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Automobile Engineering (EME-702)

Mr. Ashok Singh Yadav, M.E. Apex Institute of Technology , Rampur Asst. Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering,

Automobile Engineering (EME-702)

Automobile/ Automotive Engineering:


Definition: Modern automotive engineering, along with aerospace engineering and marine engineering, is a branch of vehicle engineering, incorporating elements of mechanical, electrical, electronics, software and safety engineering as applied to the design, manufacture and operation of motorcycles, automobiles, buses and trucks and their respective engineering subsystems.

Syllabus Contents:
Unit1: Power Unit and Gear Box. Unit 2: Transmition System. Unit 3: Braking System, Chasis and Suspension system. Unit 4: Electrical System, Fuel Supply System. Unit 5: Automobile Air Conditioning, Cooling & Lubrication System, Maintenance system.

Classification of Autovehicles:

1.

On the basis of:


Number of wheels Type of power plants (prime mover) used Load carrying capacity and their weights Purpose served Fuel used Drive system used (Front wheel or Rear wheel D.S.) Capacity of the engine (c.c.) Sports, luxury and high altitude vehicles Placement of steering wheel Special purpose

2.
3. 4.

5.
6. 7.

8.
9. 10.

3.On the basis of weight of the vehicle:

Gross vehicle weight = Kerb wt. + Payload.

1.
2. 3.

4.
5.

Light wt. vehicle, GVW=1 tonne Medium wt. vehicle, 3.5> GVW < 1 tonne Heavy wt. vehicle, 7.5> GVW < 3.5 tonne Extra heavy duty vehicle, 15> GVW <7.5 tonne Special purpose (load) vehicles GVW >15 tonne

4. On the basis of purpose served


On-the-road vehicles such as scooters, cars, trucks etc. 2. Off-the-road vehicles such as tractors, construction equipments etc. 3. On-the-road and off-the-road vehicles such as military tanks, bulldozers etc.
1.

Front wheel Drive system:

Advantages of front wheel Drive system:


1. Interior space: Since the power train is a single unit contained in the engine compartment of the vehicle, there is no need to devote interior space for a driveshaft tunnel or rear differential, increasing the volume available for passengers. 2. Weight: Fewer components usually means lower weight. 3. Improved fuel efficiency due to less weight.

Advantages of front wheel Drive system:


4. Cost: Fewer material components and less installation complexity overall. 5. They are easier to assemble, since the entire drive package is in the front half of the car.

Disadvantages of front wheel Drive system: 1. Torque steer is the tendency for some front-wheel drive cars to pull to the left or right under hard acceleration. 2. Poor drive-off capacity on wet, icy and inclined roads. 3. Due to high front axle load, power steering is necessary. 4. It is difficult to design the power plant and suspension system due to lack of space. 5. There is higher tyre wear in front.

Rear wheel Drive system:

Advantages of Rear wheel Drive system:


1. Even weight distribution The layout of a rear-wheel drive car is much closer to an even front and rear weight distribution than a front-wheeldrive car. 2. Better handling the more even weight distribution and weight transfer improve the handling of the car. 3. No torque steer.

Advantages of Rear wheel Drive system:


4. Serviceability Drivetrain components on a rear-wheel drive vehicle are not critical and do not involve packing as many parts into a small space as does front wheel drive. 5. Can accommodate more powerful engines as a result of the longitudinal orientation of the drive train.

Disadvantages of Rear wheel Drive system: 1. Increased weight The components of a rear wheel drive vehicle's power train are less complex, but they are larger. The driveshaft adds weight. 2. Higher initial purchase price Modern rear wheel drive vehicles are typically more expensive to purchase than comparable front wheel drive vehicles. 3. Decreased interior space.

Disadvantages of Rear wheel Drive system: 4. The possibility of a slight loss in the mechanical efficiency of the drivetrain. 5. Improper weight distribution when loaded A rear wheel drive car's center of gravity is shifted rearward when heavily loaded with passengers, which may cause unpredictable handling behavior.

Steering Geometry:
1. Camber 2. King Pin Inclination (KPI) or Steering axis Inclination (SAI) 3. Combined Angle and Scrub Radius 4. Castor 5. Toe-in or Toe-out

1. Camber:

Definition: Camber is the tilt of the car wheels from the vertical line perpendicular to the ground. Camber is positive if the tilt is outward at the top. Camber is also called wheel rake. Amount: Camber should not generally exceed 2.

Effect of Camber:
It is always desirable that tyres should roll on the ground vertically so that the wear on tyre surface is uniform. If while running, the tyres are inclined from the vertical either inward or outward, they will wear more on one side than the other. Always initial positive camber is provided to the wheels so that when the vehicle is loaded, they automatically come to a vertical position.

2. King Pin Inclination (KPI) or Steering axis Inclination (SAI):


Inclination of king pin from vertical is called the King Pin Inclination(KPI). In modern cars where the king pin has been replaced by the ball joints, this term has been renamed as Steering Axis Inclination(SAI). It is defined as the inclination of the ball joint-axis from the vertical. Amount: About 7 to 8 degrees.

Effect of KPI or SAI:


When the vehicle takes a turn, the steering linkages rotate about the king pin as it acts as pivot. This causes a rise in C.G. of the vehicle and vehicle body moves up. As soon as the steering wheel is left after the turn is completed, the weight of the vehicle tends to return the wheels to the straight ahead position.

3. Combined Angle and Scrub Radius:


Combined Angle= Camber + KPI Scrub Radius: In rear wheel driven vehicle, the tractive force of the vehicle pushes the vehicle body in forward direction, thus the forward tractive force acts at the point on the road where the king pin axis meets when projected. The road resistance acts at the wheel contact point on the road, so the distance between these two points is known as scrub radius.

4. Castor:
Definition: The angle between the king pin center line and the vertical, in the plane of the wheel is called the castor angle. If the king pin center line meets the ground at a point ahead of the vertical wheel center line then it is called positive castor while if it is behind the vertical wheel center line, it is called negative castor.

Effect of Castor:
Since in positive castor steering axis would meet the ground ahead of the center of the tyre print therefore wheel will always follow the steering axis in this way positive castor provides directional stability to the car wheels. Amount: About 3 of castor gives good results.

5. Toe-in or Toe-out:
Definition: Toe-in

is the amount by which the front wheels are set closer together at the front than at the rear, when vehicle is stationary. Toe-out is the amount by which the front wheels are set closer together at the rear than at the front, when vehicle is stationary.

Effect of Toe-in or Toe-out:


There is always an inherent tendency of the front wheels in case of a rear wheel drive system to toe-out and in front wheel drive system to toe-in because of purposeful deviation from center point steering and also due to errors in steering angles. To avoid this initial toe-in is provided in rear wheel driven cars and initial toe-out in front wheel driven cars.

Amount: Its value generally does not exceed


3mm.

Wheel Alignment:

The term wheel alignment refers to such an arrangement of front wheels and the steering mechanism that provides an easier directional control to the vehicle, minimum tyre wear, stability to the vehicle while negotiating a curve and parallel rolling of front wheels while moving straight.

Torque-Converter:

The Differential:

When the car is taking a turn, the outer wheels will have to travel greater distance as compared to the inner wheels in the same time. Hence a mechanism must be incorporated in the rear axle, which should reduce the speed of inner wheels and increase the speed of outer wheels when taking turn, such a device which serves this function is known as differential.

Unit-3: Braking System


Q.- What are Brakes? Ans- A machine element which is employed to stop or slow-down the speed of a vehicle depending upon the driving needs. When brakes are applied each wheel of the vehicle builds-up a certain braking force. For this reason greater the number of brakes, greater will be the braking effort.

Braking Requirements:
1. It must stop the vehicle within a smallest possible distance. 2. It must act instantaneously in case of an emergency braking. 3. It must strong enough to sustain sudden braking force. 4. It must neither slip nor should cause any skid to the vehicle. 5. It must operate with the least effort by the driver.

Types of Brakes:
1. On the basis of Purpose served: (a) Main (service or primary) brakes (b) Parking (secondary) brakes 2. On the basis of Location in the vehicle: (a) Wheel mounted brakes (b) Transmission mounted brakes 3. On the basis of Drivers ergonomics: (a) Foot brakes (b) Hand brakes 4. On the basis of construction: (a) Drum brakes (b) Disc brakes (c) Band Brakes

Types of Brakes:
5. On the basis of actuating method: (a) Mechanical brakes (b) Hydraulic Brakes (c) Pneumatic (air) Brakes (d) Vacuum Brakes 6. On the basis of application of braking effort: (a) Manual brakes (b) Servo (Power Assisted) (c) Power (or power operated) brakes 7. On the basis of combinations (a) Drum and disc combination (b) Mechanical and Hydro combination brakes

Drum Brakes:
1. 2. 3. 4.

5.
6. 7. 8.

It consist of following main components: Brake Drum Back plate Brake shoe Brake lining Expander Anchor Retracting spring Adjuster

Drum Brakes:
The brake drum is mounted on the axle hub and the whole assembly is fixed concentrically Within the wheel. A back plate made up of steel sheet is mounted on the axle casing. It is meant for supporting the back plate shoes, expander & the anchors. Two brake shoes are hinged on the back plate by means of anchor pins towards heel end of the shoes. The toe end of the shoes are connected to the expander.

Drum Brakes:
The brake lining of friction material is rivetted on the brake shoes on their convex faces which remain near to the brake drum. A retracting spring is attached to the two brake shoes for the purpose of pulling back the shoes, away from the brake drum when the brakes are released. The expander attached to the toe end of the brake shoe, may be a cam in mechanical brake or a wheel cylinder in case of a hydraulic or pneumatic brakes.

Suspension system:
Objectives of suspension system: 1.To prevent the road shocks from being transmitted to the vehicle components. 2.To provide comfortable riding by minimizing road shocks. 3.It enhances the life of vehicles components. 4.It maintains stability in the moving vehicle by absorbing road shocks. 5.To safeguard the passengers from road shocks.

Terminologies:

Pitching, Rolling and Bouncing: When a moving vehicle comes across a road pit or a bump, it experiences a jerk. Consequently, the vehicle starts vibrating and exhibits tendencies of undesired motions. When the tendency of motion is along the length, it is called pitching, if it is widthwise it is called rolling and if it is along the height of the vehicle, it is called bouncing.

Various Suspension systems:


1. Leaf Spring 2. Coil Spring 3. Torsion bars 4. Rubber Spring 5. Shock Absorbers 6. Independent Suspension

1. Leaf Spring:

Originally called laminated or carriage spring, a leaf spring is a simple form of spring, commonly used for the suspension in wheeled vehicles. The semi elliptic type leaf spring consists of a number of leaves called blades. The blades vary in length. The lengthiest blade has eyes on its ends. This blade is called master leaf. All the blades are bound together by means of steel straps.

2. Coil Spring:

The coil springs are made up of circular section wires. In its construction, a single wire is given such a curvature that it forms a helical profile. Thats why the coiled springs are also known as helical springs. The energy stored per unit volume is almost double in the case of coil springs than the leaf springs. Coil spring do not have noise problems, nor do they have static friction causing harshness of ride as in case leaf springs.

3. Torsion Bars:

Torsion bar is simply a rod acting in torsion and taking shear stresses only. These are made of heat treated alloy spring steel. The amount of energy stored per unit weight of material is nearly the same as for coil springs. The bar is fixed at one end to the frame, while the other end is fixed to the end of the wheel arm. When the wheel strikes a bump, it starts vibrating up and down, thus exerting torque on torsion bar.

4. Rubber Spring:
Rubber is an efficient damping material. Its damping capability is many times more than the steel. Therefore, rubber is extensively used in suspension systems of almost all the vehicles. Besides being used as bushings, washers etc., its main use is made as a spring.

Advantages of Rubber Spring:


1. It can store greater energy per unit weight than the steel. For this reason rubber spring system can be make more compact. 2. The rubber has excellent vibration damping properties. 3. The absent of squeaking which is always present in steel springs. 4. Rubber is more reliable. A rubber suspension can not suddenly fail like the metal springs.

5. Shock Absorber (1):


The shock absorber is a damping device and is used to damp the springs vibrations. By doing so, it prevents excessive vibration of the spring and enhances riding comfort. The principle of operation of a hydraulic shock absorber is that when a piston forces the fluid in a cylinder to pass through a small orifice, a high resistance to the movement of piston is developed, which provides the damping effect.

5. Shock Absorber (2):


A shock absorber is basically an oil pump placed between the frame of the car and the wheels. The upper mount of the shock connects to the frame (i.e., the sprung weight), while the lower mount connects to the axle, near the wheel (i.e., the unsprung weight). In a twin-tube design, one of the most

5. Shock Absorber(3):
. The inner tube is known as the pressure tube, and the outer tube is known as the reserve tube. The reserve tube stores excess hydraulic fluid. When the car wheel encounters a bump in the road and causes the spring to coil and uncoil, the energy of the spring is transferred to the shock absorber through the upper

5. Shock Absorber(4):
There are Orifices on the piston and allow fluid to leak through as the piston moves up and down in the pressure tube. Because the orifices are relatively tiny, only a small amount of fluid, under great pressure, passes through. This slows down the piston, which in turn

6. Independent Suspension System (ISS):


When a vehicle with rigid axle suspension encounters any road irregularities, the axle tilts and the wheels no longer remain vertical. This causes whole of the vehicle to tilt on one side. Such a state is not desirable. Apart from causing rough ride, it causes wheel wear n tear. To avoid this problem the wheels are sprung independent to each other, so that tilting of one does not affect the other.

Types of Independent Suspension System:


1.Wishbone type ISS: It consist of upper and the lower wishbone arms. The spring and the shock absorber are supported between these two arms. During motion when the wheel encounters a bump, the weight of the vehicle is transferred to the spring through upper arm and then transmitted to the lower arm which Pushes-up the shock absorber.

Types of Independent Suspension System:


2. Mac Pherson type ISS: In this layout, only lower wishbone arm is used. A strut containing shock absorber and the spring carries also the stub axle on which the wheel is mounted.

Unit-4: Electrical System


Starting system: It mainly consist of battery, starter switch, starter motor and starting drive. To start a vehicle, the starter switch is turned ON. By doing so the circuit becomes operative and the current starts flowing from battery to the starter motor. This energizes the starter which starts rotation which causes turning to the starting drive also.

Starting system: The drive pinion that remains in contact with the ring gear(mounted on the engine flywheel) transmits torque, and forces it to rotate. Since the ring gear-flywheel assembly is mounted on the engine crank shaft, therefore crankshaft also starts rotating. It then causes pistons to reciprocates within the cylinders via cranks due to which vacuum is created within the cylinder. Atmospheric air rushes to fill-in this vacuum via the fuel supply system(carburettor). The ignition system now plays its role, ignites the fuel and the engine starts.

Charging system: The purpose of charging system in an automobile is to generate electricity to cater the needs of all the load demands at proper voltage. It is known as charging system because the generated electricity is first used to charge a battery with then supplies to various loads. It consist of: 1. Dynamo or alternator 2. Voltage regulators 3. Cut-out relay 4. Ammeter 5. Battery 6. Indicator lamp

D.C. Generator (Dynamo): The working of d.c. generator can be understood with the help of a simple loop generator shown in the diagram. The magnet poles marked N and S produce a magnetic field which is cut by the rotating coil of wire. The cutting of magnetic lines of force produces the electricity. The current thus produced is d.c. It is collected by the rotating commutator. The two carbon brushes are in continuous contact with the commutator. One brush is always in contact with the side of the coil going up on the left side of the armature.

D.C. Generator (Dynamo): The other brush is in contact with the sides of the coil going down on the right side. As the armature rotates, the coil changes the connection with the brushes through the commutator and generates electricity.

A.C. Generator (Alternator): Operating Principle: In an alternator the alternating current is generated in its stator winding by means of a revolving electromagnet. To change a.c. into d.c., a silicon rectifier is used. The rectifier is a circuit consisting of many diodes, and allows flow of current in one direction only i.e. from alternator to battery. The alternator supplies more current at low engine speeds.

Regulator: The generator is the main source of electrical energy for automotive electrical system. It charges the battery and supplies current to various devices. It is therefore, essential that the generator output (voltage) must be controlled within the safe limits so that the electrical devices do not get damaged. For this purpose a regulator is used.

Regulator: Voltage Regulator: This unit maintains the generator output voltage within desired limit and also serves the following purposes: 1. Prevents overcharging of the battery 2. Saves electrical system from damage due to high voltage. Current Regulator: A current regulator is used to limit the excessively high generator current which otherwise may overheat the generator and can damage to it.

Fuel Supply System:


1. Diesel Vehicle: (i) Fuel Feed Pump (ii) Fuel Injection Pump (iii) Fuel Injector (iv) Types of Injection Nozzle 2. Petrol Vehicle: (i) Fuel Pump (ii) Carburetor (iii) MPFI

Petrol Vehicle: (i) Fuel Feed Pump: A fuel pump is used to deliver fuel (petrol) from the fuel tank to the chamber of carburetor. Many engines (older motorcycle engines in particular) do not require any fuel pump at all, requiring only gravity to feed fuel from the fuel tank through a line or hose pipe to the engine. But in nongravity feed designs, fuel has to be pumped from the fuel tank to the engine.

Mechanical Fuel Pump(1): (Refer: I.C. Engine by Domkundwar Page 9.2): It consist of a chamber divided into two compartments. The top portion contains a filter and has two spring loaded valves to control the flow of petrol. The lower portion contains a spring which regulates the pressure of the petrol supply and an operating link and rocker arm driven by the cam shaft. As the eccentric pushes the lever towards the right, the rocker arm pushes the push rod and diaphragm down creating a vacuum inside the down chamber of the pump.

Mechanical Fuel Pump(2): This vacuum is sufficient to open the inlet valve and sucks the petrol. As the eccentric goes out of action, the push rod and the diaphragm is pushed up by the spring action and pressurizes the fuel taken in. This pressure (1.1 to1.3 bar) is sufficient to open the delivery valve and supply the petrol to the carburetor. As this is done, the lever comes into operation. Once more to pull the diaphragm down and suck the petrol again and operation is repeated.

Electrical Fuel Pump(1): (Refer: I.C. Engine by Domkundwar Page 9.3): An electrically operated fuel pump is shown in the diagram. It remains submerged within the fuel tank. Its construction involves a rotating impeller inside a stationary casing. In fact, it is a centrifugal pump which is run by an electric motor. The motor is completely sealed to make it leak-proof and remains dipped in the fuel tank. When the ignition switch of the vehicle is switched on, the motor starts rotating and operates the pump. A continuous steady pressure pushes the fuel to enter in the carburetor.

2. Carburetor(1):
The components of the carburetor consist of: Float chamber Float valve Jet nozzle Venturi Throttle valve Accelerator pedal Choke Fuel tank Fuel pump Fuel Filter

2. Carburetor(2):

The carburetor is a device that vaporizes gasoline and mixes it with air in the proper ratio for combustion in an internal combustion engine. Normally the ratio of fuel to air is about 1:10 by volume. That is one part fuel to fifteen parts air. A higher ratio is called a rich mixture and a lower ratio is called a leaner mixture. The carburetor has a FLOAT CHAMBER that is supplied with fuel from the FUEL TANK. The fuel is forced through a FUEL FILTER under pressure from the FUEL PUMP.

2. Carburetor(3):

The float chamber contains a FLOAT VALVE that regulates the flow of fuel into the chamber. When the float chamber is full of fuel, the float valve stops the flow of fuel until needed again. The JET NOZZLE is situated within an air chamber that is narrow at one point. The narrowing in the chamber is called a VENTURI. When the engine is running, the motion of the pistons creates a vacuum, drawing air into the air chamber, where it is accelerated by the venturi.

2. Carburetor(4):

This high velocity air creates a low pressure region that the jet nozzle (which extends into the air chamber) draws a fine spray of fuel drawn from the float chamber into the venturi. Here it mixes with the air. The mixture of fuel and air is then fed into the cylinders where it is ignited. The THROTTLE VALVE, which is activated by the ACCELERATOR PEDAL, regulates engine speed by regulating the amount of fuel/air mixture that enters the engine.

3. Multi-Point Fuel Injection System (MPFI):

Multi-point fuel injection injects fuel into the intake of each cylinder's inlet valve, rather than at a central point within an intake manifold. MPFI (or just MPI) systems can be sequential, in which injection is timed to coincide with each cylinder's intake stroke; batched, in which fuel is injected to the cylinders in groups, without precise synchronization to any particular cylinder's intake stroke; or simultaneous, in which fuel is injected at the same time to all the cylinders.

Diesel Vehicles: 1. Fuel Atomizer or Injector: (Refer: I.C. Engine by Domkundwar Page 10.11): In a fuel atomizer the high pressure fuel coming out of fuel pump enters into the atomizer. The nozzle valve is lifted up due to high pressure fuel entering at the bottom of the valve and the fuel is injected into the cylinder through the nozzle. The pressure of the fuel falls as it is injected into the cylinder and the nozzle valve moves down under the spring force and closes the nozzle inlet.

Diesel Vehicles: 2. Types of Injection Nozzles: (v. important for exam) (Refer: I.C. Engine by Domkundwar Page 10.11): The nozzles are classified as: 1. Single hole nozzle 2. Multi hole nozzle 3. Pintle nozzle 4. Pintaux nozzle

Diesel Vehicles: 1. Single hole nozzle: This is the simplest type of nozzle. It consist of a single hole bored centrally through the nozzle body and closed by the needle valve. The spray cone angle of this nozzle varies from 5 to 15. Advantage: It is simple in construction and operation. Disadvantage: Because of small spray angle 15 does not help for better mixing unless higher air velocities are provided.

Diesel Vehicles: 2. Multi hole nozzle: This is nozzle is extensively used in automobile engines. The number of holes generally used is 4 to 8. The greater number provides better fuel distribution. The individual hole diameter lies between 0.25 to 0.35 mm and hole angle lies between 20 to 45. It mixes the fuel with air properly even with slow air movement available.

Diesel Vehicles: 3. Pintle nozzle: In this nozzle, the valve fitted has a thin shank, the shape of which is designed to give the desired spray angles. The pin reaches into the orifice nozzle so that it forms an annular space. By varying the shape of this pin, we can obtain high penetration effect or wide angled spray. The cross-section of the fuel orifice can be opened gradually during the lifting of the valve if the pin is tapered or in steps. If the pin is given the cylindrical steps, a small quantity of fuel is injected first and the greater amount later.

Diesel Vehicles: 4. Pintaux nozzle: This nozzle is a modification of pintle nozzle and has an auxiliary hole drilled in the nozzle body. This allows a small amount of fuel injection in the upstream direction at a time slightly in advance of the main downstream injection. If the fuel is injected in the upstream direction of air motion, the delay period is reduced due to increased heat between fuel and air. This gives good cold starting performance.

Unit 5: Cooling System:


Purpose: 1.The temp. of the gases in a reciprocating I.C. engine varies from 40C to 2500C during the cycle. 2. If the engine is not cooled, then the cylinder and piston temperature may exceed 1500C. 3. At such a high temp., metals will loose their properties and expansion of piston will be considerable. 4. The lubrication of engine will be badly affected if temp. exceeds 80C because lubricating oil will start evaporating.

Types of Cooling System:


1. Air cooling System 2. Water Cooling System Thermo-siphon Cooling System

1. Air cooling System


Air cooling is a method of dissipating heat. It works by making the object to be cooled have a larger surface area or have an increased flow of air over its surface, or both. An example of the larger surface area is to add fins to the surface of the object, either by making them integral or by attaching them tightly to the object's surface (to ensure efficient heat transfer). In the case of the an increased flow of air it is done by using a fan blowing air onto the object we want to cool.

2. Water Cooling System


Thermo-siphon Cooling System: It involves flow of water under gravity. It does not depend on any external source to circulate the liquid coolant. Convective currents carry heat from bottom to the top of the system as cold water is heavier than the hot water. Since the water in the jackets surrounding the cylinder is heated, it becomes lighter and rises up. The heated water enters into the radiator through the upper connection and when cooled by the air passing through the radiator core, it becomes heavier and settles to the bottom of the radiator.

Lubrication System:
Objectives: 1. To reduce friction between moving parts to its minimum value so that the power loss is minimized. 2. To reduce wear of the moving parts as far as possible. 3. Lubricating oil takes heat away from the hot moving parts during its circulation thus provides cooling effect. 4. During its circulation lubricating oil dissolves many impurities e.g. carbon particles, thus provides cleaning action.

Types of Lubricants:
1. Mineral Oils: These are derived from petroleum and are most widely used in automobiles e.g. Paraffin, naphthenes, aromatics and olefins. 2. Synthetic Lubricants: These are having higher viscosity and reduced loss due to evaporation e.g. Polyorganosiloxanes or silicon fluids, polyglycol ethers etc. 3. Solid Lubricants: Graphite is used as a cylinder lubricant, both in powder and colloidal form. It is stable at high temperatures and has low coeffi. of friction.

Types of Lubrication System:


1. Splash Lubrication System 2. Wet Sump Lubrication System 3. Dry Sump Lubrication System 4. Petroil Lubrication System

Types of Lubrication System:


1. Splash Lubrication System: In this system, the parts are lubricated by a splash of oil which is made from a scoop located near the big end of the connecting rod. The action takes place when the scoop dips into the oil sump, lifts some oil, and splashes under the effect of centrifugal force.

Types of Lubrication System:


2. Wet Sump Lubrication System: Wet Sump engines use an oil pan (sump) to store the oil at the bottom of the engine and use an oil pump to pump the oil to where it is needed in the engine.

Types of Lubrication System:


3. Dry Sump Lubrication System: Dry Sump engines carry their oil in an oil tank that is separate from the engine. This can be an actual tank or inside of the tubes of the frame. This engine lubrication type uses two oil pumps. One to pump oil to the engine, where it lubes everything and then drops to the bottom of the engine. From there, the second pump pushes the oil back to the oil tank.

Types of Lubrication System:


4. Petroil Lubrication System: This is used generally for small two-stroke engines, e.g. in majority of scooter and motor cycle engines. It is the simplest of all types of engine lubrication systems. Certain amount of the lubricating oil is mixed with the petrol itself, the usual ratio being 2% to 3% of oil. When the petrol mixture enters the crankcase, due to high temp the petrol components vaporizes leaving a think film of lubricating oil on the crankcase, cylinder walls, etc.