DAFTAR ISI

HALAMAN JUDUL.........................................................................................

i

HALAMAN PENGESAHAN...........................................................................

ii

KATA PENGANTAR....................................................................................... iii
DAFTAR ISI......................................................................................................

iv

DAFTAR GAMBAR......................................................................................... vii
DAFTAR TABEL.............................................................................................. xvi
BAB I

PENDAHULUAN

1.1. Latar Belakang Pelaksanaan Praktikum....................................................

1

1.2. Tujuan Praktikum......................................................................................

1

1.3. Waktu Pelaksanaan....................................................................................

1

1.4. Metode Pengumpulan Data........................................................................

2

1.5. Sistematika Penulisan Laporan Praktikum................................................

2

BAB II

SIFAT – SIFAT TAHANAN RANGKAIAN

2.1

Tujuan Percobaan......................................................................................

4

2.2

Gambar Rangkaian....................................................................................

4

2.3

Alat dan Bahan..........................................................................................

6

2.4

Langkah Percobaan....................................................................................

6

2.5

Data Percobaan..........................................................................................

8

2.6

Analisa dan Pembahasan........................................................................... 10

2.7

Kesimpulan................................................................................................ 32

BAB III

TEOREMA SUPERPOSISI, RESIPROSITAS DAN
KOMPENSASI

3.1

Tujuan Percobaan...................................................................................... 33

3.2

Gambar Rangkaian.................................................................................... 33

3.3

Alat dan Bahan.......................................................................................... 35

3.4

Langkah Percobaan................................................................................... 35

3.5

Data Percobaan.......................................................................................... 37
iv

............................................................................................................................... 60 4....................................................4 Langkah Percobaan......................................................1 Tujuan Percobaan............................................................................................................................... 63 4.... 85 5...............................................................7 Kesimpulan................ 121 6............................... 81 5................................ 62 4...........................................................7 Kesimpulan.............................................5 Data Percobaan......................................... 80 BAB V TRANSFORMASI RANGKAIAN 5.... 81 5.......................................................................6 Analisa dan Pembahasan........................................................................4 Langkah Percobaan...... 65 4........................................................ 84 5..1 Tujuan Percobaan......... 66 4............................................. 59 BAB IV TEOREMA THEVENIN DAN NORTON 4................................................. 122 6................................................................................ 40 3........1 Tujuan Percobaan.....6 Analisa dan Pembahasan........ 121 6..2 Gambar Rangkaian... 124 6......... 60 4.................2 Gambar Rangkaian...................................3 Alat dan Bahan...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 122 6...........3.................................................................................................................6 Analisa dan Pembahasan...............................................................................................................................5 Data Percobaan........................5 Data Percobaan............................................................................................................................................... 84 5....................................7 Kesimpulan.......6 Analisa dan Pembahasan........................................................4 Langkah Percobaan............................................7 Kesimpulan.. 149 v .2 Gambar Rangkaian.................. 127 6.3 Alat dan Bahan.. 127 BAB VI RANGKAIAN DUA PINTU 6... 87 5............................................3 Alat dan Bahan...................

...........................................................................................................................4 Langkah Percobaan...........BAB VII RANGKAIAN R-L-C SERI 7...............3 Alat dan Bahan............................ 186 8..................................................................... 208 9.........5 Data Percobaan.......... 191 8..................................1 Tujuan Percobaan..2 Gambar Rangkaian.........................................4 Langkah Percobaan...................................................................... 376 10...............................................................6 Analisa dan Pembahasan..............................................................................................3 Alat dan Bahan........ 152 7................................... 150 7.......................2 Gambar Rangkaian........................................... 185 BAB VIII RANGKAIAN R-L-C PARALEL 8..........................................................7 Kesimpulan.4 Langkah Percobaan................................................................................................................1 Tujuan Percobaan....................3 Alat dan Bahan...1 PENUTUP Kesimpulan.... 158 7....... 186 8............................................5 Data Percobaan....2 Saran................... 208 9............ 377 DAFTAR PUSTAKA LAMPIRAN 1 vi .... 207 BAB IX SOFTWARE 9... 188 8...... 150 7........................................................5 Data Percobaan....................................................................................2 Gambar Rangkaian.................................... 151 7...............................................................1 Tujuan Percobaan............................................... 187 8....................................... 375 BAB VII 10.................................................... 219 9............................................................................ 218 9........................... 187 8................................................................................................................................................6 Analisa dan Pembahasan.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 151 7..............6 Analisa dan Pembahasan........................7 Kesimpulan........................................7 Kesimpulan..................... 218 9.................. 218 9.......................................................................................................

........3 Rangkaian V2 aktif Superposisi.. 19 Gambar 2............................................... 17 Gambar 2..... 41 Gambar 3.............................. 40 Gambar 3..........................8 Rangkaian Teorema Superposisi....... 33 Gambar 3...................8 Simulasi Rangkaian Pembagi Arus dan Tegangan...... 29 Gambar 2.17 Rangkaian Percobaan Pembagi Tegangan tanpa RL....1 Rangkaian Teorema Superposisi................1 Rangkaian Tangga.... 17 Gambar 2......9 Rangkaian V1 aktif V2 hubung singkat...................DAFTAR GAMBAR Gambar 2...3 Rangkaian Jembatan Tak Seimbang............................................................................................7 Rangkaian Tangga..........11 Rangkaian Superposisi.... 13 Gambar 2..................................2 Rangkaian Jembatan Seimbang............................. 4 Gambar 2.............. 10 Gambar 2............................. 34 Gambar 3.. 5 Gambar 2........................10 Rangkaian Penyederhanaan Jembatan Seimbang.......... 40 Gambar 3......................4 Rangkaian Pembagi Tegangan dengan RL........................ 4 Gambar 2................. 34 Gambar 3................................12 Rangkaian Superposisi V2 dihubung singkat............................................ 4 Gambar 2.................9 Rangkaian Jembatan Seimbang..............7 Rangkaian Teorema Resiprositas Vs di C............6 Rangkaian Teorema Resiprositas Vs di A...... 15 Gambar 2..........6 Rangkaian Pembagi Arus dan Tegangan.................... 25 Gambar 2. 5 Gambar 2....................... 26 Gambar 2....................................... 34 Gambar 3.. 42 vii .....2 Rangkaian V1 aktif Superposisi............................ 34 Gambar 3................5 Rangkaian Pembagi Tegangan tanpa RL.................18 Simulasi Ewb Simulasi Pembagi Tegangan tanpa RL.....4 Rangkaian Percobaan Teorema Kompensasi............................15 Rangkaian Percobaan Pembagi Tegangan dengan RL.......10 Rangkaian V2 aktif V1 hubung singkat.................................... 20 Gambar 2....................................................... 40 Gambar 3... 22 Gambar 2.............................13 Rangkaian Jembatan Tak Seimbang.................. 33 Gambar 3...... 30 Gambar 3.......11 Rangkaian Jembatan Seimbang.....14 Simulasi Jembatan Tak Seimbang.................................. 33 Gambar 3.... 27 Gambar 2............5 Rangkaian Percobaan Kompensasi R3=VR3.................................................16 Simulasi Ewb Simulasi Pembagi Tegangan dengan RL.................12 Simulasi Rangkaian Jembatan Seimbang........................

......................................................19 Rangkaian Kompensasi.....15 Simulasi EWB rangkaian Superposisi V2 : 5 V.. 54 Gambar 3........................................................................................... 78 viii ............................................ 67 Gambar 4............................4 Rangkaian Ekuivalen teorema norton ........... 49 Gambar 3..... 47 Gambar 3......................... 60 Gambar 4..........6 Rangkaian Hubung Buka.....13 Rangkaian ekuivalen norton.10 Rangkaian thevenin..................................................................................................................................................................................................... 78 (a) Gambar Simulasi EWB Percobaan. 50 Gambar 3..........13 Rangkaian Superposisi V1 dihubung singkat.............................1 Rangkaian teorema thevenin......24 Rangkaian Resiprositas............................................................ 61 Gambar 4................................................ 76 (a) Gambar Simulasi EWB Percobaan ...... 70 Gambar 4................ 58 Gambar 3...............................16 Rangkaian Percobaan Teorema Kompensasi.................................16 Simulasi Rangkaian Ekuivalen Norton dengan EWB..... 60 Gambar 4.....................2 Rangkaian teorema norton............Gambar 3............................. 53 Gambar 3................23 Rangkaian Teorema Resiprositas Vs di C.........................9 Rangkaian Pengganti Norton...........5 Rangkaian teorema thevenin....12 Rangkaian Norton..............11 Rangkaian ekuivalen thevenin..3 Rangkaian Ekuivalen teorema thevenin.... 52 Gambar 3.............................................................26 Resiprositas EWB sumber di C......................20 Kompensasi Ewb 1 sumber ........7 Rangkaian Rth...... 66 Gambar 4.. 52 Gambar 3.........17 Rangkaian Percobaan Kompensasi R3=VR3.25 Resiprositas EWB sumber di A.............. 70 Gambar 4............................ 47 Gambar 3.................................................................................... 72 Gambar 4............................... 48 Gambar 3...... 44 Gambar 3................................. 61 Gambar 4.................................14 Simulasi Rangkaian Ekuivalen thevenin dengan EWB. 53 Gambar 3..14 Superposisi EWB 2 Sumber tegangan aktif.............................. 48 Gambar 3.................... 68 Gambar 4......................................22 Rangkaian Teorema Resiprositas Vs di A......................................... 58 Gambar 4..................................... 76 Gambar 4...... 66 Gambar 4.. 76 (b) Gambar Simulasi EWB Perhitungan..........18 Rangkaian Teorema Kompensasi ..............8 Rangkaian Norton................... 62 Gambar 4..................21 Kompensasi Ewb R3 = VR3..................... 68 Gambar 4.............

.............18 Transformasi Kubus normal........................ 108 Gambar 5...........7 Rangkaian Piramida dengan resistor.....10 Rangkaian Segitiga................................................................ 111 ix .................. 108 Gambar 5.........................................................................24 Penyederhanaan Rangkaian......................................14 Penyederhanaan rangkaian...13 Rangkaian Y...............29 Penyederhanaan Rangkaian.................................................... 98 Gambar 5........ 90 Gambar 5.. 78 Gambar 5.......................................................................................12 Simulasi transformasi Δ.......................................................25 Transformasi kubus 2 resistor................ 81 Gambar 5................. 101 Gambar 5................ 107 Gambar 5.................................... 83 Gambar 5...........1 (a) Rangkaian Y. 83 Gambar 5................................. 97 Gambar 5.........9 Rangkaian Piramida dengan resistor.................................................22 Rangkaian kubus 2 konduktor..................................... 98 Gambar 5......................... 81 Gambar 5.........................................21 Penyederhanaan Rangkaian......19 Rangkaian Kubus dengan CD dan GF dihubung singkat......... 83 Gambar 5......20 Rangkaian ekuivalen Kubus..........................................4 Rangkaian Kubus dengan resistor...........................17 Penyederhanaan Rangkaian Kubus. 87 Gambar 5..................23 Rangkaian Kubus dengan R pada CD dan GF................................................. 102 Gambar 5.................................................................................. 102 Gambar 5........................................11 Transformasi Δ .... 81 (b) Rangkaian ∆................................. 82 Gambar 5..............15 Transformasi Y ................... 98 Gambar 5.......................... 87 Gambar 5...........Y...................... 89 Gambar 5......................................5 Rangkaian Piramida........8 Rangkaian Piramida dengan konduktor.. 109 Gambar 5......................... 90 Gambar 5.2 Rangkaian Kubus............ 82 Gambar 5.............3 Rangkaian Kubus dengan konduktor.......................................................................................30 Transformasi piramid normal.................................28 Penyederhanaan Rangkaian Piramid...........6 Rangkaian Piramida dengan konduktor .............................26 Rangkaian Piramid....................... 93 Gambar 5..... 108 Gambar 5.......................................................................(b) Gambar Simulasi EWB Perhitungan....27 Bentuk lain Rangkaian Piramid......... 93 Gambar 5........... 92 Gambar 5............................................ 82 Gambar 5................... 83 Gambar 5....16 Rangkaian Kubus....................................................................................................

........................ 115 Gambar 5.............5 Rangkaian Dua pintu tipe phi catu daya di CD....... 148 Gambar 7......38 Transformasi piramid 2 konduktor.................8 Rangkaian Pembagi Tegangan.................................. 147 Gambar 6..........................46 Rangkaian Penyederhanaan..............................47 Rangkaian Penyederhanaan.............................................1 Rangkaian Dua pintu tipe phi..............................................................................................41 Rangkaian Penyederhanaan........43 Rangkaian Piramid dengan R pada CE dan BD............. 135 Gambar 6................ 118 Gambar 5...... 122 Gambar 5...................................................................................... 114 Gambar 5...... 137 Gambar 6...................9 Rangkaian 2 pintu tipe T catu daya di CD....3 Rangkaian tipe phi................Gambar 5................................................... 118 Gambar 5. 152 x ................................................... 121 Gambar 5........ 117 Gambar 5.............. 115 Gambar 5...........................................31 Rangkaian Piramid dengan CE dihubung singkat.... 147 Gambar 6..... 112 Gambar 5...10 Pembagi Tegangan...................................................... 150 Gambar 7...........37 Rangkaian Penyederhanaan......................................................... 148 Gambar 6. 122 Gambar 5.... 1 Rangkaian RLC Seri ...... 127 Gambar 6.............................40 Rangkaian bentuk lain Piramid dengan resistor di CE .............. 121 Gambar 6...............35 Rangkaian Piramid dengan 2 konduktor...................39 Rangkaian Piramid dengan Resistor di CE....................................................................................... 138 Gambar 6...........................45 Rangkaian Penyederhanaan..............32 Bentuk lain Rangkaian Piramid dengan CE dihubung singkat....33 Rangkaian Penyederhanaan...............................................34 Transformasi piramid 1 konduktor ........................... 112 Gambar 5............................................................................44 Rangkaian Penyederhanaan..6 Rangkaian tipe T..................7 Rangkaian 2 pintu tipe T.........36 Rangkaian bentuk lain Piramid dengan CE dan BD dihubung singkat ......42 Transformasi piramid 1 resistor............................................ 122 Gambar 5.........3 Resistor.......... 121 Gambar 6.......... 123 Gambar 5.............................. 112 Gambar 5...2 Sumber Tegangan....4 Rangkaian Dua pintu tipe phi catu daya di AB............... 152 Gambar 7....... 123 Gambar 5........................2 Rangkaian Dua pintu tipe T............................................................................................................................48 Transformasi piramid 2 resistor............... 118 Gambar 5. 115 Gambar 5.... 126 Gambar 6...................................................

...........................................9 Induktor................ 153 Gambar 7................................................35 Diagram vector daya di L.8 Resistor.................................................. 157 Gambar 7....................................................................................................... 154 Gambar 7..................... 152 Gambar 7.......................................Gambar 7.......................... 167 Gambar 7....................................... 165 Gambar 7....... 162 Gambar 7....28 Fasor R............. 165 Gambar 7..........22 Diagram vector daya di C...........................................10 Kapasitor.....VC...........................................................................................................17 Add VL + VC............................................................................ 159 Gambar 7........................................................................................................................................ 156 Gambar 7.........6 Lissajous VL ............. 155 Gambar 7............................. 155 Gambar 7............14 Induktor.........................................12 Add VL + VC............................................VC.................................................................................................. 162 Gambar 7..............29 Fasor L............................................................................................................................................................................. 156 Gambar 7......... 162 Gambar 7................................ 170 Gambar 7........................................................................................... 156 Gambar 7..................................15 Kapasitor........33 Pola Lissajous beda fasa VL + VC.26 Fasor C............................................. 154 Gambar 7........... 164 Gambar 7............................11 Lissajous VL ................. 163 Gambar 7. 170 xi ........................... 153 Gambar 7..............20 Diagram vector daya di R..............................................VC.....................4 Induktor................................................... 158 Gambar 7..27 Fasor RLC........................... 166 Gambar 7..................... 165 Gambar 7.......................... 164 Gambar 7.....18 Rangkaian RLC Seri.................................................................................................32 Rangkaian RLC Seri..................................... 165 Gambar 7.......................................... 154 Gambar 7...........................................................................30 Fasor C.......5 Kapasitor.......19 Pola Lissajous beda fasa VL + VC.......................................................................................................................23 Diagram vector daya di RLC.....................................................................................34 Diagram vector daya di R.25 Fasor L............... 164 Gambar 7....... 157 Gambar 7..31 Fasor RLC....................7 Add VL + VC... 153 Gambar 7...24 Fasor R....................... 164 Gambar 7...............13 Resistor.........................21 Diagram vector daya di L.......................................16 Lissajous VL .............................

..36 Diagram vector daya di C..... 180 Gambar 7................................................................ 181 Gambar 7... 178 Gambar 7..54 Fasor C...... 175 Gambar 7........................... 178 Gambar 7.......47 Pola Lissajous beda fasa VL + VC.......................5 Lissajous Rc frekuensi 8500 HZ........................................................ 174 Gambar 7. Gambar 8................................ 172 Gambar 7..................58 Fasor C....... Gambar 8........................................................................................................40 Fasor C.....................52 Fasor R........ 181 Gambar 8........................................................................................................................................................ 181 Gambar 7.......................38 Fasor R..............8 Rangkaian RLC Paralel............ Gambar 8....................................................................................................................................................................................... 171 Gambar 7................................ 180 Gambar 7.........57 Fasor L...............50 Diagram vector daya di C.............................. 173 Gambar 7..... 172 Gambar 7..................................................................................................45 Fasor RLC............................................................. 179 Gambar 7......Gambar 7............ Gambar 8..........................................................................3 Lissajous Rc frekuensi 300 HZ.............................................................................. 180 Gambar 7..........................44 Fasor C.39 Fasor L..... 178 Gambar 7........................................................................................................ Gambar 8..........................................43 Fasor L............ 170 Gambar 7......................................... 173 Gambar 7..................... 180 Gambar 7.........................53 Fasor L........ 173 Gambar 7..................4 Lissajous RL frekuensi 8500 HZ.......7 HZ.............................1 Rangkaian RLC Paralel................... Gambar 8............. xii ................................................................................................2 Lissajous RL frekuensi 300 HZ.........49 Diagram vector daya di L....55 Fasor RLC........................37 Diagram vector daya di RLC..........41 Fasor RLC............................. 172 Gambar 7.....................................................................................................................7 HZ................51 Diagram vector daya di RLC.............................. 173 Gambar 7.........................................56 Fasor R..........................48 Diagram vector daya di R............................ 181 Gambar 7........................... Gambar 8....................................... 172 Gambar 7.....59 Fasor RLC...42 Fasor R.............................................6 Lissajous RL frekuensi 2422...7 Lissajous Rc frekuensi 2422....................................................46 Rangkaian RLC Seri...................................................................

...................2 Magnetik kopling polaritas beda........... 209 Gambar 9.................. Gambar 8......13 Rangkaian Percobaan Filter tipe HPF............................................................. IR...................16 Rangkaian Fourier Segitiga..........3 Fungsi Tangga R-L................ 213 Gambar 9.......9 Tanggapan tegangan dan arus RLC paralel................ Gambar 8......... I RC perhitungan F 8383 HZ....................... 209 Gambar 9..........14 Lissajous RL dan Rc frekuensi 300 HZ...........11 Rangkaian Percobaan Filter tipe LPF. Gambar 8................... Gambar 8............... 210 Gambar 9..................5 Tangga R-C................. I RL....................6 Fungsi Sinus R-C........................... I RL.................. IL........... I RC perhitungan F 300 HZ..8 Rangkaian RLC Paralel.. Gambar 8..18 Lissajous RL dan RC frekuensi resonansi........................23 Kurva Lissajous RL......... IC hasil perhitungan f = 8007 Hz.....10 Proses penggambaran Lissajous...........10 Rangkaian 2 pintu tipe T......... 212 Gambar 9.............. I RR............. Gambar 8............................. Gambar 8......... 208 Gambar 9...19 Grafik VIN................................. 212 Gambar 9.................... Gambar 8..22 Kurva Lissajous RC.............4 Fungsi Sinus R-L............................................................................. Gambar 8.......... Gambar 9.....................12 Kurva Lissajous Serong Kiri......... 208 Gambar 9...............14 Rangkaian Percobaan Fourier Sinusoidal...................... 213 xiii ..........1 Magnetik kopling polaritas sama.... I RC frekuensi resonansi.21 Grafik Vin..... Gambar 8.......................... 212 Gambar 9...................................................................15 Rangkaian Fourier Kotak ...... IR. Gambar 8......15 Grafik VIN...............Gambar 8................ 210 Gambar 9......................................................... 211 Gambar 9.... 211 Gambar 9.................... 209 Gambar 9..............................24 Grafik Vin.........16 Lissajous RL dan RC F 8383 HZ ..........12 Rangkaian Percobaan Filter tipe BPF.................................................................11 Mencari Beda Fasa Serong Kanan...........................20 Kurva Lissajous RL........................................................................................................................................ I RR........................... I RR................................................. Gambar 8........... IC hasil perhitungan f = 2422 Hz....... Gambar 8............ IL.....................................17 Grafik VIN...................... 210 Gambar 9............... I RL.........13 Rangkaian RLC Paralel........................9 Rangkaian 2 pintu tipe phi....... 212 Gambar 9..... Gambar 8............................................7 Rangkaian RLC Seri............... Gambar 8.......................

.... 307 Gambar 9............................................Gambar 9......................25 Rangkaian Resiprositas.............................................. 311 Gambar 9........44 Spektrum Amplitudo Gelombang Sinus.................................20 Rangkaian Laplace Segitiga....... 217 Gambar 9.......................34 Respon Transien Masukan Fungsi Tangga Rangkaian R-C.. 216 Gambar 9...........................28 Rangkaian Norton......43 Rangkaian Percobaan Fourier Sinusoidal....................... 285 Gambar 9................... 271 Gambar 9............................................. 292 Gambar 9........24 Rangkaian Superposisi.... 315 Gambar 9...............17 Rangkaian Laplace Tangga.............................. 214 Gambar 9................................................. 318 Gambar 9............................19 Rangkaian Laplace Gergaji........................ 215 Gambar 9.......................................36 Rangkaian R-L-C Seri........ 300 Gambar 9.. 215 Gambar 9.....33 Respon Transien Masukan Fungsi Sinus Rangkaian R-L.............. 216 Gambar 9.....................................................41 Rangkaian Filter BPF................39 Rangkaian dua pintu bentuk T....................................................................................... 318 Gambar 9......................... 213 Gambar 9...................................48 Spektrum Frekuensi Gelombang Segitiga..30 Magnetik Coupling Polaritas Sama................................................................31 Magnetik Coupling Polaritas Beda..................................................... 282 Gambar 9............32 Respon Transien Fungsi Tangga Rangkaian RL..........42 Rangkaian Filter HPF.....................22 Rangkaian Natural RLC Seri...............................................................23 Rangkaian Natural RLC Paralel...................35 Respon Transien masukan Fungsi Sinus R-C........... 213 Gambar 9................................ 217 Gambar 9............. 216 Gambar 9.......47 Rangkaian Percobaan Fourier Segitiga................................... 215 Gambar 9............................................. 315 Gambar 9..... 289 Gambar 9. 274 Gambar 9......45 Rangkaian Percobaan Fourier Kotak.....40 Rangkaian Filter LPF. 278 Gambar 9... 214 Gambar 9........................................................................38 Rangkaian dua pintu bentuk phi...........26 Rangkaian Kompensasi.. 217 Gambar 9.......................18 Rangkaian Laplace Exponensial................................... 322 xiv .....................21 Rangkaian Kurva Histerisis...................................................................... 321 Gambar 9....27 Rangkaian Thevenin..................................................... 296 Gambar 9.........................46 Spektrum Sinyal Gelombang Kotak...37 Rangkaian R-L-C Paralel......... 267 Gambar 9............................. 304 Gambar 9...........................29 Rangkaian Thevenin Norton.........

......................67 Rangkaian Norton.............................................................. 331 Gambar 9...........68 Rangkaian Norton..............56 Rangkaian respon Natural RLC Paralel.60 Rangkaian Resiprositas......................................49 Rangkaian Percobaan Laplace Fungsi Step..... 372 Gambar 9......................59 Rangkaian Percobaan Superposisi Sumber total...... 366 Gambar 9.... 373 DAFTAR TABEL Tabel 2...... 334 Gambar 9.........58 Rangkaian Superposisi Sumber 2................................... 362 Gambar 9.......... 371 Gambar 9.................. 328 Gambar 9...................................................... 341 Gambar 9................................1 Data percobaan rangkaian tangga.......................................................................................................... 366 Gambar 9........... 349 Gambar 9........................ 344 Gambar 9... 366 Gambar 9...................... 337 Gambar 9.............................53 Rangkaian Kurva Histerisis.................... xv 8 ..............54 Kurva Histerisis.............70 Rangkaian Pengganti Norton................................... 358 Gambar 9........71 Rangkaian Norton... 373 Gambar 9.......................65 Rangkaian teorema Norton...................61 Rangkaian teorema Kompensasi....................57 Rangkaian Superposisi Sumber 1..52 Rangkaian Percobaan Laplace Fungsi Segitiga.................... 369 Gambar 9........50 Rangkaian Percobaan Exponensial..........................................................72 Rangkaian Thevenin........................ 339 Gambar 9.................................. 369 Gambar 9...........69 Rangkaian Pengganti Thevenin........................................................................................64 Rangkaian Thevenin..................................................... 352 Gambar 9....Gambar 9.................. 355 Gambar 9.......................... 369 Gambar 9............63 Rangkaian Percobaan Thevenin Tanpa RL................... 325 Gambar 9............................... 369 Gambar 9.................62 Rangkaian Thevenin...51 Rangkaian Percobaan Laplace Fungsi Gergaji........................................................................................................66 Rangkaian teorema Norton.......................55 Rangkaian respon Natural RLC Seri..............

.............. 65 Tabel 4.........................1 Data rangkaian percobaan rangkaian thevenin........5 Data percobaan resiprositas resistor .........................13 Perbandingan perhitungan dan percobaan.....2 Data percobaan rangkaian jembatan seimbang. 38 Tabel 3.............10 Perbandingan nilai tegangan perhitungan......... 46 Tabel 3.. 69 Tabel 4.....2 Data rangkaian percobaan rangkaian norton.................................................7 Perbandingan pengukuran dan perhitungan..... 29 Tabel 2............ 39 Tabel 3........................ 24 Tabel 2.5 Tabel Perbandingan percobaan dan perhitungan.... 31 Tabel 3......12 Perbandingan perhitungan..........................8 Perbandingan perhitungan........................8 Perbandingan perhitungan I RL biasa dengan ekuivalennya.6 Data percobaan resiprositas.......... 12 Tabel 2...................... 65 Tabel 4................. 58 Tabel 4.........3 Data percobaan Kompensasi........7 Perbandingan nilai R terukur dan tertera........................4 Data rangkaian percobaan ekuivalen norton...... 18 Tabel 2..............................3 Data percobaan rangkaian jembatan tak seimbang................. 16 Tabel 2..........14 Perbandingan perhitungan.......... 9 Tabel 2....................................9 Perbandingan hasil percobaan dan perhitungan kompensasi........................................ 37 Tabel 3..................4 Data percobaan rangkaian pembagi tegangan.....................3 Data rangkaian percobaan ekuivalen thevenin...5 Nilai Resistor........ percobaan dan EWB................ 10 Tabel 2............. 37 Tabel 3............ 71 xvi ........... 11 Tabel 2.......... 67 Tabel 4.......... 71 Tabel 4.1 Data percobaan besaran tahanan........... 39 Tabel 3........................................ percobaan dan simulasi EWB........ 51 Tabel 3.........7 Perbandingan percobaan dan perhitungan ekuivalen thevenin............8 Perbandingan tegangan dan arus teorema superposisi.........2 Data percobaan superposisi 3 variasi.. 8 Tabel 2....10 Perbandingan hasil percobaan resiprositas............. 28 Tabel 2..................... pengukuran dan EWB.....11 Perbandingan perhitungan.....9 Perbandingan pengukutran dan perhitungan.................... 45 Tabel 3................. percobaan dan simulasi EWB............... 9 Tabel 2.........6 Perbandingan R total rertera dan terukur..Tabel 2...................... 65 Tabel 4............. percobaan dan simulasi EWB............................................ 38 Tabel 3.........6 Perbandingan percobaan dan perhitungan.... 21 Tabel 2........ 65 Tabel 4.............4 Data percobaan Kompensasii 2 variasi......................

............................................2 Rangkaian ∆. 88 Tabel 5....................................................... 130 Tabel 6..6 Perbandingan hasil perhitungan dan percobaan..............................9 Perbandingan pengukura dan perhitungan ekivalen Norton............. 125 Tabel 6.............. 130 Tabel 6....................................................... 125 Tabel 6...................... 120 Tabel 5...............3 Rangkaian transformasi kubus..............7 Dzz.....5 perbandingan hasil perhitungan dan percobaan...............................5 Knversi parameter.... 113 Tabel 5................... AB dihubungkan dengan catudaya......................................... 116 Tabel 5.............. 85 Tabel 5. 131 Tabel 6..................11 Perbandingan percobaan dan perhitungan...............................8 parameter Y.................................................................. 106 Tabel 5.................................................. 100 Tabel 5....2 Data percobaan tipe phi CD dihubungkan catudaya.... 85 Tabel 5.......6 Nilai parameter Z............ 96 Tabel 5............................11 Parameter T invers.............. 75 Tabel 4..................... 129 Tabel 6...........Tabel 4.............. 74 Tabel 4...........10 Arus pengganti................................ 124 Tabel 6.................................................................... 85 Tabel 5...............14 Perbandingan Perhitungan dan percobaan EWB......................................11 Perbandingan teorema norton dengan ekivalen norton......... 133 xvii ...........................................8 Perbandingan Nilai R ae kubus berkonduktor...................................10 Perbandingan teorema thevenin dengan ekivalen thevenin........ 124 Tabel 6.......................10 Perbandingan Nilai R pada rangkaian piramid.............. 126 Tabel 6. CD dihubung dengan catudaya.............................................. 91 Tabel 5.....13 Perbandingan dengan EWB dan tanpa EWB...........................13 Perbandingan Nilai R ad piramid............12 Perbandingan Nilai R ad .9 Perbandingan Nilai R ae kubus dengan resistor............................................................1 Data tipe phi AB dihubungkan catu daya...... 76 Tabel 4................ 79 Tabel 5.....14 Perbandingan Nilai R ad...... 110 Tabel 5...12 Perbandingan Perhitungan dan percobaan EWB.....3 Data percobaan tipe T ... 73 Tabel 4............................ 77 Tabel 4...................................9 Parameter transient T................4 Rangkaian Transformasi piramida... 86 Tabel 5.........4 Data percobaan tipe T ............ 132 Tabel 6....15 Perbandingan dengan EWB dan tanpa EWB..................1 Rangkaian Y......................... 125 Tabel 6.......... 78 Tabel 4.........................7 Perbandingan Nilai R ae rangkaian kubus..

.................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 290 Tabel 9......................................... 141 Tabel 6................1 Perbandingan hasil perhitungan dan percobaan...14 Perbandingan V2 percobaan dengan perhitungan............................... 280 Tabel 9..................... 269 Tabel 9.............................19 Parameter transient T................4 Perbandingan hasil perhitungan dan simulasi.............1 Perbandingan hasil perhitungan dan simulasi..................................... Tabel 8......................... Tabel 8....................2 Perbandingan hasil perhitungan dan simulasi....................................15 Perbandingan V1 percobaan dengan perhitungan..........................................12 Parameter H.......................3 Perbandingan hasil perhitungan dan percobaan..............23 Parameter g................................................................. 143 Tabel 6....................................................................................... 134 Tabel 6....... 145 Tabel 6............... 273 Tabel 9.....................................16 Parameter impedensi Z.....1 Perbandingan hasil perhitungan dan percobaan frekuiensi rendah...................2 Perbandingan hasil perhitungan dan percobaan............. 140 Tabel 6..............21 Parameter T invers............................................................... 287 Tabel 9.......3 Perbandingan hasil perhitungan dan simulasi.....................2 Perbandingan hasil perhitungan dan percobaan frekuensi tinggi....................Tabel 6.............. 175 Tabel 8........7 Perbandingan hasil percobaan dan perhitungan.... 283 Tabel 9.................... 147 Tabel 6......................6 Perbandingan hasil perhitungan dan simulasi.................................. 159 Tabel 7.20 Arus pengganti.......... 294 Tabel 9................................ 142 Tabel 6...167 Tabel 7......... 136 Tabel 6...... 276 Tabel 9....................... 144 Tabel 6.....3 Perbandingan hasil perhitungan dan percobaan frekuensi rensonansi........... Tabel 9.................................................................25 Perbandingan V1 percobaan dan perhitungan........ 137 Tabel 6...........18 Parameter Y....... 146 Tabel 6................9 Perbandingan hasil perhitungan dansimulasi..............24 Perbandingan V2 percobaan dan perhitungan.... 135 Tabel 6.......................17 Dzz....8 Perbandingan hasil percobaan dan perhitungan. 141 Tabel 6.......5 Perbandingan hasil perhitungan dan simulasi..............................................................13 Parameter hybrid invers-g......................22 Parameter H.......... 298 xviii ....... 148 Tabel 7.

..........11 Perbandingan hasil perhitungan dan simulasi......................... 305 Tabel 9............ 329 Tabel 9.........................................18 Perbandingan V perhitungan dan simulasi.......... 370 Tabel 9.....28 Perbandingan perhitungan dan simulasi.. 313 Tabel 9........................................... 360 Tabel 9......... 319 Tabel 9.........................27 Perbandingan perhitungan dan simulasi...........................29 Perbandingan perhitungan dan simulasi.....33 Perbandingan perhitungan dan simulasi.................................. 319 Tabel 9...........23 Perbandingan hasil perhitungan dan simulasi....... 374 xix ..13 Perbandingan hasil perhitungan dan simulasi.... 322 Tabel 9....Tabel 9.................. 316 Tabel 9.............16 Perbandingan hasil perhitungan dan simulasi.......................................... 364 Tabel 9.... 367 Tabel 9.......... 326 Tabel 9................21 Perbandingan hasil perhitungan dan simulasi..................................................... 356 Tabel 9............... 332 Tabel 9................ 323 Tabel 9....17 Perbandingan hasil perhitungan dan simulasi........................22 Perbandingan hasil perhitungan dan simulasi....................... 343 Tabel 9....32 Perbandingan arus hasil perhitungan dan simulasi.....12 Perbandingan hasil perhitungan dan simulasi................................ 316 Tabel 9................................... 350 Tabel 9.............24 Perbandingan perhitungan dan simulasi............14 Perbandingan hasil perhitungan dan simulasi...........15 Perbandingan hasil perhitungan dan simulasi........10 Perbandingan hasil perhitungan dan simulasi................... 309 Tabel 9.. 335 Tabel 9......... 347 Tabel 9.....20 Perbandingan hasil perhitungan dan simulasi..30 Perbandingan perhitungan dan simulasi.......25 Perbandingan hasil perhitungan dan simulasi. 353 Tabel 9.31 Perbandingan hasil perhitungan dan simulasi.........19 Perbandingan Vt perhitungan dan simulasi....... 302 Tabel 9.......26 Perbandingan perhitungan dan simulasi..........

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