, we have
L(yW) + L(y') - 2L(y) = L(sin t)

1 As we know that L(sint) = -2-1 ;s > 0 s +


[s2L(y) -sy(O) - y' (0)] + [sL(y) - yeO)] -2 L(y) Given conditions yeO) = 0, y' (0) = 0

= -2-1
s +

=> s2L(y) + sL(y) -2 L(y) =


L(y)=

1
-2-

s +1

1
(s- + S - 2)(S2 + 1)
?

=-----:---

(s -IXs + 2)(S2 + 1)

we have the partial fraction expansion


- - - - - - - : - - = - - + - - + -":--

1 (s -1)(s + 2)(S2 + I)

A B C . +D s -I s + 2 S2 + I

where

=.! B =-=! ,C =-=! and D = - 3


6' 15 10 10

Therefore we get
1 1 yet) = L- 1 - - - - - - 1 (s -1)(s + 2)(S2 + 1)

as the solution to the given initial value problem,

658

Engineering Mathematics - I

8.4.5 Example
Solve the initial value problem y"-3y'+2y=e 31 .y=l,y'=0 wheret=O Sol. Applying Laplace transform to both sides of the differential equation, we get [s2Ly(t) - sy(O) - y' (0)] -3 [sLy(t) - yeO)] +2 L(t) Applying the given conditions, we get (s2 - 3s + 2) Ly(t) = s-3 + 1
=

L(e3!) = -

s-3

s-3

I :. L[y(t)] = (S2 _ 3s + 2) + (s - 3)(S2 - 3s + 2)

s-J

s-3

:. L(y(t)] = (s _ 3)(S2 _. 3s + 2) + (8 2 - 3s + 2)
1

--------+-----(8-1)(s-2)(s-3) (s-I)(8-2)

8-3

.... (1)

To find yet), we expand each term on the right hand side of (I) in partial functions, Thus ABC ------=----+--(s-I)(s-2)(s-3) s-1 s-2 s-3 1 = A(s-2) (s-3) + B(s-l) (s-3) + C(s-I)(s-2) substituting s = I gives A = 2" ;similarly substituting s = 2 gets B = -1 and substituting
I s = 3 gives c ="2
I

hence
1

- - -1 --- =
(s-I)(s-2)(s-3)

2(8-1)

--- +---s-2 2(8-3)

Similarly we can also write s-3 D E ----=-+-(s-I)(s-2) s-1 s-2

Laplace Transforms

659

s-3 = D (s-2) R(s-I) Taking s =: 2, we get E =:-1 similarly s = I we get D = 2 Hence L[f(t)] = I 2(s-l)

--+
s-2

I 2{s-3)

+--s-I s-2

221 - - - + -,----- 2( s - I ) s - 2 2{s - 3)

Example 8.4.6
Solve yll + 3yl + 2y = 2t3 + 2t + 2 with yeO) = 2, yl(O)

Sol.

Applying Laplace transform to both sides of the given equation we get L(yll) + 3L(yl) + 2L(y) = 2L(t2) + 2L(t) + 2
? I 4 2 2 [s-Ly(t) - sy(O) - yeO)] + 3 [sL[y(t)] - yeO)] + 2Ly(t) = 3 + -2 + -

.... (1)

using the given conditions (1) gives


(

s + s+ )Ly t

3 2

()

2(2+s+s2)
3
S

+ s+

2(S4 +3s +S2 +s+2)


3
S

By partial fractions, yet) = yet)

3L-I(~) -2r

L\ ) 2L-ILI
+

3) -

L-Ie ~ 2)

=3 -

2t + t 2 - e-2t

660

Engineering Mathematics - I

Exercise 8(1)

Using Laplace transform method solve the following differential equations with the given conditions.
I.

yll + 2yl - 3y = 0 at, y = 0, yll + 4y = 4t at y = I, yll - 2yl + Y = et at y = 2, yll + k2y = coskt at y = 0, yl =

yl = 4 when x = 0 yl = 0 when t = 0 yl = -I when t = 0

2. 3. 4. 5.
6. 7.

"2

when t = 0

yll- y = 1 at y = -I, yl = I when t = 0 yll + 2yl + 3y = 3e-t sint; yeO) = yl(O) = 0 xii + 4xl = -8t given x(O) = 0, xl(O) = 0 yll + 9y = 18t given yeO) = 0, yl(O) = 0 yll + Y = sint given yeO) = -I, yl(O) =

8. 9.

1 "2

Ans.l. y

= eX -

e-3x

1 I I 2. y= - t- - sint + cost 3. y = 2et - tet + -2 t2et 4 8

1. k 1 . 4. Y = 2k Sill t + "2 tSll1t


7. x =

5. y = -1 + et - cosht

6. y = 3e-tsint

8 +"2

-I

t - t2 +

"8

e-4t 8. y = 2t -

"3

sin3t