DAFTAR ISI

HALAMAN JUDUL.........................................................................................

i

HALAMAN PENGESAHAN...........................................................................

ii

KATA PENGANTAR....................................................................................... iii
DAFTAR ISI......................................................................................................

iv

DAFTAR GAMBAR......................................................................................... vii
DAFTAR TABEL.............................................................................................. xvi
BAB I

PENDAHULUAN

1.1. Latar Belakang Pelaksanaan Praktikum....................................................

1

1.2. Tujuan Praktikum......................................................................................

1

1.3. Waktu Pelaksanaan....................................................................................

1

1.4. Metode Pengumpulan Data........................................................................

2

1.5. Sistematika Penulisan Laporan Praktikum................................................

2

BAB II

SIFAT – SIFAT TAHANAN RANGKAIAN

2.1

Tujuan Percobaan......................................................................................

4

2.2

Gambar Rangkaian....................................................................................

4

2.3

Alat dan Bahan..........................................................................................

6

2.4

Langkah Percobaan....................................................................................

6

2.5

Data Percobaan..........................................................................................

8

2.6

Analisa dan Pembahasan........................................................................... 10

2.7

Kesimpulan................................................................................................ 32

BAB III

TEOREMA SUPERPOSISI, RESIPROSITAS DAN
KOMPENSASI

3.1

Tujuan Percobaan...................................................................................... 33

3.2

Gambar Rangkaian.................................................................................... 33

3.3

Alat dan Bahan.......................................................................................... 35

3.4

Langkah Percobaan................................................................................... 35

3.5

Data Percobaan.......................................................................................... 37
iv

........................................................................................................... 40 3.......... 81 5.........3 Alat dan Bahan................................. 60 4............................................................... 84 5..................................4 Langkah Percobaan..........7 Kesimpulan...................................................5 Data Percobaan..... 80 BAB V TRANSFORMASI RANGKAIAN 5................3 Alat dan Bahan.................................................... 63 4...................1 Tujuan Percobaan............................ 122 6............................ 124 6.....2 Gambar Rangkaian.................... 121 6.........................................................................................4 Langkah Percobaan........................................6 Analisa dan Pembahasan................................... 66 4............................... 59 BAB IV TEOREMA THEVENIN DAN NORTON 4.............................................................................. 122 6............................................ 65 4.6 Analisa dan Pembahasan...............1 Tujuan Percobaan............... 84 5.............................................................................................7 Kesimpulan............................2 Gambar Rangkaian..................5 Data Percobaan................................................................3....................................................................................................5 Data Percobaan........3 Alat dan Bahan...................... 81 5................................................................................6 Analisa dan Pembahasan................................................... 127 BAB VI RANGKAIAN DUA PINTU 6...................... 121 6.......................................... 127 6.............................................1 Tujuan Percobaan....................................................... 85 5...........................2 Gambar Rangkaian...................................................................... 149 v ................4 Langkah Percobaan.............................. 87 5....................... 60 4..................................6 Analisa dan Pembahasan.................................... 62 4....................................................7 Kesimpulan..............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................7 Kesimpulan.....

...............5 Data Percobaan................................................................. 151 7............................................................................................................................................4 Langkah Percobaan..............................................................................3 Alat dan Bahan.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 376 10.............1 Tujuan Percobaan................................................................................................................ 158 7......... 186 8.................4 Langkah Percobaan. 219 9.........................................................................................2 Saran.... 208 9....................................................... 187 8..........................................................................................................................................................................................................6 Analisa dan Pembahasan..................................................1 Tujuan Percobaan.................. 191 8..........................................................................................2 Gambar Rangkaian......5 Data Percobaan...................... 218 9. 151 7.......4 Langkah Percobaan........... 218 9................................................... 152 7............................................................................7 Kesimpulan.............5 Data Percobaan............... 218 9...................BAB VII RANGKAIAN R-L-C SERI 7...3 Alat dan Bahan.7 Kesimpulan..........................6 Analisa dan Pembahasan.....7 Kesimpulan................. 187 8................................................. 207 BAB IX SOFTWARE 9......................... 375 BAB VII 10........................2 Gambar Rangkaian..... 150 7............. 186 8........... 188 8..2 Gambar Rangkaian.............3 Alat dan Bahan..................................... 208 9.1 PENUTUP Kesimpulan........................................................ 377 DAFTAR PUSTAKA LAMPIRAN 1 vi ...................................................... 150 7................................ 185 BAB VIII RANGKAIAN R-L-C PARALEL 8..............................................................1 Tujuan Percobaan..................6 Analisa dan Pembahasan............................................................................................

....................... 4 Gambar 2..............................................................2 Rangkaian V1 aktif Superposisi.. 26 Gambar 2......................12 Simulasi Rangkaian Jembatan Seimbang..............................................................2 Rangkaian Jembatan Seimbang...18 Simulasi Ewb Simulasi Pembagi Tegangan tanpa RL...........16 Simulasi Ewb Simulasi Pembagi Tegangan dengan RL...................................................4 Rangkaian Percobaan Teorema Kompensasi................. 33 Gambar 3.......... 34 Gambar 3...13 Rangkaian Jembatan Tak Seimbang................................... 40 Gambar 3.. 17 Gambar 2.... 20 Gambar 2.. 13 Gambar 2......8 Simulasi Rangkaian Pembagi Arus dan Tegangan........................5 Rangkaian Pembagi Tegangan tanpa RL.......1 Rangkaian Teorema Superposisi.............................................................................. 4 Gambar 2.7 Rangkaian Tangga..........9 Rangkaian V1 aktif V2 hubung singkat..................................14 Simulasi Jembatan Tak Seimbang............................. 30 Gambar 3....4 Rangkaian Pembagi Tegangan dengan RL.11 Rangkaian Superposisi.............1 Rangkaian Tangga................................. 33 Gambar 3..............................17 Rangkaian Percobaan Pembagi Tegangan tanpa RL....3 Rangkaian Jembatan Tak Seimbang.15 Rangkaian Percobaan Pembagi Tegangan dengan RL...8 Rangkaian Teorema Superposisi.................................12 Rangkaian Superposisi V2 dihubung singkat...... 40 Gambar 3.....7 Rangkaian Teorema Resiprositas Vs di C..................5 Rangkaian Percobaan Kompensasi R3=VR3...10 Rangkaian Penyederhanaan Jembatan Seimbang................ 27 Gambar 2..6 Rangkaian Pembagi Arus dan Tegangan............... 15 Gambar 2........................................11 Rangkaian Jembatan Seimbang.................................... 34 Gambar 3........................9 Rangkaian Jembatan Seimbang.................................. 19 Gambar 2........... 5 Gambar 2.........6 Rangkaian Teorema Resiprositas Vs di A............ 34 Gambar 3.................DAFTAR GAMBAR Gambar 2........ 29 Gambar 2........................ 41 Gambar 3... 17 Gambar 2...................... 10 Gambar 2.............................. 25 Gambar 2... 33 Gambar 3.....................................................................3 Rangkaian V2 aktif Superposisi........ 40 Gambar 3.. 4 Gambar 2.........................10 Rangkaian V2 aktif V1 hubung singkat.......................................................... 42 vii ........ 22 Gambar 2.. 34 Gambar 3...... 5 Gambar 2...

..........................22 Rangkaian Teorema Resiprositas Vs di A......26 Resiprositas EWB sumber di C..................................13 Rangkaian Superposisi V1 dihubung singkat.................................................................................6 Rangkaian Hubung Buka.1 Rangkaian teorema thevenin...13 Rangkaian ekuivalen norton.............................................................................................................17 Rangkaian Percobaan Kompensasi R3=VR3..................................................... 53 Gambar 3............. 54 Gambar 3........ 72 Gambar 4.................................23 Rangkaian Teorema Resiprositas Vs di C............................14 Simulasi Rangkaian Ekuivalen thevenin dengan EWB.................. 48 Gambar 3... 52 Gambar 3.16 Rangkaian Percobaan Teorema Kompensasi............. 50 Gambar 3.......................... 49 Gambar 3................................................................................... 78 (a) Gambar Simulasi EWB Percobaan.......... 58 Gambar 3..............5 Rangkaian teorema thevenin........................... 60 Gambar 4....24 Rangkaian Resiprositas............................... 68 Gambar 4........................................... 66 Gambar 4........................................................................................ 47 Gambar 3.......11 Rangkaian ekuivalen thevenin............................ 60 Gambar 4.....................................................12 Rangkaian Norton...................... 70 Gambar 4.............................Gambar 3................................................................... 70 Gambar 4................................. 76 (b) Gambar Simulasi EWB Perhitungan... 58 Gambar 4...........................10 Rangkaian thevenin.....................................3 Rangkaian Ekuivalen teorema thevenin....18 Rangkaian Teorema Kompensasi ....... 53 Gambar 3......................... 62 Gambar 4.................19 Rangkaian Kompensasi........... 61 Gambar 4................14 Superposisi EWB 2 Sumber tegangan aktif................. 76 Gambar 4...... 44 Gambar 3......15 Simulasi EWB rangkaian Superposisi V2 : 5 V..16 Simulasi Rangkaian Ekuivalen Norton dengan EWB...25 Resiprositas EWB sumber di A........ 48 Gambar 3....... 52 Gambar 3........8 Rangkaian Norton......................21 Kompensasi Ewb R3 = VR3.................. 66 Gambar 4.........................4 Rangkaian Ekuivalen teorema norton ...... 76 (a) Gambar Simulasi EWB Percobaan ...................................................................2 Rangkaian teorema norton....9 Rangkaian Pengganti Norton.... 68 Gambar 4......... 78 viii .......20 Kompensasi Ewb 1 sumber ....................... 47 Gambar 3.................... 61 Gambar 4............................ 67 Gambar 4.....................7 Rangkaian Rth..................

........22 Rangkaian kubus 2 konduktor..............................................................................................25 Transformasi kubus 2 resistor...........16 Rangkaian Kubus.........................27 Bentuk lain Rangkaian Piramid.......................................... 83 Gambar 5..........11 Transformasi Δ ............................ 82 Gambar 5.. 83 Gambar 5................ 102 Gambar 5..................................... 107 Gambar 5............21 Penyederhanaan Rangkaian.. 102 Gambar 5............................ 92 Gambar 5.......6 Rangkaian Piramida dengan konduktor ............................2 Rangkaian Kubus......................................................3 Rangkaian Kubus dengan konduktor..............................................................17 Penyederhanaan Rangkaian Kubus..10 Rangkaian Segitiga..............................................................5 Rangkaian Piramida........................20 Rangkaian ekuivalen Kubus.. 87 Gambar 5........................................................ 83 Gambar 5............7 Rangkaian Piramida dengan resistor................. 82 Gambar 5.............................................. 108 Gambar 5................................................. 101 Gambar 5.............................................................30 Transformasi piramid normal. 81 (b) Rangkaian ∆...23 Rangkaian Kubus dengan R pada CD dan GF.............. 89 Gambar 5............. 111 ix ........................................... 87 Gambar 5................................................................................................................................. 97 Gambar 5........ 98 Gambar 5......................28 Penyederhanaan Rangkaian Piramid....... 81 Gambar 5................1 (a) Rangkaian Y...........Y.................19 Rangkaian Kubus dengan CD dan GF dihubung singkat................................................................... 90 Gambar 5...............13 Rangkaian Y............... 108 Gambar 5.... 93 Gambar 5...... 98 Gambar 5...18 Transformasi Kubus normal.......................... 108 Gambar 5............ 93 Gambar 5.....12 Simulasi transformasi Δ................................................ 83 Gambar 5.....9 Rangkaian Piramida dengan resistor.................................. 109 Gambar 5.......4 Rangkaian Kubus dengan resistor...(b) Gambar Simulasi EWB Perhitungan................ 82 Gambar 5.......26 Rangkaian Piramid................................................................................... 98 Gambar 5...........29 Penyederhanaan Rangkaian.................................. 90 Gambar 5............ 81 Gambar 5..24 Penyederhanaan Rangkaian.................................... 78 Gambar 5...........................................................................................8 Rangkaian Piramida dengan konduktor..................................................................................15 Transformasi Y ........14 Penyederhanaan rangkaian....

............................................................................. 112 Gambar 5.......37 Rangkaian Penyederhanaan.............................8 Rangkaian Pembagi Tegangan......2 Rangkaian Dua pintu tipe T.............. 121 Gambar 6......................................... 148 Gambar 7........................43 Rangkaian Piramid dengan R pada CE dan BD........... 123 Gambar 5........... 138 Gambar 6..................... 122 Gambar 5....................................... 1 Rangkaian RLC Seri .. 118 Gambar 5..39 Rangkaian Piramid dengan Resistor di CE........................6 Rangkaian tipe T............ 118 Gambar 5.............................................. 114 Gambar 5.........7 Rangkaian 2 pintu tipe T............................... 147 Gambar 6..... 112 Gambar 5...........9 Rangkaian 2 pintu tipe T catu daya di CD............. 150 Gambar 7.................. 135 Gambar 6................... 115 Gambar 5...................46 Rangkaian Penyederhanaan.....................31 Rangkaian Piramid dengan CE dihubung singkat............................................................................ 121 Gambar 5...................32 Bentuk lain Rangkaian Piramid dengan CE dihubung singkat........35 Rangkaian Piramid dengan 2 konduktor................3 Rangkaian tipe phi..........................................................................................Gambar 5........................................................... 117 Gambar 5....... 112 Gambar 5.......48 Transformasi piramid 2 resistor...... 152 Gambar 7......................................................................... 147 Gambar 6.....................................................................................................................................................................................45 Rangkaian Penyederhanaan............... 148 Gambar 6..............47 Rangkaian Penyederhanaan.....................................41 Rangkaian Penyederhanaan..................................................................... 115 Gambar 5............33 Rangkaian Penyederhanaan.... 122 Gambar 5.2 Sumber Tegangan..... 118 Gambar 5................36 Rangkaian bentuk lain Piramid dengan CE dan BD dihubung singkat ...... 115 Gambar 5...................4 Rangkaian Dua pintu tipe phi catu daya di AB...............................................42 Transformasi piramid 1 resistor..............5 Rangkaian Dua pintu tipe phi catu daya di CD....... 123 Gambar 5.... 127 Gambar 6....... 121 Gambar 6.........................34 Transformasi piramid 1 konduktor ..........3 Resistor.........................10 Pembagi Tegangan.........44 Rangkaian Penyederhanaan.........................40 Rangkaian bentuk lain Piramid dengan resistor di CE ... 126 Gambar 6............ 152 x ......................... 137 Gambar 6.............................1 Rangkaian Dua pintu tipe phi.. 122 Gambar 5.....38 Transformasi piramid 2 konduktor...........................

............................24 Fasor R............................................................. 163 Gambar 7.......19 Pola Lissajous beda fasa VL + VC........................ 155 Gambar 7..17 Add VL + VC........................ 162 Gambar 7...................29 Fasor L........................................................ 154 Gambar 7. 164 Gambar 7.......... 153 Gambar 7...33 Pola Lissajous beda fasa VL + VC............................4 Induktor.........................31 Fasor RLC.........................................................................................................................................32 Rangkaian RLC Seri....................................................... 159 Gambar 7.....................................28 Fasor R........................ 164 Gambar 7......21 Diagram vector daya di L....................................................................... 157 Gambar 7............26 Fasor C......................................................................14 Induktor............ 165 Gambar 7..................................35 Diagram vector daya di L.............................................. 156 Gambar 7................................. 156 Gambar 7...................................................................................................................... 154 Gambar 7..............18 Rangkaian RLC Seri........ 170 xi ......................................................... 165 Gambar 7...........27 Fasor RLC....................................................... 162 Gambar 7......... 166 Gambar 7..........15 Kapasitor...................Gambar 7.............................20 Diagram vector daya di R............................................................ 170 Gambar 7. 165 Gambar 7.......................13 Resistor......................................... 162 Gambar 7...............VC..........6 Lissajous VL ...............................................................................................................................5 Kapasitor.......................................VC......................................23 Diagram vector daya di RLC....................................................................22 Diagram vector daya di C............................................................................ 165 Gambar 7................. 158 Gambar 7................... 156 Gambar 7..................................... 153 Gambar 7.............................................................................................................16 Lissajous VL ..................10 Kapasitor..............................7 Add VL + VC.................... 152 Gambar 7........................................... 155 Gambar 7............... 153 Gambar 7........8 Resistor......................................................................................VC......... 167 Gambar 7...................................................................................................................................................12 Add VL + VC.11 Lissajous VL ...30 Fasor C....25 Fasor L................. 154 Gambar 7.. 164 Gambar 7.......................................34 Diagram vector daya di R...... 164 Gambar 7.............................................................. 157 Gambar 7...................9 Induktor........................

.......1 Rangkaian RLC Paralel.56 Fasor R............................................................Gambar 7.....................................7 HZ........................ 173 Gambar 7...........................55 Fasor RLC.........................................................................53 Fasor L....................7 HZ............................................................... 181 Gambar 8................42 Fasor R....................................3 Lissajous Rc frekuensi 300 HZ.......................................................................................41 Fasor RLC....... Gambar 8.............................................44 Fasor C..................................................36 Diagram vector daya di C.................................. 173 Gambar 7.........................................................7 Lissajous Rc frekuensi 2422...................................... Gambar 8....................6 Lissajous RL frekuensi 2422.........................57 Fasor L...................... 181 Gambar 7..........8 Rangkaian RLC Paralel............................................................................................ 172 Gambar 7........................................................................................... Gambar 8................ Gambar 8..39 Fasor L..............47 Pola Lissajous beda fasa VL + VC........................ Gambar 8.... 178 Gambar 7.........2 Lissajous RL frekuensi 300 HZ......................4 Lissajous RL frekuensi 8500 HZ............................... 181 Gambar 7.....................................................45 Fasor RLC............ 173 Gambar 7....... 173 Gambar 7.....................38 Fasor R....59 Fasor RLC.............................. Gambar 8..............37 Diagram vector daya di RLC................................................... 180 Gambar 7...................49 Diagram vector daya di L..... 181 Gambar 7..... 171 Gambar 7............................. 179 Gambar 7....................................................43 Fasor L... 172 Gambar 7.................................................................................................................................. Gambar 8............................................................58 Fasor C.................48 Diagram vector daya di R............................................. 180 Gambar 7....................................40 Fasor C......... 172 Gambar 7.............................. 180 Gambar 7........................................................50 Diagram vector daya di C..................................................................................... 178 Gambar 7........ 174 Gambar 7.................51 Diagram vector daya di RLC..........................................46 Rangkaian RLC Seri...................................... 170 Gambar 7............................................................................................ 178 Gambar 7..................................................... xii ................................ 175 Gambar 7........... 172 Gambar 7.........................................5 Lissajous Rc frekuensi 8500 HZ.........................54 Fasor C.52 Fasor R............................... 180 Gambar 7....

.................... IR.............................. IL............ Gambar 8...16 Lissajous RL dan RC F 8383 HZ ....... Gambar 8....................... 212 Gambar 9.............................. Gambar 8................ I RL.....16 Rangkaian Fourier Segitiga............................................... 211 Gambar 9.... 209 Gambar 9......................................14 Lissajous RL dan Rc frekuensi 300 HZ........................................................................................................ 212 Gambar 9.............................................................. Gambar 8...........24 Grafik Vin.6 Fungsi Sinus R-C.....3 Fungsi Tangga R-L........... 210 Gambar 9..................... Gambar 8............18 Lissajous RL dan RC frekuensi resonansi...........................9 Tanggapan tegangan dan arus RLC paralel........ I RR.................................. IR.............. 212 Gambar 9................................. Gambar 9............. I RL............................... I RR.............20 Kurva Lissajous RL.8 Rangkaian RLC Paralel............. I RR............................................. I RC perhitungan F 8383 HZ......13 Rangkaian RLC Paralel....................23 Kurva Lissajous RL...................................... Gambar 8............. 213 xiii ............. 208 Gambar 9..........22 Kurva Lissajous RC..... 210 Gambar 9......................11 Rangkaian Percobaan Filter tipe LPF.....9 Rangkaian 2 pintu tipe phi....................................... Gambar 8...... 211 Gambar 9......................... 213 Gambar 9................................................................................19 Grafik VIN......2 Magnetik kopling polaritas beda.... Gambar 8... Gambar 8...........7 Rangkaian RLC Seri.4 Fungsi Sinus R-L...............10 Rangkaian 2 pintu tipe T..5 Tangga R-C............... 210 Gambar 9............... IC hasil perhitungan f = 8007 Hz............... Gambar 8......................14 Rangkaian Percobaan Fourier Sinusoidal.. Gambar 8............... I RC perhitungan F 300 HZ........................13 Rangkaian Percobaan Filter tipe HPF....... I RL..........................................................17 Grafik VIN...... I RC frekuensi resonansi........15 Grafik VIN..................................21 Grafik Vin............. Gambar 8........10 Proses penggambaran Lissajous....................... Gambar 8........................... IL..........1 Magnetik kopling polaritas sama........ 212 Gambar 9.....Gambar 8...... Gambar 8...12 Kurva Lissajous Serong Kiri............................................ 208 Gambar 9............................ 209 Gambar 9....... Gambar 8...................15 Rangkaian Fourier Kotak ............................12 Rangkaian Percobaan Filter tipe BPF................ 209 Gambar 9..............11 Mencari Beda Fasa Serong Kanan........................................... IC hasil perhitungan f = 2422 Hz.................

......................... 296 Gambar 9.............46 Spektrum Sinyal Gelombang Kotak....................................................................................... 300 Gambar 9........................... 289 Gambar 9................Gambar 9..... 213 Gambar 9.................. 321 Gambar 9...............................................29 Rangkaian Thevenin Norton..33 Respon Transien Masukan Fungsi Sinus Rangkaian R-L.........................28 Rangkaian Norton............................. 278 Gambar 9...........................21 Rangkaian Kurva Histerisis..39 Rangkaian dua pintu bentuk T............................................................... 282 Gambar 9................................... 322 xiv .....................................48 Spektrum Frekuensi Gelombang Segitiga............................................ 315 Gambar 9..........................24 Rangkaian Superposisi. 271 Gambar 9.43 Rangkaian Percobaan Fourier Sinusoidal......................41 Rangkaian Filter BPF.............................................. 304 Gambar 9......38 Rangkaian dua pintu bentuk phi......... 318 Gambar 9.........42 Rangkaian Filter HPF..................... 315 Gambar 9...................................................... 285 Gambar 9.. 214 Gambar 9........................27 Rangkaian Thevenin..... 216 Gambar 9...... 217 Gambar 9................................ 215 Gambar 9...........................30 Magnetik Coupling Polaritas Sama................ 292 Gambar 9.............................. 216 Gambar 9........35 Respon Transien masukan Fungsi Sinus R-C........ 307 Gambar 9................................................................40 Rangkaian Filter LPF..................................... 216 Gambar 9.............................. 311 Gambar 9............................47 Rangkaian Percobaan Fourier Segitiga..........................34 Respon Transien Masukan Fungsi Tangga Rangkaian R-C..................23 Rangkaian Natural RLC Paralel.................. 267 Gambar 9............... 217 Gambar 9.17 Rangkaian Laplace Tangga.................................26 Rangkaian Kompensasi....31 Magnetik Coupling Polaritas Beda..................................22 Rangkaian Natural RLC Seri................. 274 Gambar 9.20 Rangkaian Laplace Segitiga....................... 318 Gambar 9............................................44 Spektrum Amplitudo Gelombang Sinus....37 Rangkaian R-L-C Paralel....... 215 Gambar 9................................. 217 Gambar 9............................................... 215 Gambar 9..... 213 Gambar 9................45 Rangkaian Percobaan Fourier Kotak..............................19 Rangkaian Laplace Gergaji..............................................32 Respon Transien Fungsi Tangga Rangkaian RL.....................................36 Rangkaian R-L-C Seri.............18 Rangkaian Laplace Exponensial................... 214 Gambar 9..............25 Rangkaian Resiprositas.................................

..................... 369 Gambar 9....................................... 371 Gambar 9........55 Rangkaian respon Natural RLC Seri..........................68 Rangkaian Norton................................................................................................................................ 369 Gambar 9.52 Rangkaian Percobaan Laplace Fungsi Segitiga........... 337 Gambar 9.... 352 Gambar 9...............64 Rangkaian Thevenin.. 339 Gambar 9.....61 Rangkaian teorema Kompensasi..................................51 Rangkaian Percobaan Laplace Fungsi Gergaji........................ xv 8 ............................Gambar 9...................... 325 Gambar 9....69 Rangkaian Pengganti Thevenin............66 Rangkaian teorema Norton................. 344 Gambar 9............................49 Rangkaian Percobaan Laplace Fungsi Step........................................................63 Rangkaian Percobaan Thevenin Tanpa RL.............................56 Rangkaian respon Natural RLC Paralel.................... 362 Gambar 9...... 331 Gambar 9............ 358 Gambar 9............1 Data percobaan rangkaian tangga................................................................53 Rangkaian Kurva Histerisis..................................50 Rangkaian Percobaan Exponensial........................54 Kurva Histerisis................ 355 Gambar 9... 341 Gambar 9......... 373 DAFTAR TABEL Tabel 2.71 Rangkaian Norton.................................................. 349 Gambar 9..................59 Rangkaian Percobaan Superposisi Sumber total..................62 Rangkaian Thevenin.........................................................67 Rangkaian Norton.. 373 Gambar 9.......57 Rangkaian Superposisi Sumber 1............72 Rangkaian Thevenin.............................................................. 366 Gambar 9...................................................................... 366 Gambar 9....................................................................................................................... 369 Gambar 9...... 334 Gambar 9....... 369 Gambar 9.60 Rangkaian Resiprositas............58 Rangkaian Superposisi Sumber 2.......................70 Rangkaian Pengganti Norton..................................65 Rangkaian teorema Norton.............. 372 Gambar 9...... 366 Gambar 9......... 328 Gambar 9..........................

..5 Tabel Perbandingan percobaan dan perhitungan..........11 Perbandingan perhitungan.....13 Perbandingan perhitungan dan percobaan.4 Data rangkaian percobaan ekuivalen norton................ 58 Tabel 4..........................................3 Data percobaan Kompensasi.. 16 Tabel 2......... 38 Tabel 3...7 Perbandingan pengukuran dan perhitungan......................8 Perbandingan perhitungan.. 65 Tabel 4...... 37 Tabel 3............................8 Perbandingan perhitungan I RL biasa dengan ekuivalennya...... percobaan dan simulasi EWB......... 51 Tabel 3............... 9 Tabel 2.................... 45 Tabel 3..... 67 Tabel 4.................6 Perbandingan R total rertera dan terukur....5 Nilai Resistor. percobaan dan simulasi EWB...............2 Data percobaan rangkaian jembatan seimbang.10 Perbandingan hasil percobaan resiprositas.1 Data percobaan besaran tahanan.............Tabel 2............... 69 Tabel 4.................... 71 Tabel 4.......... 65 Tabel 4...1 Data rangkaian percobaan rangkaian thevenin. 9 Tabel 2..................................................3 Data rangkaian percobaan ekuivalen thevenin........... 29 Tabel 2.7 Perbandingan nilai R terukur dan tertera.......... 46 Tabel 3......... 65 Tabel 4... 10 Tabel 2.. 31 Tabel 3...................... 24 Tabel 2...............10 Perbandingan nilai tegangan perhitungan............9 Perbandingan pengukutran dan perhitungan...............................................................4 Data percobaan Kompensasii 2 variasi... 39 Tabel 3...........................2 Data percobaan superposisi 3 variasi.....6 Perbandingan percobaan dan perhitungan................9 Perbandingan hasil percobaan dan perhitungan kompensasi. 28 Tabel 2.................. 11 Tabel 2......12 Perbandingan perhitungan..................... 37 Tabel 3............... 21 Tabel 2........ 65 Tabel 4....................... 71 xvi .............14 Perbandingan perhitungan........ 18 Tabel 2........................................ 12 Tabel 2...6 Data percobaan resiprositas......................3 Data percobaan rangkaian jembatan tak seimbang.... percobaan dan EWB............................. percobaan dan simulasi EWB... 38 Tabel 3............................................7 Perbandingan percobaan dan perhitungan ekuivalen thevenin...............5 Data percobaan resiprositas resistor ...............................2 Data rangkaian percobaan rangkaian norton.............. 8 Tabel 2...........................8 Perbandingan tegangan dan arus teorema superposisi............ 39 Tabel 3...........................4 Data percobaan rangkaian pembagi tegangan.............. pengukuran dan EWB.......

.... 106 Tabel 5............... 124 Tabel 6.....7 Perbandingan Nilai R ae rangkaian kubus...15 Perbandingan dengan EWB dan tanpa EWB..........2 Rangkaian ∆......... AB dihubungkan dengan catudaya....10 Perbandingan Nilai R pada rangkaian piramid..........8 parameter Y.......... 85 Tabel 5....12 Perbandingan Perhitungan dan percobaan EWB... 73 Tabel 4....... 79 Tabel 5....... 85 Tabel 5....................................... 130 Tabel 6...................................................... 88 Tabel 5... 100 Tabel 5.................................... 126 Tabel 6...11 Parameter T invers................ 74 Tabel 4....................................... 78 Tabel 4........................ 86 Tabel 5......11 Perbandingan teorema norton dengan ekivalen norton.13 Perbandingan Nilai R ad piramid...... 129 Tabel 6..............3 Data percobaan tipe T ..................... 125 Tabel 6...4 Rangkaian Transformasi piramida......8 Perbandingan Nilai R ae kubus berkonduktor....................6 Perbandingan hasil perhitungan dan percobaan...... CD dihubung dengan catudaya..................................1 Data tipe phi AB dihubungkan catu daya................................... 77 Tabel 4.........................................................................................................................4 Data percobaan tipe T ................ 124 Tabel 6......9 Perbandingan pengukura dan perhitungan ekivalen Norton........3 Rangkaian transformasi kubus......10 Arus pengganti....................................5 perbandingan hasil perhitungan dan percobaan.......Tabel 4...................... 125 Tabel 6........................ 85 Tabel 5.......10 Perbandingan teorema thevenin dengan ekivalen thevenin...................2 Data percobaan tipe phi CD dihubungkan catudaya................6 Nilai parameter Z.... 75 Tabel 4.......... 125 Tabel 6...............5 Knversi parameter......... 132 Tabel 6....................................................................................... 130 Tabel 6...............................................................9 Perbandingan Nilai R ae kubus dengan resistor....... 96 Tabel 5.14 Perbandingan Perhitungan dan percobaan EWB......11 Perbandingan percobaan dan perhitungan....................12 Perbandingan Nilai R ad .....................................9 Parameter transient T............................................................................................................ 110 Tabel 5.7 Dzz............. 131 Tabel 6...................... 113 Tabel 5........13 Perbandingan dengan EWB dan tanpa EWB................................................. 133 xvii ........................1 Rangkaian Y....... 116 Tabel 5.................14 Perbandingan Nilai R ad........................................ 76 Tabel 4........... 91 Tabel 5... 120 Tabel 5................................

.......................... Tabel 8...........................................19 Parameter transient T..........................22 Parameter H.................4 Perbandingan hasil perhitungan dan simulasi.......................15 Perbandingan V1 percobaan dengan perhitungan............................................................................13 Parameter hybrid invers-g....................................167 Tabel 7...5 Perbandingan hasil perhitungan dan simulasi.............................. 146 Tabel 6...........3 Perbandingan hasil perhitungan dan simulasi......18 Parameter Y..................................................................................................6 Perbandingan hasil perhitungan dan simulasi.............................24 Perbandingan V2 percobaan dan perhitungan.................................... 273 Tabel 9................................7 Perbandingan hasil percobaan dan perhitungan...... 135 Tabel 6................ 145 Tabel 6.... 294 Tabel 9... 287 Tabel 9....Tabel 6....16 Parameter impedensi Z.................8 Perbandingan hasil percobaan dan perhitungan......................................... 147 Tabel 6......... 140 Tabel 6........17 Dzz................... 136 Tabel 6..... 141 Tabel 6........................................... 144 Tabel 6..................................1 Perbandingan hasil perhitungan dan percobaan frekuiensi rendah...... 280 Tabel 9................................... 269 Tabel 9..21 Parameter T invers........ 283 Tabel 9............. 175 Tabel 8.........2 Perbandingan hasil perhitungan dan percobaan...........1 Perbandingan hasil perhitungan dan simulasi......2 Perbandingan hasil perhitungan dan simulasi........................1 Perbandingan hasil perhitungan dan percobaan............. 290 Tabel 9.....3 Perbandingan hasil perhitungan dan percobaan.................. 298 xviii .....20 Arus pengganti...............................25 Perbandingan V1 percobaan dan perhitungan............................. 276 Tabel 9..... Tabel 8..........................9 Perbandingan hasil perhitungan dansimulasi..............................3 Perbandingan hasil perhitungan dan percobaan frekuensi rensonansi........ 159 Tabel 7... 134 Tabel 6...........14 Perbandingan V2 percobaan dengan perhitungan.........2 Perbandingan hasil perhitungan dan percobaan frekuensi tinggi......................................................12 Parameter H......... 142 Tabel 6............................... Tabel 9.................................................. 143 Tabel 6...........23 Parameter g................................................ 141 Tabel 6..................................... 137 Tabel 6................................................................................................................................................ 148 Tabel 7....................

............20 Perbandingan hasil perhitungan dan simulasi.24 Perbandingan perhitungan dan simulasi................Tabel 9...12 Perbandingan hasil perhitungan dan simulasi.........................13 Perbandingan hasil perhitungan dan simulasi...........................................10 Perbandingan hasil perhitungan dan simulasi.. 302 Tabel 9....................................................................18 Perbandingan V perhitungan dan simulasi...............21 Perbandingan hasil perhitungan dan simulasi..................... 367 Tabel 9........ 319 Tabel 9... 360 Tabel 9..............15 Perbandingan hasil perhitungan dan simulasi.......................................................................... 319 Tabel 9............... 322 Tabel 9. 356 Tabel 9..................27 Perbandingan perhitungan dan simulasi...30 Perbandingan perhitungan dan simulasi.28 Perbandingan perhitungan dan simulasi............... 332 Tabel 9...26 Perbandingan perhitungan dan simulasi... 316 Tabel 9.... 305 Tabel 9............ 323 Tabel 9....................................14 Perbandingan hasil perhitungan dan simulasi................................29 Perbandingan perhitungan dan simulasi.....19 Perbandingan Vt perhitungan dan simulasi.11 Perbandingan hasil perhitungan dan simulasi......16 Perbandingan hasil perhitungan dan simulasi.... 326 Tabel 9......................................... 347 Tabel 9.....33 Perbandingan perhitungan dan simulasi................. 313 Tabel 9............... 370 Tabel 9.....32 Perbandingan arus hasil perhitungan dan simulasi......23 Perbandingan hasil perhitungan dan simulasi.....................22 Perbandingan hasil perhitungan dan simulasi...........31 Perbandingan hasil perhitungan dan simulasi...... 316 Tabel 9............................25 Perbandingan hasil perhitungan dan simulasi......... 329 Tabel 9......... 343 Tabel 9............... 309 Tabel 9..........................17 Perbandingan hasil perhitungan dan simulasi.... 350 Tabel 9......... 353 Tabel 9... 374 xix ..... 364 Tabel 9... 335 Tabel 9...........