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POWER SYSTEM ANALYSIS

Operation and Control

ABHIJIT CHAKRABART!
Professo r, Department of Elcdrical Engineering Bengal Engineering and Science University Shibpur, Howrah

SUNITA HALDER
Lecturer, Department of Elect rical Engineering Jada vpu r University
Kolkata

Prentice-Hall of India i?oiIwlill@ ilJllMllKl@@l


New Delhi-11 0001
T hca. . One

2006

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As. 450.00
POWER SYSTEM ANALYSIS: OperatIon and Control
Abhij~ Chakrablortl

and &.Ilta Halcr

o 2006 by p,entic..... of india PrIvate Llmlted, New DeIhl ..... ~ _lid. No PIIrt oIlhis book may be 'iiIj)OoduI:ed In any lam, by mimeogIaph or any oIhItr~. ",Ithoul pennIssion r. writing from the publisher.
IS8N~I-203-2777-2

The export rights of Ihls book ala vested solely with the publl$her.
Second Pflntlng

SII'N"'W, 2001

PuIlIishod by Asoka K. Gt.:>sh, Prentice-lid 01 India Privaltl Umi\otd, M-97, CornIo.VlI Circus, New Dalhi l10001 and Printed by J.y Pmt PKk PM. limited, New o.flI.l10015.

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Contents
Pre{ace ..... .................................... ..... ............. ........ ................ ,........ ......... ..." ................ ................. .... xiii

I.

Introduction .................. " ............... " " " ............ """,,",,",, ............. ,,"",, ......... 1- 12
1.1 1.2 StruClurc o f oil. Power Syslan ............ ............................ ..................................................... I The NC'Ccssity of Contro l o f oil. Power System ................................................................. 3 1.2,1 Cn ntmJ M c1 brxls ..... . ... . ........ " .. "" . " ... " " .......... . 5

1.2.2
12.3

Advanta es of Co

ute r Control ._ .. ,.............................. _ ........................... .......... 5

Trpc:s of Computer Control Syslem ..... ..... ................. ............. ........ .... .................. 5

13
1.4 1.5

Power S tem R resentation ...... ,.... ,....................... .,...... ......... ,.... ,... ...... _ .............. ,........ 6

Pov.'er System at Normal Operatin g State .. __ _ .... _ .... _ ........ _ ....... _ ._ ,........................ _ ............. 7 Operating Prob lems in Power Systems ........ ..................................................................... 8 1.5. 1 Loadabilicy of Transmiss io R Lines ........................................................................ 8 1.52 Frequency Dynamics of Tra nsmission Line ....................................................... 1 0 1.5.3 Overload and Frequency Decay Rate ......................................................... ,....... 10 1.5.4 Tra ns ient Stab ilicy Problem .................................... ,..... __ ...................................... 12 1 <; 5 power Osc illa tions ]3 1.5.6 Reac tive PO\\'er Limita tions and Voltage Contro l Problems ........... .................... 1 3 1.6 Suricy AlllIl ys is and Contingency Evaluation ................................................. ,........... 1 3 12 Automatic Control IS 1.7. 1 Automatic Load Frequency Control (ALFC) ......... ................. ............................ 1 5 1.7.2 Automatic Voltage Control (AVC) ......... .......................... " ....... ............................ 16 1.7.3 Co ntrol Components in Power System ............................................... ................ 1 6 1.8 Use of Computers and Futun: Trends ..... .................... ,......................................... ........ 18 Exercises .... ...... .. ..... .. .. .. ..... ... . ..... .. .. ... ...... ..... ........... . ... ... ..... 19

2. Modellin or Power S tern Com onents ................................................ 20-46


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lnlroduc lion. ...... . .... .... . . .. . . .. ... . ...... ;n Modelling o f Synchronous Generator (Altemalor) ........................................................ 21 Modelling o f a Synchronous Generator in I Netwo rk .................................................. 2S

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CONTENTS

2.4

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Modell ing of Gene rator Components ........................................... ................................... 2ti 2.4.1 G<l\'emo r Modclli.n~ .. ....._ ......___ ....__ ..._ ... __ ......._ .. _ .. .,__ ... _ ......... ..... .. _ ........ __ ... 2ti . .. .... _ 2,4,2 Turb ine Mc "kllinj1 ........ ..... ... Il 1 4J ~{"dd1iu I)f Exci ter .. ........ ... ......_ ._ ._ .... .__ ... __ ... ._ ..._ ..... .... .. .. .... .......- ', .. ..... _ n._ ....... E Mode ll ing of Regulating Transformers (RTI .... .... ....... ............. ... ............... .............. ", ... J2
w . ... . . . . . . . . . . __ . .. . .... . " . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . , . .. .... . . .. . ... .. ... . .

2.6

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Power Network l\'(atr ix 0 eratlons .................. __ .................... _ ............ 47- 119


lnt rodoction to [ r& n) Fo rrnu l~t ion ..... ........ .. .. ............ .... .... 47 Nooal Method fo r Deve lop ment o f [ Y" ,,) ... .. .................. ,.. ... ...... ...... ..... ........... .. ...... n Modification of {YlIgsj Due to Inclusion of Regu lating Tra nsformer between Two Buses 57 3.4 Form-uion of [Y_l wi th Tr~nsfnnno::r Pre""nt in the line ............................................ (D 3.5 Development of [ Y&wI Using Singular Transformati on .................... .............................. 14 3.6 Development of [Y1I..J Matrix Using Coefficient Matrix ................................................ KZ 3.6.1 Steps of Algorithm to Develop [YIIm ] When chere is no Mutual Coupli ng between Branches (Using Coefficient Matrix) .................................... 84 3.7 Formulation of Complete [ Ys.J for a General Network ................................................. 96 _ l for Branch AddilionIDeletion ............................................. ....... 106 38 Modifica tion of [ Y 3.&1 Qe"elopntent nf [Ya..J by Step by Step [yJ Array Formation ........................ 107 3.9 [Ya. l Forma tion with Consideration of Mutually Coupled linc:s Us ing Step by Step [y ] Formation ...................................................................... 110 3.10 Computational Aspe<:ts of ( Y IIuoJ FormaTion .................................................................. II I 3. 11 [Zp..l Build ing by Step by Step Method ...... ................................................................ 11 1 3.11.1 ,\ddit;on of a Branch (or Link ) Zb from a New Bus to the Reference Bus (Type_I Modification) (Fig. 3.18) ................................................................ 111 3.11.2 Additi on of a Branch (or Link) Zb from a Ne w Bus to an Old Bus (Typc-2 ModificaTion) (Fig. 3. 19) ..................... ................................................... 112 3. 11J Addition of a Branch (or Link) Zb from an Old Bus 10 the Reference Bus (Type-3 Modification) (Fig. 3.20) ....................................... .. .................. 113 3.1104 Add ition of a Branch (or Link) Zb between Two Old Buses (Type-4 Modification) (Fig. 3.21) ........................................................................ 114 3.!l.5 Add ition of Two Branches (Z. aDd Zt ) with Mutual Impedam:e (Z.) betwccn Four Buses (Type-S Modificati on) (Fig. 3.22) .. __ ................................ 11 6 Exercises .................. ............ " ............................. .......... ......... ........ ............ .......... ........... ......... III
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Materia! I :xn Olrf'ltos

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CONTeNTS

5.14 Use of Loss Formula in Economi c Operation ............................................................... 268 5. 14,1 Algorithm for De tenni na tion of Optimal Generalion Using lAss FormuJa ....... 269 5.)5 A Mtthod or Oo.:li:rmi ning E",onolllic Qr><? flI tio n Crite rion lJ~ ing T r~ nsmission LosS Fo rmula .. ... .. . .. . .. ... .. .. ... .. ...... .. .. . . .. .. .. .. .. Z7l:i 5.16 Economic Operatioo ",,-jth Limi ted Fuel Supp ly ....................................... ...................... I79 5.16.1 Algorithm for Scheduling of Units for Economic Opera tion wm.n Fue l Supply is Limited ............................................................... ........... ...................... 281 5. 11 Optimum Scheduling of H ydfo..therma l System ............................................................ 281 5.18 Aspe cts of Hyd ro Schedu ling ....................................................... ................................. 282 5. 19 Cost of Water ............................................................................................ ,............ '........ 282 5.10 Loog Term Energy Sckduling in A Hydro-therma l System ......................................... 283 52 1 Short Term Hydro-thermal Scheduling ........................................................................... 286 5.21 Computer Approac h to Solve the: Short Term Hydro-thermal Scheduling Problem ............................ ................................. ............................................................... 288 523 Hydro- thermal Schedu li ng with Network lAss Cons idered ..................... ..................... 289 524 A Modem Approac h in Shon Term Hydro- thermal Scheduling .................................. 303 525 Sc heduling of Hydraulica lly Co up led Units (Hydro-units in Series) ........................... 305 526 Hydro-themlal Scheduling of Pumped Storage Plants .................................................. Jm Exercisl's .. ,... ,................... ,... ,...... ,............. ......... " .. ..... ................................ ,...... ,.................... 310

6.

Computrr.Aided Economic Load Dispatcb and Optimal Power


Flow ......................... _ ............. _ ............. _ ............. 313-455
Introduc tion ........................................................................ .............. ............................... 313 Economic Load Dispatc h by NeW\ozr Raphson Melhod .................. ............................ 313 6.3 Economi c ~d Dispatch by Appro:timatc Ne""10 zr Raphson Method ........................ 323 6.4 Economic Load Dispatch Using Eo ct Loss Formula ................................................... 329 6.4.1 Formation of E)(aet Loss F onnula .................................................. ..................... 329 6.42 Economic Load Dispatch .................................................................................... 333 Economic Load Dispatch Using Loss Fomtula which is a Func tion of Real and Reactive Po ....'Cr .............................................. _ .................................................. __ ............_346 6.5.1 Derivatioo of Re al 3nd Reactive Po,,"'Cr Govcmcd Loss Formu la .................... J46 6.52 Economic Load Dispatc h Using Loss Formula ( Func tion of Rcal and Reactive Power) ............................................. ......... ............................................. 348 6.6 E~ onomie Load Dispalch ror Rcal and ReaClive Powcr B31 ance ................................. 363 6.7 Optima l Power Flow Using C l a ssic~ 1 Met hods ....................... ... ,.................................. 380 6.8 Modem Approach to Optimal Power Flow Solution .................................................... 392 6.8.! Ne ....10nRaphson (N-R) Method ........................................................................ 392 6.8.2 Fast De coupled Method .......................................................... ........................... 426 6.9 Gradient Mcthod ................................................................................. ............................ 436 Exercises ........... " .. __ ,... ,.. __ .... ,...... ,... ,... ,.... ... ,... ,.... .. __ ..... _ __ ._ __ ..... ' ... _ _ ._ _ _ .__ __ ,_ _ _ ,__ ._ _ ___ _ __ _ ... _ _ _ ... ' . 444 6. 1 6.2

7.

Power System CODtrol CeDtres .................................. _ ..................._ ..... 456-468


7. 1 7.2 73 Introd uction ......................... ........................ .................................................................... 456 Aim of Control Centres ....................................................................... ...... _ ..................... 456 Planning Objective ... ................................. __ .. __ ... _ _ ..__ ................__ ..........................._ ......... 458

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Functions of Control Centres ......................................................................................... 458 7.4.] P lanning ............................................................................................................... 458 7.4.2 Monitoring ... ................................................................................................ ........ 459 7.43 Da ta Acquisition and System Control ................................................... ............ 400 7.5 Sct-up ............................................................................................................................. 460 7.6 loca tio ns ........................ ................................................................... .............................. 461 7.7 Centra l Facililie$ .............................................................................................................. 461 7.7. 1 Civil Facilities ......... ........................................................ ..................................... 461 7.7.2 Facil ities in Control Room ....................................................................... ........... 462 7.8 Communication ................................................................................................................ 463 7.8.] Power Line Carrier Comrmnication (PLCC) ........................................................ 463 7.8.2 Leased Te lephone Lines ...... ............................................................................... 464 7.83 Mierowave Channel ................................................. ............................................ 464 7.8.4 Fibre Optic Communication ........... ..................................................................... 465 7.8.5 Satellite Communkation Channel ................................................................. ...... 465 7.9 Telemetry .. ................... .................................................................................................... 466 7.10 Emergency Control .......................................................................................................... 466

7.4

F_un:ises .. .... ... ._ . ._ _ ___ _ ..___ .. _ .__ ., ... ,... .... ,....... _, ......... ,....... " .. ,....... ,... ,... ,... ,... ,' ." ... ......... ,.......... 468

8.

Automatic Generation Control _ ............................................................. 469-51 S


8.1 &.2
Introduction .................. ,................ ,............ ,........................................................ _ ... ,....... 469 Types of Ahel1Ultor Eltciters ......... .................................................. ,............ ,.... ......... ,.... 471 8.2.1 Primitive Type Eltciters ........................................................................................ 47] 8.2.2 Modem Eltci ters ................................................................................................... 471 Exciter Modelling ................................................................................................... ,......... 474 Modelling of Alternator (Synchronous Gener:u or) ....................................................... 475 Statk Performance ofAVR Loop ............................. ,........... ........................................... 476 Dyll.lmic Performance of the AVR Loop .............................. _., .. _ ...._ ........ ....................... 4n Compe nsa liOn in AVR Loop ........................................................................................... 478 Automatic Load Frequency Control (ALFC) ................................................................. 478 Types o f Turbine Represen tation ....................... ,.......................................................... 481 Steady State Perfonnance of the Speed Governing Sys tem ....................... .................. 483 Complete StruCTUre of Primary Al FC Loop ............................ ....................................... 486 RespoMes of Primary ALFC Loop ................................................................................ 488 8.12. 1 Steady Stalc Response ........................................................................... ............ 488 8,12.2 Trans ient Response .......................................................... ,................ ,................. 489 Secondary ALFC loop ...................... ,.............. ... ,... .................... ................................... 492 8. 13.1 Abou t the Controller .,................ ,......... ,........................................ ,..................... 492 8.13.2 Modelling of Secondary ALfC Loop ................................................................. 493 Performance of Secondary ALFC Loop . _ _ ._ _ _ ... _, ,_ .. _ .. , _ ___ _ ___ _ _ .. _. __ _ ._ _ ..__ _ .............. _ ... _494 Elttension of ALFC Loop to Mu lt i-area Systems ........................................ ,................. 495 Tic-line Power Flow Model ............................................................................................ 496 Static Response of Two- area System ........................... ... ,... ................ ,.................. ,....... 498 Transien t Response of a Two-area System ................................................................... 503 Application Aspects of Primary A lFC loop .............. ,,_ ... _ _ .. _ . " .. ,, _ _ ... __ .. _ _ .. _ .. ,, _ ... __ ... _ .... SOl Application Aspect of Secondary ALFC Loop ......... _ ............. " .. "._ .... _ .......... _ ............. 505
Malenal,

8.J & 4 &5


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8.7
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8.9 8.10 &1 1

8.12
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&15 8.16 8.17 8.18 8.19


8.20

Jtor"

CONTENTS

Interfacing of AGe with Economic Dispatch ................................................................ S06 822 Application of Optimal Control CO~epIS in ALFC ...................................................... 'YJ1 8.23 Fundamenta! Aspects of Optimal Linear Regulator (OLR) Design ...... ........................ 510 813.1 Significance of Q and R in the State RcgulalOT Problem ..... ............................ 511 Exercises .... ,................... ,....... ,.... _ ........ '. ___ ._ _ ___ _ ._ _ _ . _, _ __ _ ,__ __ . _ _ .. __ __ _ _ _ ,,", ..... ,_ .. ,... ,' ........ ,........ ,..... J J5 8.21

9.

Reactive Power Control and Voltage Stability .................................... 516-575


Introduction ...................................... .......................... ..................................................... 516 Po,,"'!:r Flow in a Two-Bus System ....... .......................................................................... 516 Vollage Regulation in a Transmission System and lis Relatioo with Reactil'e PO,,"'!:t ............................................................................................................................ 518 9.4 Reactive Power and Voltage Collapse ............................................................................ 522 9.5 Changes in Power System Contributing to Vo ltage Collapse ...................................... S22 9.6 Concept of Stability of Transmission System ............................................................... 5.22 9.7 Definition and Classification of Voltage Stability .......................................................... ill 9.8 Mechanism of Voltage Collapse ........ ......... ............................. ....................................... 525 9.9 Analytical Concept of Voltage Stability for a Two-bus System ................................... 526 9.\0 E ~pression for Critica l Re<:eiving End Voltage and Critica l Power Angle at Voltage Stability Limit for a T\I,'o-Bus Power System ................................................................. 531 9.11 Relatioo of Voltage Stability and Rotor Angle Stability ............. .................................. 532 9.12 Factors Affecting Voltage Stability .................................................................. ............... 532 9.12.1 Reactive Power Capability of Synchronous Generator ..................................... 533 9.12.2 Automatic Voltage Control of Synchronous Generator ... .................................. S34 9.13 Voltage Stability of Non-linear Power System .................................. ............................. 535 9.13.1 Static and Dynamic Analysis ........................., ......................................... .......... 535 9.13.2 Stabi lity of Non-linear System ............................................................................ 536 9.133 Bifun:ation.'.nalysis .......................................... .................................................. 536 9.14 Computation of Voltage Collapse Point ......................................................................... 537 9.\4. 1 Minimum Singular Value Method ....................................................................... 537 9.14.2 Point of Col!apse Method ........................................................... ....................... 538 9.14.3 Opt imisation Method ........................................................................................... 539 9.14.4 Continualion Load Flow Method ....................................................................... 540 9.14.5 Comparison of Computation Methods ............................................................... 541 9.1 5 Role of TransfOllller on Voltage Control of a Power System ....................................... 542 9.15.1 Method of Voltage Control by Tap-changing Transformers ............................. 542 9.152 Effect of On-load Tap Changer Transformer on Voltage Stability ...... ............. 545 9.\6 Reactive Compensation Methods for Heavily Loaded and Voltage Stressed Power Systems to Enhance Voltage Stability ................................................................ 548 9.16.1 Line Series Compensation ................................................................................... 548 9.162 Shun! Compensa tion ........................................................................................... 549 9.163 Static VAR Compensators ............... .............................................. ...................... 550 9.16.4 Synchronous Condenser at the Load Bus ........................................................ 553 9.1 7 De termination of Vohage Stability Using Sensitivity Indicator .................................... 564 9.18 A Voltage Security Indicator (VSI) Combining Fast De<:ouplcd Load Flow (FDLF) and Ne"10n-Raphson Load Flow Methods ................................. .............. ................... 9.19 Determination of Voltage Stability by g.V Modal An~lysi s ......................................... 573 Exercises ........ ............. ... ................ ............ ............................. ....' in T .. "l:[j ' r ....... 74 to 9.1 92 93

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CONTfNTS

10. Computerised Fault Analysis ............................................................... 576- 61 3


10.1 Introduction ................................. _ .. ...................................... ....................................... ,... 576 IQ.2 Detenninatilln of Symmetrical Fa ult Curren! Using ZII", Inversion .... ,............. ,........... 5n 10J Detcnnin.ation or Fault Cumnt by Fonnulating the Impedancc Matrix Using Network Theory .......................... __ .................................................................................. 578 lOA Generalised Fault Ana lys is Using Zo ... Buil ding Algor ithm .......................................... 519 10.4.1 Sequcnce Network Modelling .......................................................... ......... ........ .. 579 10.42 Three_phase Balanccd Fault ........................................................................ ,...... 5!Kl 1O.4J Single Line to Ground Fault ............................................................................... 5&l 10.4.4 Line 10 Line Fault ............................................................................................. ... 5M3 10.4.5 Double Line to Ground Fault .... " ....................................................................... S8S 10.5 Detcrmination of Line Current During Fault Condition ................................................ 587 10.6 Utility of Fault Studics .................................... .... ............ ................................. _ _ ... __ ....... S88 10.7 Flowchart for Short Circuit Studics (Fig. 10.9) ........................... " .................. ,............ .. 588

uercis/!s .. ,........... ,... ,... " .. ,........ ,.... ,.... ,... " .. ,.... ,... ,....... " ....... ,... ,... " ... ,... " ... ,.........,.. __ .. ,.... ,... ,_ 599

Appendix A Appendix B

Unit Commitment ................................................................. 615-620 Applications of Computer Methods .................................... 621-M9

Bibliography .......................................................................................................... 641


In de-x .................................." .............................. .. ................................. ......... 643--645

Material,

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Preface
The fundamental aim or this Ic)(t is to present a number of engineering and economic matters in power
system planning operation and control in a comprehensive way. The topics substantiated by a number

of illustrations and computer progralllS describe analytical methods of power system and their

operation and control. To understand the text, some acquaintance with the basic concepts in power
system as well as advanced calculus methods is needed. The chapters have b n methodically arranged, starting with the basic aspects of power engineering problems. In each chapter, the relevant methods have been dealt with the help of suitable
computer-based examples. In a few se<:tions, while dealing with operalKmal problems, optimiution methods have been preferred as they can be u5Cd without extensive mathematical proofs and arc useful in solving practical problems.

The text begins with an introductory discussion on common operating problems and basic lISpects of powe r system operation, including structures of power system, power system representation. and representation of power system clements. Different co nventional models arc brie fly described and analytical trealmCnts are presented to show the modeling concepts of power apparatus like Synchr01lO11$ generator, transformer, transmission lines, motors, etc. Matrix operational methods applicable to powe r network also get proper anention. Exhaustive analytical treaunents arc presented for the conventional load flow methods. A ll the conventional methods of optimization are explained with the help o f suitable examples. Some practical and applicational aspects of basic philosophy of ALFC also form part of the discussion. Fundamental aspects of reactive power control and voltage problems in transmission network followed by modem developme nts in this field including advanced treatments have been detailed. Compu terized methods for the analysis of faulted power system have been furnished as well. The text is self-contained and thorough . It is intended for a onesemester course for postgraduate students as well as II one-year course for senior undergraduate students in electrical engineering. Practising engineers and researchers will also find the book suitable for their use. The authors acknowledge the constant encouragement they received from the respected ViceChancellors Prof. N.R. Banerje& of Bengal Engineering and &ience University. Shibpur and Prof. A.N. Basu of Jadavpur University for th is project. They also express their gratitude 10 the
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Mat Tlal Jm dIem

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PREfAC E.

resplive lk~ns, Registrars, and Head s of the lkpartments ofbolh these univers ities for offering all facililies in course of preparation of Ihe manuscript. The authors cordially invite any constructive criticism of or comment about the book.

Abllljit Chakrabuti Sunil' Hallla-

MJter!

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Introduction
1.1
STRUCTURE OF A POWER SYSTEM

EleclTicily is the only fonn of energy used in Ihe industrial. domestic, comrnen; ial, and lransponalion sectors. II is a coveted fonn of energy. since it can be gener-l1ed in bulk and transmitted economically over long distances. Electric power sySte m deals with the generation. transmission and distribution of

electric enc:rgy associaTed with the unique feature of control of the flow or demand of energy al desired nodes throughout the power network. Figure 1.1 represents the fundamental structure of a power

network where generators produce electric energy. transfonners transfonn this energy into one voltage
level from another voltage level and transmission lines wheel Ihe power from the generating stations to the load centres for the final distribution ofelccrrical energy to different loads. Tie-lines interconnect one system with the neighbouring electric system belonging to the same grid. The circuit breakers isolate a faulty pan of the network (the fault being sensed by the relays) while slatid rotary compensators may be used for voltage control at load or remote buses, Convent ion ally, loads are represenled in a lumped or composile fonn. The best location of a generating st ation being at a place very c lose to electrical load centre (i.e .. the region where the major energy demand exists). the practical location of the primary conventional energy sources does not necessarily coincide with the urban centres, The locat ion of a powe r plant is frequently governed by its doseness co the energy resource and transponmion facility of Ihe fuel as well as availability ofneareslload cenlre. Ellv iron menlal aspects arc also key factors in detennining the site of the plant. Mostly. a generating plant consists of generating units comple!e wilh necessary accessories. Control elements like different valves. e;.;citers. regulators etc .. also step up transfonners. and instrument transformers a long wilh breakers arc intended in the stat ion swi tchyard for the transmission of power and protection of Ihe system. Sources of inpul to the geueruting system arc conventional1y fossil fllels (e.g .. coa!. oil and gas). hydrosource and nuclear fuel. However, nonconventional sources like wind powe r, solar energy. tidal power. geothemlal power etc. arc a lso being used for .Ita"d~alone systems. An electric J)Qw~r system. e~en a small one, usually constitutes an eieetric network of ~ast complex,ty, The diversity of the system magnitude being great. ther~ is no general role rega rding the structure of the system that applies to any power system. However, any J)Qwer system could be categorised by a combination of generation. transmission and distribution networks. After generation. trallsmission plays D vi tal role in transponing power from the generating station 10 load centres.
1

Mat Tlal Jm dIem

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POWER S)'STtM ANALYSIS, OPERATION AND CONTROL

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Jtc>raJ

INTII.ODi/C n ON

Transmission of power is usually done at HV / EHV / UHV range due to the kno",1'1 fact that it reduct'S the power loss in the line as well as improves stability. The common transmission voltages acros.s the globe are 3J kVI66 kVlIJ4 kV/ 1J2 kVII38 kVJI61 kV1220 kV1230 kV/345 kV/400 kV/500 kV in the HV and EHV ranges and 765 kV/800 kVl llOO kV/ 1500 kV in the UIIV ranges in most partS of the world whi le the generat ion voltages have commonly been 6 kV/ 11 kV/ 12.47 kV/I3.2 kV/ 13.& kV/ 15 kVI16 kV122 kV (all an: line-to line voltage). In sub-transmis.sion leve l. the circuits diSTribute electric power to a number of distribution centres in a cenain geographical region at a vohage leve l that typically varies between 1J kV and 138 kV, the most common grades being 3J kV/66 kVl flO kV/ 120 kV/ 132 kV. The sub-transmission circuits may also receive electric power directly from any generator bus. Larger customers are mostly served by sub-transmission leve l circuits. In small power systems. the sub-transmission level may coincide with the distribution level. The distribution le,el consists of the d istribution circuits in the o"eral l region of distribution. The larger consumers, i.e. high tension (H.T.) have been termed as primary distributors while low tension (L. T.) consumers an: the secondary distributors. The consumers consuming energy between 3 kVand 23 kV an: H.T. consumers while the consumers in the category of I 10 V-4001 440 V lie in the class of secondary or L.T. consumer'S. The increasing demand on the electrical energy has led not on ly to diversificat ion of the generation. transmission and distribution network but also raised the points of proper utilisation and reliability of the e lectric pow ... r. This, in tum. has necessitated the pooling of larger number of powcr systems into a common grid and consequently insisting for proper scheduling of generat ion and demand. It also turned ou t that the incorporation of a large number of systems into a common grid makes the operation of the entire system very sensitive to the operaling conditions. Thus in addition to the study of po....er system opera/ion. the knowledge of p{)lver system ron/rol is very much required in order to run the system economically and to maintain a continuous balance between generation and varying load demand. In one way, the problems of dyn3m ic and transient stability. steady state stability, voltage and frequenc), n:gu lation , power optimisation need to b<! properly ana lysed and on the other hand, II mcthodology of overall system control is to be devised. Digital co mputers arc the most e/Teet ive tool for the ana lysis of a power system.

1.2 THE NECESSITY OF CONTROL OF A POWER SYSTEM


Present-day power systems operating as interconnected grid networks have sevcral advantages. First lransfer of power between areas is made feasible. enabling the advantage of each generation to be exploited and resulting ill improved compensation ofl03d fluctuations with reduced running costs. A reduction in the spare capacity of each of the interconnected system is also possible as a result of mUlUal auiSlancc between the areas. Power system control is vel)' much rcquiTl'd to maintain demand. whi le the system frequency. voltage level and security au maintained. Overall system contro l is based on a combination of manual inlenention, feedback loops, optimisation tech n iques and load demand. The rjuirement s for cont rol of frequency and power exchange can be implemen ted by load frequency control. This contro l is genemlly autonomous and each area is responsible for il.'l 0"'1'1 steady state power ba lance. The need for direct aCTion to control network voltage is usually done by the installation of automatic voltage regu lating equipment. The contro l responsibility is basically divided according to the frequency of intervention o f the physical phenomenon in~o l ved. The area leve l decision may also inc lude system voltage control with an optimal schedu ling of reaCTive power flow. Distribulion of reactive powcr generally docs not affect the system operating cost significantly, bUI an optimum aUocation may be important for maintaining steady slate system stabil ity and vollage levels.

Material I Jm dire-,to

]to ai

POWER SYSTE,\i

,
is a complex process and it requires proper ,~~. salient clements of Ihe cOnlrol hierarchy. . The a~ailabi1ity of digital computers has coordinating the control parameters of control structure is most fundamental for lowest le~e l control was analog conlrol, but are now being imroduced , This comrol and ~oltage con!T(l1 of the station. intervals and are largely manually controlled. for economic {O<Jd disp{J1eh and load

The management and comrol of a power interaction between many levels. Figure 1.2 i Manual cOnlrol is generally slower Ihan..~!~i~-~ . resulted in consideration of digital ~~L . , ~arious le~e l s previously under La l ~ ~i' Pr imary control at the lowest i, the proper operation of the power s)"5tem. , small digital systems based on microcomputer inc ludes the control of go~emor set point and The higher levels of control range for longer , Howeve r. computer control schemes ha~e been

Power plant

Manua! com",!

e;t;t~~l
,

I Lower Ofdcr
contro l

, "
~ ,

I
Manual

lood fn:q.

~ont ro!

Digital

load fn:q. CQflt.oJ

cont rol

,
,

" ,onom;e

Digital control

, , ,

"
System

, ,

M:muall

digital control

, , " ,

Manual

control

, "
syst,.n+
Mauua'

control

f ill. 1.1

conlrol SlruC tllt'C .

Material,

JfT1

dlreitJ

,to

~.

tN'tRODlIcrION

fl1!qllcm:y cOlllrol. Though unit commitment has been computerised in presen t-day power sys tems.
syslem maintenance and system pl ann ing are most ly manually controlled. Ada!'t;'"<' control. the newe r control conce pt , is being imple mented to the sect ion in the power network fo r impleme nti ng most desired operat ion.

1.2.1

Control Methods

On ce the need for an efficient control of a power system is understood. thc next q uest ion that arises is. "How to control?" In old t imes, the po wer system \\"as mosl ly cOfltrolled by ma nu al in tervention. But Ihe man ual control be ing slow and dependent 0 11 the reaction of ind ividua Is, a large number of nHlnua l contro ls we re replaced by electron ic or analog co ntrols wi th the pass;.gc of t ime. In the lateu devc lopme nts, digi tal controls we re incorporated replacing some key analog cont rols and made Ihe overnll conlrol more relia bl e, faster and adaptive. Computer is th e key cleme nt in Ihe digital contro l of th e po wer system. It enables pr!X:ess ing of large num!J.c,r of differe nt data and lakes C9re of tht' con stra ints invo lved in ttle operation of t he power system. The computer repl aces the convcnt iona l hardware contro l cirtuitry in the conlrol loop and offers the most feasible control ompu t, taki ng inlo account the com plexity and variety of decisions that have to be laken in view of d li deU! operation o f a modem inle rconn ccll-d po .... er s)'stem.

1.2.2

Advantages of Computer Control


a dv~mages

Th e majO!'

of computer contro l of a power system arc as fo ll ows:

Highest speed of operation and fastest control action, maximum accuracy and high reli ab;1 il)" O pt imal opera tion and control Fast network state s.:a nning and monitoring &ope of implement ing adaptil'e con trol Low ma intenance and ope rating
co~t

1.2.3 Types of Computer Control System


Basically, the dut ies of Ihe compute r system to control the power system operation arc of two types: (a)
(b)

Supervisory Direct

In supervisory type, the computer generates an output to change the set point of tile cootro! ler. In th is case, the computer is JU St the decisionmaking tool while the controller is the WO,kllOfSC in the control s)'stcln. The contro ller could !J.c, an analog or a digil3! t)'pe. In direct control, the compute r it.selfacts as controller and executes the decision laken by itself in order to cO ll tro! Ihe process. Depending 01, the Ucsign of the system, the computer conl ro l can be

(i)
(ii) (ii i)

Offline O!'-line tn) ine

Mate-rial

:mI

dire-it)

Jtorai

poWeR SY5T!;M A.NALYSIS: OpeRATION A.ND

When Ihe COnlro! is off-line, the computer is human operator. The computcr is not \0 process these data and output the results In on-line systems. the computer i intcrfacing circu it ry and receives Ihe nece$Silry data processes the input data and outputs the result This is basically the simplest on- lin e control and is possible to have closed-loop on-line control where implementing the output dedsion. The computer i I' through necessary interfacing network automalically. In the in-line type comrol, Ihe operntor and directly into the compute r through the keyboard. The digital computer is not on ly the moS! I sophistiemcd. To economise the t 11 analog contro l equipment can still be used. This too. Analog conlTollers can be used to i also. Before applying direct computer control. it is gather data and provide track up for analog i storage and control of power system elements in successful imp1c mcnlation of a computer as a considered before implementing the decision
Pr<lbIcn1

Ihe dala regarding the process Ihrough II the actual system. The duty of the computer is operator can ~ommend a control action. Ihe power system through suitable any human intervention. The com puler who then implemcnts the control action. 1 as open-loop on-line control. It is also computer requires no manual inlervenlion in is transmitted to the power system network

d". from the system and enlers them rapidly

.,.<om.

tool in power syS!em control but also th e most in the lower levels of control. some the purpose of instrumentation and metering system control aspects for training purposes possible to use cheapcr digital instruments to Digital means may also be adopted for data sector. Careful planning is needed for the Figure 1.3 shows the steps that are to be I
Fe~sibility

definition
Step I

study of
comp. oonl.

St"f'lJ

Simul.lron

ScIC(:(ion

~"""
Step6

obje-ctivc

"'

Training

.M
implemental;1>I\

Step 7
Fil. IJ

Sleps of planning

"~ I '."P"'" conlrol.

1.3

POWER SYSTEM

As a complete diagram of a practical power system ITansmission and d ist ribution) is tOO compl icated, it

"",",ii.

a ll the three phases (generation, a normal practice to represent a power

Mat, '

"0

II'ITRODUCfION

system by means of simp le s)'ste ms for each component resulting in si ngle-line Fig. 1.4. To the nei ghbouri ng ~y'tcm ticlines
Bus-2
T,
G '---/CB

di~.mm. ~s

shown in

Gcn.bu .

~
G,

Gcn bus

Bus )

Dir.::ct;on of pow.:r now

G~.

auxiliary

In 10 ",On no:<: lion

100'

Iie1;IIeI, "b I", nsmi~,;on !)'stcm fnr distribUlion


S;"8k lin~ "'p~mal ;on

LQad

(au~ iliary)

Fi&- 1.4

of a simple tw..... bus sysl( ln.

Any particular component mayor may not be shown in the diagram depend ing on the in format ion required in a system swdy. e.g. drcllit break ers need not be shoWl1 in a load now analysis diagram but are 10 be shoWl1 for a protection study. Different generator ~nd transfonncr con nections an: indicated by proper symbols. Equivalent circuits of power circuit components can be represented in the d iagrams.

1.4

POWER SYSTEM AT NORMAL OPERATING STATE


(a) Then: is a perfect balance between powe r generation and demand; consequently, the load flow equations an: satisfied. (b) The frequency./. is constant throughout the system. (c) The bus voltage magnitude IV.! is with in the presc ribed limit, i.e. IVJ",," !i IV~ ~ IV'!,,,,,,
(This is requi red a s all the p<>wcr c'Iuipmcm and
apparulu~cs

A power system operates in a normal st3l( if the following condit ions an: sat isfied:

( 1.1 )
arc s upposed 10 be
opera t~

at a specified voltage.) (d) No power system component is to be overloaded. However, the load is mOSily a cons! ant l ~ \'arying parameter and in order to !:leet th is slow change of the load demand, the nonna l operating state drifts with time (the load is mostly met by optimal gClleratiOfl schedu ling), Change in frcquenc~ causes change in the speed oflhe drives in the consumer's plant. Funher, it is necessary to ma int ain network frequency constant so that the powe r stat ions run satisfactorily in paraJlel, the vari ous motors operati ng on the system run at the desired speed and other de vices function proper ly. However, the most im ponant reason for keeping frequency of the electrica l system constant is that its constancy indicates power ba lance of the total system.

Mate-n II

Jtn

dlre-ibs

Jtoral.

PO~\'r R

SYST(M /lNAI.YSIS: OP(RATION AND CONTROL

of any power system component results in higher temperature of operalion and the component is likely 10 bi: d~Ul aged. System stab ili ty, given by Ihe mimI/Will power that can be transmined. also ind icates the power system operatin g at normal stale. Th is .m ady $llIIe ,abili,y fimil (also known a~ .wllic I,,,,,-,mis.fi(m C "pocily) is given by

O~erlOJding

( 1.2)
In atl altempl to lransmit mote power than this limit. synchronism is lost and the transmission system collapses. For short lines (less than 100 km). the thermal limit capability fi~es the loading of line whereas for medium or long line. the stat ic transmission capacity becomes the limiting facto!". Vo/wge .l labilily is another operati ng par.\mcter that needs to be considered.

1.5

OPERATING PROBLEMS IN POWER SYSTEMS

An insight in to the operat ion of any electric power system reveals 1hat frequent)' and vollage arc the prime ~lId main indications of proper system operation. Any di sturbance in the s>" stem operation causes varia! ion in Ihese two parameters separately or jointly and in cases of ~cvere system disturballces, Ihe freqnent), atallor ~oltagc varimions may be abnormally high indicating the I()<;s of .\ystem stability. Frequency variation being tile ,ause of real power mistualch, voltage is the sole indicator of Ihe rcactivc powcr imbalances illlhc syslem. Common operating problems tllat are inhcrelH in EH V power lines hn~c been ch ss ificd ""d bricny d~scrilx-d belQw, Major "r~a S "rstudy in Ih~ rclevant M"3 con sist of loadability. frequcncy d}'1lamics, transient swbilil}'. power line oscillations and Ioltage stab ilit}" problem. in addition 10 th e conventional steady state and tran sient stme power stability.

1.5.1

Loadability of Transmission Lines

II is defined as the oplimtlm power transfer capability of an EJ/I' lille IIIlder a specified sel uf opf!rating crilf!rill. In an EHV power system, the power tran sfer capabilit), of a transmission line is substantially aflected by nodal power injections and topological changes. II has been generally 3ccrpted thm the "mitt! slre"gth, i.e. capabi lity of a tran smi$Sion line , is substan tially affected by noda l power injection s and topological ~hange.<;. It has been generally accepted thaI noda l strength. i.e. the short drcrlil Cllp'lbilil)' (S.C.C.) of the system, is the inverse of the posilive seq uence equiva lenl impedance in per un it and it intlic~tes the robrmn"~.f of the power network concerned. Thi s itnfl"'danee, also consisting of the source reac tance. is USUJlly dicI 31ed by the series rcactance of thc line whcn analysed in a loss- less frJme. Thc mOSI convcn tional fonn of,,prcscnting the loadabi lity being in tenns of srtrge inrped(llrc~ Irwding (SIl.). where SfL ~ (V1rL.;,J in 1'.11., the basic express ion of power transfer is gh'en by
/'-

(1.3)

(assllming equal sending and receiving end vollag.e, the power ang le being Jand transfer re~clance be in~ X. X - XL..f being the reactance per unil length and L, the length of the line). Also.

X = xl. = rof L : ro,[fJh: {f .tu-!k .L

V-;

V-:;

~ale"nall :>rTI

dlrelID

JIO ais

/, \ .'TRODUCfION

where

Zo "" surge impedance '"

If,(an~
p ""
P
SIL
V1

( I .4)

c being the li ne reactance Jnd shunt

c~pacitance per unit

length, respectively, p .. phase constan t of the wave of proPJgation ( = m./k, tlJ being the angu lar frequ~ncy), oelect rica l line length ofthc line in radian and 0('" (lL ) being small, sin 0", O . Subst ituting equa tion (1.4) into eq uation (1.3)
1 . sin '; " - sm ';'" (SIL J",-~ s inO Z" sin O

sin'; sinO

[in p.u .. SIL - (1'2120)]

(1.5)

Equation ( !.5) ind icates that the power transfer c~pabi I ity can be repre~cnled in tcnns of SIL. Figure 1.5 represents the loadabil ity of a typical EHV sing le c ireu it tine assuming variou s I inc lengths.

"
10

0
~

,
~

, "

,.;
0;

I '0

"'"
fiR. I.S

200

300

Line length (kill)

"'"

300

!'ronle ofline loadabi!iw

Hi gh sourCe rN Clance plays a vita l role in limiting the line loa dab ilit),. Loadabilit)' can be improved by reduci ng the reactance of over head wires and placi ng series capadtor in line as we ll as relaxing the vo ltage drop constraint. Reduction of line power loss improves line loadability also. This can be achieved by utilising low resistance conductors. parallel wires in the transmission system as well as by placing shunt capacity at the load end. Loadability is severel), impaired b)' the application of shunt reactors in the Jines up to 500 kV, This impainnent is not much for UHV lines. Fi gure 1.6 represents two profiles of line loadability for t\\'o systems. one having higher source reactance and line reactance (tenned as I<'ellk system) and the other for lower so urc e reactance and line reac tance (lermed as robust system ).

Mate-nail Jm dlre-itJ

ltoral.

, ,

POWER SYSTEM ANALYSIS, OPERATION AND CO,VTR OL

, ,
, ,
I

2. 5

I
'.5
, .0

rur robust system


/'

I
i

05

i ,
,

o
~' ig.

".

200

300

l.im: ICl1l;lh (km)

".
wea~ s)'Sl~ms_

1.6 1 'lOliks of iu.ldabi!ily of lobus! and

,
I

1.5.2

Frequency Dynamics 01 Transmission Line

I I
I
I
I

When the power system struc ture is suc h Ihal a si ngle line oUlage in the uansmission sysTem creales is lan ding condition, a enrdll l evaluat ion of rrequency bell.w inllr i~ nc~-dcd \0 accretion reliability. During nannal oper.llion. Ihe power flow on the t ie- line can be represented as

If = 1v.'11'11 X ,'"(~ . _~I ) o


The ra te of change of the line rea l power flow can Illen be repre$Cntcd as

( 1.6)

(1.7)

!
!
/:if. and 6/, being Ihe
Til ' Ihe Sialic tran smission

I I I

capacity. In case the slatic tran smi ssion capacity oflhe line is low. higher frequency deviations are to be tolerated for signific~nt contribution of power flow through the link_

1.5.3 Overload and Frequency Oecay Rate


II is well kn own that if there is any mismatch be-Iwttn the mcrhanica l power input and the e lectr ica l power ou tput lIos~ being negJe<:ted), there will be a tcndcncy of speed change in the generator rotor. As the machine consists of hc~vy rotational mass. the speed change c~nnOI be insta ntan eous and is governed by the following equJ ti on .

T - Jdw

,"

Jto ais

INTRODUCTION

oc.

dw T P~ I _=_=_x_
dfJruJ

dw .. - I ( Pr-P ) dl J(J)
~

( 1.8)

As. p. '" .accelerating power = P, - P,; P r being the turbine po"'er output and PI' the electric.al power output. Also,

M = Joo
I.e. .

then,

dw

where M = (2H/w,,.), w,,., being the synchronous speed of alternator rotor. Thus.

d(211f) = 2Jrf(, _,) T dI2H

oc.
II

fLL(p,_, ) dl 2 H
s~tem

(1.9)

In a SO Hz system from equation (1 .9), the initial frequency decay rate for a sudden load demand can then be represented by

toeOCQullter

(UO)

The initial frequency decay r.lte for diffCR:nt types of loads for a typical radial system for varying
attempted overloads has been graphically reprucnted in Fig. 1.1.

, ,

Frequcn<::y
dependent __ I""d

of

Z"'''
mi~ro

'~d

(;,L
(Hz/sec)

Frequency indcpatcknlload

Ancmplcd overload (p.u.) FIg.1.7 Init ial frequency r.lIe for varying attempted o,er\oads of static and frequc:ncy..(\epf:ndtnl h...Js.

Mat,

POWER SYSTEM ANALYSIS: OPRATION

1.5.4

Transient Stability Problem

imbalances between the rea l and reactive power Frequent topological changes, transmission to I\Ifl the systcm near the transient stabil ity ge nerat ion and demand insist the powe r ":::;,"~:: causing the loss of transient stabil ity. margin. causing instability ph" ,~'m~", " Basic aspects of transient stab il ity have been a number OfIC"15. The reccnt lrend 10 adjust ,"" "" ,,",',;p . du ring lransicnl stabililY problem the generation. popu larly known as AGT has been found to be an effective too l in transient stab: lity. Figures 1.8 and 1.9 ill ustrate such a simulation.

("".=,',

V (kV )

---__

--- - --'
\vilh ,\(;T

WililOttl AGT

"
';1:. 1.8
I mpro~cnknl

in "ol1age profile

1 0 MiT in Iflmsicnt slability pro;>blcm .

P (I>IW)

80<)

-- ------ .,
,
Wi~",'"

,With "GT

"JO
ol--~--~Ti me (""c)

AGT

fig. 1.9

Improve ment ,,,'" ''

stabilily due 10 AGT.

Jlen

1:m1 dlreibs

Jtc>raJ

1.'1T/I.OOLle r/ON

1.5.5 Power Oscillations


Sustained law frequmcy oscil lat ions lIave been reported in po,",er supply systems. A comprellensive literature review reveals tha t the amount of p<lwer now through tile EI IV line nnd the charJcterislin of loads h\'c a sign ificant eiTe<:t on the damping of the system whi le the elTeet of speed governing sySierns and the gain ofaulOmatic vo ltage regu lator is insignificant. Power system SI~bi lisef5 hJve been found to be effective in improving Ihe dynam ic sl~bil ity of the power system . Low frequency oscil lations e:otis\ particu larly during he~v)' loading cond itions and if nOI damped properly. they may cause instab ility. Damping of oscillations can be enhanced by eliminating the nonli near loods in th e distributiOl1 system. Insta ll ation o f HVDC line between t\\"o regional El1V grids in addit ion to EHV AC link can e lim ina te The prob lem of low frequency oscillations provided thc line power flows in AC and DC links are carefully monitored during heavy loading periods.

1.5.6 Reactive Power Limitations and Voltage Control Problems


In an EHV p<l\\"er system, the reacti"e power flow may be incoherent and The limiTS of reaeti>'c power availability may be restricted. leading to the system voltase collapse in case the line is reactivc power constrained. A sudden increase in reactive power demand in a reacti ve power constrained line is generally due to the cont ingcncy in transmission network (e.g .. tile tripp ing ofa heavily loaded EHV line causing an in~rt'asc of the load bu rden of the ~djacent line(s) for maintenance of th e constant system load). The addition~1 reactive demand caused by the d isturbance is generally compensated by the system reac tive re serve. if ava il ab le. allowing the systcm to sell Ie down at a reduced leve l 0'transmission Voltage. On the other hand. whcre the reactive re serve cannot cope with the sudden ri<;e ofrt'aclivc demand. 5)"!;tcm vollage instab ili ty results. This collapse may occu r even though the real power requirements o fthc system are met and the frequency is stabi lised. In case of a cont ingency in a transmission system. the seri"$ rl'ClCfive lau (Q,t) increases. When the remain ing healthy line(s) loading surpasses the SIL (surgc imperlance loading). the ris ing Tilte of series reactive losses is s Ubst~nlial showing a steep increase: in Ihe rate of scries reactive loss aga inst SIL load ing at its hi gher magn itudcs. This. in Turn , depresses the system voltage in the lines. As the SIL is directly proponionalto the $Gua re of the sySlem I"Ohage (SIL - 1' 11Z<)). it starts to drop as the vo ltage dccreascs causing further series reactive loss. In addit ion to thi s cneet. reacth'c charging capability. being propon ional to thc square of the transmission volmse. decreases with decaying \'o ltagc causing funher deTerioration of the system voltage Sla bl e stale. In extreme cases. allthcse elTccts may add to crea te high magnitude of th~ line react ive loss for ea~h c.~ tr.l un it o r rise in rea l lo~d . This cnonnous rise in demand of reactive powcr invi tcs severe volt,,!:c control prob lem s. and in case of weak systcm.s. there ma y be sponL 1ncous volt:lgc in stability. In a react ive power constrained system. tlte condition of voltage instability is always governed by the lim itation of reactive power ava ilabil ity. The magn itude of the Iimit iLL g Vl\ lue of the reacti I'e pown at any operat ing conditiOl1 can be determined anal>1ic ally and it reveals thm the stable voltage state ean onl}' be maintained if the SY$tcm possesses th e corresponding limiting value of the reactive power tr:msfcr capab ility.

1.6

SECURITY ANALYSIS AND CONTINGENCY EVALUATION

Under nonnal operat ing cond itions 3 power system may face a cont ingency cond it ion such as oLltage (comp lete or partial) of a gener.lting ~n it or of a line, a sudden increase or decrease of the power demand on the system. A system operdtor has to ana lyse tile effcct of suc ll hig.llly probable

MatE

Jtor"

POWER SYSTEM ANALYSIS: OPEIUoTION AND CONTROL

contingenc ies so thaI the operator may take cOITC{:\ive aClion in the event of the ir occurrence. Thus,

the ana lysis of some of the most probable ronlingencies helps in enhancing system seeurity. The
security assessment and its enhancement fonn an importanT part of planning and operation of power systems that arc continuously expanding.

The main operating Slates of a power system may be classified as

(a) Nonnal
(b) Emergency

(c) Restorative
However. later on Iwo more slates. "Alert" and "Extremis", were added. For the sa ke of understanding, on ly the three-Slate trans ition diayam of Fig. 1. 10 will be considered here as this
diagram provides a good conceptual picture oflhe overall computer control requ irements of a po"" cr system.

Normal Slale

ReSIOmli,c
~ IJI~

Emcr!:e"",}, Slate Fig. 1.10 State transition diagram.

Most of the times. the system rema ins in the nonnal state as stated earlier. In this state, the load now equations are sat isfied and voltage constancy is maintained. with all operating (or inequality) constraints being satisfied. When these constraints are not satisfied. the system is said to be in a lcn state. Contingency evaluation is. therefore. required to find out if the prevailing nonna l operating cond ition is secured. The imponam and probab le contingencies to be considcred are: Outage of a line Outage of a generating unit Single phase or three-phase fault.

The modem powcr system conlro l centres (or load dispatch centres) are the places for secur ity monitoring , In these centres. on-line identification of the actual operating condition is undcnaken util ising a computer-based technique. known as stale estima/ion , The state estimat ion gives the load dispatcher the best (stim31e of 1he comp lex bus voliage at any instal)! from the redundant SCI of

1,1 atE

/folTRODUCTIOIII

telemetered data and brcilker status. The sec urity anal)'1i5, with the help of the state estimator. then finds out the impact of the contingencies using somc fast load flow method such as Fill! Decoupled Load Flow (FOI..F). In this way, the real time data obtained at the energy control (entres are examined by the security analyser to find out the security of the system. If the sys tem ;s found to be insc(ure, then the system engineer dctemlines the preventive (ontrols \0 be applied to brillg the system back into the se<:ure zone. This may require geneT"lltion Tesdeduling andfoT a change in the interchange schedu le. This nonna lly would deviate the system from the most e<:Ollomic operation, but is quite justified and is very much desirable. In case the emc-rgency occurs due to cascading events or contingencies, the corrective emergellcy comrols such as optimum load shedding, the network rearrangement, starting up of some quick-stilrl units are 10 be applied to bring the system back into a secured state. Contingency such as outage ofa line. generator or loss of a transformer would reduce the securil)' leve!. The operating prob lems as indicated earlier may also lead the system to a state having lesser , secur ity. This state is now the alert state where the system remains stab le alld the operating constraints are satisfied, but an abnormal voltage and frequency condition may arise. This type of state can be tolerated for some time. Preventive controls (for example. start up of standby units andfor compensators) may bring the system from this state to th e nonnal sta te. However, when Ihe system is in alert stale, some additional contingency may take p lace such as fu rther loss of unit or line. The (ontingencies in the distribution or sub-transm ission levels may also lead the system to another state with lesse r securil)'. This is an emergency state and emergency comrols must be imp lemented to $ave the system from vulnerdble collapse. There may be undue voltage depression andfor overloadillgs of lines during emergen(y state. If the emergency controls fail. lhen the over loaded line must be tripped and the system faces the risk of total shutdovo"ll (the extreme state). Load sheddi ng and intentiona l voltage degradation are the two most effective means of imp lementing emergency control in order to $ave the power system. The restora tive stale invo lves reschedul ing of active and reactive power, re-synchronisation and gradual load pick-up. The system now returns either to a new normal state or to the previous normal state. In order to avoid the damage to the costly (omponents of the power network. as a first line of defence, protective devices are used allhe appropriate pbces in the system. FUlKtions such as re lay ing and voltage contro l are carried out within milliseconds and executed I(l(:a lly throughout the system and no cCIlualised de<:ision-milking process is involved. Typically. a re lay detects the fau lt and initiates a circuit breaker tr ipping to remove the unhealthy part of the network or faulted components from the rest of the system. Another importanl objL""Ctive of lhe emergency control is to perfonn automatic reorganisation of components. The re-closing of a line must be fast enough. The fast application of emergency controls saves the system from the loss of synchronisalion and subsequent island ing.

1.7

AUTOMATIC CONTROL

The necessity of conlrol of a power system being highlighted, it is imperative to mention that Ihe con trol measures are most effc(tive once the automat ic devices are the control elements. All10matic load frequency control (ALFC) and automatic voltage control (AVC) are the tll"O most important aspects that can be im plemcnt;:d to ensure proper system operat ion.

1.7.1

Automatic Load Frequency Control (ALFC)

In th is contro l circuit. there are two feedback loops, primary and secondary. The purpose of both these loops is to achieve re~1 p<>wer balance or load tracking in the system. ALFC loops are designed to MatE Jtor"

I
POWER 5Y5TUI ANALYSIS; OPERATION AND CONTROL

maintain power ba lan ce by an appropriate adjusunent of the wrbine torque. By means orllle primary

loop, a relatively fast but course frequency control is achieved. The secolldary ALFC loop works in a
slow reset mode to eliminate the remaining small frequency errors. This loop also controls Ihe power

interchange between pool members. While the primary loop response is over seconds, the secondary line adjustments may take about minutes and will stop only after achieving zero frequency error. [t
may be nOled that since the whole group of generators within II given area move coherently, the frequency dynamics is slow. thus charact~ising them all wilh the same lI/(frequcncy crror). In the case of interconnected power systems, tie-lines are erected \0 interconnect the neighbouring areas. Muhi-area d)l1amic is imponant to ~ di$Cussed. All the power commands can ~ executed in unison among all the g~nerators under control. The secondary AI..FC loops in a multi-area system contain control si gnals. now referred as area conlrol errors (ACE). wllich , in addition to frequency error I!/. a lso contain tile errors in the lie-line powers. These corn:epls have ~en discussed in Cllaptcr 8.

1.7.2

Automatic Voltage Control (AVC)

In tlles.c control systems, bus voltage is measured utilising a potential transformer and is compared to a reference after being rectified and filtered. Tile resulting error voltage. after amplification. serves as input to an cxc it ation control systcm whcre output direct ly feeds the generator field. A drop ill thc tenninal voltage caus.cs a boost in the field current This increases the reactive power output of the machine. thus tending to offset the init ial voltage drop. The AVR loop maintains reactivc power balance ofa generator by maintaining a COI\5tant voltage ltvel. Besides generator buses. shunt capac ilon are: used to kcy buses to ensure: an overal l S<X><l voltage profi le. By controlling thcse capacitors and/or reactor banks from an error voltage similar to that of AVR loop, automatic closed-loop voltage control can be achieved. Mod em installations use thyristor conlrols which allow cont inuous smooth variations of reactive power.

1,7,3 Control Components In Power System


AC Power System is controlled primarily by mechanica l me ans such as circuit breakers. OLTC of tran sfonners and isolators. The sol id state devices and communications system are used for monitoring, da1a-logging and protec1ion. Thus, the primary control 011 power side suffers from the following disadvantages: Comparatively slow operation Controls are of On/Off nature and are not regu latory Contro ls cannot be used frequently as the controlmcchanism has a tendency to .... c~r-Oul. Apart from the abovc. some time the present-day power system sutTers from lack of a decision suppon systcm for optima! and reliable power system operation. Sophistkated computer systems and faster and reliable communkation network betwee n regional and state load dispatch centres (RLDCs and SLDCs) should form the backbone oflhe decision suppon system. The data from remotc substat ion s need to be gathered at RLDC~SLDCs for the analysis of grid operating conditions. The analysis can then be used to gcncrote control commands for transmis sion 10 SLDCs and remote substations. tn a number of cases. due to the mccllanica! contro l mechan ism supplemented by lack of proper load di spaTch tool s. the present-day power system is inflex ible and stiff. This makes Ihe system

INTRODlICTION

manager. a helpless speclalor of various grid problems such as overloading of transmission elements, poor VAR management etc. Lack of controlmcasures to deal with emergent operating conditions often leads to grid disturbances Bnd blackouts. However. with the availabilily oflhyristor valves for power applications. it has become possible to repl ace the mechanical operations by electronic sw itches. Though the ONIOFF operation can still be performed by mechanical closing/opening of circuit breaker. it is now possible to change the basic characteristic of tlte network by electronic devices to achieve the requisite flexibility. The availabilily of faster control is a necessity but not sufficient for making the AC system flexible . One should first address the objectives to be achieved by the FACTS (Flexible AC Transmiss ion System). Some of the objectives can be as follows: Regulate power flow on AC powcr loss
l ine~

wilh a view to either avoid overloading or to minimise

To operate the system at a safe powerangle for same power del ivered To enhance th e power transfer capabil ily of the system by introdu cing improved dynamic characteristics System island ing under ext reme conditions Strategies to save thc system/islands from total collapse.

Aftcr the objectives have been iden tified, the following stra tegies need to be decided. ( i) Planning and openllional system strategies: (ii i) Syste m analysis and planning Loss optimisation System security

(ii) FACTS controllers stratcgy Inter-uti lity communication strategy.

The details of the FACTS project for a region can be worked out based on the following: Installation of s.eries capacitors on ceruin sect iooslJines Installation of statk VAR compensator.f (SVCs) at strategic loca tions Insta 11ation of phaseshifters. i r required Lowfrequency oscillation dampers, if mjuired Commu nication network FACTS controller with online data monitoring Com puter software for grid analysis.

The above items not only require huge investments but also coordination among the various utilities. A systematic approach is to be adopted and the investments are to be phased out over a period of time. The following phases arc important aspects in FACT planning.
Phase I:

System Security

In the first phase, emphas is shou ld be laid on prevention of faulls spreading into the syStem and creating gr id instabil ity. This phase can be termed as system secllrity ph ase.

MatE all

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!
POWER SYSTeM ANALYSIS, OPERATION AND CO,WROL

In tllis phase a few pi lo! project(s} can be taken up for the installation of switched series capacitors in ceNin selected locations, There shall no! be any nec essity of any elaborate FACTS controller at Ihe stage. The control actions can be derived from terminal sub-stations.
Phase II: Strong Interconnections

In the second phase em phasis should be on strong inter-utility interconnections free from 101'.'frequency oscillations. This shal! invo lve: Extension of switched series capacitors 10 many other sections

Installation ofSVCs at grid po ints


Development of FACTS co ntrolle r Communication means .

Phase shifter, if required

Phase III: Optimal Operation

Optimal grid operation can be the walch-ward orthe third and last phase. In this, loss optimisation can be carried out through the FACTS controller. Many other advanced control means can be used for optimal system operation. viz _ phase-shifters. SSR (sub-synchronous rtso!lllnce) dampers. dynamic loads, etc. The evolution of FACTS has to be progressive with time, not only because orthe huge resource requireme nts but alw be<:ause of Ih e fast development on technologica l fron1. FACTS i. likely to become more and more economically viable with the passage of time.

1.8 USE OF COMPUTERS AND FUTURE TRENDS


The use of digital computers for solving a load flow problem was first made in 1956. Subsequen tly, other studies such as fault level anal ysis, transient stab ility analysis, economic load dispatch etc. were carried out off-line using digital compUlers. In more recent times, however, it has been realised that digital computeT can also be greatly helpful as on-line monitorin g and controlling agent5 for the modem large-scale integrated power systems. As mentioned earl ier, a compelling reason for th is is the critical dependencc of the rel iable operation oflhe large in tereonnected power system on a proper selling of the operati ng conditions. Yet another reason is the dramati c improvement in the capabili ties of the computing system assoc iated with a steep fal! in their costs. Due to Ihe avai la bility of modem. fast and cost-effective computers. it has been possible to achieve a greatn fl e;o;ibility. accuracy, speed and economy in real time control and mon itoring of power systems. Mi cro, mini and mainframe contputers are increasingly being ~d for both off- line computation and on-line monitorin g and contro l of power systems. bolh inside and ou tside energy comro! centres. The add it ion of system security function has initiated a significant change in Ihe scope of control ce ntres. This addition in volves major changes in real time data requ irements and the sophistication in data and in foml3tion processing. The functions can be implemented in a completely automatic manner using $UpervifOry control and daro aequiJ"ilion (SCADA ) systems. It invo lves data colle<:t ion (the da ta involved arc active and reactive powers flowing th ro ugh the tines and trans follTl ers. ,'o liage and frequencies al various bus bars. status of breakers ami sw itch es etc.) and display of the desired data as well as data processing for netwon:: state estimat ion. automatic generation control etc. The output commands are used 10 alter generation, open or close cireuit breakers. switch on or offreacthe powe r

Jten

INrRODUCTION
control elements and so on. In addition to automatic genemtion control (AGe) and automalic voltage control (AVC), the olller denigrated works of the computer' control are economic dispatch, security monitorins;, security analysis, off-line short circuit calculations and state estimation.

EXERCISES
I.

Draw a block diagram of a Hierarchical Control StnK:tun:. control'!

2. What are the advantages of computer control in power system'! What are the types of computer
3,

Draw the single-line diagram of a two-bus power system. What is the usual range of transmission voltage in India?
~nonnal

4 . What are the 'staleS' in a power system? What do you mean by 5.

opeilting stale'?

What do you mean by 'loadability' of transmission line? Derive an expression for il.
turbo- ,&~temator

6. Find the expression for the frequency decay rate of a OYffload.


7. Write short notes on
(I) Security analysis and contingency evaluation.

following an attempted

(U) fACT system.

Mate-rial

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dire-it)

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Modelling of Power System Components


2.1 INTRODUCTION

In order to implement computer COli/rot of a power system, il is imperative 10 gam I clear understanding of the representalion of the power system components. Component modelling thus becomes very important Studies of electrical energy systems are based on the simulation of actual phenomena using models behaving exactly in lbe identical way as the elements in the physical system. In research, it is necessary to have models pel ",illing precise and detailed simulation. The different parameters must be accessib le and the models are required 10 follow the physical prIX'S' as closely and as faithfully as possible. Then it is required to solve mathematical equations governing these phenomena. Modelling of active elements, c.g. generator, transformer etc. is relatively difficult while that of passive clements. e.g. transmission line, relay. inductive VAR compensator tIl: , is easier. Passive circuit elements are mostly II'IOdelled by their parameters in the equivalent circuits wbile the active power system components are modelled by their operation in steady, transient.1Id sub-transient state, Tbe models used in tbe power system give precise results in a certai n field of bypotlteses correspolldi ng to their use . Here. the concept o f representation of tbe physica l reality of the phenomena disappears and onl y the relationsbip between data and results e~ists. Their limited use leads to s impler models tban the preceding ones and necessitates fewer data processing requirements. Thi s means that they can be more easi ly integrated into large simulation packages. In these models the process representation is based 011 the fundamental physical laws. lbougb the model is simplified, its method of representation takes into aC(:ount tbe principle of non-linearity inherent in the physical phenomena involved. The models can be structured in modules to simplify subsequent upgrading and correction of tbe network. To a greater or lesser e~lent, tbe system variables requ ire time in order to respond to any change in their operatio n. Modelling sbould take care of tbe cbange and system equ;uions arc to be written to designate tbe state of the operation o f the element. However. writing of these equations obviously requires assumptions and bence no clear definitive model e~ists for most of the active elements. Proper model is to be selected by the programmer that suits the requirements of the problem.

"

Mal

"

MODEl1JNG OF POWER SYSTEM COMPONENTS

The modelling of a synchronous generator needs utmost care as it is the heaTl of the power system. It may be observed that its modelling is the most difficult task due to its "stiffness" to the changes in the operating conditions external to the mach ine. On the other h3nd. there is transmission network that respooos almost immediately to the configurational change and loading alteration. Thc time constants associated with the network are insignificant in comparison to those of the synchronous machine. The rotary swing funher complicatC$ th e modelling. The present text will give adequate stress on an alternator modelling such that the basic building blocks for computeraided analysis of the operation of the power system can be developed at thi s stage.

2.2 MODELLING OF SYNCHRONOUS GENERATOR (ALTERNATOR)


In modelling of the synchronous generator. the mOSt appropriate frarne: of reference is one that is attached to the rotor. This frame rotates at the same speed of the rO(or. The major axis of this frame is known as dirr axis (the rotor polar axis) Of si mply the daxis ~r.J the second axis is 90 (elec!.) Ipan from this polar axis and is known as the q,tadratu~ axis (the inler polar axis ) Of the q-uis . In this text. the synchronous generator has been modelled in five different modes. Each mode is associated with some assumptions aoo the programmer is 10 select the panicular model depending on the requirements of the following assumptions: (i) Thc rotor speed of the alternator does not vary more than the prescribed limit (ii) Rotational power loss due to windage and friction are neglected (iii) Mechanical power input is constant.

Mod.! '0'
From the basic eonce~ on electrical machines. it is well known that a group of synchronous m:IChines or a pin of the power system may be represented by Jingle eq"imlenf synchronous mDchint'. Similarly. an infinite bllJ. representing a pan of the system having 1:ero impedance and infinite rotational inertia. may be similarly modelled using the operating stlue equations while the: machine voltage is assumed to be constant behind d-axiJ lrani~nt reactance (X;). In this chapter. the salient pole synchronous machine is only considered. 115 the cy lindrical rmor machine model may be regarded lIS II special case of a salient machine model with Xd = X~; X~ and X~ are the direct axis and quadrature axis synchronous reactana:s. tespectively. To model II !iJIIlient pole generator in transient state, two transient voltagcs Ire to be assumed (E:: and~) representing the flu" linkage in the rotor wiooing. The transient operation is assoc iated with addition of transient reactance and voltage to the Sleady sl3te model (Fig. 2.1). The phasor diagram of the transient condition in the machine has been sllo ..... n in Fig. 2.2. where the induced voltage E h:ts been ronsidered the sum of the two vol tages EI3nd E. unlike to that in the sleady state model when E = E, and Ed = O. The: transient voltage in this model can be sho ..... n to e"i5t behind tlte The equations representing this model are thus transient reactances X~ and

X; .

,.,

~ = VI + IdR~ + ' . X;
~=V.+lqR~-IIIX;

(2.1)

(2.2)

Male-nal, Jm dlre-itJ

Jloral.

POWER SYSTEM ANALYSIS, OPERATION AND

a-axis

X. [
Fit- 1.1 Phasor diagram of steady Slate operation axis quantities and suffix q fOl' quadrature axis

=X ,+X_j

X, = x,+ x..

I negative.

salient pole a.l!ema101'. sumx d stands fOl'direct Sumx I indic*, leakage quantity; V4 and II/

d-axis

f.
)0' 2..1
Phasor

dial""" of \1\(0 uanm~':i;':;":' ~.:;:'=;~ .':;::'.Wicnt a1tematOl'. E' is the traJ15ient voltage et liT II negative).

[Here. E and V represem induced and terminal uansient reactance of the salient pole alternator. axis and quadtature axis components of the

.,1',"

while I is the machine currenl and X' is the d and q are used to designate the direct ~. Vd and 1.1 are numerically negative .]

1,1 atE

MODLLlNG OF POWEI! SYSTEM COMPONENTS

Mode! 1

Here. the model of the machine has been assumed to have the magnitude of COII5tanl voltage behind
the d-axis transient reactance only; q-axis transient flullO linkage has been assumed to be so small that it has been neglected. However. the mechanical system equations have been considered in thislllOdel. Hence, the modelling has been done utilising the equalions (2. 1) and (2.2) in addition 10 rotor swing equations given by equations (2.]) and (2.4).

daJ=....!..(p' _ P. _ D dt5 )
dlM" ~

dl

(2 .3)

. '"
where. M ""

-=m-2tr!o
KJ, 1M .. aIlJular momentum
H .. inertia,constant 10 '" base frequency OJ .. angular frequency

dw

l!-.-

'"

(2.4)

p. '" turbine waft power p .. generator electrical power output

D .. damping coefftcient B '" rotor angle I

ModII 2
The drawback of Model-O and Model-! is that the eleclrical dynamics have 00{ been considered. Model2 includes the machine operation with time Yarying equations assuming d-uis transient effects only. The equations represenling this model are given by equations (2.1), (2.2), (2.3) and (2 .4) in addition to equation (2.S) that represents the governing differential equation to allow the rotor flux linkage to change with time. From the phasor diagram of FiS. 2.2.

dEf
dt
where, negative.

J E -E.) .. EI +(X ... - X~ )/~ -Ef


f

r;

T;

(2.5)

r;;

is the dirtd lUis IrQruitnllime COlllltllll and Elis the applied field voltage. I ... is numerk:aUy

Modi! 3
In this model. tbe InInsient effects in both the d and q-ues have been oolUidered. The soverning equations are represented by equations (2.1) to (2.6). Equation (2.5) considered the flux linkage changing with time for the q-axis while equation (2.6) describes the same for the d-axis. From phasor diagram of Fig. 2.2. equalion (2.6) can be formed as

Ed - (Xq - X;)lq - ~ -= - -= d/ T' T'

dE;

(2.6)

Here T~ is the quadrarufZ lUis /ransient/ime cons/ont .

Malenal,

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POWER SYSTEM ANALYSIS: OPERATION AND CONTROL

Mod.14

Sub /ransien/ nate or operation has not yet been considered in any of the models discussed 110 rar. Due to the presence of a damfN' winding . sub-transient state or operation needs attention. Similar to the transient modelling. in this case also. two sub-transient new voltages (Ej and E:;) have been assumed. Figure 2.3 represe nts the phasor diagram of the alternator during sub-transient stlte of operation. The governing equations can be wrillen as

e; = Vd + fJR. + f qX;

(2.7)

;=V, + f. R. - fdX;

(2.8)
(2.9)

de; _1' -(X ' - X' )f - ']fr' dtJ " qf.


E

(2. 10)

.
"

,, ,, ,

,,

,, ,, , ,, ,,
' .~

, E"

..

"

" ,

..... ,,'
'

"-. v
IR.

,,' ,,'
I I

"

f't" 2.3 I'hawr diagram of the sub-transient stale opel3lion of the witnt alternator. E" is the transient
voltagc (daxis projeCtions arc numerically DCgativc)

In Ihe above equation. and T.- II/'C coru;idered 10 be subtransient dtuiI and q-axiI time cons/an/I. This model is chnractcrised by equalions (2.5) 10 (2.1 0 ) in addition 10 equalions (2 .3) and (2.4). Groups of synchrono us mach ines or pariS of Ihe syslem may be represenled by a sing le synchronous machine mcdel. An infini te bus bar. representing a large niffsy$tcm. may simi larl y be modelled as a single machine (ModelO).

r;

MJlerl

1:m1 dlreibs

Jtc>raJ

MODWNG OF POWER SYSTeM COMPONENTS

2.3

MODELLING OF A SYNCHRONOUS GENERATOR ' IN A NETWORK

The synchronous machine equations have been framed wilh a reference roIIling wilh its own rotor. The rcal and imaginary components of the vollages in a network reference frame (Fig. 2.4) can thus be formed as

(2.1l )

Here V, and V,," repastnt components of voltagc V in real and imaginary axis.
Imaginary axis (Network)

dw

,
:

(M.~hinc)

" ...

"' ................... . V . . ... . .,, ,, - ,,- ..' ." ,


. .. ,
, , ,

,, -

,,- ,,-

" - v, "---~', . .... .


." ..-

..: ..., , - ,

. ,axis (Machine)

Real axis (Netwtd.)

V,

~\

.".1.4

Co-~lation

between alternation and network frame of ~ferellCe.

It may be noted here thai the two reference frames and the relationship between components of the reference frames (equation 2.11) are commonly discussed in the lilerature. II may also be oolCd that a given phasor V has been distributed inlo two very different forms of components depending on the angle lj of the mach ine reference frame. II may be observed that the vector V can also be represented in the form of equation (2.12).
(2.12)

where V, and Vd are purely real quantiti .... Assuming the positive scqu~nce volt~ges and CUrTen" with the ampJirude and phases, the general relation between tllest variables may be wrinen for the network

[/ ) =[Y] [V]

(2.13)

[Tn case of representation of the variables of the machine, the expressed quantities in d-q reference frame must be convened inlO a common referellCe frame by axis transformations.] The power equations for I salient pole altemaror can be modelled by anyone of the models. lbc power equations in the steady stote and transient state are given by sin 8 +

rt(...!.... -..2...]
2
X~

Xd

sin 28

(2. 14)

Material,

JfT1

dlreitJ

Ao~.

POWER SYSTEM ANALYSIS, OPERATION

....
2.4

P.

=~sin.5 x'

-....!....] sin 2.5 [....!... X' X' ,

(2.15)

when . .5 '" LE - LV = LE:' - LV.

MODELLING OF GENERATOR
if the role of AGCJLFC (auromaric generariOl1 ' ... not inchvled. Just as the AVR (allrOf1UJlic by maintaining a constant V(lltlge, the load maintaining a constant frequency. Govern ...r '~h important in implementing AGe.

The modelling of the generator remaiM comrolJload frequency comroi) and ucilarion volrage regula/or) achieve~ reactive power frequency control achieves real power "'::;;' Modelling and Trurbint: Modelling are thus

2.4.1

Governor Modelling

If the load increases, the speed of the '~n'oc"d~. slightly. The governor of Illy thermal unit reacts to this speed variation and the entry of some more steam from the boiler to the turbine which, in turn. increases the increased steam flow reduces the boiler' p,esSUfe, . and water flow 10 release the steam pressure. which reinstates the increase of an adequalC Fortunately. the large thtrmol ineF/to of most systems enables the load frequency performance of the turbine. generluor and load to ''';m ... of the boiler. so that, for short duration of load change. the boiler pressure may be constant. The generator mainly determines the short\Cnn response of the system to the load Many rorms of the governor i of which include. in some way or the other, the variation of the turbinegenerator as the bl5is on which the change of position of the turbine workin!! fluid conlTol valve ."'~ Typical speed droop characteristics for most !!ovemors range between 5 and 10%. The latest in the turbine governor design is 10 provide an of the speed governor syste!!! is shown in electronic controller. A block diagram '''''''~ '' Fig. 2.5.

,,.
P,(.)---\ (COOlm&nded chanic in power)
~_

(opmini nhtcilIIl

.. speed regulltion of the ,""=0

KfC " i,inofthe~govemor TfC .. time conSlAntofthc: 5pd

Malenall

JfT1

dlreitJ

Ao~.

MODELUNC Of POWER SYSTEM COMPONENTS

The speed governing system of hydroturbine is more complicated. An ~dditionaJ feedbac::k loop provides temporary droop compensation to pr-.:vellt instability. Th is is ncc(SSitaled by the large inertia of the Pf'flJtod gate, which regulates the rate of water inptJt to the turbine. Here.
tJ.x
<
=0

KSG 1+5T.iG

(liP.' -..!..tJ.w) R

(2.16)

Equation (2.16) plays an important role in modelling the governor operation. Let us consider a simple e.lample. Alisuming an increment llP, =0 1.0 at t =0 0, for a speed governing system under test (i.e. operating on open loop resulting tJ.w:: 0), tke iocremcnt in sturn valve opening at, is obtained from equation (2.16) using the Laplace transform of &P,:

( K 59 ). using the Laplace transform of llP, s l+sTSG


=
K.iG TSG

I S s+T~

(2.17)

Mathematical maniptJlation yields,

,
which on inverse Laplace transform yields
at,(t)=oKSG(I_e- tlT",) for {;?;O

(2.18)

(2 .19)

The response curve has been ploned in Fig. 2.6. Thus. the governor action has been modelled utilising the concept of transfer functions.

----------------------

"" 1
T~

31-."

Fl 1.6

Speed governor response curve.

"

2.4.2 Turbine Modelling


Turbine dynamics are of prime importance as they also affect the overall response of the generating plant to load changes. The actual dynamics of course greatly depends on the type of turbine used . A non-reheat type of steam wrbine has been shown in Fig. 2.7.
MatE

,to

]\0

POWER SYSTEM ANALYSIS: OPERATION

s,~

chest

Turbine

Tocondenscr .". 2.7 Block After passing the control valve, that introduces the delay din ~ function

,,,d,,, "

steam enters the turbine via the steam-chcst s) in the steam flow resu lling in the tnlnsfcr

I
l +sTr

(2 .20)

The turbine governor block diagram has been

in Fig. 2.8.

govnning - - -.;._ _ _ Turbine - - . . ; ,

s....

'>"'=

IIR

K.

block diagram. Assuming the command increment to be APe, "",


(2.21)

II ins isIS 10 choose a scale factor so that This gi~es the model as shown in Fig. 2.9.

APe. This is equivalent to picking KJr= 10.

IIR

,
governor modelling. Mat" II
JfT1

. ....
'.'"

F\c.

2.9

Block diagram for

dlreitJ

Ao~.

MODfLUNG OF POWER SYSTEM COMPONNrS

This model can a lso be modified to account for re heat cycle steam IUrbine (Fig. 2. 10). This is more efficient and is used fOf modcro-day large scu;. The overall transfer function of the reheat type unit is given by G = AI( (s) = I +O.5.sTRH

(2.n)

l1x.(.s)

l+sTRJI

where, TRII is the time constant of the reheatCf having typical vltlucs in the range of 5-10 s.

~.(s)

.~

"'"
.1&.2.10

HP .tage

LP .(age

dP,(J)

To

~ondenser

Re-heater

Block diagram of reheat!.leam hlrbine.

The hydro turbine design varies with the water head (Fig. 2.11).

.. ..........
n.m
Penstock: Water

h,.,

.1"

1.11

Block diagram of hydrotwbine.

The overa ll tr:lnsfer function is then


G

Cl-,-: "~TL'
l +sT,

(2.22:1)

where . Tp is the time it takes for the water to pass through the penstock:.

2.4.3

Modelling of Exciler

Figure 2.12 represents the conventional e:o;citltion system of an alternator while Figure 2.1 J its block: diagram with respective transfer functions.

Malenal,

Jm

direikJ

Jtorai

POWER SYSTEM

AND CONTROL

,
..l

,
,

.
,
,

1;;
~.
~. 0

" :i!2
~l!

\
,


>'0 >

.. .;:

"

,
,

~;'

d: . ~

.'
, , ,
,~
U~! I ~WV

~~

.l1

!,

.!
-'5

,
"

'0

." . ." t , ,
<
~

iE

...:-5
h o

.' 'i. '"\

:x

,
,
\

i': J!;' ." ~ ~l~


~ ~ }

....

.'

~alE-nall :>rTI

dirE-lID

Jlo ais

MODEWNG Of POWER SYSTEM COMPONE"7S

J
"
0

" ~

-'
+

,
.,
.~

" " .'

,
"
0

,
- + " ~

""

.!


" 0 " g

,
~
0

, ~ <

I~
.t

.'

.! ," " + ~ -

1
,
~

" +

" ::i

i ~>< ,

Malenal,

Jm

direikJ

Jlorai

I
POWER SYSTEM. ANALYSIS: OPEfUoTlON AND CO~OL

I
I

In !he blod: diagram of Fig. 2. 13. T~. the tim~ cons/ont a/1M recrifier is very small and may be neglected. The amplifi er gain K"""" is usually high (between 2S and 400). Amplifier time constant (T,t.o,; is in the range of 0.02-0.4 sec. A stabiliser has also been dIown to stabilise the gain of th e exciter. K". the stabiliser gain. is 0.02 1 0 0.1 while srabiliser time COllSlanl T. is in the range 0(0.35

1 0 2.5 sec .
Some simplifications lead 10 a simplified block diagram as shown in Fig. 2.14. Here,
K~ .... K, q

v=
when;
(J

K. +K~J(,(1'

V",;

is a factor associated wilh the transfer function of the synchronous generator wilen loaded.

"
-

K~ ..

-I

'. I

'I'

FI,.2.I4.

Slmplifted block diagram.

2.5 MODELLING OF REGULATING TRANSFORMERS (Rn


Let the ""su/ol;"8 transformer (Fig. 2. 1.5) be placed in a two-bus ,ystem wi lh a complu

(r(lIlsfommlion ratio
" = I ~L8 The primary voltage and curren t wi l1then be (IIVl ) and (lin*'). respectively.
(2.23)

,
,
Fi,. 2.15
prj
II "

Sec

IniLO
in a two.bus network.

R.gu!atini

tr:tn~(orm

The current balance equations can be wrinen as


I I'" Vly........ ( V1 - "V0 Y"

(2.24)
(2.25)

1]1', ,- '"

"Vl Y.~ '" (IIVl - VI)

Y..

IThe equivalen1 circui1 has been shown in Fig. 2.16.1 Equ;llion (2.25) can be rewrillen as

Ii = -II -VIY...... nn" (Y..... ... Y.. ) V1


(2.26)

A lso from the equa1ion (2.24).

11'" (Y........

Y ..,l v1 ... (-nY..)

V2
MJlerl

(2.27)

,"

MODElliNG OF POWER SYSTEM COMPONENTS

- , - V,

,-V,
RT
Y.

I,

I,

f1&.l.l6 Hence,

Equivaknt ciocuit of Fig. 2.15.

rrom equations (2.27) and (2.26).


r".,.
=

[(yJIt+y,.)
-n Y

ongl~

(2.28)

In practice, RT is either a yollQ8~ mDgnilud~ eomro/ IrQfufonn~r or a phos~ Ira/Uform~r. In the former easc. L9 = if and in the latter casc. I n I is a conSlanl

eonlrol

2,6 THREE-PHASE MODELLING


In a three-phase network., the three n{)des are mostly associated together in their interconnections. This network. is then termed IS a rompalllw n~fWOrlr and the admitt.ances are represented by compound adn!i/1anct!. Laws ~nd equations that arc valid for ordinary networks are al so valid for compound network. by simply replacing single quantities by appropriate matrices. Figure 2.17 represents si~ mutually coupled single admitlances. The node currents can be link.ed by admittance matri)( to the branch vollages as follows:

I,

I, y" Yl2 Y!) Y~ y" Yu I, )",1 Y" Y" Y. YJ! y. I, y" y" >'0 YM y" Y I, . Y" Y. y" Y" f" Y I, f" f" f" fM Y" Y.
Partitioning the above matri)( ,

Y"

Y"

Y"

y"

Y "

y"

V, V, V, V, V, V,

(2.29)

.ha.

~/'~ J [Y"~~V' ~ [I, J = ~Yu [Y~ J [YIT [V, J


(iX]=[/l/1 /Jr [t r ]=[/./}/6 ]r

(2.30)

(2.31)

Mate-nal, Jm dlre-itJ

]toral.

POWEll: SYSTEM ANALYSIS: OPERATION AND

Yll

Yll

1 1)

)'"

116

[Y;<x }=

>'21

Yn

Yn . [rn

Y:u
1)s

lUI

1.16

Y~I

Y41
YSl

1 41
)'Sl

, ,,,,

1. s
)'ss

1<0(1
)'56
)'66

[rr.< ]=
I,

YS I

[rn'
I,

Y,..

(2,32)

161

162

)'6.1

)'6.1'

I,

I,

v.)
Flc. 2.17
Si~

coils with nOOaI


t

Thus. the si~ coi ls can be represenled by ind ividual adminanccs. This has been shown in Fig"

coib (X and Y) consisting of thm:

IS.

[ ~d f

Fia. 2.18 Equi "aknt :uJminancc coils and


Hence. equation (2.29) is finally represented

,0",1'' '" '0",00", foon a~

~.

(2.33)

since

[YnHr
MJlerl 1:m1 dlreibs Jtc>raJ

MODElliNG OF POWr R SYSTEM COM PON rNTS

For a threephase transformer. assuming yp and y, as the selfadminances of primary and secondary coils (being equivalent to Yll ' Yll ' YJJ""') y;' the mutual admiTtance beTWeen primary coils. the: mutual adm ittance between the: secondary coils and y: the mutual admittance between primary and secondary coils on different cores. the nodal currents in the coil s may be: linked with the bmnch voltages as

y :

I, I, I, I. I, I,
TI,~ prinl~d ''Qlu~s

Y , , Y. ,
=

-,.
Y . Y.

y.

, Y. Y, , Y. Y.
-y.

, Y.
y,

- y.

y.
-y-

Y.
y.

v,
V, V, V. V, V,
(2.34)

y Y y.
- y.

Y. Y .
y. Y.

y.

y.

"

Y.
y,

- y.

y;
y

Y.

y,

ort! rffectiv~ly t ro for ,il rt!e single phose units. If transformer connections are 10 be: incorporated. the YI US is formed utilising the relati on [Yau,) '" [e)T[YpIUII [el

(2.35)

where Ie) i ~ the eo,,,,n:rion motrix. and I YPlrMl is the primitive mlltrix. Table 2. 1 represents the [Y,US) matrix for common transformer connections assuming three individual uni ts 50 that primed values vani sh.

TABLE 1.1:

E~ments

ortfllll$Cormer
pri. )

_mi~e

ntlItriccs

Y n

(~If.

Y.... (ulf, s.)

Y ,
Y

Y.

Y ,

(neutral solidly grounded)

Y,

Y,
Y,YJ Y,

Y,
- YdJ
- Y,

( r ' 5iJk neuuul soli dly glOOn.ied)

.
Y

""
Y.

where.

0 0

0 0
fA ' )'a ""

0 0

,
-Y
-y 2y
0
(2.36)

2y - Y -y 2, -y -Y -y
0
y

-,
0

y
-y

Mate-rial

:mI

dire-it)

Jtorai

POIVER SYSTEM ANALYSIS: OPCRATION

It m~y be noted that any two i admitunces. The current voluge relationship is

~~

'"'" b, ,,~~,m,d by two compound-linked by

(2.37)
wilerc l YpsJ '" l YlI' f and is the same as OJ,,,,'m, " and secondary buses while Yps and Ysp represent ratio is to be included. Section 2.5 is to be . YI'I'. Yss indicate self admittances 31 primary mutual admi!laoce. In C:L<;e the off-nominal IlIp in conjunction wi th the abo~e modelling.

fo"'",..,

2.7 MODELLING OF THREEPHASE


f igure 2. 19 represents the lumped line with suffix (S) as sending end and (RJ as se ri es rcaclllnce ,,hUc Y is the shum admi!larK.~ .

CIRCUIT TRANSMISSION LINE


si ngle circuit three-phase transm iss ion ,",;,~,'p"l I. 2. J lhe phm. es. X is tbe

-\ xSRr '
{6xl)matrill These primiti'c matrice s in Fig. 2. 19(a) Figs. 2.19(bl and 2. I9(e) utilising the te.:hniquc s arc described in a generalised manner as urxlcr.

:]
(6xl)m:urill

(2.38)

be rcpresentcd by equivalent matrices in described earlicr. The CUTTent voltage rel.Uion5

"

)
I,'

r "
~

Y~H

Material,

JfT1

dlreitJ

;\O~.

MODWNG OF POWER SYSTM COMPONENTS

(~

i' i' i' i' K i' i' i' i'


n

CR)

[X""I

[VJl

i' y' y' y' y' i' i' y'

'"

[r; ]
IX, 1

y' y' i' y' y' ~;' y' y' 1''


I

[1',1

[I'; ]

(b) Equivllrnt modelling of components.

IVJ

['l'-]
(c)

['l'-]
l i~

1 [V,I

Equivalent mood. lUing p ITICIdtI.

"to 2.19

Moo.:lling or ihref:.phase tr.lll$Jtliuion

2.8 MODELLING OF PAIR OF THREEPHASE MUTUALLY COUPLED


TRANSMISSION LINES
Figure 2.20 represents lhe equivalent of each of the two mutually coupled tiroe~ ut ili sing 11" model. Here each :tdmiuance matrix element is a [3 >I 31 ma trix; the curre nts :tnd vo ltages are related by the following re tation;

Is

,
,

",
",
[12xll
matrix

[yJ! . . y n] [yI2.,.ylO] [ ytl' ... ylO! ] [y:l +yo.l]


[ -1'''] [-yur
[-r,,] [-r,,]

[ -r" ]
[ - y" ]

[ -r" ]
[ - y" ]

v,

v,,
(2.39)

"

] [Y"+y']
[r'"
+ Y~']

V,

V, ,

[l2xl2]
matrix

112 x l ]
m;ttrix
\.1al[

:e-itJ

Jlorai

POWER SYSTEM ANALYSIS, OPERATION AND CONTROL

I Y" I

S, o - - - - - - - " '
I r" l I r,,1

R,

'" 1
, .
s,

I YIlI
~

I YIII 1Y.,I

1 '"
[Y,J

'" . !YJ<I

IYnl

'" I Y.,I R,
[Y.J

1v"

Hg. 2.20 R~P"''''n1al ioo "f I.." mUlu.:1l1y Cl)Upletl li"n.

Figures 2.21(0) and 2.2I(b) represent the compound admittance form of the matrix represe"tation ~Ilown in equation (2.39) corresponding to Fig. 2.20.

" ". "


Y" y'

f,r
Y " Y"

Y"

Y '1

"
Y" Y,( Y.
Y.

hI!

Y"

"

[y.1."

[r..,1606)

MJler!

1:m1 dlreibs

Jtc'ilJ

MOD LUNC OF PO WER SYSTM COMPONENTS

[Y...[ s __- - - . - - - ' ' - - - - - - - , - - _ R

[Y,, ]

[Y ,.,]

1[~::l

Fll- 1.21(b)

(6 x 6) Compound matrix represenUlion of Fig. 2.21(a).

Thus. the mutually coopled liT\e$ afe finally represented as

[::l [::l
matrix
t.o.d bus

[X N J' +[r..,] -[X"J'


=

[~::l

-[ X"J' [X.r' + [Y ,,]


(12 x 12] matrix

[~:l
(12xl]
matrix

(2.40)

[12 x I]

2.9 MODELUNG OF A SHUNT CAPACITOR/INDUCTOR


For effective reactive power and bus voltage control. shunt capac itors andlor reaCIOI"$ are
frequently used. Figu.re 2.22 represents representation.
I

stllic dlunt capacitor bank with its compound admittance

7',
"
c

"

I I I

=-:

Fl&- 1.22 Model repuKnt:l1ion of shunt

~ap.d!<x..

As there is no coupling between the components of each phase. the

Y matrix only contain s the

dwgofl(ll elements. In a similar way, the modelling of I shunt reactor can be done.

MatE

I direikJ

Jtorai

POWER SYSTEM ~N;\LYS 'S: OPERATION

2.10

MODELLING OF A SERIES
line and betwet.'n two buses. The
~dminallCc

The capacitive element is connected in series wi"h matrix for this system has been writlcn as

(2.41 )

The shunt dement does 001 exist


IljX "

Hen:.

[r,,]

IljX M
Figure 2.23 represents Ihe mode lling.

, ~.---111 1-~.

,
Qf
~ri~s

x" X" x" x" x" x"


[r",)

X"

x" x"

r{V~l

- IX....r l

capacitor_

2.11

MODELLING OF STATIC VAR

(SVC)

Let BsV(" be the shUn! susceptance of the SVC "'-" added 10 the susceptance al the busbar. The Iota I L'Ontrull ing vohage V will CJuse the '''i,oj "'''' cllhanced. The SVC injected CUfTent inlo the bus i~ then

";,~;::'::,:':i;::,~
,,,,by

10 the MVAR loading of it. It is then is give n by B. A reduction in the

I =
Here.
Y=G~j8

(2.42) (2.4J)

IG may be assumed 10 be zero here. ] The MVA ()IJ IPU! of the SVC is given by
S "" VI-SII<.'

and

Q = II~' IE

(2.44)

2.12

MODELLING OF AN
c~prcsscd
/I

MOTOR
in "rr",
'x i OO

The slip of an inducti()<l ffi(ltOT is

it s rotor speed and synchronous speed

3$

- II

1'"'

,\,
Mate-ria

(2.45)

Jtore

MODf.U ING OF POW!://. SYSTI:M COMPON!:NTS

The equation of motion for the shaft power is given by

dt " (T.. - T, )/2H

d8

(2.46)

where H is tile illCflia constant, T... the mechanical torque and T, the electrical torque. Howeyer. the mechanicallOl"quc: is equiya lent to load torque and is commonly Cllprc:ssed as (2.47)

I: i$ an e;o;poncnt and is J for fan type: of loads giyen by

~nd

2 for pump type: of loads. The electrical torque is

r.. :. Real [EJ-V2nIo


x:

(2.48)

where E is the ai r gap yolt.age, f the st.ator current .input and fo the base frequency. The transient reactance has been defined as the apparrnt reactance seen through the equivalent circuit when the rOlor is held locked and the s lip is unity. Thus. from Fig. 2.24, the equiyalent ciKuit during transient operation. we obtain

X' " X +
,

X,X,.
(X,

+ X",)

(2.49)

x,

x' ""

x.

1'1 .. 2.24

Equi~a1e!!l

cil"l;uil of indoction

/IIOIOf

durin, transient Stale of operation.

The transient model of the induction motor has been assumed by a Thevein equivalent circuit of a voltage E' behind the: transient reactance J( while the transient time constant T o is given by

To
and the open circuit reactance Xo is given by

(2.50)

Xo"' X,+ X ..

(2 .51)

Assuming the st.ator rc:sist.ance to be R,. the governing equations of the model are given by
(2.52)
Vi ..

- 1:-. ;..

= li .. R, + I,X'

(2.53)

Here. the reactances are assumed to be unaffected by the ralor position and the model is analysed in the real (no) and imaginary{im) un for the I1Ctwork.

Material

Jm dire-,to

]to ai

POWER SYSTU ! ANALYSIS, OPERATION AND CONTROL

The system model is described as

X'] [V. -e:.] X' Vi"-E' ...

(2.54)

The rotor reactance does not vary much with the variation of rotor resistance with slip. provided the salUration effect is neglected. Transicm reactancc X' varics with rotor reoJClance only and hence is a lmost constant ~t any slip. ~ induction machine can also be modelled in terms of d-q axis as follows: the (p.u) vollage equations for a s inglc rotor winding induction motor in d-q coordinate are given by (2.55)

Vq,= R, iq, +1V1V4,+Vot.

(2.56)

V ..., "" R,i", ';"OJSlI'dr

+.r"

(2.57) (2.58)

V" = R,i", +cUSlV... +V"


The COffC$ponding
nUl(

linkages are

IVII<

:=

L,I. + 4i",

(2.59) (2.60)
(2.61)

If'q, ::
" b

41 " + 4io'

= 4,ill< + 4i.it.

"~" 41" + 4 i",


Neglecting stalOr Iransienl'l and assuming the rotor short-circuited
;-", :: 0 and

(2.62)

11'" =0

(2.63)
(2.64)

VIr .. O and V.' = 0 V ... '"

, (-Xo J
L,

IV",

(2.64.1)

x; '" X, - X~/X, (2.65 )


SulistilUling equation (2.63) in (2.55). tYII< and liI"are eliminated. ,.",and lV... are .1150 eliminated by substitution of equations (2.59) aBd (2.60) in (2.55) and (2.56); i", and i.,.. are then el iminated using rearranged equations (2.61) and (2.62). IV... and ".,.. are el iminated usi ng equation (2.64.1). Us ing equation (2.65) in the final form. the resultin, equation is

-X;] [,,,].[V;:] [V"]_[R" V" X, R, '.. Vq.,

(2.66)

(2.67)

~ale-rlall :>rTI

dlfl'IID

Jlo ais

MODEU1NC OF POWER SYSTrM COMPONENTS

The state equations C3 n be developed by substituting (he value of V oir and V., from equations (2.64) in (2.57) and (2.58). Substitution for io/rand i., is done from equations (2.61) and (1.61). In its new form. IV.... and " .. are replaced by V; and V~ using equation (2.64a). In its final ronn. (he derivative of V~ and V; are taken to give:

V;

=( ~ )v~ +$WV; -(L.X .. R)'; )itp


)id.

(2.68) (2.69)

v; = -SlI)V; -(R,J4)V; +(L",X",R,JI!,


Expressing equations (2.68) and (2.69) in phasor fe>rm,

v; '" [- ~: - js }VV; + j(R.tX, )(X, - X;}al/,


At steady state

(2.70)

v;=O.

Assuming

I/,I =I.O. X,=X"


I , ::c018- jsin8
(2.71)

And from equation (2.70).

V; = jR,( X. - X;)(cos6 - jsin 6 )/( R, + jsX , J


Rationalising and taking the ratio of imaginary to real parts.

(2.72)

V;';:

V;

R,cos8 -sX,sin8 R, sin6 -sX,c016

(2.73)

Similarly, substitution of equation (2.71) in (2.67) with V, = I. yields

V ;_
[6is the motor p.f. angle]

V; - (I -R;C056- X;sin8)

R;sin6-X;cos8

(2.74)

2.13 POWER NETWORK MODELUNG


lzt I{ '" injected currenl at node i (i = 1.2 ..... II) i6 V, , (voltage at node I)

"'1"'Ile

The current I{ can be expressed as 3 function of the


I{" Yu V{ +

volta~s.

Thus.

L [YijkVi -Vi )' i '" 1.2, .... n


~a(l)

a (I) designates the subset of the nodes connected 10 node i


_ ~ Y. - i...
}lali)

and

Y~'

'.

_ 1 _I 1 ( -~.) ' YIJ - - - Yij e


1:;1

It. line or cable connetIini two buses i :and j can be: modelled by "pr' equivalent circuit tuvillj series impedance .too and shlmt admiuance YiI' where !4f .. Tij + ~ and y~ =,~ + jh" Since the ~p, circuit of !he line is symcfricaJ .

we '"tllne

aij .

lJi '"' 0;

It~ . hJi =

.c

Mate-nail Jm dlre-itJ

Jtoral.

POWER SYSTEM ANALYSIS: OPERATION AND CONTROL

In general form. the preceding eqUlltions can be written lIS


(/J=(YIIVj.
rq Yjj=G~ +jH~ andG"- " -- ' H
(2.7~

r.:'

:o -

II

Xv ~

;oa(1)

Also. at node i. However. V;. is compleJt conjugate of VI and hence

fl=RealJVt[

...
Simplification yields

YIIVj+

L YIj(Yr-V1 ) ]1 ....
(I)

(2.76)

(l.TI)

~ =V;l

L
jI .. (i)

(y~ cos 8ij+8ij)-VI LV'Y4'COS (8ij+o/-o,) ...


.... "'il

...
"""".

L P4'
JO"(I)

(2.78) (2.79)

Q,=V/

L (Yi/sin8~-Iv)-Vj L
is .. (1)
ji"(I)

Vj Yijsin(8ij+6'r-6',)"

L
}llftl)

C2u-

whue P" and Q4' dellOle the active and'reactive powen through the line connecting the ith andjth Obviously.
Pi! = v/

(Yif cosOij + ,~)- VjVjYi/ C05(OIj + 6; -6'J)

(2.80)
(2.81)

PjI = V/~ (Y j/ C050V+ B~ )-V;V/Yr,;

C05( 8y + 6', -0,,)

'4 '" V;l ( Yi/ sinOiJ - ~)- V;VJYiJ sin{OiJ + 6; -6', )


QjI = VI (Yi/ sinOij -Iv)- V;VJYiJ sin{O~ + oJ- O()

(2.82) (2.83)

(Nol~; Conventionally Bli = 0 and hi) = ~I{ . It may be noted that power flow equation Itave been
dealt in deLlil in Chapter 4 where we replaced the notItion ofsusceptance H by B.)

2.14 MODELLING OF LOAD


Load drawn by the consumers is the toughest parameter to be assumed scientifically. The magnitude of load. in fact. changes continually so thai lite load foreca.ning problem is truly a statistical one. The loads are generally composed of
Jlen

MODEf.l1NG OF POWER SYSTEM COMPONEM"S

Lighting and Heating


Induction Motors Synchronous MOiors ClS-1S'l>

The loads are mostly of composite character and it is prudent 10 represent them by P-V or Q-V characlC:ristics (Fig. 2.2S(I)(b)). Broadly. the loads are classified 1.5
Constant
ClImnt

Q
(p.u.)

, .'

.."

V(p.u.)

C~,

impedance

1.0 p.u.

'....

.r:.J
...

-----------------------;.~.~.- ---'_ Constant

II I
(p.u.j

.'

"

"

' j """"
V(p.u.)

'" .

".

....

C\IITeM
'> .

"

..

Constant

(h) Current CIwaClcristicl of loads.

FI"l.2.S Characleri$\ics of lo.ds.


(j)

Cons/ant cu,rrrlf rype

1= P- jQ '"

1'1 .6 - 9,
Male-rial
:mI

dire-it)

Jtorai

I ,
I

POWER SYSTEM ANALYSIS: OPERATION A.ND CONTROL

tan - I Q. (} is fhe power factor angle. II is k.nown as constant p current representation as the currenl remains constant. Fluorescent lamp belongs to this where. V ..

IVI

Lo.

(J ..

type of load.
(il)

Corman! f'OY"t!f type

This load is specifIed by its MW and MVAR ratings and is assumed 10 be constant. Thb

type of representation is used in load flow study. Induction motors belong to these types
of loads.
(iiI)

COIlslant inl,ndanu type Here, the load is spe.;ified in MW and MVAR al nominal voltage. Here, J assumed to be constant. Here I varies wilh variation of V. The load impedance is determined by

"'z and Z is

Z =~ = W =1L=..!. Z P - jQ P - jQ Y
EXERCISES
I.

(i np.u.).

Healers , domeSlic loads and incandescent lamps are conlWlt impedance loads.

What is 'modelling of electrical components' and wily iI is required?


a~lylical

2. Explain the generator.

concepl behind differenl models conceptS of an iwlated synchronous

J, Ho w would you analytically model a regulating transformer in power network?

4. Explain the concept of 'three-phase modelling' . 5. Analytically model the fo llowing: (il a three-phase single circuit transmission line,
(ii) a pair of three-phase mutually coupled transmission lines,

(iii) a shunt capacitor,

(iv ) a series capacitor.


6. 7. What is SVC? How would you model it? How would you model an induction mocor in d--q reference frame?

8. Develop power flow equation in a power network.

~ate-rlall :>rTI

dlfl'IIo

Jto ais

Operations
3.1
INTRODUCTION TO [YBus:I FORMULATION

The large, inlerCOT\llecled AC power system (network) consists of numerous power stations, transmission lines, transformers. shunt reactors andlor capacitors and distribution networks through
which loads arc supplied. All this leads to a high voltage, largely interconnected AC power transmission system and the assessment of the steady state behaviour of all the components o f the network acting together system requires computer-based large-scale system analysis or~ network model. In computer-based power system analysis, the network model takes on the form of BWI Admittance Motrix [Y,.,J.IY/IOr) is often used in solving loadjlow (or complex po-wer flow) problems. Its widespread application in power system compuwions is due to its simpliciry in data preparation

lIS.

and the ease with which it

tall

be formed and modified for any network change (e.g. addition or

tripping of line etc.). iY. .] matrix is highly SptnU and facilitates minimum (:omputer storage as well as redtK:es computtr operation time. There arc different methods of formulation of [YB ..J matrix and a few of them are reviewed here which are easily amenable to computer programming and easy to ,,",p.

3.2

NODAL METHOD FOR DEVELOPMENT OF [YSIIS]

In this method of [Y",, ) formation , the variables include the camp/a load vol/ages being treated as node vol/ages {the referen<:e is the 'ground' for designating the magn itudes of bus voltages and for voltage angles, the referetK:e is one of the bus (or node) voltages which are usually fixed at a datum value (say, zero. The node Cl/I?"en/ being the other variable , it is the nel current injected inlo the network al a given node (trom a source and/or load external to the network). When the curnnt enters the network from a node, the s ign of the (:lIJTent is assumed 10 be po$itive, while for the curnntleaving the network, Ihe sign is negative; the nel nodal (:urrenl being the algebraic sum of these node (:urnnts. In the nodal melhod it is usual to use branch admittances rather than branch impedances. For an isolated branch Y" (F ig. 3. 1), the node voltage being VI and VI It the buses i andj, respectively, CLUTenl flowing from node i to node j is given by

Matanal

)Ill

d ram

},

POWEll. SYSTEM ANALYSIS, OPR.ATION AND CO.VTROL

(3. 1)

,.

o reference node

Fia:.3. 1 Nodal rdationship bet\ocen node voltages and branch currents. In a complex network the nodes being numbered O. 1.2, ... , n. whell: node 0 indicates the reference node, by Kirchoff's cunent law, the injected cunent I; being cqualto the sum of aU currents leaving node i; thus, we can write

I, - LI,. LY,(V, - V i )
j o4) j .o

(3.2)

With no ground potential (i.e. with zero reference voltage), for a linear sy!lcm,

I _~

j_t
j-I

I, ... LYj.,JIi - LYqYJ

(3.3)

j-'
I, I,

This equation, for a n-bus network, in mauix form can be represented as:

'.
oc

Y" Y" Y .,

~,

Y "

r,.

~.

V,

v,

(H)

Y .,

y-

V.

(3.5)

[Y.,.,] is called Bus Admittance matrix and it has a well-defined structure. The clements of I Y,..] arc importanl and hence defined below: YIi> the diagonal elemel1l, is called u /f admiftance or~ i, while Yr the off-diagonal e/emel1l, is caUed mutual udmillance (or ,rullS/er admittance) between nodes i Mldj.
Obviously,

fi, '"

L>'
i~

,,'"

y~ = - Yi;

i'

(3.6)

M alerial I

JfT1

d rell)

Ao

~.

POWER NeTWORK MATRIX OPERATIONS

The pro~r1ies of the


(i)

Ir.....) matrix are as follows:


~

I r...... 1 is a square ",atrl.r: of order n

n.

(ii)

[r...... ] is S)mmelrical. since JlV '"' Y ft-

(iii) Only

(n"n)-n
2

+n, i.e.

n(n+1)
2

terms Bre to be stored for a n-bus power system.

The e lemenl5 of ry&"] matrix are complex numbers; rY~ ... J matrix itself is thus complex. Each diagonal e lement IrmrH_ . J is the sum of the admillilllce of the branches wh ic h are linked with corresponding i-th, j-th nodes including branches to ground, while each offdiagonal element Y f is negative of the bl1lI1ch admittance between nodes i andj. In order to illustrate this pro~rty, lei us assume a two-bus system (Fig. 3.2) where a transmission linc: is represented by series admittance y.. and shunt admittance y*

(j) . - - -

---{~Y:::'::]--I--

In this case the diagonal elements of IY""']

given as

(3.7)

(VI)

Y, {i"';1 - 0 if I_th

bus andJ-th buses arc

not connected.

In actual systems lots of interconnections do not exist bel\\.een a number of buses and hence the [Y_ l matrix becomes highly IJparlJe (containing number of zero clements in the matrix). This saves tremendous computer storage and memory requirements. The flowchan for obtain ing [rs""l by nodal method is shown in Fig. 3.3.

Mate-nal, Jm dlre-itl

Jtoral.

POWER SYSTEM ANALYSIS, OPERATION AND

...

, , ,. ,.
1

Ii

f""" bus .., .

Compute yr...., NT,-

; roc/ - 1. 2... Nl.

In;t;ali"". YBU$l .... 0 ~ jO;

O+ jO; fod - I.2 ... NB

No

'-"

,.

YBUS1 .. _ YBUS1 ... )")'>r,KT.

YBUS"'. !>"T. - - t1'.,.. ..... rBUS.,.w, a YBUS"" ,7.

Is iSNL?

,..
No

MJlerl

1:m1 dlreibs

J1c>raJ

POWER NrnVORK MATRIX OPERATIONS

"".:.:
..
,

....
,

'

Sol bus <OUIII, - 1

SoIli... count. I _ I

I. t - NF,?

"
re,
' ,

10 I - NT, ?

"

c:omp.... YD, -

'"

I"D, r .

..

..

'"

"a

lIiSNL1

i+-i+1

No
~+-A:+

Is A: '!: NB?

'"
No

Sci bus rount, .t .. 1

Compu:c rBUS.. - rBUS I .. + rBUSl .. + rD,

k+-I+II

b.t'!:NB?

'"

No
[ r ... 1matrix delTlCTlts. rBUS, . rOl" i .. 1. 2 .... NB; fOI) " 1. 2 ... NB

..,
AI.3.3 FloII/chart of [y....1foml:llion by nodal
~thod.

MJlerl

1:m1 dlreibs

Jtc>raJ

POWI:R SYSTEM ANALYSIS, OPI:RATION AND CONrROL

Formation of [ZsuJ from [Ys..J


In this context, it may be noted here tllat formation of bus impedance malrix !llrw] is possib le by invenioll of [r_ l by using special algori thms.

z" z" ...


Z" Z" [z l=[Y~r'=

Z"
l~.

(3.8)

Z_
In the {ZH.. ) matrix the diagonal elements we shorT circ;u/f driving poim impedances wh ile the off-diagonal elements are shan cirCl'ittrans/er impt'donces. [l/l>.,[ is symmetric prov ided [Y/I>..J is symmetric, which is very much usual in power network structure. Ho~ver, [Zs:...l is not splll""se like IY~.,1 and is a full matrix COfItain ing non-~ero e lements (tero clements in IY_' become non-zero elements in the corresponding [ZlIo,l). Example 3.1: A three-bus system is shown in Fig. EJ.I. Each line h(JS a series impeJanct 0/(0.05 + jO.15) p.u. while the shum admillance is neglected. Find I YJt.,].

Q) ...,

=----i='=:":J--.:J!

Q)

-'---'- (j)
Fij:.O. 1 A thrtt-bus three-line power Sl'stem.

Solution : Given:
:11 "' :l.J ~ Ill'" (0.05+jO.lS)p.u.

(series adminan ce of each line)


I

'" (o.o5+jO.15)

=(2 -J6)

p.u.

..... J matTix would be a 3 x 3 matTix. Since the given problem is a three-bus system hence [ Y I'll I'l l 1'13

[y..... ] = >11
Y "
where.

Y n
Y n

Yll
Y ))

Material,

JfT1

dlreitJ

Ao~.

POWER NETWORK MATRlX OP[JU.TIONS

Y12
Y ll

..
"

Yll + Yn; Y U" Y l1 .. - Y, l Yll + Y :I1; Yll .. Yll .. - Y:IJ

Since,

Yl1 .. .I':ll" Yll" (2 - j6) p.ll .

Yll " 2 - j6+2-j6 - (4 - jI2)p.u. Y 11 " y11 .. (- 2 + j6) p.u.

Yll - 2 - j6+2 - j6-(4- jI2)p.u. Y ll - (- 2 + j6) p.u. l] " Y Y] ) " (4 - j12) p.u.

Y,, " Y l1 " (- 2 + j6) p.u.

[Y"", ]=

(-2+)6) (- 2+ j6) (- 2+)6) {4 - jI2) (- 2+)6) p.u. (-2+)6) (-2+)6) (4-)12)


j12)

(4 -

Identical result is obtained by executing the [Y_I software following the flowchart presented in the text. The input and output of the result are shown below.

Execution 01 the computer program YBUS.FOR lor Example 3.1 Line data: ZBUSO.DAT
3, 3 [No. of lines, No. of buses] 1. 2 , (0 . 05, ,15) , (0,0) (From bus, To bus, (R. I ' 1.3, (0 . 05 , 0.15),(0,0), " 2,3, (0.05,0 .1 5) , (0 ,0 )

Xu. (G M)]
I

Output 01 YBUS.FOR: YBUSO,DAT


No. of buses

Ybus mat.th: Ybu s ( 1. Ybus ( 1. Ybus ( 1 Ybu s ( Ybus( 2.

.}o'- )

'.
2.
3. 3. 3.

2 I 3 I
1 I

2 I
3

Ybus ( Thus ( Ybu!I ( Ybus (

I 1 I

2 I 3 I

4. 000000, -12 . 000000 - 2.000000, - 2.000000, -2. 0 00000 , - 2.000000 , -2 .000000 , -2 .000000 , 6. 000000 6.000000 6.000000 6.000000

( (
( (

4 .000000 , -12 . 000000

( (
( (

I I I I I I

Y" Y"

6.00000 0 I

6.00000 0 I 4. 000000 , - 12. 000000 I

Y "

EUlilple 3.2: In Example J. J. Jor the Jame three-blU ~Iem (Fig. Ell) lei a nrw bw (bw no. 4) be added with btu no. J Ihrrwgh a trQnJmiJJian line aJ p.lI. :: (- 0.1 + jO.3). Ohtain IY//luI.

Malenal'

Jm {]

reiID

Jtorai

POWER SYSTEM ANALYSIS: OPERATION AND CONTROL

Solution: Let lhe bus no . 4 be added 10 bus no. 3 through a transmiss ion line of (0. 1 + jO.3) p.u., i.c. }'ll " 1/(0.1 + jO.3)" (I - j3) p.u. (F ig. 3.2]. Sincc the ne w clemen!~ is added with bus 3, entries of Y )} will changc and new entries of Y:\oI and Y u will appear in the new bus admittance malri1t. Obviously. du e 10 prcSC'nce of 4bw; systCtn. this bus admittance matrix will be a " 4 matrix.

=..

~(!)~,_

=::J---=:JJ )....

11:.14

fig. [J.2 A M'" bus added to three-bus S)stem.

Y JJ .. Y JJ ,oIdl + ( I - )3) '" (5 - jl 5) p.L1. Y JoI .. Yo " - .V)., .. ( - I +)3) p.L1. Y",", m(I _ ) 3) p.u.
Since there is no conneclion of bus 4 with any other bus, exce pt bus no. 3, hence.
YI~ " Y~\

.. 0;

Y!-I -

Y~2 " O.

Final

Iy....,]

matrix thus becomes 4 - jl2 - 2 + j6 4 -)12 0 - 2+ j6 -2 + )6


5- )15

0 0 -1+ )3 1-)3 p.u.

[ ,-] .
Execution of (YIIt..>J software Eumple 3.3:
Line no.
~Iso

-2+)6 0

-2+ )6 - 2+ )6

- I +)3

yie lds the same result. It is Idl. for the reader as an exerc i$C.

The following dOlO rtfers 10 a $ixbu$ le"..Unl' pawt r ntlltwir.

From bus
1 1 1 2 2 2 2

To blls

R /p.u.)
0 .08 0 .05 0.1 0.05 0.05 0 . 15 0.09 0.15 0.25 O. 15

x (p.u.)
0.2 0.25 0.25 0.2 0.15 0.2 0.25

8/1 (p.u.)
0.0!8 0.0) 0.03 0.025 0.015 0.02 0 .025 0.03 0 .035 0.025

1 2

,
4
6 7

8
9

10

,
4

, , , ,
)

2 4

OJ
0.4 0.28
Jlen

POWER NETWORK MATRIX OPERATIONS

(u) Find [Ys...l (b) Alsofind [Y80,] when line 45 is tripped.


Solution: (u) Since this problem involves six buses, [YIJ .. i matrix will be 11 6 6 matrix. Result of calcu lation or [Y,..,] using the developed software is shown below: Here, the linelbranch admittance being ealculateif lint, diagonal clements (Y,,) of bus no. I are first obtBined followed by the calculation of off-diagonal clements oftlle same bus (Y~). The same scheme being exC'Cu\ed for each of the buses, the final [Y"",I array is oollIined.
(b) For the steond case, when line 45 is tripped,!he system reduces to a 9line system wi!h 6 buses. With this input, new [Y_ I is obllIined.

Execution of the computer program YBUS.FOR for Example 3.3 Line data for Example 3.3a: ZBUS1A.DAT
10, 6 1No. of lines, No. of buses] 1 , 2, (0.08 , 0,20) , (O.O , O.OlS ) 1 , 4, (0 . OS , 0.25), (O.O , O. OlO) 1 ,5, (0.10 , 0.25), (O.O , O. OlO) 2 , 3 , (0.05 , 0.20), (0.0 , 0.02S) 2 ,4, (0 . 05 , 0.15), (0.0 , 0 . 0 15) 2,5, (0 . 15 , 0,20) , (0.0,0.020) 2,6, (0 .09,0.25), (0.0,0.02S) 3,5, (0.15,0.30), (0 .0,0.030) 4, 5 , (0 . 25 , 0. 40), (0.0 , 0 . 035) 5,6, (0.I5 , 0.28), (0.0 ,0. 025)
[From bus, To bus. (R. XLJ. (G 811

, , , , , , , , ,

, , , ,

, , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , ,

Output of YBUS.FOR for Example 3.3a: YBUS1A,DAT


No . o f

buses
1, 1,
1,

Ybus match: Y b us { Ybus{ Ybu.s { Ybus ( Ybu.s( Y b us { Ybus( Ybus( Ybus ( Ybus { Ybus ( Ybus( Ybus{ Ybus (

I 2 I I I I I I I I I
I

1, 1. 1,

3 I 4 I
S 6 1

2, 2. 2. 2. 2. 2,
3, 3,

2
3 4
S 6 1

I 3.872679, -11. 526170 I Y" 4. 3103 45 I Y , I - 1. 7 24138 ,


I

I I I I I I I
I
( (
(

2 I

.000000 I .000000, - . 7692 3 1 , 3 . 84615 4 I -1 .379310, 3.448276 I . 000000 , .000000 I -1 . 724138. " . 3103 45 I 8.575396. - 21. 654300 I -1.176 471, 4. 70588 2 I - 2.000000 , 6.000000 I -2. 400000, 3 . 200000 I ) . 541076 I -1.27 4788. . 000000 , . 000000 I 4 . 705882 I -1 . 176471,

, ,
, , , , ,

MJlerl

J{l1

dlreibs

JIc>raJ

PO WER SYSTI;M A.NALYSIS: OPERATION A.ND COHTROL

Ybus (
Ybus~ Ybull~

, ,

Ybus ( Ybull{ 'tbus { 'tb us( Ybus! '{bus! 'tbus { 'tbus{ '{bull ( 'tbus { 'tb us( 'tbus ( 'tbus( Ybull ( Ybus( 'tbus( Ybus ( 'tbus( Ybus (

3, 3, 3, 3,

" " " 5,


5, 5, 5, 5, 5,
6, 6, 6, 6, 6, 6,

" " "

, , , , -

3 I 4 I 5 I 6 I 1 I 2 I 3 I I 5 I 6 I 1 I 2 I 3 I I 5 I 6 I 1 I I 3 I I 5 I 6 I

( (
(

(
( ( ( ( ( (

I
(

I
( (

(
(

( ( (
( (

2 . 509804, -;.317549 ( . 000000 , .000000 I -1 . 333333 , 2 . 666661 I . 000000 I . 000000 , - . 169231, 3 . 8 46 154 I - 2 . 000000, 6 . 000000 I . 000000 , . 000000 I 3.89282 6, -11 .563910 I - 1.123595 , 1.191153 I .000000, . 000000 I -1.319310, 3 .448 216 I - 2.400000, 3.200000 I -1 . 333333, 2 .666667 I -1.123595, 1. 791153 I 1 . 722860 , -13.747120 I - 1.486620, 2 . 775025 I . 000000 , . 000000 I -1.274788, 3.541 01 6 I . 000000 , .000000 I .000000 , .000000 I - 1.4 S66 20 , 2.775025 I 2.761408, -6.266101 I

, , ,

y~

Line data for Example 3.3b: ZBUS1B.DAT

9, 6 1, 2, 1.4 , 1,5 , 2 ,), 2 ,4, 2,5 , 2 , 6, 3, 5, 5 , 6,

(0 . 08,0 . 20) , (0.05 , 0 . 25) , (0 .1 0 , 0.25). (0 . 05 , O. 20) , (0 . 05 , 0 . 15), (0.IS , 0.201 , (0 . 09 , 0 . 25 ) , (0 . 15,0 . 30) , (0 . 15,0 . 28 ) ,

{O . O, O. Ol S} (0.0,0.030) (0.0 , 0.030 )(0 . O, 0 . 02S) (0 . 0 , 0 . 015) (0.0 , 0.020) (0 . 0,0 . 025) (0 . 0 , 0 . 030) (0.0,0.025 )

Outpul of YBUS.FOR for Example 3.3b: YBUS1B.OAT


No.of buses

'tbus matrix Ybus ( 'tbus { 'tbus ( Ybus! Ybus ( Ybus (


1, 1, 1,

,,
'

1, 1,

, , I I 3 I I 5 I 6 I
1

I ) . 812619 , -11. 526770 ( -1. 724138 , 4. 3103 45 ( .000000 , . 000000 ( -.769231, 3.8H154 ( -1. 379310, 3.448276 ( . 000000, . 000000

I I I I I I

Y" Y" ,

Materia! I :xn Olrf'llos

Jlorals

/'OwrR NOWORJ( MATRIX OPHU.TIONS


Ybus ( Ybus { Ybus( Ybu!l ( 'tbus ( ,{busl '{bus ( '{bus { Ybus ( '{bus ( '{bus { Yb us! '{bus ( Ybus ( 'tbus ( Ybu s ( rbus ( rbus ( Ybus! rbus( rbus ! rbus{ 'tbus ( Ybus ( rbus ( rbus ! 'tbus( rbus!
Ybus~

2, 2,

2, 2,
2, 2, 3, 3, 3, 3, 3,
3, 4, 4, 4, 4, 4, 4,

5, 5,
5,

'{bus (

5, 5, 5, 6, 6, 6, 6, 6, 6,

1 ) 2 I 3 ) 4 ) 5 ) 6 ) 1 ) 2 ) 3 I 4 ) 5 ) 6 ) 1 ) 2 ) ) ) 4 ) 5 ) 6 I 1 ) 2 ) 3 ) 4 ) 5 ) 6 ) 1 ) 2) ) ) 4 ) 5 ) 6 )

.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. '"'
>0;

.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

( - 1.72 41 38 , 4.310345 ) ( 8 . 575396 , - 21.654300 ) (-1.176 471, 4. 705882) ( - 2.000000 , 6.000000 ) (-2.400000 , 3 . 200000) ( - 1.274788 , 3 . 54101 6 ) ( .000000 , .000000) ( -1. 17 64 1 1. 4 . 705882) ( 2.50980 4, -7.317549 ) ( . 000000 , . 000000) ( - 1.)33333 , 2.666661) ( .000000 , .000000 ) -. 769231 , ).846154) (-2 .000000, 6.000000) ( .000000 , .000000) ( 2.769231. -9.8 01153 ) ( . 000000 , . 000000) ( . 000000 , . 000000) (- 1. 319310, 3. 448 216) (- 2.4 00000 , 3 . 200000) ( -1. 333)33, 2.666661 ) ( . 000000, . 000000) ( 6.599264, - 11.984910 ) ( -1.4 86620, 2 . 775025) ( .000000, .000000) ( - 1 . 274789, 3.5 4 1016) ( .000000, .000000) ( .000000 , .000000) (-1.486620, 2.775025) ( 2.761408, -6.266101 )
(

, r.

3.3 MODIFICATION OF [Yeus1 DUE TO INCLUSION OF REGULATING


TRANSFORMER BETWEEN TWO BUSES
In th is section we will discuss about the formation of admittance ma/rix between two buses with inclusion of a two-winding transformer between them , We take into account the p.u. transfonner adminanccs (the series and shunt using nmode l) which are actually reciprocal of the p .u. impedance of the transformer that has the complex transformation ratio a:l. The nequivalent line may be shown to the left as well 35to the right ofthc tr.ansformer. We present here both of these representat ions for beueT understanding. We assume the regulating transformer to be situated at the receiving end of the line when the nmodel is included at the left side of the transformer (Fig. 3.4). while we assume the regulating transformer to be situated at the sending end of the line when the ,T model is included at the right side of the transformer (Fig. 3.5). Since the regulating transformers arc usually provided at the: end(s) of the line. we approach a realistic situation by assuming the transformer to be placed at the ends of the line (e ither sending or receiving) and nearest to the buses.

Mate-nail Jm dlre-itJ

Jtoral.

POWER SYSTEM I\NALYSI5: OPERATION AND CONTROL

Case A: When the regulating transformer is present between two buses and is placed, s/ the receiving end: Let us assume the regu lat ing lransfonner is having a complu transformation ralio of a ( .. I a I L a). Fi gure 3.4 represents Ihe voltages and currents al the line and bus side for Ihe
transfonncr being included in the line.
, ,
PrimlU)' vol4lge
V,...

_ a";(mv .

,
,

I
1

) '.

),

,,'
(o; I)

I,

,
~il-

Equi,-aknl ~i",uit for a line ,ontai ning regulmi ng transformer bctwecn \WO buses and placai al the rcce;>' ing end. [S, and 5, ~ the inj ected comp lex powers al the srnding end and recei\';ng end ~s. =pccti'-c1y. while I', and I~ are respective btlS ,'oluges. IaI > 1. Le., Ioi" I + 1&>11. 3."

The IrMsfonner is assumed 10 be neMeT to the j-tll bus (re<:eiving end bus) and has ,omplc)( ofJ-nominaltap ralio a : I, wh ich CorTeSpondS 10 Vprt: V.... ; also, lot > 1. Assuming the transformer
10

be loss-less.

....L ~ a

, ,

~'

(i.e_. Vprl) = aVj


Ij

.' "
,

.. IaILa
(3.9)

Also. iRput power being equal to outpUt power,

I
I i
,

Of

Vj

- = 11 = -

V;'

/ :_

[1 ; is the secoRdary current of transfontterJ


(3. 10)

[ ' _ ...J.... [,-

".

Ne"t we consider the CUTTeR! ba laRCe a! two buses by the follow iRg two equations:

(3. 11)

,,'
,
I
1,1 atE

POWER NrTWOII.K MATRIX OPJU.T10NS

I ) = (-aoYvl \.j+ooo(Yo+YvlV,

(3.12)

Let us flOW rewrite equations (3.11) and (3.12) in pair (orm u (allows:

li-(YO +Y~ ) \.j+(- oyv)V}

,,"

11 = (-aoyu) \.j+OO( Yo+Y~ )V,

In maui)'; form these two equations can be reptcsc:nled as

["]- ['., "v


I,
-o'Y
(3.13)

It may be noted that a is complu and In is not symmetric.


If a is a rtal quantify. i.e. a .. (KVU(KV)...,. then

al(yo+y~)
The mam)(

-" 1

(3. 14)

rn then bc:comes 5ymnwlriC.

Cese B: When the f9gu/ating transform9f" is Pl"fJssnt between two buses end is pllJCfKJ at the sending end (Fig. 3.5)
Primary voltage:

v,... .. v,

Secondary voltage

Y_ - ~' - "v,
y.

v,

I,

,.
(1 : ,,)

Fit. 3.5

a.rlvaienl cirevit fCit I line coruinin& reJUlating transCo""tr bd~ two busts and placed II the se~ end. rial> I. i.e.. lor[ .. 1 + jQa[J.

Material,

JfT1

dlreitJ

Ao~.

POWER SYSTEM ANA.LYSIS: OPERATION AND CONTROL

Hen!,

:...L '"' Q " I II 1 La, i.e. Vi " QV;

Y'

V.

(3 . IS)

Abo
(Power bting equal at the transformer input and output, while transformer]

I;

is the secondary eUlTent of

I," .. ..!..

, "

,
(3.16)

'" At bus i we can write ,


1/ '" a Ii '" a al'/yo +(aJi - Vi )y~]
0

o[

'"
..

I, '"

aa'yoV;+aa'y~~-aoYuYj

..

I, = Qao(yo+Yv ) l'/-a'y{iVj

(3.17)

AI$O at bus j we can write,

. ..
In matri)( form equations (3. 17) and (3.11) can bt realTllnged as ,

(3.11)

..

..

[',]-["o(r,+r,) -ayv
Ii

c,' y ] Yo+ Y:
Yo +

[~l
.. ,, ..
'

,
(3.19)

H=

-,' r,] IYI ["'~:r:r.) Ylj


,
[Yj .. [a

..

(3.20)

It may be notw that a ~ng rtal,

(~:~YU) -'Y, ]
)'0 + )'1/

(321)

and the [y] matri)( bomcs ~mmelrir:al.


[In practical cases, the regulating trlll\$fOfll1Cf is designed for either vol/age magnitude or phase angle r:ontrol. In the former case a " 0 and 101 can bt changed in discrete steps of 6101. In the laUer case, 111\ is constant and a is chan,ed in discKle steps of 6a.)

3.4 FORMATION OF [Ysus] WITH TRANSFORMER PRESENT IN THE LINE ..

Once the modelling oflhe branch with the transformer installed between thesc two buses is done, we proceed to modify [Y"".j . We are now in a position to draw the equivalent ,y-circuit of the line
1,1 atE

POW(R N(7WOI!J( MATRIX OPERATIONS

rransfonner system connected between bus i and j . Figure 3.6(a) rcpracnts the tr equivalent circuit when the transformer is placed at the receiving end. while Fig. 3.6(b) represents the 11" equivalent circuil when the transformer is placed al the sending end. II may ~ noted here that Y" and Y...., or Y<oI, in Fig. 3.6(a) and (b) correspond to YI1 (or Y~I) a"rld Yll or Y~l rt$peclive ly.

"

,
,

'"
,
,
, ,

r";
,

,
, ,

, ,

,,,
,

,
t )y~ ;

"

r.... a)'~; r....-, " a'(y. "')',1'" (--11)'). .. a' )' .,. a(a roO, .. (Yo'" )'~) ... (fi" 3.6(a)
It

.. ,\
I).

-,

': "

.,
,

",

a)'v) " )'o (I -

alY

Equivaletil d int it for the uansfonncr pI~it;rtbi'=eivilli md ,

("'I >

,
r...,

'.
"

--

. ~.

r..,

' 'T' .. .. .
. ..
"

..
,.
,.
.'-

..

..

.,
11:

r.. .. ")'f ; J'~, .. a' (y. -f- )', ) -+- f-<IY>V" ,,!.)'.-+- <1(,,- 1W ; rIl," ()., -+ ),.-J ~ (- ,,)') .. -", . (1 - "V',
..

.. -- ._. "

A" J.6(b)

Equivalent circuit for the transformer placed' at the sending end

(lal > 1).

Then !he (r... 1matrix. can be modified with inclusion oflhc InnsfOilllcr 't eith end with revised form of 11$ self (diagonal) and transfer (off-diaSOnal) demenl$ as shown below; .'. ~ I" .. : ' , ".(II) Fer the taJe whtn tht Irllll$fonntr if at tht rtcti\'ing end fid;

r~_l = Y;o'+ . + Yo +( I-a lYli +-ayti + ... +

'ii

'" >';0+ ' +>'0 +)',+)'..


Mate-rial

(3 .22)

Itore

, , ,

POWEll. SYSITM ANALYSIS, OPEItIIT/ON AND CONTROL


y~

_I

., y.,

1\-1

., -aYij

(3.23)

(h)

Yji\- )

= YJO++alYo+a(a-I)Yi/+ayV + +Y",
=:

i
,
i

)110+"'+ 0 "a+a )lv+ +Y,. For Ihe case whell tM tr(l1Ufomur is at t~ sendi1l& end side
y",_) = >';0 +"'+a1yo +a(a-I)Yi/ +ayU + "' +}'/><

, ,

(3.24)

I
Y j/

= riO + ...+alyo +a1yv


YiJ1 = YJ\-t - -aYiJ - )
I- I
=:

+... + y..

(3.25)
(326)

YjO+" ' +Yo+(I - a)Yi/+ayU+ " ' +Yjo


(3.27)

'" J'jo+ +Yo+Yij ++Y...,

I ,
I

En.pIe 3.4: A thne lnu syllem is shown ill Fig. J.3(a). Assume all idtal trans/orme, to In XOIIMcud IHtwUl1 b/lSt!s 2 and 1 ill uriltS wilh a liM rractaflU jO.5 p . lI. if off-tlf)mini11 tap ratlD be j;W2, jinci [y....J.

<D

\"C--{::"':'}-~~ <D
Y,

, ,
I
flc. E3.J(a)
A

tIne-bus three line po.... er l)'item.

,
I

To ""
1 1 1

R (ill p.... )
0.05 0.05

X (in p.... )

Off-nomiNIl tap ratio ofrnuuform.,

,
I

2
3

3
3

0.15 O.IS

2
Zi l -

0'

1:1.02

Soll'dotI:
Given:
..

zll - (O.OS T jO.(5) p.L1.

Yll-

~-

series admittance of line

O .OS+ }0.15

I .

... (2- j6) p.LI.


\,1atE I"ID Jlo ais

POWER Nf.TWORJ( MA.TRIX OPERATIONS

Since the given problem is. three-bus system. henee [Y"",,) matrix will be a 3 " 3 matrix. :. [Y"",,] matrix before considering ~ line with transfOlll1er (as explained earlier) is given by [see Fig. E3.3(b).

CD -r-

=---C ,,:::J------= ."

-'---(j)
f1&.
3.J(b) The system befon: considering 1M: line with ttansfot"Kl.

(4 - j12) (-2+ j6) (- 2+ j6)

[r,.] _

(- 2+j6)
(- 2 + j6)

(2 - j6) (0+ jO)

(0+ jO)

p.L1.

(2-j6)

This is the case of regLllating transfonner placed at the sending tIld,

(VifYz

1.02). i.e.

a - 1.02 [see Fig. EJ.3(e)].

r-", Ll.J(r)

"model orlM: line with

ttansfo""er.

Yll ..

jO.S .. - j2 p.u.
QYll ..

Y....

1.02> -j2) '" -j2.04 p.u.

Material

Jm dire-,to

]to ai

POWER SYSTeM ANALYSIS: OPERATION AND CONTROL


.

...

r;.,.,".".',

ylA<, "a ( ~-I ) yu [.: Yo 0+ )0]


= 1.02)(1.02 - 1))(- )2) = - )0.0408 p.ll.

.. Y.oy !

0.-a)Y1J "" (1-1.02)


'

For the tnmsfonner in line 2-3:

x( -J2)..- )0.04 p.ll. . - ,

Y ,.,:> '" Y ""n...

+(-)2.04)+(-)0.0408)

= (2- )6)- j2.OS08 '" 2- )"8.0808 p.u.


Y,.." ~ yllou,.... +(-)2.04)+(jO.04)

'" (2- j6)- j2 = (2 -

}"g) p.u.

(4 - J12) (- 2+ ) 6) (':2+ j 6) [r,.I= (-2 +j') (2 - j 8.0S08) j2.04 )2.04 (2 -j8 ) (-2+j')

p.u.

Execution of the computer program '(BUS.FOR .for Example 3.4 line data: ZBUS11.DAT
3,3, 1 1,2 , (0.05,0.15) , (O , O) 1. 3, (o . 05, 0 . 15) , to, 0) 2,3, (0 , 0.5i', (1. 02;Q ) ,

[No. of lines, No. ofbuscs, No. oftransfonnersJ [From bus, To bus, (R. XJ, (4 812)] [From bus, To bus, (R. XL ), (G 812)] [From~s, To bus, (R."XU, Re<:tangular fohn of off nominal tap ratio oftr.msformerJ

Output of TMYBUS.FOR: YBUS11.DAT

The o"'p"r/llrt)ished the [r,... l mo/rlx/irsr considering I/O trans/()I"mer and then considering the said
fraM/armer.

N o . of buses

[
{

Before cons ide r ing line transforner Ybus m3.trix Y bus { I, 1 { { 4 . 00000 ,-1 2 . 00000 1, Ybus { 2 { ( -2,00000, 6 . 00000 (, ( -2 . 00000 , Ybus { 3 ) 6. 60000 6 . 00000 Ybus ( 2, 1 ) ( - 2 , 00000 , Ybus ( 2, 2 ) ( 2. 00000, - 6.00000 Ybus ( 2, 3 ) ( . 00000 , .00000 ( ) { -2,00000, Ybus { 3, 6 .00000 3, , 00000, ' ,00000 Ybus ( 2 ) i Ybus ( 3, 3 ) ( 2.00000, -6.00000

{ {

..

Y"

) )
)

r"

)
)

)
)

,
Y"
Jlen 1:m1 dlreibs JloraJ

, ,

POWER HETWOAA MATlUX OPEM.7lOHS

For Transformer line - J (.0.0000908+00. - 2.040000.) series admittance of lin.e shunt admittance of from bus (0.000000+00,-4.079996-02) sliunt admittance of bus (0.0000008+0.0,3.9999968-02) . Ybus matrix after considering line transformer

'n

, ,.

'

'0

bus I bus I bus I


Ybus

1. 1.
2, 2, 2,

"

1 2

I I

J
1 2 3 1 2

Ybus Ybus
Ybus Ybus

Ybus
ExmpSe 3..5:

I I I I I I

J. J, J,

I I I I I I I

4.00000. -12.00000 I Y" {-2.00000. 6.00009 I 'Y'l (-2.00000, 6.00000 I ( -2.00000, 6.00000 I I 2.00000, - 8.08080 I .00000, 2.04000 I I ( -2.00000, 6.00000 I .00000, 2.04000 I I I 2.00000, -8.00000 I Y"
I

-' ,

.. . ,

Afivebus SYJIDR iJ J!wt.11 ill Fig. 3.4. Awun"'l111 idMllrurufo,.mu 10 be conMCtM bnwun biluJ J" mvl2 uri",J with 0 lin ... of mJClonc... jO.4 p..... If I~ off-nomilllll rap ittrio be I: 1.05. find [Y,,;.,l using camp"u,. program.

in

(j)

,
Line no. 6

" a>

Line 00. I

""

,
Line 00.2
00. )
~

Line no.

(l)
Line no. 4
Fll- E3A
Th~

A five-bus power system.


~Jftcr)

lim!! do/a for

Ih~

given Iylum is shown below (n~gltcl shllnt charging

LiM no.
I 2

From bus
I 2 2

To,,"
4 J

R (ill p.Il.)
0.10 0.10 0.075 0.15
O.IS

X (ill p.Il.)

Ojf_iIllIl lap ratiD of rrwufonMr

,
6

J 4

,
,
4
2

0.30 0.28 0.18

J 4
I

0.35
0.40 0.4

1:1.05

Matf, ,

Jtorai

1
,
SYSTEM ANM.rSIS, OPEIVITION AND COHrROL

Solution:

Execution of the computer prognlm yaUS,FOA for Example 3.5

TM computer program !ol/awing the j1uwchart fiunuhed in 1M lUI for deurmining If..,.".] /(11' 1M power nefWfJrl; having trans/or"," i.J urculed wilh the/of/owing /in' dOlo (flIP"')

, ,

Line data: ZBUS2A.OAT


6,5,1 [tfo. of lines, No. of buses, No. oflrart5formersJ 1,4,10.10,0.30), (D . O, 0.0) [From bus, To bus, (R. I I 2 , 3 , (0 . 10,0.29) , (O.O,O .OJ
2,5, (0.075,0.18), (0.0 ,0.0)

XJ. (G I

&'1)1
,

3,4, (0.15,0.35), (0 . 0,0.0)

4, 5, (O.lS,O. 40), (0 . 0 , 0.0)


1 , 2 , (O.O , O.4), (1.05,0.0)

[From bus, To bus, Rectangular form of off-nominal tap

ratio oftransronner]

,
,

1M owput fornished 1M [r".,] malrix fUJI considering no uaruformer and then coruiliuing the said transformer.

Output of YBUS,FOR: ,,(BUS2A.DAT


'0,

of b uses

S e fore

con"ldering

5
line

tr .. n,,(ormec - 3.00000 .00000 .00000 3.00000 .00000 . 00000 -7 . 90115 3.16742 .00000 4.73373 . 00000 3.16742 -5.58121 2.41379 .00000 3.00000 . 00000 2.41379 - 7. 60557 2.19178
)
)

Ybus matrix
Ybus Ybus Ybus Ybus Ybus Ybus \'bu, Ybus YbU3 Ybus Ybus YbU3 Ybus Ybus Ybus Ybus Ybus Ybus YbU3 Ybus
I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I
1,

2, 2, 2, 2, 2,
), ), ), ),
) ,

" , 1
) )

1,

)
) )

1,

1,

)
)

2
)

)
) )

<
5 1

)
)

,
,

2
)

) ) )

<

4,

<, <, <, <,

,
1
)

)
)

)
)
)

<
5

I 1 . 00000, .00000, I .00000, I ( -1. 00000, .00000, I . 00000 , I I .3 .. 103 61, ( - 1.13122 , .00000, I ( - 1 . 97239 , . 00000, I \ -1 . 13122, ) 2.16570, ( - 1.03 44 8, .00000 , I ( -1.00000, . 00000 , I { -1.03448, I 2 . 85640, I -. 82192 ,

Y" Y"

)
)

)
) )

) )
) ) )

) ) )
)

) )

, ,
~ale-rlall :>rTI

dlfl'IID

Jlo ais

POWER NETWORK MATRIX OPERATIONS


'ibus Ybus Ybus Ybus Ybus ( ( ( { (

5,

5, 5, 5,
5,

1 ) .. 2 ) ..

J ) ..
4 ) .. 5 ) ..
in

( .00000, ( -1. 97239, ( . 00000, ( -.82192, ( 2.79430,


line no.

.00000 4.733 73 .00000 2.19176 -6 .92551


6

) ) ) ) I

,
, ,
Y"

For Tran l!lformer

(0.000000E+00,-2.625003) I!Ihunt admittance of tram bus (0.000000+00,-1.312526-01) shunt admittance of to bus (0.000000+00,1.250026-01)
l!Ieries admittance of line Ybus m<ltrix after co n sidering Ybus Ybus YbU5 YbU5 Ybus YbU5 YbU5 Ybus Ybus YbU5 Ybus Ybus Ybus Ybu s Ybus bus Ybu s Ybu s Ybus Ybus Ybus Ybus Ybu s Ybus Ybu s ( { ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( { ( { ( ( ( { { { ( { { (
1,

line transformer

1 ) ..

1.

"
1.
2,

"

2, 2,
2,

2 ) 3 ) 4 ) 5 ) 1 ) 2) 3 )
4 )

.. .. .. .. .. .. ..
..

2,
3, 3,

5 ) ..
1 2 3 4 5 1 2 J ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

3,

.,
3,

3,

" " " " 5,


5, 5, 5,

4 J .. 5 ) ..
1 ) .. 2 ) 3 ) ..

5,

4 J .. 5 ) ..

( 1.00000, -5.75626 ( .00000, 2.62500 ( .00000 .00000, (-1.00000, 3.00000 ( . 00000 , .00000 ( .00000, 2.62500 ( 3.10361, - 10. 40 115 ( -1.13122, 3.16742 ( .00000, .00000 ( -1. 97239, 4.7337 3 ( .00000, .00000 ( -1.13122, 3.16742 ( 2.16570, -5 . 58121 (-1.03448, 2.41379 ( .00000, .00000 (-1.00000 , 3.00000 ( . 00000, .00000 (- 1.03448, 2.41379 ( 2.85640, -7.60557 ( -. 82192, 2.1 9178 ( .00000, . 00000 4.7337J (-1. 97239, ( .00000, .0000 0 ( -.82192, 2.19178 ( 2.79430, -6.92551

) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) )

Y"
Y"

, , , , , , , , ,
r"

, , , , , ,

E. . . ple 3.6:

Ihm

conn~Cff!d

For Example J . j, conslihr lhe line charging ofjO.OJ (811) p.lI. In 011 the IifIU except In so-ie. with luuu/OI7Iff!l'. Find _ (Y"",} matrix.

Male-rial

:mI

dire-it)

Jlorai

!
I
POWER SYSTEM ANALYSIS: OPEJlATION AND CONTROL

,
I

SoILillon:

! ,

Execution 01 the computer program YBUS.FOR for Example 3.11

LIM dati: ZeUS2B.DAT


6, 5 , 1 [No. of lines, No. of buses, No. of tr'llmformers] 1,4, (0.10,0.30), (0.0,0.030) 1From bus, To bus, (R. XI)' (a 812) I " I 2,3, (0 .10,0.28), (0.0,0 . 030) 2,5, (0.075,0.18) , (O.D,O.OJ)

, I ,

,
'

,
I

3,4, (O .1 5 , 0.35 ) , (0.0 , O. 030) (From bus, To bus, (R,

XJ. (a
(a

8I2)J

4. 5, (O .15, 0. 40 ), (0.0, O. 030) (From bus, To bus, (R. XI).

iiI2)]

I, 2, (0.0 , O. 4) , (1.05 , 0 . 0)
Output of YBUS.FOR: YBUS28.DAT
No . of buses " 5

[From bus, To bus, Rectangu lar form of off-nominal


tap r.tlio ortnmsformerJ

I
I

Before considering line transformer


Yhus matrix

,
, ,
, ,

Ybus
'tbus

(
(

I,

Yhus Ybu s
Ybus

( (
(

I, 1. 1. I,

1 I 2 I
3 ) ..

4 I .. 5 I ..
1 I

rhus
Ybus

(
(

2,
2, 2, 2, 2, 3, 3, 3. 3, 3, 4, 4,
4,

2 I

Ybu"
'tbus

(
(

i,
, ,

'tbu s 'tbus Ybus Ybus Ybus


Ybus

( ( ( ( (
(

3 I .. 4 ) .. 5 I

1 I

2 I
3)
4 5 I

..

I 1.00000, I .00000, ( .00000, ( -1. 00000 , ( . 00000 , . 00000, I 3 . 10361. ( - 1.131 22 . ( . 00000 , (- 1. 97239, ( . 00000 , ( -1.13122, (2.16570 ,
(- 1.03448, ( . 00000 , (-I.OOOOO,

Yb us
Ybu s Ybus Ybus Ybus Ybus Ybus Ybus Ybus Ybus

(
( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( (

) .. ) .. ) ..

I
I

2 ) .. 3 ) ..

4,
4,

, ,

5, 5, 5,

( .00000 , ( -1. 03 448, 4 ) .. ( 2. 85640, 5 ) .. ( - .9 2192, 1 ) .. ( . 00000 ,


) .. (-1.97239 .

-2.97000 . 00000 .00000 3.00000 . 00000 .00000 - 7 .8411 5 3.167 42 . 00000 4.73373 . 00000 3 .1 6742 -5.52121 2 .413 7 9 . 00000 3.00000 .0 0000

) ) )
)

Y" Y"

) ) )
)

) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) )

2.41379 J

- 7 . 51557 ) 2 . 19179 ) .00000 )


4. 73 373 )

I
,

5,
5,

3 ) .. 4 ) .. 5) ..

( .00000, ( - .8219 2, ( 2. 79 430.

. 00000 ) 2. 19178 ) - 6.86551 )

Y"
Jlen 1:m1 dlreibs J!c>raJ

POWf //. NfTWORX MATRIX OPflVoTIONS

Fo, Transformer io line 00 , 6 (0.0000OOE+OO,-2.625003) series admittance of line shunt ad'TIittance o f from bus (O.OOOOOOE.OO,-1.312528E-01) shunt admittance of to b" (0.OOOOOOE +00,1.250026E-Ol) Ybus matrix after considering line transformer Ybus { { 1.00000, -5. '1 2626 I Y" 1 I 1. 1, { Yb us { 2 I . 00000, 2.62500 I r" { .00000, Ybus { 3 I .00000 I Y" 1. Ybus { 1, 4 I ( -1. 00000 , 3.00000 I rbus { 1, { .00000 I S I . 00000, 2, { 'tbus { 1 I .00000 , 2.62500 I { 3.10361, -10.34115 I YbU5 { 2, 2 I 2, 3 . 16742 I 3 I ( - 1.131 22, Ybus { { ,00000 , 2, .00000 I Ybus { I ( - 1,97239, 4 . 73373 I Yb us { 2, 5 I 3, { ,00000 , Ybus { 1 I . 00000 I 3, 3.16 7~2 'tbus { 2 I ( -1.13122, I { 2.16570, - 5 . 52121 I 3, Ybus { 3 I , rbus I ( -1.03448, 2.41379 I 3, 4 I , , Ybus { 3, { . 00000 , 5 I . 00000 I 4, Ybus { 1 I (-1 . 00000 , 3.00000 I , { { YbU 5 4, 2 I . 00000, .0 0000 I 2.41379 I 4, 3 I ( - 1.03448, Ybus { , { { Ybus , 4 I 2.85640, - 7 . 5 1557 I , { -.82192, 2.191 78 I rbus { 5 I { r bus { 5, 1 I . 00000 , .00000 I rbus { 5, 2 I ( - 1.97239, 4.7337 3 I 5, { .00 000 I Ybus { 3 { .00000, { -.82192, Ybus { 5, 4 I 2: 19178 I , { 2.7943 0 , - 6.86 55 1 I rbus { 5, 5 I ~, ,

. .

Eumple ),7:

Oinuin (Z/Iou"] mutrix lor Ihe J)'$I.,m Je.I'crib..d in uamplt! 3.6.

Solurlo n: (Z"", ] matrix is obtained by inverr ing the [Ylho ' ] matrix obtained in Example 3.6.
Execution ot the computer program for " Example 3.7 Input data: YBUS2B.DAT ([Y,g..J matrIx) Output of MINV.FOR: ZBUS2C.DAT
No,
m~trlx

Inyerelon MINV.FOR tor

"
"

0'

buses

zbu!!< lI'IlItri>: i .

Malenal,

Jm

direikJ

Jtorai

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POWER NEn,'ORK MATRIX OPRATIONS

,
T
1.-1 + I

-L
lsISNBRN?

l'J

'"

,.
CQ!I1p11te -, (y] .. [z] ; [AI .. Transpose of[A];lvAj" [y][A)

and [Y.., ) "' [4 [y) [A]

L
f'Ic. ) ,9
Example 3.10:

Display and/or OIore


[A ]. [z], [y], [yA ] and [Y...l mamCd

flo ....chan fOl' de~e lopmr:nL o f I Y,,", I nwrix using singul ar Lran,fomution.

'"'

In a plinian of n po ....er syJfem n ef><'ort (Fig_ EJ.5(a), two brundles 1-2 und 2) are mutunlly coupled Ihrough ~ .. (= jQ.2 p.u.). Find the bus admittance matrix using singular /fan sfo f1tIQ t iOll.

(j)-

I <Il" jO.3 p.u

~11l'

.:3.5(11)

Mutual ly coup!ctl ""tworh.

Solution:

Th e orientcd/connected graph of the system is shown in Fig. EJ.5(b).

(j)
2

" . J.5(b)

Oriemedloonnl'Cled gl'llp/1 of Ihe system mo .... n in Fig. E3.S\al


Jlen 'eibs JIc>raJ

POWER SYSTEM ANALYSIS, OPERATION AND CONTROL

(Since there is a mutual coupling between branches I and 2, and for both branches the dots are lowards bus 2, bus 2 is taken as from node for both of these twO branches.) Reduced incidence matrix is given by nodes --t I' 2 3

[..ll - br.tnchcs

.1.

I[-I 1 0 ]
0 1 - I 1 2 jO.2] jO.3

However, primilive impedance matrix is given by

Iz] _ I [jO.3

2 jO.2
i.e. the primilivc admittance matrix becomes,

[ y ] '" [;:]

_I I[

1 2 -j6 j4] '" 2 j4 -j6

[- j6 [y][..l ]" j4

-j6

jT'

1 0 1

-~]

"[!;4

- j6+ j4 - j4] j4- j6 j6

[ j6 - j2 - j4] " - j 4 -j2 j6


-I

Now

(Arl '"

0 1

0 -I
-I

Irs... ] '" [Ar]

[yJ[A] "

0 -I

-j2 -j4] [ j6 1 -j4 -j2 j6

(-j6) (j2) (j4) (j6- j4) (-j2-j2) (-j4+j6) (j4) (j2) (-j6)

-j6 j2 j2 -j4 j4 P

j4 j2

-%

Execution of the computer program ATYA.EOR Ipr ElIaMple 3.10 Input required lor computer aimulatlo.. :
No. of buses - 3; No. of branches - 2 For braoch-I : Branch no ... I: branch hwpedance - jO.3 p.u.; From node'"' 2; 10 node " 1 [since the dOl is lowards node 2J
Materia! I :xn olrf'llos Jlorals

poweR NeTWORK MA.TRIX opeRATIONS

The branch is mutually coupled. (BralK'hl is mutUllJ1y coupled with branch2.)

The mUIUlII impedance "'Ill p.u. For braoch.2 : Branch no. = 2; branch impedance = jJ.3 p.u.: From node 2 ; 10 node 3 [since the dol is lowards node 2J Since the mutual coupling bc\"'eeo branches 2 and I has already been coll'lidered earlier, helK'e there kIlO more mutual coupling with branch2.

Output Or ATVA.FOR: AYBUS,DAT


Reduced incidence matrix

-
.000000 .000000 . 000000 .000000 .000000 .000000
I I I I I I

" "

" "
, , , ,

"

1. 1. 1.

AI

2. 2. 2.

1 I 2 I 3 I 1 I 2 I 3 I

( -1.000000 , I 1,000000, I . 000000 , I . 000000,

A" A"

I 1.000000, ( -1.0 00000,

, , , ,

A"

Primitive I , I matrix
I I I I
1 1. 1 I 2 I 1 I 2 I

2. 2.

I I I I

.000000, .000000, . 000000, .000000,

.300000 ' 200000 .200000 .300000

I I I I

'" '" '" '"

Primitive
,I
1. 1 1

I,J I 2 I 1 I 2 I

matrix

" " "

2. 2.

I I I

.000000, .000000 , .000000, .000000,

- 6.000000 4 . 000000 4.000000 - 6 . 000000

I I I I

,,, ,,,

YJ2
,..~

(y * A)

mat rix

yAI yA< yAI ,A I ,AI


yA,

1.
1

,
1

1.

2. 2. 2.

I I 3 I 1 I 2 I 3 I

I I I I I I

.000000, .000000, .000000, .000000, .000000, .000000,

6.000000 - 2.000000 -4. 000000 - 4 .000000 - 2 . 000000 6 . 000000

I yAIi I )"A'l I . I I I

, , ,

,A"
Y" Y" ,

'(bus matrix -(t r a nspose of A) *y*A Ybus ( Ybus ( Ybus (


1. 1 I 2 I 3 I

I .000000, -6.000000 I

1.
1.

I .0 00000, I .000000,

2 .000000 I 4 .000000 I

~ate-rlall :>rTI

dlre-'to

Jto ais

POWER SYSTEM AN .... LYSIS; OPERATION AND COM'1l.0L

'tbus'
Thu s (

rhus(
'thus ( 'tbus (

2, 2, 2,
),
)

'thus (

),

1 I 2 I ) I I I 2 I ) I

{ .000000 ,
( . 000000.

( . 000000.
( . 000000. ( .000000,

(.000000,

2. 000000 I ~4 . 000000 I 2 . 000000 I 4. 000000 I 2.000000 I -6.000000 I

,
,

,
y"

3.6 DEVELOPMENT OF [Y8usl MATRIX USING COEFFICIENT MATRIX

I, ~

, ----{==;==l-------.' "

o reference nCldc=
,,~clors.

I"

/ 1,
J

~ig.

3. 10

Nodal currents injected into a single brand'! twonode circuit


I; alld Ij: following the sign ~'()nvention

Let liS consider Fig. 3. 10 using Cltrnnt injtlcti{H,


outlined above, we ca n write

(3.32)

by arranging the respective ROda] CUrTent equation s in the vector form . Equation (3.32) indicates the di"CliQII of l ij from i tOj-th node with +1 and -I entries being designa1ed as rows i andj. Assumi ng vo luge drop:!Cross"i1j to be V~ and being dirult:d low"mj I.,. the node vo luge governing eq uotioo V'i'" VI- V) ca n be represented sim il arly in the vector form as

Vij

_ 1+1

-!I[~:J
[+1

(3.33)

Howe"cr, from the baliic koowledge of circuit theory,


Y,j Vij '" It}

or.

Y~

-I][~:] = l ij

(3.34)

Pre-mult iplying bolt! sides of equation (3.34) by the co lumn of equation (3.32), we find (3.35)

i.e.

(3 .36)

"',

lyllvl I'1
Material

(3.31)

Ao

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POWER SYSTlM ANALYS IS: OPERATION AND CONTROL

j
Solve tbe equation

N.
Is*d - I?

[AI',] -[B2] [QDC), forl .. I. 2..... {M- I) DispllY.


Update bus volla~ magniTUde.

.,

Ya

(.J

Final blls voltagc magnitlKk.

v t' - V: + AI',' . for j .. 2. 3, ... M


E

1'/. fOT

-'
"0

j ..

1,2. .... N;

. h . .. t+

i1
Ya Ya

load antic .t;',

forlI,2, .... N ;

N.
lsi - I" ?

(ii,) No .. of iterltiolls

...-,

incomplete for i " I""

Dilplay. 'ltcnrion/

I.M- N ?
No

Compute and display reactive power for PV buses. Q, .. QC.AL, - QD, ro,.; .. (M + 1). 1M " 2). .... N

S"'"
f1&. 4..8
Flowchart to cllculatc bus YOlta&eS by FDLF method for the syllCm....;th Q-limit

PV ""'"
Execution of FDLF algorithm (with Q.llmlt at PV bu.) for Exampla 4.9

LINE DATA GZBUSI.DAT Ybus Matm GYBUSI.DAT

For III of the above data, refer Example 4.1 (O-S method).
WAD FLOW DATA FDLF3.DAT
3 , 4 I no. of PQ bwos_ taUl no. of buses] 1 .0 6,0 .0,0 . 0, 0 _0 [V, 'O),I);(O)J'"Qd 1.0,0 .0 -0 _6.-0_3 1.0,0.0, -0. 7,-0 . 5 1.02', O. 0.1 . 2. 0 _0, 0.1,1

1
I

lV,.a..P. Q"

Q..... Q... ]

This dala fil e "i$ s.ame as GLDA.OI.OAT; only orientation of data is different to m l tch with algorithm.
\01 alE
Jlora.

COAtPU:X POIV[R FLOWS

OUTPUT OF FDLFQ.FOR - FDVOLTJ.DAT [Final bus voltages]

No . of Iterations rcqd.
FI NAL BUS VOLTAGES ARE

------------

Bus-code

,
l

-----------1 . 0 60000 . 85 1554 . 903501


1.0 128 98

VOLTAGE

-----------. 000000 -. 1560.69 - .031l31


.169335

LOAQ ANGLE

4.12 DC LOAD FLOW

We rewrite first the de<:oupled power flow equations (equations (4.77) and (4.18.

Let U$ further simplify the load flow technique by dropping the Q-V iteration. It results in a completely linear, non-iterative power flow method. Assuming all bus voltage magnilUdes to be unity, the real power deeoupled equation becomes

1""1; [."]1 061


The "OC" power flow can then be calculated as

P it = ; . (0; - OJ); P;

this DC load flow method is good only for the calculation of MW flows in lines bUI does nOI give any indication ofMVAR or MVA flows. Figure 4.9 represents the f10wchan to calculate bus voltages by OC load flow method. ElImple 4.10: bin vol/agel .

Howe~r.

Dfn'elop OC wad Fla .... /or the prob/~mfurnished in Example 4.3 in order 10 obtain

Solution:
If.... J Matrix NYBUSL OAT LOAD FWW DATA - NLfIA.DAT All or the above data given in Example-4.3 (N-R method). OUTPUT OF DC_ FOR -DCVOLTLDAT
No. of I te rations re qd.
k. -

Material,

JfT1

olreitJ

Ao~.

POW(R SYSTrM ANA LYSIS: OPERATION

Read . Tornl no. and [ r 1 rrIiIl rix for ; " I. 2. ___ .

Sep,,,"~

:al and
(Y I ~).

G,, " Re.1( 1'1. ). B,, "' - 1111

for ,

1.2 . .... N : for j .. 1, 2, ... N

Convert r .... J m.ttrix inlo polar for; .. 1. 2... N: forj - I.2 .....

91~ - 9. _[MI. 91 1 is in d~=

,
R=l.

,. ,. '"''''~''. v

No Inilialisc slack bus voltage V : .. V,';tl,' - J.'. for; - I ..... Form and store [BII malrix SI ,. ,,,,. ,, " So' for i '" 2. J ..." .,Sle for

Mate-rial

:mI

dire-it)

Jlorai

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COIIIPl.EX POWER rLOWS

TABLE P4.2
BIIS
G~na(Jli(Jn

.
MYAR
MW

Wad

".
I

MW

MVAR

0 0 0

0 0 0

50 40 20

20

2 3
4 2

10
0

(a) In Eumplc 4 ,1 in the text, the lillC and bus data remaining the same, compute bU$ voltage

using G-S mctllod for Qu.... of bus-2 as - 0.1 :s;

Q !:S;

0.2.

(b) Repeat 2((J) but for nat start and assum e I Vl l = 1.0 p.u. Apply Q-S method and check the results using N-R metllod.

Figure P4.2 represents a five-bus power system feeding constant power loads.The line data and load schedule are shown in Tables P4.3 and P4.4 (lillC data has been furnished on 100 MVA basis).

Q)

Q)

....d

TABLE P4.3
Un~
F~,

T,
bus

line

im~dance

Shunt susceplance (812)


(p.II.)

"

b"

(P.II.,

I I I

(0.01 -I- jO.OS) (0.10 -I- jO.5) (O.IS -I- jO.SS) (0,05 -I- j O.3) (0,08 + )0.5) (0.02 -I- jO.I S)

5
4

jO.02 jO,(115
jO,(.Y15

3
4

3
4

jO.02 jO.02 jO.OI

5 6

3
4

M ate-ri

"'

u,

e-itJ

ltoral.

POWER SYSTM ANALYSIS: OPERATION

B"
110.

MW
50

MW
15

MVAR
5

3
4 5

o
o o

20 25
3Q

10 10
15

Assume slack bus vo ltage ~nd oompare the resuhs. 4. In Fig. P4.2, assume a transformer
V~: V~ =l.02 : l.(i.e.

G.S, N-R alld FDLF methods of load now study buses 2 and 4 having p.u. reactance of jO.3. If

V;':V; '"

1.02:1]
V~

(a) Find bus vo ltages and line nows using

(b) Repeat Ihe same e~en:ise for

: V. ::

1.02, [i.e. VI :V/ '" 1.02: 1 ]

S. Repel! problem no 5, but with FDLF


6.
In E~ample 4.5 in the text, the lim: and lood now metllod and compare the result. t being the same, compute bus voltage using de

Mate-rial

:mI

dire-it)

Jtorai

COM PUX POWI:R FLOWS

1. RESULT OF EXERCISE I ELNVOLTI.DAT


By G-S Method
No. of iterations required k 8

fINAL BUS VOLTAGES ARE no. B"" .. .....


1 2 3 4

---_

Voltage in RECTANGULAR form

.. .. _-----------_ ..... _-----_ ....


( 1 . 010000 I .970951 I . 976413 I .998218

, ,

.000000) - . 090640) -.086518 ) - .042165)

Voltage in POLAR f orm


Bus no .

.. -_ .........
1

Voltage magnitude 1.010000 . 975173 .980239 .9991 08

.._--.000000 - . 093082 - . 088377 -.042215

Delta

2 3
4

By N-R Method
Ite r ation reqd. , k 3

-----------1
2 3 4

Bus-code

-----------1.010000 .975016 .980207 .999 126

VOLTAGE

LOAD ANGLE .000000 -.092805 -.088241 -.0421]9

2. RES ULT OF EXERCIS E 2(A) EGVOLT2.DAT


No. of iterations require d k 12

fINAL BUS VOLTAGES ARE

B",

--_ .. _-1

no.

Voltage

'" .. _-_ .._------------_ .......... _-( 1. 060000

RECTAN GULAR form

2 3
4

I I

.912 647 .890217 .832520

, , ,
,

.000000) . 178907) - . 03 14 88) -.132646)

Male-nai, Jm dlre-itJ

Jloral.

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POWER SYSTEM ANALYSIS: OPERAnON AND CONTROL

4. RESULT OF EXERCISE 4 ELNVOLT4.DAT


When V2;V4 = 1.02 :1
Iteration reqd . ,Ie"
Sus -code
1

-----------1.000000
.997329
.968431 .91)0)2 .957131
100

VOLTAGE

----------.000000
-.004191
-.066869 -.073258 -.090680

LOAD ANGLE

,
3

5
Base H\TA "

LlNEFLO'tiS


MVAR

Bus-code

MW

-----------1 2
2
1
5 1

------------.018221

-- --------2.017580
- 1.971873 - 5.677482 .401535 -5 . 195072 . 001012 -3 . 213329 -,79 0563
- 1.702069 -2.0702 12

.018246
- 3.874346 3.970911 - 3.473356 3.56256 1 - 1.661327 1 . 684468 -.336513

,
2
3

,
1 1
3

, ,
3
5

,
2
3

. 336990
- . 213457 .214491

, ,
2

,
5

-1.204706
-~f7087

22 . 770200 - 22.770200

15.789290 -13.5635 10

LINE LOSS

.210446
SLACK BOS PCYtJER

MI~

-21.881640

HV'AR

(TN P.U.)
-1.289013E~Ol)

(-7 . 365923E-02,

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dire-it)

Jlorai

COMPLE X POW ER

rwws

When V2:Y4

= 1:1.02
3
VOLTAGE

Iteration reqd. ,k =
Bus-code

5
Base KVA '"'

1.000000 .999884 .96 4 0 4 3 .957433 .9 4 5352 100

-----------.000000
-.004436 -.0 66669 -.07231) -.090 425

LOAD ANGLE

.............. ..
Bus-code

LINEFLCMS

MVAR

MW

1
2 -

2
1

1 5 1

5 1
1

-. 022050 .022070 -3.683256 3.790366 -3.128547 3.230792 -1.609983 1.635066 -.209361 .209946 - .222462 .2233 48 22.076280 -22.076280

-2.005066 - 1.994568 -6 . 279184 1.009407 -6 . 016432 .849839 - 3.430361 - .5784)2 -2 .219798 - 1.475970 -1.125187 -. 691824 8.516070 -6.83 6023

3
5

LINE LOSS

.............

. 235928 MW
SLACK BUS POWER (IN

-22.277530 HVAR

P. U. l

(-6.83385 4 E-02,-1.430068E -O l)

MJlerl

1:m1 dlreibs

Jtc>raJ

POWR SySTUvI .... N.... LySIS: OPIUTION .... ND CONTROL

S. RESULT OF EXERCISE S ELFVOLT4.DAT


When V2;V4
No.

= 1.02;1
k ... 3

of Iterations reqd.

fI NAL BUS VOLTAG ES ARE

-----------1

Bus-code

-----------1.000000 .997285 .968125 .913594 .958492

VOLTAGE

LOAD ANGLE . 000000 -.004167 - . 066876 -.0732 46 -.090134

2 3
5

,
100 *.*.*

Base MVA -

LI NFLOW S
MW

-----------1

Bus-code

2
1

------------ . 018055
.018080 - 3.881931 3.984016 - 3. 483 368 3.572141 -1 . 664394 1. 681 4 61 - . 337932 .338 42 8 - .215099 .216125 22 . 786250 -22.786250

------------ 2.01111 4 -1.911503 - 5 .6410 13 .363822 -5 .164634 - .030578 -3. 20330 4 -. 801113 -1 . 690057 -2 . 0 85668 - 1 . 203204 - .671090 15.58358 0 -1).374190

MVAR

2
1

,1

,
1

1 3

, , , 53 5 - ,
3 3

2
4

LINE LOSS

-....

- "'-- ~ -

.20 9472 MW
SLACK BUS

-21 . 906130 MVAR

POWE R (IN

P . U.)

(-1 .38 935 4E- 02 ,-1. 2823 ~ 2E - Ol)

Malenal,

Jm

direikJ

Jlorai


When V2:V4

COMPLEX POIYtR FLOWS

= 1:1.02
3

No. of Iterations reqd. It FINAL BUS VOLTAGES ARE


Bus-code

VOLTAGE

-----------1
2

LOAD ANGLE

1.000000
1.000085 .964861 .958663 .946940

.000000
-.004469 - . 066750 - .012410 -.090585

5
Base MVA .. 100

LINErLOWS

----------- - 1
1 2 1 5 1 2 3 3 2 1 5 1

Bus- code

------------.022417 .022437 -3.71 3629 3.819432 -3.156833 3.257828

HW

------------ 2.004093
-1. 99fi34 6

MVAA

-6.203759
.933006 -5.952059 . 78 4158 -3.413584 -.59814 5 -2.203544 - 1.499638 -1.122858

3 2

-1.616288
1 . 641201


5 2

3
5

-.213809 . 214354
-.224699 .225573

,
SLACK BUS


.233150 MW

-.699430
8.169057

22.,130110
-22.130110

-6.499916

LINE LOSS

'"'--------22.307)50 MVAR

POWER

(I N P . U . )

(-6 . 692879- 02 ,-1.41 5991 -01)

MJlerl

1:m1 dlreibs

Jtc>raJ

-,

!
: ,
I

,
POWER SysrEM ANALYSIS, OPERATION AND CONTROL

6. RESULT OF EXERCISE 6 EDCVOLT.DAT


No. of Iterations reqd. k 2

i
I
I

FINAL SUS VOLTAGES ARE

-----------1
2
)

Bus - code

VOLTAGE

toM ANGLE

-----------1 . 04 0000
1 . 000000 1.000000

-----------.000000
-.2015 15
-. 0 65728

S
6

1.0 00000 1 . 000000 1 . 000000

-.170765
-.n8810

-.238048

i
I
I

,
, , !

Mate-rial

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dire-it)

Jtorai

Economic Operation of Energy Generating Systems


5.1 INTRODUCTION
Eronomir: operatiO/'l and pluMing of electric energy generating systems have always ~n given proper attention in the eleetric power system industry. A saving in the eost of generation represents a significant reduction in the operating cost (including the fuel cost) and hence this area has warranted a great deal of attention from operating and planning engineers. The original problem of economic dispatch ofthennal poWeT genera.ting systems used to be so lved by numerous methods. However. with the development ofmatbematical tools and advance C(lmputational methods, the economic SCMduUng of generators has become more a<:cUl1lte and tan be apptled even in complex networks. Thermal scheduling being ofprimc importance, hydrothermal coordination schedJIling has emerged as another
aspect of economic scheduling. This chapter aims 10 provide the basic analytical techniques in order to detenn ine the tconomic operation schedule of the conventional energy generating plants along with illustrations and discussions. Since the fuel prices are changing globally, the prices indicated here, for illustration purposes, are indicative only and not the true market price. The following text can thus be considered a basic progress report using conventional methods of si mulations in the area of economic OJlCnltion (since the field of simulatiori and analysis is still undergoing rapid changes, only the basic building blocks are furnished here). Since the basic purpose of economic opcr.ation of power system is to reduce fuel cost for the operation of power system. economic operation is achieved when the generatOr$ in the system share load to minimifc overall generation cost. The main economic factor in the power system operation is the cost of genenlting real power. In any power system, th is cost has got two components, viz., (i) the fcxed COSI being determined by the capital investment. interest charged on the money borrowed. tax paid. labour charge, salary given to staff and any other expenses that continue irTespective of the load on the power system, and (ii) the ~ariablc COSI, a fune1ion of loading on generating units, losses. daily load requirement and pur<:hase or sale of power.

225
Mat lIal Jm dIem 81

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ECONOMIC OPERATION OF ENERGY GENERATING SYSTUfS

water flow COStS are due to capac ity of the storage. ~gricu1tura l requirement and cost of running the plant during dry season. Also, artifici~ 1 storage requirement imposes COSt on water input \0 lurbi ne as well as the cost to control the water output from the turbine due to agricultural needs.

5.4

INCREMENTAL FUEL RATE (IFR) CURVES


~lation,

The input.()ulput curves, obtained from the operating data of power ;IIcremcltlal fu el rate (lFR or IR) curve from the relation
IFR = incrementaUlI change in input

can be ulilised 10 get Ihe

incrementatal change in output

Thus, by calculating the sha pe of the input-<>utput '!,lIves at various points o f operation. the profile of IFR can be obtained. Figures 5.3(a) and (b) give the IFR profiles for typical thermal and hydro power slations.

,------i
If'
(Kca~MWhr)

, ,

, ,

Min
Output (MWj

fi,. S.J(a) Typical IFR curvcs for thermal pou.er slation.

Min
Outpul(MW)

Fig. S..3(b) Typtcal rFR curves for hydro P'O"'er station

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POWER SYSTEM ANALYSIS: OPE.RATION AND CONTROL

5.5 INCREMENT AL FUEL COST (IFe) CURVE


This curve can be obtained from IFe curve by multiplying the 'lFe' by the ctlst of fuel per Kcal. As in a poWer station, fuel cost govems the actual lotal cost. Hence, IFe is very significant in tcOfIOmic loading of tile generation unit. The lFe CUl'Ve$ will be similar to the IFe ch.aracteristic in configuralion. 11 is obvious thai the slopes of the input-output curve and inercmental fuel me curve do not change fot differe nt fuels or for changes in the cost of me same fueL This lime a multiplying factor may be used so that the actual cost is a realistic one. The unit of IFe (or simply the IC) is unit afcost! MWht.

5.6 CONSTRAINTS IN ECONOMIC OPERATION OF POWER SYSTEM


5.6.1
Primary Constraints

These constrainlS arise out orilte necessity for the system to balance the load demand and generation.
They arc also called equolity constTQilllS. If P; and Q, arc the $Chcduled electrical generation, P-. and Q_, are Ihe respeclive load demands. it is obvious that the following equations musl be satisfied althe load bus (Fig.. S.4).
P,

I
P,-.--~

pFIc. 5.4

I
(S.2)
~

Rcal power position at load bus.

0/-0_, -~ = N/ = 0
where M, and N, represent the power neighbouring syslem given by
~siduals

al bU$-i and

and Q, Ihe power flow 10 the

" ~YjY(i cos (Oij - 0iJ) L ,.,

(s.J)

" eli " L~''JYvsin(oiJ-Ou)

,.,

(S.4)

5.6.2

Secondary Constraints

These constraints arise due to physical and operational limitations ofrcspeclive units and components and are known as ineqliaUry cons/rain/so Power incqliality cons/raill/s are applicable for proper operation; for each generator we should have a minimum and maximum permissible output and the unit production should be constrained to ensure that

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ECONOMIC OPERATION

or ENERGY GENERATrNG SYSTMS

P,,-.5: P; .5: p"-' i '" I. 2... Np


~d

'Ls~s~,

1=1,2, ... N Q

1'1, and NQ being the total number of real and reactive sources in the system.

In addition to the ir inequality constraints. another tonstraint + S (Sr.-l must be ~tisfied, where s~ denotes the tomplex power tapadty of the generating unit without any overloading.

if ct

5.6.3

Dynamic Constraints

These constraints arise where fast changes In generation are required for picking up the increasing load demand. Here.

dp,(t)
d,
Similarly, for reactive power constraint,

<

=",,:'("')'1 s
dl

dp,(t)
dt

"'

< 1:d"Q,~(',,)

5.6.4 Spare Capacity Constraints

J,

In order to account for the EltOiS in load predictioo, any sudden and fast change in load demands and the inadvetlentloss ofsclleduled generation, spare capacity constraints are frequently ulilised. In this constraint, the total genention available at any time should be in excess of the total anticipaled load demand and any system loss by an amouot not less than a specified minimum spare capacity PSI's.
N

P,, 2:

"" ~ P, +
j- I .

PSI'S + P_

. .

For groups of generators. when all planlS are not equally operatiooally suitable fot takiog up additional load, this constraint is then given by

P,,

2: ' " P, + Psp(; + P_ ~

where p.<;f'(J is the spare capacity generation for the specified generator(s).

5.6.5 Thermal Constraints of Transmission Lines


These constrainlS arise when power inja:tion (+S"-) or power drawa] (- S,,--) is allowed such that

where

(t,)~

represents the number ofbranchcs and SIr the branch power transfer in MVA.

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CONOMIC OPRATION OF ENrRGY CNfRATINC SYSTEM S

Eumple 5.4:

The fuel cost characteristics of fWO generators are oblined as under

f~, (~) '" 1000 + 50~ + O.OI?" 2 unit of rostlhr

F.:, (ll, )
If the
Solution: are given by

'" 2500 + 4Sp" + O.OOS?,, unit of costlhr

tOlOlload supplied i.l 1000 AOY. find optimal load division /)er..un the r..o getrerators.

Utilising the: fuel cost characteristics. incremental fuel


dF (P. J

(OS\5 for

the two generators

, "
<,

'" 50 + 0.02P.

'
I,

dF (P. )

dF.

<,

.,

'" 4S+0.01P.

Normally. for any specific loading. it may be obst ..... td thatlFe , > fFC1. HenC1:. it implies that generator-2 carriC"5 more load than generator-I . However. for C(;onomic dispatch. IFC , must be equal 10 fFC1 . Implementing this along with the power balance equation,
!FC, " A "SO +O.02P~
{FC! '" A '" 45 + 0.01?"

"

?', +?', = lOOO


Solulion of these equal ions resu Its. for optimal loading.

P" '"' 166.33 MW (approx);


and .

Ps." 833.67

MW (approxJ

;. - 53.33 unil ofcostfMWhr.


th~

Eumple 5.5: Determine Ihe I'CQnomic operation schedlile for delivering a IOtalload of 1000 ,wI.
Uml-.4:

three thermal unilS when

1'"", '" 600

1-0 curve: Unil-B: 1-0 curve; Unil-C:

MW.I'.. ,n" 150 MW H .4 '" 500+7~. "0.00151'; I'n ... ~ 500 MW.l'min '" 125 MW

N tI '" 300 + 7.88"8 + o.OO2Pi Pm", '" 300 MW. Pm;. " 75 MW

1-0 Cll rvc: fie '" 80 .. 7.9')~. + O.OO5Pc . Fuel COS/$: Unit A: 1. 1 un;' of pl"icelMbfll Un it B: 1.0 unit of pricd Mbtu Unit C: 1.0 unit of priceiMbtu.
Find the values of PA. 1',," Pcfor opt;mal operolion.

Solution:

F~(r.;)

'"

Il~"l.!

.. 550 + 7.7P,. +0.OOI6Sr;

rs (P

tI ) '"

If tI

"

1.0 '" }OO + 7.88 P, + O.D02P;


Jlen 1:m1 dlreibs J!c>raJ

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I I
I

i
,

POWER SYSTEM ANALYSIS, OPERATION AND CONTROL

.,

(5. 12) In generalised form. equation ( S.12) can be Written as

AP+B

(5.13)

!
,

whm
Further generalisation for N number

:
,

or units gives
(5.14(a

I ,
I
(S.l4(b))
(S.15)

I
,

i
I

I I
,

(S.16) Individua l generation Ph PI' . .. can be calculated from the tOl11Jl'lC)n value of J. obtained in equation (5. 16). Here a lso, if the limiting raling of any unit is violated, it is con~'entional to keep fixed the unit generating at lhal limit and e-conomic ope ration is obtained for the remaining unit re-ca1culating A and B for the other units and sening the net economic dispatch value of generation to be equal to the tobi plant load minus the limiting VlI luc of generating poW1:1 whose genmlling limit is made fi~ed. The resulting value of A. then governs the ecotl(lmic of the Icst of the units.
[lImpJe 5.8:
charaCfl'rislics:

I I
I

There

(Iff!

1""0 turbo-gt",:ratort feedillS a load bus wjlh the following incrf!mt!ntai

dF,(P, ) ..- 3+0.0 15P.


(0)
Fint!th~

"'

economic sc.hedul..

if tomlloot! is

"d

dF,(~)
/[1)

'" 2+0.0 18Pl

160 MW. Assume no generator limits.


\.1 alE

Jtore

EOONOAtlC OPERATION OF fNE RGY GENIVoTlNC SYSTMS

(b)

Re~al

(a) willi Ille followillg gener(J1i()l1 IimilS ,"OIlJidered: Unil-I: p .... = 100 MW. p ... = 2Q MW: Unil2: Pm... c tOO MW, p ... = 10 MW

Solution;

(a) For economic operation,


dfiUU _ dF. (Pz ) dfl dP1
(I) (2)

3 + 0 .0 15P I '" 2 + 0 .018P z


0.0 15P I - 0.018P1 = - I and PI + Pz = 160 {since lotalload = 160 MW I Solving for (I) and (2), PI'" 56.97 MW; Uere ). = 3.855.
(b) If genera tor limit is considered. PI

PI = 103.03 MW

(Ans. of (a

....
Hm:.
Eump)e 5,9:

PI " 100 MW IP! is fixed al its upper limit p,

= 100 MW

P I = (160 - 100) MW '" 60 MW

-.

.. dF.(P.) I:. A, =3.854 and .4.: =2+0.018x I00=3.8OJ dfl dP1 Therefore. the load scheduling is not perfectly econom ic .
The increment futl cos/! for a plant Iioving IhemlOl /lni(J are as under:

d~(fjl

dF.(P.) I I ('"
d~

A. ) <: 0 .0050fl + 6 .0

unit of costIMWhr

dF2<1l) (= ,t,)

If !he lUwl load varies from 100 to 500 MW in Ihree sreps of 200 MW varia/ious. fiud IIle incremtntalfuel ron and rhe incrmumfutl cost of eC'OlUJmic operating schedules of rile plam. "'SSUnl t
[or "nil-J: p ..... = 330 MW. P.." also
:=

'",

= O.00750f!, +5.0 uni t of costIM Whr

75 MW,

for IInit2: Pm ... = 330 MW Prrit! = 75 MW.

Solution: At 100 MW total 1 000d. lei us fi~1 5CC lhe IC of each unil
).1 = 0.005 x 100 + 6 = 6.5 unit of cos tlMWhr
).2

(A,

3nd

lz ) in the plant

= 0.0075 x 100 + 5 = 5.75 unil of costlMWhr

The IC of unil2 is comparatively lesser and hence il is economic 10 load unit-2 at li ght load period and also it is economical 10 supply maximum load from unit-2 till its inc remental cost approache!llhal of unit-I. We can find that value from lhe following equltion: 0.0075P2 + 5 '" 6.5
:. p. ..

1.5 .. 200 MW 0.0075

Mate-nail Jm dlre-itJ

Jtoral.

POWER SYSTEM ANALYSIS, OPERATION

Thus, Up to a loading of 200 MW for operation criterion is govemed by unit-2. It ~onomic loading),

and 75 MW of loading of unit-I the economic also be seen that for 200 MW loading (to have

.> A[t A ).,.6


i. 1

a,

Let us now take the system load as 200 MW.

! 0.0075

, 1

.. 0.003

= 5.6 Then A ... AP + B '" 0.003 - 200 + 5.6 .. 6.2 ,"it ~


>

,r<M"M'Vh,.

='1

a,

"d

a,
~

= 160 MW 6.5 (wh

For a loading of 300 MW, ..I - AP + B

p .. 300 MW);

'l '"

, - /!, ,. tOO MWand a,

_ J.. -P; ..

a,

200 MW.

Exactly in a similar way for a system load ... 7.1 [ .: p .. 500 MW]

MW, A-O.OO3,S-5.6and..t-AP+B

...

~ .. A-PI .. a,

220 MWand

, - (J,

a,

... 280 MW

The reader is encooraged to obsnve Table 5.t .

TABLE 5.1:
Opel"olion
0.

TOio/load ( MW )

1 2 3

,
4
6

100 100 200 200 200 300 '00

6.'
0

"

100 100 200 160 200 280

5.75 5.75

6.'
0

6.2 6.' 7.1

6.5 6.2 6' 7.1

Material

Jm dire-,to

,to ai

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(CONOMIC OPeRATION OF ENERGY CENERATING SYSITMS

For N number of plants the coordination equations are given as

(5 .20)

while the constraint equalion is given by

, L (1:) - P,.",d - P, '" 0 .,


(op,/op,)
I

(5.21)

If the numerical value of [he partial derivative of the line 1055 wilh respect to each generator
output is Known, the generator output power may be adjusted to satisfy the following

equalion

dfi(P,)
dfl

\ _ 01}

=:

A, i == L2 ...,N

all
The optimum economy is thus achieved when the product of the incremental fuel cost times the penalty factor is the same for all planes,
i.e. (5.22)

A stands here for the incremental cost or tile received power in unit of currencylMWhr and hence during economic operation of plants with losscs being considered,

,= ,

1 - Incremental transmission loss

--cc:,,: ,:,,:m::'"'",=':"'e': 'c': "c''occ:

Example 5.10: A two-bus system, wilhoUl generator limits. hQ5 been considered (shown in Fig. 5.1) where
p_ .. 400 MW. p_ .. 100 MW and

Fi "" O.OOOS(P...

-IOOf

(IFC),4 .. O.OO6P,.

+ 4.0 unit or "ostIMWhr

{IFC)II '" 0.OO7P,. +4.0 unit orcostIMWhr


Find optimal generation/or each plant and the power loss in Ihe hne.

~ale-nall :>rTI

dire-lID

Jlo ais

POWER SYSTEM ANALYSIS; OPEfVoTlON AND CONTROL

~
I', , I'
Lil\l'

I ~.

"
/'~.

fl&. ES.1 A two-bus system.


Solution: As f} .. O.0008{P.I- 100t MW.

. ..

'" O .1)()16{P,. -100) '" O.OOI6P,. -0.16


I

(Penalty factor or PF) -

of}

1--

aP.
For generator- I, assuming it to be a slack bus.
I I

(PFI =

= 1-0 = I dP' lop.


I

~d

(PF)z =

1- af}

ap,.

= 1-0.OOI6P +0.16 = J.J6 -0.00 16P

For optimal dispatch,

(PF) dF:
l

dP

,.
(I )

I.C .

...

I ( ) 1.16-0.0016P,. O.OO7P, . +4 '" A

(2)

p., + p = O.OOO8(P,.
Solving for (I), (2) and 0), we gel

-Ioof +500
\.1al[ dire-it)

(l)

.,

"' 227.7MW, P,, - 1l7.6S, .... ... S.694and f} " 4.SS MW


:mI

Jtorai

ECONOMIC OPERATION OF ENERGY GENERATING SYSTEMS

Eumple 5.11: Find the incremental transmission lones for a twa-area power system, where the bus voltages ore teptflXed and the line power flaw if afonc/ion offine ongle. Power Ion if afunction of generation of area B only. Solution: It is evident thJI
P'=f(l~. )

This also suggests that the incremental transmission loss for grid A will be zero and the inco".mlllentallTansmission loss of the line will be governed by the grid B only. Thus,

(In),j '"
(ITL)

= of} ap

Economic operation being dictated by the criterion

A"" (IFCL '" (IFC), 1- (fTL)A I - (ITL),


in this case, for e<:onomic operation,
=

(lFC), I - (m).

Enmplc 5.12: T1re losses in the IirHJJ slwwn in Fig. &5.1 ore proportional to the sqllare of the power flow. Barh units are loaded at 250 MW. Dlle to fronsmlljion f~ 12.5 MW ofpower is [oslo Where should the extra 12.5 MW be generated far eCOflomic opa/ion? Attempt a reschedllling /0 minimiu the tronsminiOll [OSS .
Line

P,
SOOMW (to m;ei, e j

Fie:. E5.1

A Iwo-bm power gencnl1ing system fding I load.

Given:

~ Line loss .. 0 .000211 W .


(md

fl

(Min .. 70 MW ( Min .. 70 MW Max .. 400 MW' Pz Max .. 400 MW

Solution: Due to transmission loss, the load received is 487.5 MW instead of 500 MW. Utilisation of Lagrangian multiplier results L '" Also.

fi(fl) +F2 (l))+,l. (500 + P, - fl-l))

(I)

p, ,.

12.5 MW (which is equivalent to 0.OOO2if")


M- erial I :xn Olrf'ltos Jlorals

I
;
. Iw

POW!R SYSTrM ANA LYSIS, OP[RIITION AND CONTROL

For economic operation.


(2)

(3)

fl
dF;

+Pl ,. (500+12.5) MW

(4)

Howc"cr, from !he given dala,

dP.

un ,. 7 + O.OO4P. I' ,
'" O.OOO411, "" 0 (If] a~

ap,

ap,

Thus from (2) and (3) we can write,

7+0.004fl-).(I - O .000411) = 0

(S)

! I ! ,

7+0.004~

- ..t .. 0

(6)

Solving equatio1\$ (4), (5) aQd (6).

PI'" 179 MW, P1 " 327.5 MW and Power production cost


(F ~ )

P, ,. O.ooo2if ... 6.4 MW

is given by

F r,

'"

F; (1;)+Fl (~)

= 400 + 7)( 179 + 0.002)( 179 1 + 400 + 7)( 327.5 + 0.002)( 327.51
.. 4623. 15 unit of oostlhr. Next, we suppose thai the minimum loss is desired. LeI the generation of unit 00-2 be increased to 400 MW (muimum possible) as, apparently. this is the Iros1 feasible solution to reduce transmission loss by adjusting generation;..unil-2 being connected 10 the load bus. Thus, unit 00-1 is to give 100

MW

fl + 1';

= 500 + O.OOO2fr

"'

O.OOO2fll -

fl

+ 100 .. 0

[,: P1 ... 400 MWj

fl

= 102 MW

i.e. the loss is only 2 MW utilising unit2 \0 gencnte maxiJmm possible generation of 400 MW and allowing the remote unit-I to genClate 100 MW. Power production cost (r., ) is then given by
F< , .. 400 + 1 " 102'" 0.002 ~ 1021 + 400 + 1 " 400 + 0.002 ~ 400:
'" 4655 unit or costlhr

I I

Comparing the cost of F, and F, it lIYy be minimising the transmission [0$5 'only. '

obscrv~d

that economy is not achieved by

\.1al ..

.1 ...

Jlora.

eCONOMIC OpeRATION OF ENERCY CtNERATlNG SYSTeMS

Eumple 5.13:

The fuel cosl cun'e ofrwo generators are given as under

F;.(P,)

=:

800 + 45P" + O.OIP;..

If the tOlalload supplied be 700 MW,jind the aplimal dispUlch with and wilhaul romidering the generator limits where the limits h([Ve been upre.sst d as

50 MW :S p, ..

s 200 MW and 50 MW S

p, . S 600 MW

Compare Ihe syslem incremtnlo{ cost with and withoul genuator limits being camidered.

Solution:

The incremental ,osts are

(/Fe) 4 '"
equation,
I'll.'

4 5 + O.02P,. and (IFC)II '" 43 + O.006P,.

To have eronomie openllion, can write

{lFC),4 .. (lFC), .. A;
.l. = 45 + O.02P,.

considering this along with the ,onstraint


(I)

as well as
while Solving these three equations.

.l. .. 43 + O.OO6Pl P +P =700 MW , .. I.

(2) (3)

A - 46.7. P ,,84.6 MWand P '" 615.4 MW


" J.

In the above illustration, generator limil$ have not been included. If these lim it are included, it may be s.een that generator B has violated the limit. Fixing it at the uppermost Umil, let
p, .. 600 MW, Obviously, p,. '" 100 MW and then

P ,. + pz "

700 MW.

This time, '/',4 '" 45 + 0.02" 100 '" 47 and All '" 43 + 0.006" 600 = 46.6 Hence, it is obs.erved that '/',4 .,. AS' Le. economi, operation is not stti' tly maintained in this pani,ular condition. locremental ,ost of unit A is now marginally higher than thaI of unit B. However, since the difference of AA and '!s is not much hen,e the system operation is still justified.

5.12 A SIMPLE COMPUTER APPROACH TO SOLVE TRANSMISSION LOSS PROBLEM


We have just developed the 'fiterion of economic operation of thennal plants with network losses considered. In the following section a straightforward 'algorithm has been presented in order to obtain the generation schedule with transmission losscs considerc-d.
Step I:
~t

starting values of generation Pt. Pl .... that satisfies the constraint equation

LP, - P"-, , , 0 .
Sup 2:

Calculate the incremental losses ~,~, .. . as \'it'll as the total loss

cR cR

, ,

Mate-n II Jm dlre-itJ

Jtoral.

roWER SYSTtM ANALYSIS: OPERATION AND

I. Tolal "':;:.~ 2. Tolal Ie

3. P,o.a~/I,.r,.ror;

1055 for <:very

. contribl1tion 10 the 1 .. 1.2.3.....

Compule 1.

iJP/rm

....

_ .. Nand 2. P/ws

,
Yn

'0
No

No

,
I.
3.

om," geno:ra,ion
, .fori .. 1.2.3 ..... N Il~. line loss etc.

). from the: equalions gi"en by


I.

J:1: ~t.l (I~ )and 2. L."


1 ..

:*

.h.... i + 1

Fie. 5.' FlolO.'chan 10 r"v,j economic generation

''''''''""o"d~~ ImIsmission line ~"

Material, Jm dlreo,to

]to <Ii

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ECONOMIC OPERATION OF ENERGY GENERATING SYSTEMS

Output or computer program WLOSS.FOR art er uecution: SOU.DAT


k

lambda

,
,
2 3

.000000 8.5023 76 8.497055 8.457865

350.000000 395.835500 390.629200 391.270900

"

" .....
250.000000 257.884100 255.684100 256.188800

" ......
150.000000 10".730500 111.907600 110.767100

......
Ploss 8 . 450000 8.220816 8.22661 4 8.226754

Iteration completed l ambda

.,

,
Net load ( MW ) 750 . 000000

8.497865

Net gen (MW) 758 . 226800 (MW ) 8 .22 6754. Powe r tolerance .000052 Bus no 1 2 3 generator no.

......
,

Economic generation (HW ) 391.270900 256.188800 110.767100

................................ .

8 . 365084 8 .2 37132 8.307671 ( for each gen)

.....................
2

3 Check,

lambda .. penalty factor*cifc generato r

................... ,
no .
2 3

. .........

LAMBDA.

8.498086 9.498395 8.495883

5.13

THE TRANSMISSION LOSS FORMULA

The Iran..miss/on /oss/ormula was first introduced in early 1950s in order to obtain a practkal method for the cal culation of transmiss ion ross (includ ing incremenlaltransmission loss) in economic p lant scheduling. However. this makes the calculation somewhat more d ifficult though it is well accepted in th e power uti lity industry. We first furnish the stcps of derivation of the transmi ssion loss formula. 1 into the Let two generators G t and G1 be connected to buses I and 2 injecting currents I, and 1 network of lines and load buses 3 and 4 (Fig . .5.10). Let n be the neutral bus wh~~ the net load com:nt is I~ . Let ' } and ,~ be the load current inj ections at buses 3 and 4 such th at the net load current
M' eri
,,105 J\Om.5

POWER SYST\.l ANALYSIS, OPEIUTION AND CONTROL

1f) .. /)+/~

(5.23)

Let us

00'" assume that each load

is a constant fraction of total load such that (5.24) (5.25)

I) '" KJ/f> and I, = K,lv

abo.

rv

,
I,

G,

rv

G~

T.
, ~,

- -l
I,
Z ...

I,

I,

~. ,
,~

I,
Fie- 5.10 Schematic rtprescntalion of bus structure for
der;~alion

of loss formulae.

Let us now choose the neutral bus as the

reference bus. Since in a generalised network

(VJ = (ZJ[/] . hence

for the gi~en network,

V"
v~.

v"
V "
Expanding for the fi rst now,

Zll

Z"
ZJ 1Z (I

Z" Zl~ Z" Z" Z" Z,! Z"

Z"

Z" Z" Z" Z"

I, I, I, I,
(5.26)

V I < '"

21/ I +ZI111 +21l / J +ZI. I.

Substituting for I) and I. from equation (5.24) we can write, (5.27)

where

1 '" _..'.h.
Z II

We neXI write equation (5.27) as (S.27(a

Mate-rial

:mI

dire-it)

Jtorai

E.CONOMIC

SYSTEMS

whm

m,

- Z"
K ) = I)

+ K~:14 + K411 4

m,
Substitution of (5 .27(3) in (5.2 4) yields

- Zll
K ):I)

(5.2 8)

,,,.
I, I, I, I,

IJ

'" -

K)"'I/I - KJ"'l/z -

"J"'I/!

(S.29(a) (S.29(b)

Let us now relate current II. 12 and I! with th e bus curnnt through the connecfion matrix utilising equat ions (S.29{a)) and (S .29{b when I] and h Il:main invariant.

I
- K J lIl]

-"]m)
- K~"'l

- "Jml
- K 4 "'1

- K 4ml

I, I, I'

=c

I, I, I'

(5.30)

However, we know ITom the concepts of power invariant tronsjorm(l{ion that load bus power St. in terms oftransfonned (new) current, can be expressed as

St
But,

'"

1""",Z BOll ~i

. ""'"

(5.31)
(5.32)

Z~ ..... ) = CrZ"""C

where, Z8 .. = (R_ + jX"",). Thus, equation (5.31) can be wrinen for real load power as

PL _ 1;""CrR8",C/~
which. the following equation (5.30) becomes

(S.33)

I,

(5. 34)

P L '" [II '2

1~l! CrR"., Cl I)
I'

Let us now assume that at each generator bus. the react ive power is a fmction '.,' ofrea l power, I.e.

F;+jQ I = (I+ j-JI)F;


P1+jQl = (I + j-Jl ) PI

,,'
,,'

(5.35(a

POWER SYSTEM ANALYSIS, OPEIVITION AND COI'ITROL

(S.35(b))

we can now

\\TiIC

[from equations

(S.35(~

and (S.3S(b))J

a,
(S.lS(c

Thus. equation (S.lS(c can be written as

a,

erR

This finally gives,

"

a,

a,
"

(. D 5(d

C.

P,
1

P,
1

(5.36)

In the symmetrical network.

B. l

B~l'

thus,
(5.37(a

L L 1}BijP + ~)jol} + Boo


j
I~ I

(S.37(b

jo'

'.1

In general fonn, equation (S .37(b may be ..... riucn as

I} = pTsp+ pTSo + Boo


Equation (5.38) is the genera li sed tron$miuion loss formula. In a system of N sources,

(5.38)

I} "'-

L ~)~Billj + LSin?' +800


/_1 jol 1.1

(5 .39)

where B \cnns arc called I()ll cCMjficienlJ or ~coejJici(!nrs (N" N matrix) and is always symmetrical] Figure 5.11 sho ..... s the flowchart 10 find out loss coefficients (i.e. [B] matrix) and transmission line [055.

Mate-rial

:mI

dire-it)

Jtorai

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POWER 5Y.sTEM ANALYSIS: OPEIVoTION AND CONTROL

8.465701>< 10-1 [ - j1.294148><10-IO 1 2.832449>< 10[ - j .093726 >< 10-6 Now.

2 2 (2.832 459 >< 102.9 10364 >< 10[ +j2.811132x10 ..... . +j7.088398><10-6 2 1.991409><10( + j l.644594 >< 10.....

1
1

2 1.34881 1><10[ - j4.S9S40S >< 10-9

f. ..

_VI
~I I

'"

-1+jO 0.04149603 - j6.S50091

'" (- 9.671 51 51< 10.... - jO. 1526635) p. u.

a l '"

I _ jJI 1 - j (0.06467313/0.140189) .. .. 1- jO.4S93621 " I

.. 0.9916434 - jI.260])3

(1- jO.4S93621)
..

o
(0.99 16434 - jl.260133)

o
o
(- 0.9611 5 I 5 >< 10-' - jO.1 526635)

raj -

(0.1025208 ) - jl.941 570 >< 10-'1

2 ( 4.548110>< 10) _ j2.385856 >< 10- 1 C061192><10-1 ) -jl.875613>< 10-t (3.836998>< 10-) ) - j3.001539 >< 10-)

) (1.951863>< 10-) - j4.331206 >< lO-l (3.836992>< 10-) ) j3.007SJ2 >< 10-1 (3.1 43685><10..... ) 10 - jl .071456 >< 10-

2 ) ( 4.548 111><102 - j2.385857 >< 10(1.957855>< 10-) ) -j4.319 1><10-)

B-coefficicllIS matrix i$ givcn by

0.1025208 '" 4.548111><10- 2 1.957855" 10-)

4.548110>< 10-1 0.1067192 3.836998>< 10-)

1.951863>< 10-) 3.836992" 10-1 3.143685>< 10....

Mate-rial

:mI

dire-it)

Jtorai

[There is a slight discrepancy ill 6th decimal point. This is due to lIumerical method adopted in matrix inyersion. ] : . Line loss 0.1025208 .. [0.14{)789 0.5 4 .548110" 10- 1 0.1067192 3.836998 x 10-1 1.957863" 10-1 3.836992 x 10- 3 3.143685><10'" 0.140789

I)

4.548111" 10-1 1.957855xl0- 3 0.0391322

0.5

.. [0. 140789 0.'

I)

0.0635998 2.SOSS 12 x 10-1

.. 0.03981780 p.u.

The computer method (flowclwt sho~n in Fig. 5.11), when applied to the Example 5.1 S. yields the following results:

Execution of computer algorithm of N-R Method of load flow given in 5.11 for Example 5.15
Input data to tOmputc IY..... I matrix (LINE DATA): lIMTl.DAT
5 , 4 , 0 [No. of lillCS, No. of buses. No. of trAnsfllrmcl"lll
1,2, 1,4, 2,3, 2,4, 3,4, ( 0 .1 0, 0.30) , (0.0, 0.030) [from bus, To bus. (R. i i (0 .15,0.40 ), (0 . 0,0 . 030) (0.10,0.28), (0.0,0.030) (0.075,0.18), (0 . 0,0 . 03 ) (0'.15,0.35), (0.0,0.030)

Xu, (G

BI1)1

, ,

, ,

, , , , ,

, , , ,
,

If..... ] matrix: YBUS1.DAT (here busn 2 and 4 arc illterchanged for power flow calculatioll)

(1.821918,-5.161781 ) (0.0000008+00,0 , 0000008+00) (-8.219178E-O l,2.191 781) ( - 1. 034483,2 .413 793) (O . OOOOOOE+OO,O . OOOOOOE+OO) (2.165705,-5.551214) (- 9.9999998 - 01,3 . 000000) { - 1.131222,3.1674211

Y\I

( -8.2191788-01,2.191781) (-9,9999998-01,3 , 000000) (3 . 828787, -9.294302 I (-1 . 972386,4.7337271 1-1 . 034483,2 . 413793 ) (-1.131222,3.167421) (-1 . 972386,4.733727) ( 4 .103608, - 10.856150)

r ,!

y.

Load flow data: LDFL01.DAT


3,4 INo. of PQ buses, Total 110. or buses1 1.0,0 . 0,0 , 0,0.0 [VIO, ~Q, P" QII Q l , O,0.O, - 0.25,-0.~ [V/. 6z , P~ 'OlI 1.0,0.0, - 0 . 35, - 0 .45 [V1a, 6,g, P,. QJI 1.0 , 0.0, 0 . 5 ,0.0 [V~ , o~, P~ Q~J

Materia!, :xn Olrf"tos

Jlorals

POWER SYSTtM ANALYSIS, OPERATION AND CONTROL

Flnll bus voltlees .fter Io.d flow (ll<'ul,lIolI: VOLTI.DAT


Bus~code
~- .-- .-----

----- -----1. 000000

VOLTAGE

------.-.-.
.000000

LOAD ANGLE

, ,
bus
2

1.000000 .868215 .929816

-.0066 49 -.05 1878 -.03 0806

REACTIVE POWER AT VOLTAGE-CONTROLLED BUSES


no.

---.------.----.626756

Reactive power

Line nows: POWERl.DAT


.. ".""".,,",, .... LINEFLOWS ................. .

Bus-code

----------I

-------- --1. 996863

MW

MVAR

-----------3.658250

2-

,.
2-

,
I I

- 1.992442
12.082040

-2 . 328488
10.125560 - 14.446210

- 11.6046 50

J
2

, ,. ,. ,
2-

J.

27 . 44186 0 - 25.276370

34.582370
-33 .780400

,.
Base

24.528440 -23. 44986 0 -9 .619760


10.049380

25.921710
-28.926790

-13.368160 9.515548

J
MVA

100

LINE LOSS

. -.... "' ........

4 .155501 MW
SLACK. 8US POWBR

, -16.3G3090 MVAR

(IN P . U . )

(1 .4 07890-01,6. 4 67)13E-02)

Execution of computer elgorlthm given In Fig. 5.11 for Example 5.15


Input of computer program to compute 18] coefficients (BCOEFF.FOR) :

\.1al[

11 dire-it)

Jtorai

[CONOMIC OPERATION OF ENERGY GENERATING SYSTEMS

YBUS1.DAT. PROB4.DAT

(Y..,lmatrix: YBUS1.DAT (B.sa 1 and 4 are DOt interchanged)


(1.821918, -5.161781) (0.000000+00,0.0000008+00) (-9.999999E-01,3.000000) (-1.131222,3.167421) (0.0000008+00,0.0000008+00) (2.165705,-5.551214) (-8.2191788-01,2.191781) (-1.034483,2.413793)

r" r"

(-9. 999999E-01, 3.000000) Yu (-8.2191788-01,2.191781) (4 .103608, - 10.856150) (- 1.972386,4.733727) (-1 .131222,3.167421 ) (-1.034483,2.413793) ( - 1.972386,4.733727) (3.828787, -9.29430 2 )

r"

BUJ data: PROB4.DAT


2,4 (total number of generator buses, IOlal number of buses] 1,0, 1. 407890E- 01,6. 467313E-02( 1"I 1,-.006649,0.5, .626756 .868215,-.051878,-0.35,-0.45 .929816,-.030806,-0.25,-0.3

I,

~,

PI, ,Q.,

[Do] [Do ]

[Do]

Output of COmpuler proaram BCOEFF.FOR aher necullon: SOLA.DAT


Tot.al [Zbusj no. of buses 4

(4 .1496038-02,-6 .550091) (-1.93 46118 -02,-6.719252) ( - 5.952761-03,-6.685503) ( - 5.9352768-03,-6.683190 ) (-1.93 45868 -02,-6 .7 19252) (4.159922E-02, - 6.559778) , (-8.698829E-03, -6.690867) (-8.783918E-03,-6.686722)
[Rbus1

(-5 . 9529068-03,-6.685503) (-8 . 698707-03,-6.690867) (1.4903028-02,-6 . 627306) (-6.860666-03,-6 . 682828) (-5.935172-03,-6.683189) (-8 .783548-03, -6 .6 86722) (-6.860934-03, -6.682828) (1 .86 32438-02, -6.621376)

4 . 149603E-02 - 5.9527618-03 - 1.934586-02 -8.6988291;:-03

- 5.9529068 -03 1.4903028-02 -5.9351728-03 -6.8609341i>03

-1.93 4 611-02 -5 .935276-03 " . 159922-02 -8.7839188-03

-8.698707- 03 -6.860666-03 - 8.7835488-03 1.863243-02

MatOor

, .n,

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You have either reached a page that is unavailable for viel'ii ng or reached your viel'ii ng limit for this book.

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POWER SYSTL\f ANALYSIS,

AND CONTROL

0.0096 , 6 [A].i1l [ 4 .567152 -03, - 0.0392 1 6-03,0.2309641>-03 - 0 . 03 9216- 03. 4. . .; 59630&- 03,0. 1543251>- 03 [S] 0.2309641>-03,0.1543251>-03,0 . 09 46231>-03 Output computer proiram BMTHD2.FOR a fter execution (Selecting initial value of A by convcntionalmtlhod); SOLSI.DAT
matri~

Or

generator no.

ITL
2.647640-02 3.326676E-02

,
I

PENALTY

FACTOR

generator no.

,
I

1.027196 l .03 4414

generator no.

He
1 1.727960 11.646140

,
I

lambda _penalty factor* IFC

(for each gen )

,
I
k

12 . 0469:10 12.046920

---_ ....

lamMa

PI

(p.u.)

.. .................

. .............. . ....................
3.374579 3.383537 3.710361 3.720546 . 077515 .076067 . 1 00597 .101348

F2(p.u.)

Ploss(p.u.)

,
I

11.659490 11.6694 90 12.035500 12.0 46 920

2 .3 45633 2.359492 2.864267 2.879941

Iteration compl e ted at k .. 4 lambda .. 12.046920


Mate-rial
:mI

dire-it)

Jtorai

ECONOMIC OPERATION OF ENERGY GENERATING SYSTEMS

Net gen (MW) 10.134830

_ 660.048900

Net load (MW)

a 650.000000

Loss (MW)

Power tolerance
Bus

.. no

.000860 Economic generation (MW) 287.994100 372.054800


_ ___ a ... _. ______ __ _ .......

_ __ ._ _

1 :2

Output or c:omputfr" pror;ram BMTHD2.FOR .ntr tltcution (Seltcting inlti.1 v.lut or A by ntw propoxd JQtthod): SOL52.DAT

ITL
generator no.

, , , , , ,

ITL
2.648463E -02 3.327396E-02

PENALTY FACTOR generator no.

, ,

p,
1.027205 1.034.419

IFC

generator no .

!FC 11.728510 11.646710


(for each gen)

lambda _ penalty factorcifc 12.047580 12.047580

--,
,
,

...... _....

lambda

_. _. . ..... "
(p.u . ) 5.670753 5.683769 2.932"103 2.880847 4

14.135000 14.145000 12.085390 12 .047580

............. - ........... -.....P2(p.u.) P1ose(p.u.) .286119 .287220 .103902 .101392 5.548358 5.5!>6965 3."154781 3.721137

Iteration completed at k ... lambda .. 12.047580

Material,

JfT1

dlreitJ

Ao~.

POWER SYSTEM ANAl.YSIS: OPEMTION AND CONTROL

..

Net gen (Mit ) _ 660 . 198400 10.139190 Power tolerance .. - .000592


Sus

Net load (Mit) .. 650 . 000000

Loss (MIt)

-_ ..... , ,

no

Economic generation (MIt) 288.084700 372 .113600

........................ _ .-

5.15 A METHOD OF DETERMINING ECONOMIC OPERATION CRITERION


USING TRANSMISSION LOSS FORMULA
We have derived earlier (equation (5.38 that total IJ'arumission loss in the system is given by

I} = pTSP+B;P+iloo
while the incrementalloSJ at the generator bus i = (81}/8Pr). The incremental loss is thc variation in IOSKS during an incremental variation in the generation output. Let us select a generator bus thaI can be used as a reference bus and which always adjusts any change in the generation of any other bus in the system. Nexl, we asswne thaI the generalion bus-i is changed by an incremental amount t:.P, such IMI

' \-

=IL _)

+~

Asswning the net load leyello be constant, to compensate for the increase in t:.P~ the reference bus is to drop an equiyalent amount ofgencration t:.P..q andthcn P-, = P..J +M'-, [obYiously, . . . "'(-1 "'I-I ~, for mcrcase of ~, t:.P..q IS to be negatlYe]. Howeyer, there would be a now change in the lines of the system following the two-generation adjustments. This, in tum, would cause change in losses and this makes

t:.P", .. ~
Le.
=I- ~

l>P.

M1

This may be written lIS D = I _

aPr ap,
the ratio of the negative change in the reference bus power to the

where D represents (-t:.P-.t

/61'i)

change in M I' However, total cost function being given by r.F,(P,), the change in the cost function for a change in generation tlP, is

Mate-rial

:mI

dlre-itl

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ECONO.\!1C OPERATION OF ENERC Y GENERATINC SYSTEMS

y"
Isp..... , ...

P ,,- P.:. - :>t, "!


y"

No

S1<,", 00. of .{-i1<,nltion. =rd. fOf r-tb inter.al , .1:_ " - ~

<
,J.:~

rs ~ ;. I?

0;",1"

pl"

pt, ,J.'"

,.vw'~7
Y

Compute. A,J. -

I.{; -

-r
No
y"

112

--l
Is 10tal gen=tion grealer lhan (load "'105.$)?

C.ompulc W,(Ph', )

y"
I' t - t_ ?

No

)'., ., - tJ. _ .. _, .. -'1,


A).

No
B

!
r ..... r .o. I

.to., , .. .t',-

1: ; ..... .1: .. r
No
1 511 - 20')
COmpUle IOIaI walerreqd.

GUMS)" .. 0,./'..... ,- (J,.

11'..... "

, ,-,

y"

rW,
.'7X1I

"N

No

Io W_ - W ..,

s .) ?

final hydro-thermal S<:ItroUl in ! hour b ..... i

0;.,1.,

r ."~w "o" ,~
,

y"

5.""

Material,

JfT1

dlreitJ

Ao

~.

I ,

POWER SYSTEM ANALYSIS; OPERATION AND CO,VTROL

I ,

I ! , ,
I ,
,
Yes

.1
Is] > ! ?

No

Ar- P/- .t'11 2


y~

No
"W_ > H'_?

I , , ,
,

";" - rl -

A,,

.,r' _ y'+ l!.r

init ial value of t..\

,
y~

I
I

~
No

J~j'"

I
I
I

[s] - 20'/

tll5.16

RG,"char1 (0 OOIain shon ltnn hydro-lllcrmaJ schedule " 'ilh transmission 1 0051 cOIlsi.rred

,
Also.

~>. ,.,

'"

T...,

(5.76)

Application of Lagrang ian teo:.:hnique IlOW yie lds


L

r [oo,FI P" l' A,I p~, P" - P, - p~ l] + ,.[roo,W,lf, )-w.. 1


", I 1

(5.77)

I
I

where )'T is the inc remental fuel COSI of thermal plant and r~ is the constan t already ddined in the ana lytical derivation of short term scheduling (Sec. 5.22). For any specific interva l T'" f. the coordina tion eq uations arc then given by

I!

'

dF( P,.. ) + 1 oli.


dP.

'l

oP.

""J

"

y~ ",

dlV,

(p, )

(5.78)

dP.

op"
+ A,

all '" A,
MatE
Jtorai

The compuler nowchart for sol"ing such a schedulin g problc:m is shown in Fig. 5.16.

ECONOMIC OPERllTlON OF ENERCY CNERllTlN(; SYSTEMS

Example 5.18: (a) A load of800 MW is /0 be suppliedfrom a generating system comprising a hydro plant and on equn'alem Sleam plan/. The plunt characleriJlics are <IS under

Hydro plum: IV ( '" fl_ + a_P.) '" (10" 10' + 6" IIY P_) mllh r Volumt afwaler available - 32 " 10 ml. Thermal plant (tqui,alent): F~ (=

a,.P.i + fl,"P,~ + rll,)


~ (0 .OO2p,~ +8P,. + 12(0) unit of costI'MW

Make a hydro-thermal 5chedule per hour ba.liJfor 12.hour ptriod. !1f!Jsum e inilial valut of rIO be 0.16 ~ 10-1 unit of costlrn! and trol1$mission loss I} as O.0000045~ , (b) Makt a hydro-thermal 5chtdule per hour iJmis for Ihe 50me plant for one day. M'here Ihe load has the folfowing schedule: 12 mldnighl - 12 nOOf/: 740 MW
12 'loan - 12 midnight: 900 MW Tile hy dro plam rtsen'oir limil is 60 _ 10~ ml orer Ihe entire 24 IIr p eriod. (c) Repeat fh t same problem (Example 5. 18(0 for 0 load sched"le as f olfnws: 6 a.m. - 12 nOOf/: 740 MW 12 nOOf/'- 6 pm: 900 MW 6 pm - 12 midnight: 830 MW 12 midnighl - 6 am : 640 MW Reservoir copocify limil i5 56 " 10" ml. SoluUon : The generalised
COSI

funcl ion characlerislic for th ermal plant being given by = a,.p,~ +fl,~P,.

F(P,.)
we can wrile

+r,.

= --7.;~'~ dl',.

dF(' )

2aIII I',- + {J,,.

(I)

For short term hyd ro-thermal schedu le, the coordination equat ion for Ihe Ihennal p lanl with transmiss ion loss nOt considered is given by equation 5.7 1

A
Using (I) in (2)

= ",

(2)

). = " , [2a,.p,~ + P,~

I
(3)

..
However. the transmission loss

Pili '" -"~-'-'~""~'"'"

2alll P'.

(Il )

be ing eonside~d ,

F(p,~) = a,~P,i + {J,.P,~ + rl/o and


l'ihe ~ C,~

Il " C",P,;
Material,
JfT1

represents the loss coefficient.


dlreitJ
Ao~.

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COMPIJT[RAIOEn

~~~~~~~~~~~

WAO DISPATCH AND OPTIMAL POWER FWW

,,'
Equations (6.3h-6.31c) can be wrinen in a matrix

(633c)

rorm IS

.'L
ap" ap,.

ap,,aQ,, aPI, dA.

.'L

.'L

'L

"L aa.,oP" oar,oa" .'L "L oAaP,, ',IDQ,,


1/ f'.
~.

'L

"L
oa,OA. ,

'Q,,

tJ',

Dr,

'L

"L
aA'

""
tJ',

dQ, .

(6.343)

'L -aA

[for i = I, 2, 3, .. ., NG and for It:: l. 2. 3.. . .. NGJ


f'.

"

H1',0, H0,0, H",

H",
H(J,~

I ,,

HQ"I',

'Q,

H",

Ha

In this method, Ihe active power loss in U'lInsmission lines is calculated using equation (6 ,3Ia). From equation (6.3Ia ). wc can wrile

""

I" I,

(6 .34b)

, :: 2a;.P; + L [(all +0,, ) ~ +(b11- b",) Qd ,.,

olj

...,

(6.358)

oQ,

= 2n;iQ; +

L [ (aji + all) Q" + (blj -bji) I't] , ., ,.

(6.3Sb)

WhCTe 1', Qnd Q. arc aClive and reaclive power inj ections (or calculated ;!Clive and reactive power) al bus1t respectively and i is varying from 1 to NG. Th~ fi rst ord~r d~ri ...rti.~s "'q .. i~ for cqllations (6.JJa-6.JJc) arc gi>'cn ~Iow:

:: 2a,.p +R.+A.[dP, I I, 1', iJp. - I)

"
= 2a;P,, +Pi+A.

, 2ail lj+~](<I;I+aIl)~+(bll - biO)~ ] -l ,.,,

(6,36a)

Mate-rial

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POWER SYSTEM

Compule initial ",:II


i.e . for;" 1. 2.3.. ". NG

Sel inili:>l .
I. ~ '" 0 forall genrraton.

2,

0,'" 1.0 and oJ:,. 0 for 1


fori ., (NG. I).

Sci inil i:ll real

I kla:I buSC1 as zero.

~ .. 0 ond

ct., .. O. for

2), .... N

Compule the

Compute the ele mellIi of Hcssian

[If). using equalions (M3~H6.63e)

Solve eql1;)1ioo (6.64) I<l obuill

l.

2. ~ ' '' I

""". , . roc

for 1111
3. _.. N).

, .!A.'.. '
5.

3.

, . M'''''

for all buse$ (i.e. ; .. 1 for a1110itd buse$

3. .... N).
(NG. 1~ (NG -+- 2). " .. N).
(NG . 1). (NG -+- 2) .". N).

~l','''\ for al l load buses (Le. i

Malenal,

Jm

direikJ

Jtorai

COMPlITERIIIDW ECONOMIC WilD DISPATCH lIND OPTIlM.L POWER

rww

Upd:de ttwo. rontrol YlriabI<"$ I. p<Y " ... P':Yl tt.P'YJ


I, I. .. '

fQf all &<m="'" buies (i.e.

j ..

I. 2. J ..... NG).
"

2 (j{lp.,) -15'''' +t.5'~" ,-1 I '


' Y'!> =A'''' tM' ''' J. A

for all buses excludi ng slack bus (i.e. j for al l buses (I.e. i_ I. 2. 3... N),

2. 3, ... Nj,

, 1'1,11,0")1
~

).(1,0."

"

_ A("" t M , ... ,
~

"

" .

. '

for all load buso:s (I.e. i .. (NO .. 1). (NO .. 2). .... N}.
j " (NO

= tv.'Y'I" 610. ...'" for alllOlld buses (I.e.

.. 11. (NG .. 2). .... N)

UJI .. [~ r (t.P.:)lt r {~)l tI: {~)lt


. ., . ., , ..

. .

' ' ' ' ' ' '. ,

I: (t..l.!)l .. r

j .., . ,

. ']
(6IVofl'

Reactive po .... er generations (/ .....1 = ~

0-,. I.e. for I = 1.2. J ..., NO

kp ..... kpt (

"

Yo.

Is tp > KPMAX?
No

<

luoJ!i t: ?

,..... ,

Yo.

Male-rial

:mI

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Jlorai

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(-I)
6.616864

(- 3.275675)

0545946

623.033385

(- 3.275675)

-0.545946

6.583783

(- L(I9m,) (- 1252.235527)
(-0.551352) (-0.545946)
(6A)

1.064864
6.349189

1.06486

6.349189

The JacobiOll malrix [J 1of the same problem for !he first ilerafion is given below:

623.033386
- 1252.235527
[Jj "" -

-623.033386
1252.235527

--0.163460

0.163460

(6.8)

".en
0.233783 - 208.706080

.en
-{):233783
208.706080

-{I.Ol7m

o.oln97

Therefore. updated values or control variables for the nell' iteration are:

~ =

if, +fJ>:, .. 0.38 - 0.004175,. 0.375825

P;, "' ~. +lJ.~... O.17+0.()()46Q5=O.17460:S


~ - ~+"'6f "' O-O.008374" - O.008374

6::
,I

= ~ + lJ.~ = 0 - 0.039138 = - 0.039138

A~, = A ;,
'" =
,0
A.p

+t....l.;,
AlO

= 1902-0.l66992 => 190.1033003

, + ......p , ",0+ 189,7511 ""'189.7571

..I.' 1 +M,Q, =0-5.8422= - 5.8422 t, = -'"v.

Material

Jm dlr!'Ito

]to ai

POWER SYSTEM ANALYSIS: OPERATION AND COIfl"ROL

Execution 01 computer algorithm given In Fig. 6.7 lor Ex.mple 6.7

UNE DATA orthe51sle... : NZPROBl.DAT


Given in EumpJe 6.3

[v_I of the 1)'51.....: NVPROBl.DAT


Given in Eumple 6.3

Bus data aad aeouator ruel cosl data (laplll data of eGllllpllkr prop-am, "ellllld NEWOPT.FOR b', 71 d OQ !be 110.. J ,neh.. ba J1'Ic. "7): NPROBl.DAT
Given in E:u.mple 6.3

OutPlit or computer PfOVUll NEWOPT.FOR after "tclll:loa: NSOLl.DAT


Iteration cot\IPleted at k .. 7 Tolerance = .004345 Final Economic Generation
i

Po
.374900 .176972 .000000 .068270 .131912 .000000

-----.200000 .100000 .250000

Plolld

, ,

1 2 3

-----.000000
.150000 .100000

Qload

.174960 .076912 -.250000

---

o
.068270 -.018088 -.099999

i
1

1.020000 -.008040 1.010000 190.618300 2 3 .996019 - .039119 192.725300 All the powers and voltages are in p.u.
Angles are in radian. All lambdas are in unit of cost/p.u.power.hr
I

-----.000000

Deltll

-----189.996000

-----.876832

Qhm

Total cost of generation Bus no. Cost (unit of cost/hr)

--------1

118.418500 72.794550

Total cost is 191.213000 unit of cost/hr.

Malenal,

Jm

direikJ

Jtorai

COMPtlT[RAIDED ECONOMJC WAD DISPATCH /\NO OPTIMAL POWeR fLOW

Exam. . 6.8: CoruUkr a 1ub,u, Iel'tn /ille JX>lWr SY11nn as lOOwn in Fig. E6.8. The sysum Iuu Ihru gtneratars. Find 0111 the oplitnQl power Jlow solulion Illing N-R method. Tht fuel COSI cMracteristics of the thru genera/ors art 41 under;

F~. (P,. ) .. (lOP,.1 + 175P,. + 75 unit of oosll1'lr


F.,(P,,) .. 110P "1+ I80P,, +50 unitofcostlhr

l Fr, (P,.) :: I60P,. + !!OP +80 unit

or costlhr

WMrt powtr gtfleralioru aTe p.w. with 100 MVA bast. The lint dota and bus dolO of 1M SY1tem art given below:

Line dmo of tM system:


Li~

no.

Ftvm bus

To ....

Li.M illlpMalK"e (p.w.)


(0.01 + fJ3) (0.03 + /J.2)

Bf2

(p.w.)
}l<J1

Offnominol lap ratio of transformer

2
3

2 2
3 3
I I

,
4

pOI
PDI

(0.03 +fJ.2)
(0..01 + fJ.2) (0.01 + /J.2) (0.0 +/)2) (0.0+/)1)

,
6
7

pOI
}l<J1 1.01

,
6

102

Male-n II

Jill

""'I<)

Jloral.

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COMPUTER-AIDED [CONOMIC WAD DISPATCH AND OI'TIA!AL POWER FWI\'

..... lIere P", P " and p" system 3.fe given be low.
~

arc in p.u. willt 100 MVA base. The line data and bus dMn of the

ICD
Lood

I
""d

';;J

L(j)
load

I
Load

Fig. P6.1 Line data of the system

A three-bus foor-line power system.

Line /w.
1 2

From blls

To blls

Une impfflmra (P.ll.)

812 (p.u. )
jO.OI jO.OI

(0.04 -+ jO.3)
(O.OJ -+ jO.2)

2
3
1
voh~ge I)'~

3
4 4

3
4

(0.02 -+ jO.2)
(O.tu -+ jO.2)

jO.OI

jllO!

The po ..... er and bus


Brn
/1<>.

of the system:
V(p.u.)

Bru

p.(P.u.)

Q. (P.II.)

P,,(p.u.)

Q,,(P.u.}

1 2 3
4

SLx'

1.04 Lo"

PV
PV

l lDl(
/ 11l21

,
?

PQ

. ,

, ,
0

0.2 0.25 0. 15 025

0 0.25 0.<15 01

Find oot economic generation schedu le for rea! and rcacth'e po""er b~lance. 4. Consider the 5i~ -bus. sevcn-line power system as shown in Fig. E6.8. Find out the optimal power now SO l\llion using conventional method. S. Consider a three-bus. four-li ne power system as shown in Fig. P6.1. Find oot the optimal power now so lution using conventional method, N- R method. fast decoup led method and gradient method.

Mate-rial

:mI

dire-it)

Jtorai

POWER SYSTEM ANALYSIS: OP[RJlTlON AND COIflROL

Result of exerel.. 1
Geaeralor fuel cost dati and IB) of the IJAUD (Iaput uti or computer provam, .em Ed ELDNR.FOR baud on the Clowd.art cI- i.Q ..... U): NELDPl.DAT 3,1.65 [No. of generator bw;es, tcu.lload of the system) 50,200,100 Ia. fJ, y for generatOf-l] 90,120,150 Ia.Ay forgenentor-2] 70,170,50 Ia.Ay forgenentor3j 0.0008 IBlly2] 0.0006 lB,fll 0.0005 1 8)01'21

0. 00 0002

IBool
0.0002 0 . 003

I ,

0.006 0.0002 0.0002

0.0002
- 0.0001

[B II 8 ,2. Bul [8110 8Z!. Bn]


[811 , Bn. B ll ]

-0.0001

0.004

Output ohomputer PlVli", ELDNR.FOR Ilfler ua:alioa: NIlELDSl.DAT


Iteration completed at k .. :2

Tolerance
La.mbdto.

. 000026
of c08 t/ p.u.power.hr.) 245.455300

(uni t

Epsilon =

.000100

Final Economic Generation

,
I I

--------1
2

Bus no.

" ---------.436569
.689602

(p.u. )

.529719

Translllission line loss .. S.8902J8E- OJ

All results are in p.u.


Lambda

is in unit of cost/p.u . power . hr.

Total cost of generation Bus no. Cost (unit of cost/hr)

I
I I

---------------------196.844
275.552 159.694

2 3

Total cost is 6 3 2.089700 unit of cost/hr.


Malenal,
Jm

direikJ

Jlorai

COMPUTER-AlOrD ECOHOMJC WAD DISPATCH AHD OPTIMAL POWER FlOW

Qtet,'tJI oIq "'I-

pot....

LDNRA,F()R lli"a de 'oIIoH': NAELDSl.DAT

Iteration cOJ'!i)leted at k .. 4 Power tolerance !unit of


. 000100
H

. 000000

Lambda tolerance

.000015

cost/p.u.

powerhr)

245,455300

Epsilon

Final EconOll'lic: Generation

8ue: no.

--------1

---------. f.36570 .689602 .529719

1'0 (p.u.)

2
3

TranamiBBion line 10BB "' 5.890239E-03 All resul tB are in p. u.


Lambda is in unit of cost /p. u.powerhr.

Total coat of generation

BUB no.
1

Cost (Unit of coat/hr)


196,844 275.552 159.694

Total cost is 632.089700 unit of COBt/hr.

R..uM of ....-elM 2
Oalput 01 COTp"'" pl'IJITIIIII KI .FOR .tler uecuUoll: ELDSl.DAT Iteration completed at kp ., 5 Iteration cQfI'IPleted at k 3 Tolerance in P = .000000 Tolerance = ,000086 Epsil .. . 000100 Lambda (unit of cost/p.u .power. hr) .. 27 0.3 449 00 POIo.-er 10.. . 002776

Malenal,

Jm

direikJ

Jtorai

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Adaptivc ronlrol. 5 AltemalOrncilCn. 47 1 Aperiodic lr.lIIS~nI component. 576 Atea coolrolle<! crmn. 16 Artificial neural IICIworks. 458

Aspects of hydro Khcduling. 282

Constraints in economic operation. 228 bus vol!:Ij!;e. no dynamic. 229 primary. 228 sondary. 228 spau c~ity. 229

Automatic
gcneralioncon11Ol.469 load frequency control. 15.469 voluae control. 15 vollqc rel"llIor. 469

thermal. 229
Conlnll cenlte. 456 aimof, 456 fUllCIion or. 458 Control
emc ISCIX:y.466

BifUR:alion. 536
Bnoshlcssc~i\a.

loops. 469 responsibility. J

4n

~~

'"

Bus .chnillanu matrix. 47 formation of. 57 modirocalion. 106 pioculurc orfOlTlla\ion. 96

Crntnl facilities. 461


Civil racililin.. 461 Cauical methods. 380 Coeff\C~nt matrix. 82 Communkltion techniques. 46J Compu;son of comp'J!alion methods. 54 1 Compenwion, S48 Complete SUUClure. 486 Component mode ll ing. 20 active clements. 20 pusi"e clements. 20 Computcr conU'Ol syslCm. 5 di=t. 5
inti"". 5

Damper windin,. 24 Oua lICquisilion and system ronU'Ol. 458 Decouple<! load flow. 19 1 om"lIion or real and reacti"c power. 346 DiSilai fault SlUdy. 576 Direclaxil.2 1
Distri~tion

IcYcl. 3

Double line faull. 576

bouble line to Ji'OIlfId flult. 576 Dynamic performance. 4n

Ecooornic alloc:llioo. 24S load dispatclt, 323 operation, 225 scheduling. 225 E1ecuic power syslCm. I Em:,&cncy ronU'Ol. 466
aulomatic. 466 manual. 466

omine. S ooIine. 5 sUpICl"lisory. 5 COlIpt of stability. 522

...

Exxtloss ronnula. 329 Exciter rocld windin8. 469

IND[X

FACTS, IJ

$IrOn, interconnections,
system security. IJ
Fa.\( de(OI.Ipled Ia.d flow, 195,
method, 426 Fcrranti effect, 4'9 Fibre opcic channe l~, 463

optilD&l QPeralion,

" "
,

OpIimai controller (OlR) design, 5 10 power !low (OPF), 313 Optimum

,,

..

.,

.'

.scheduJi11i.
,

1oad~ ~U

.,

.~

281

..""

'.

I I i

Galin &id.ll (G-S) """hod. GoVCmof modellillJ. 26 Gradi~nt method. 436

OJ'

f'Iwc: angle control. 60 Pilox,main exciter system, 412 Plant schedulin,. 4'9 Pow<:r line carrier communication (PlCC). 463 Power system control. 3

Pri...., AlFe loop. 480


control. 4 Pumped stor:age plant. J01

Hopfbifurcation, '36

Induction motor. 41 inlma.cin" S06

QuadratUR: axis. 21

kascd tdephone li nel. 46J


dispalm ~~ntr~, 461 no ... or:rrations, 130 stabi lity. 523 Loadabilily, 9 lon,-term $Chedulin,. 458

"""

Real and reacti~e power balance, 363 RCi\llatinllr2nsfonnen, 32 Rotor ansJe stability. 532

Saddle node, '36 Satellite C()ITIlnunication. 463

Marginal load ~,,"atiOf\S. 436 Method of deicnninin, KOOOmic operation. 218

,.,.,
Sh~

SCR controlled static ncitu. 412 SttondaJy AlFC loop, 418


capacitor. 40 compc:Tmltion. Sot8 R:acli~e loss. 13 Short circuit r.... lI. 576 Shon-tmnschedulin,.458 capaci tors. 39. 552 compcn<alion, Sot9 Sin,le Ii"" (0 grwnd f.u ll. 576 Singular tran$formatioo. develop"",nl of. 74 Sinusoi<bl romponent. 576
Suuc C'SIiTTII.tion, 14

Microwal'c cllallnels.. 463


Mimic board, 462 Modem c~citers, 472 Monitorin, of the intclWllllCCteU system, 4'8, 459

NcwWf\-Raph'lOO "",!hod, 152 application proadu~ of, 156


N",", method, 47

8 Node incidence nwrix. 75

S1~n,lh.

Static
dynamic analysis. 535

performance. 476
Onload tap changclS, 545 OpenuiolW cl!ar.octeristics of hydel power plant. 226 thermal plants. 226 VAK cornpen.ator. 40. 'SO Steody Stale model. 22 vol~e lI.ability. 525 \o1al[ al dlrl'itJ Jlorai

:mI

INDX

SLeam turbine
non-reheat. 481 R'heat. 481 S1Cp5 of a1gorilhm to develop IY..). 84 Sub-cran,mission \eve]. 3 Surge impedance loading. 8 Syl'l\JlletricaJ fault eunen!.. S77 Synchronous condenser

Trll/1,minion lou
fennula. 25S problem, 251 Turbine modelling. 26 R'pttscntation. 4.S I

application of. 556 modelling of. 553 Opl'ration of. 555


Synchronou.gaoUalor. 21. 469

Unit commitment. 459

TCR comperu.ator, S5 I Telemetry. 466

.-,. '" digital . 466

Three phase bClIlIIICtd fault. 576 Tie-line power flow model . 496 TTanJient sttbi]ity, 12 voltage stabil ity. 52S

\bILage collapse, S22 Vollagecollapse point. 537 continuation Iood flow, 537 optimiJafion, 537 point of collapse. 537 silljl;ularvalucpoinl, 537, \'oltage I'I!'glIlation, S 18 VoILagestability. ~16 definition and clas,iflCaliOfl, 523 faclOTSaffecting. S32 VSAT IVery Small Aperture Terminal). 466

MJlerl

1:m1 dlreibs

JIc>raJ

THE AUTHOkS

Rs.450.00