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PENGOLAHAN LIMBAH PERTANIAN BERBASIS TEKNOLOGI COMPOSTING

PRESENTASI DISAMPAIKAN DALAM RANGKA KULIAH TAMU

DI FAKULTAS TEKNOLOGI PERTANIAN UNIVERSITAS BRAWIJAYA MALANG

PENYAJI

Maryono Budi Harjono

Lahir di Wonosobo pada 28 Maret 1963 Alumnus Fakultas Pertanian UGM 1989, Program Studi Mikrobiologi Hasil Pertanian Pengalaman: PT Dieng Djaya 1989 - 1997( Manager Pembibitan dan Composting) PT Zeta Agro Corporation 1997 - 2000 ( Manager QA dan R&D) PT Eka Timur Raya 2000 - Sekarang Deputi Direktur PT Eka Timur Raya

Overview
1.Pendahuluan Pengertian Limbah Pertanian Potensi Limbah Pertanian Komposisi Limbah Pertanian Pemanfaatan Limbah Pertanian Kompos dan Pupuk Organik 2.Bahan Organik Sebagai Sumber Pupuk Untuk Pertanian Limbah sebagai Sumber Pupuk Mengapa harus Limbah dan Composting Perlunya Teknology Composting Bagi Pertanian Keunggulan Komparatif Composting Untuk Pertaniam

3. Process Composting: Pengertian Composting Key Parameter Peran Mikroorganisme C/N Ratio Temperatur Suplai Oksigen Pemelihan Bahan Baku Kompos Tahap-Tahap dalam Composting Pre-Processing Active Composting Curing Compost Indicators Temperatur Time Criteria Product Spesific Criteria

4. Composting Technology

Klasifikasi Technology Composting Small Scale Composting Large Scale Composting Passive Pile Windrow Composting Aerated Static Pile In-Vessel Composting

5. Penutup

PENDAHULUAN

Pengertian Limbah Pertanian Biomassa dari tanaman dan/atau hewan setelah diambil hasilnya atau biomassa dari sisa-sisa kegiatan pengolahan hasil pertanian
Contoh

: Jerami, sekam, tongkol jagung, kulit kopi, kulit kacang, tongkol kelapa sawit, ampas tebu, kotoran ayam, bungkil kacang, dll

Potensi Limbah Pertanian

Berapa besar potensi yanga ada? Dari hasil pertanian:


Jerami; sekam Jagung Batang jagung; tongkol Kacang-kacangan Kulit polong kacang dll
Padi

Potensi Limbah Pertanian


Dari Industri Pertanian:

Gula/tebu ampas tebu; blotong Palm oil/Kelapa Sawit tandan sawit Industri kayu sawdust/moulding/grajen dll
Sampah rumah tangga Limbah organik pasar dll

Dari Rumah Tangga:


Potensi Limbah Pertanian


Total potensi Biomasa Indonesia 146,7 juta Ton per tahun Dari Padi setara dengan 150 GJ/tahun Industri Kayu 120 GJ/tahun Industri Gula 78 GJ/tahun Industri Sawit 67 GJ/tahun Sampah-sampah pertanian 20 GJ/tahun
Sumber: Zentrum for rationalle Energianwendung und Umwelt, ZREU

Potensi Limbah Pertanian

Jerami padi merupakan limbah pertanian terbesar diantara limbah pertanian lainnya Pemanfaatannya belum maksimal karena faktor teknis dan ekonomis.

Potensi Limbah Pertanian


Biomassa yang tersedia untuk pembangkitan energi di negara-negara ASEAN
11

Komposisi Kimia Limbah Pertanian

Komponen utama limbah pertanian adalah bahan organik Bahan organik Limbah pertanian umumnya tersusun atas senyawa lignoselulosa. Lignoselulosa memiliki 3 macam polimer yaitu:
Selulosa

(35 50 %) Hemiselulosa (20 35 %) Lignin (10 25%)

Selulose hampir tidak pernah ditemui dalam keadaan murni di alam, melainkan selalu berikatan dengan bahan lain yaitu lignin dan hemiselulose. Hemiselulose terdiri atas 2-7 residu gula yang berbeda. Hemiselulose berbeda dengan selulosa karena komposisinya teridiri atas berbagai unit gula, disebabkan rantai molekul yang pendek dan percabangan rantai molekul Lignin adalah polimer aromatic kompleks yang terbentuk melalui polimerisasi tiga dimensi dari sinamil alcohol (turunan fenil propane) dengan bobot melekul mencapai 11.000. Dengan kata lain, lignin adalah makromolekul dari polifenil.

Komposisi Kimia Limbah Pertanian


Bahan lignoselulosa Selulosa (%) Hemiselulosa ( %) Lignin ( %) --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Tangkai kayu keras 40-55 24-40 18-25 Tangkai kayu lunak 45-50 25-35 25-35 Kulit kacang-kanagan 25-30 25-30 30-40 Bonggol jagung 45 35 15 Kertas 85-99 0 0-15 Jerami gandum 30 50 15 Jerami padi 32.1 24 18 Buangan sampah 60 20 20 Bagas segar 33.4 30 18.9 -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Komposisi Limbah Pertanian

Struktur Kimia Selulosa

Struktur Kimia Hemiselulosa

Struktur Kimia Lignin

Dampak Limbah Pertanian

Dalam jumlah yang ekstrim berlebihan menimbulkan bau dan mencemari lingkungan Mengganggu keseimbangan ekosistem Berpeluang menjadi sarang berbagai penyakit bagi manusia, ternak, maupun menjadi sarang hama dan penyakit tanaman pertanian Membutuhkan biaya dan atau tenaga untuk pengelolaan/pembuangan

Memanfaatkan Limbah Pertanian

KOMPOS/MEDIA TANAM

Kompos dan Bahan Organik

Kompos = bahan organik yang telah mengalami dekomposisi sempurna Pupuk Organik = Pupuk yang dibuat atau berasal dari organisme hidup Kompos merupakan pupuk organik, namun pupuk organik belum tentu kompos

BAHAN ORGANIK SEBAGAI SUMBER PUPUK UNTUK PERTANIAN

Limbah Sebagai Sumber Pupuk untuk pertanian


Limbah

dari kegiatan petanian bisa mencapai 80 % dari total limbah Sektor peternakan menyumbangkan 5,27 kg/hari/ton ternak

Because of the intensification of animal production on a small area of land, there are increasing concerns about:

water quality resulting from higher nitrogen and phosphorous loadings; pathogens and antimicrobial compounds in the manure; foul odours and air quality from ammonia, methane and nitrous oxide emissions; soil quality because of potassium and phosphorous loading.

Bahan Organik Sebagai Sumber Pupuk untuk Pertanian

Bahan organik sangat mudah dikonversi menjadi pupuk melalui proses composting Composting merupakan proses yang amat berguna untuk memperbaiki dan menjaga daur unsur hara dalam tanah Composting menjadi menarik bagi pertanian karena teknologinya sangat mudah dan murah

Bahan Organik Sebagai Sumber Pupuk untuk Pertanian

Composting untuk pertanian:


Grass

Cycling Backyard Composting Mixed Waste Composting Agriculture Waste Composting

Perlunya Teknologi Composting Bagi Pertanian


Mengatasi

kendala pengelolaan lingkungan Ada keuntungan agronomi atas penggunaan kompos Mengatasi biaya tinggi dalam pembuangan limbah

Keunggulan Composting Untuk Pertanian

All materials necessary for composting, such as feedstock, bulking agents, water, space, air and time are already on the farm. Disposal of raw manure such as poultry waste has a negative impact on the environment. Composting reduces the weight, moisture content, odor and vector attracting qualities of manure and other farm generated wastes leading to a lower risk of pollution. Compost can be applied at convenient times of the year because it provides the farmer with greater scheduling flexibility. While an untreated waste must be applied and incorporated promptly to prevent nitrogen loss and nuisance conditions, compost is stable and can be stored safely.

Compost is an excellent soil conditioner. When applied to cropland compost adds organic matter improving moisture retention and soil structure, and reduces fertilizer requirements and the potential for soil erosion. Both compost and raw manure are good conditioners with some fertiliser value. Composting, however, converts the nitrogen contained in the manure into a more stable form. The nitrogen in compost is less susceptible to leaching and further ammonia losses. Highly bedded manure can have a high carbon to nitrogen (C/N) ratio. When applying this manure directly to land the high carbon causes the nitrogen in the soil to become unavailable to the crop. Composting reduces the C/N ratio to levels that are beneficial to plants.

Composting, if done properly, is an effective method of destroying pathogens. Properly prepared compost has been found to reduce soil borne plant diseases. The heat generated by the composting process reduces the number of weed seeds contained in the manure, resulting in a significant reduction of weeds over several years of application

The high cation exchange capacity (CEC) of compost leads to increased efficiency of chemical fertilizers by reducing nutrient leaching. Composting reduces the amount of on-farm organic waste that would have gone for disposal, thus decreasing waste collection, transport and disposal costs. Compost is a safe and effective bedding material for livestock. Zehnder et al., (1998) reported benefits of using compost as bedding material in cattle feedlots.

Organic waste can generate an income by selling the compost. Good markets can be found for high quality compost and there are a many uses for lower grade compost. Composting is one of the few methods available for quickly creating a soil-like material on eroded land. Soil erosion has a direct financial impact on food production and the economy. Furthermore, eroded lands can lead to the pollution of surface water because of agricultural runoff from croplands

PROSES COMPOSTING

Pengertian proses composting:


controlled exothermic bioxidative decomposition of organic materials by indigenous micro-organisms in a moist warm aerobic environment, leading to the production of carbon dioxide, water and a stabilized organic matter, defined as compost

the

Pengertian Composting

Key Parameter
Mikroorganisme C/N

rasio Supali Oksigen Kadar air Temperatur Ukuran partikel bahan pH

Proses Composting

Parameter Fisik
Temperatur
Ukkuran Porositas

partikel

Struktur
Texture

Peran Mikroorganisme
Ada

suksesi Mikroorganisme Ada berbagai macam Bakteri Fungi Actinomycetes

C/N Ratio
Proses

Efektif Jika C/N ratio 25 -40 Optimum pada C/N ratio 30 C/N terlalu tinggi proses lambat C/N terlalu rendah banyak N terbuang sebagai amonia atau nitrat

Temperatur

Suplai Oksigen
Composting

adalah proses aerob Composting heap harus memungkinkan pergerakan O2 dari atmosfir ke dalam tumpukan kompos Kadar O2 10 -15 % Kelebihan oksigen menunjukan over-circulating, biasanya menyebabkan penurunan suhu Kekurangan oksigen menjadi kompos anaerob dan menimbulkan bau

Recommended conditions for rapid composting Parameter


0

Range of values
45 - 65 >5 40 - 65 20:1 35:1 3-13 5.5-9.0

Preferred range
55 - 60 > 12 50 - 60 25:1 6.5-8.0

Temperature ( C) Oxygen concentration (%) Moisture content (% ww) C/N ratio Particle size (mm) PH

Pemilihan Bahan Baku Kompos


Manure

(Kotoran ternak): Catle Manure, Poultry Manure, Swine Manure Limbah rumah tangga Sisa Makanan, Campuran, Sampah Kebun, Bahan-bahan lain dari sisa-sisa tanaman Limbah industri kayu, kertas dan kardus, Limbah dari sayuran dan buah-buahan

Karakteristik Bahan Baku Kompos


Characteristics of common composting substrates Material
Manure Swine manure Cattle manure Poultry manure Horse manure Crop residues Fruit wastes Vegetable waste Municipal solid waste (MSW) Food waste Mixed msw Yard wastes Grass clippings Other materials Straw Sawdust Paper Cardboard Seaweed 19-65 8 53 12 200-750 563 17 100-150 80 Poor Good Poor Good 70 40-60 38 82 14-16 34-80 40-82 17 Average Good Good Average 62-88 80-95 20-45 11-13 Average Poor 65-90 67-87 22-46 52-60 9-19 11-30 12-15 29-56 Poor Poor Poor Average

Moisture content (% dry weight)

C/N ratio

Structure

Bahan Yang Tidak Disarankan


Menyebabkan

penyakit Menimbulkan bau Menarik serangga atau hewan pengganggu


Contoh: ikan busuk dan daging, produk susu, biji-bijian dari golongan gulma

Kombinasi Bahan Baku


Dimaksudkan

untuk membuat bahan menjadi ideal untuk proses composting Komponen untuk campuran kompos: Bahan pokok Suplemen/ Amandment Agent Bulking Agent Aditive Inokulan Activator Pengatur pH

Kombinasi Bahan Baku

Memilih campuran bahan


Method Materials Range (weeks)
Windrow frequently turned Passively aerated windrow Garden organic+ manure

Typical (weeks)

Curing (weeks)

26 - 52

36

18

Manure+ bedding

10-12

4-8

ASP

Bio-solids + woodchips

3-5

4-8

Tahap-tahap dalam composting

Ada 3 tahap proses composting: Pre-process Composting Active Composting Curing Phase

Pre-processing

Pre-processing or preparation of feedstock usually is necessary to create suitable conditions for bacterial action. It consists of three separate types of operation: separation or removal of oversize and dangerous materials and materials that cannot be composted; size reduction through chipping, grinding or shredding to create small particles; blending to adjust the carbon/nitrogen ratio, moisture content or structure of the materials to be composted.

Active Composting

Dimulai setelah dilakukan heap Tempertur naik dan mikroorganisme berkembang Perlu pengontrolan oksigen dengan cara pembalikan dapat juga dengan aerated system Temperatur merupakan indikator pertumbuhan mikrobia

Curing

Kematangan kompos sangat penting untuk meng optimalkan fungsi kesuburan dan perbaikan kualitas tanah Kematangan kommpos juga mengacu pada kesehatan tanaman Kompos yang dibuat dari bahan yang baik sekalipun akan berakibat buruk bagi tanaman jika digunakan sebelum matang

Curing
Compost must be cured for a minimum of 21 days

and must not reheat upon standing to greater than 20oC Compost must be cured a minimum of 21 days and organic matter must be reduced by at least 60 percent by weight Compost must be cured for a six month period In the absence of other tests, the six months curing period under proper conditions can be considered sufficient to achieve maturity

COMPOST INDICAITORS
Compost is deemed mature if it meets two of the following requirements: 1. C/N ratio <=25 2. Oxygen uptake less than 150 mg O2/kg organic matter per hour 3. Germination of cress or radish seeds in compost is equal to more than 90 percent of that of a control sample, and plant growth rate in soil/compost mix is not less than 50 percent of that of a control sample

Temperature time criteria


TEMPERATURE The compost product should be brought to a minimum temperature of 55oC for three consecutive days for aerated static piles or fifteen days with five turns for turned windrows in order to fulfil the requirements to further reduce pathogens. TIME The compost product should be exposed to a minimum composting period of 42 days and a minimum curing period of 30 days prior to distribution.

Product specific criteria refer to Pathogens


Organisms shall not exceed: Faecal coliforms: <1000 Most Probable Number (MPN)/g of total solids calculated on a dry weight basis, and Salmonella species: <3 MPN /4 g total solids calculated on a dry weight basis.

EVALUASI PRODUK KOMPOS


Kualitas kompos ditentukan oleh: Komposisi bahan yang dipakai Proses separasi bahan Kecukupan proses composting

Karakteristik Fisik Kompos


Uniform particle size < 12.5 mm for potting media and < 7 mm for higher grade compost Soil like Dark brown to black Less than one percent (dry weight) of particles < 4 mm

Particle size

Texture Colour Absence of inert material (plastics, glass and rocks)

Karakteristik Kimiawi

The chemical characteristics of compost are measured in terms of its:


value as fertilizer or soil amendment; potential toxicity to plants; organic matter content; moisture content; pH and soluble salts; water holding capacity.

Nilai hara Kompos


Typical Nutrient Value of Compost Nutrient Nitrogen Potassium Phosphorous

Dry weight
<1% up to 4.5% 0.5% to 1% 0.8% to 1%

Calcium
Magnesium

2% to 3%
2% to 3%

Sifat Kimia lainnya


Kadar

30 50 % pH 6-8 Soluble Salt 2 4 mmhos/cm Kadungan Bahan Organik 50 60 % WHC > 100 %

air

Karakteristik Biologis
Stabilitas

kompos Mikrobia pathogen Test Germinasi

Stabilitas
Ditententukan

aktivitas biologisnya atas sampel kompos yang cukup air dan oksigennya dalam keadaan dimana suhu tidak terlalu tinggi (> 50 C) dan tdk terlalu rendah (< 20 C) Ukuran yang dipakai adalah: Panas yang dihasilkan Pemakaian Oksigen dan Produksi CO2

Stabilitas kompos berdasrakan laju respirasi


Respiration rate Rating (mgO2/gVS/hr) 0 - 0.5 Very stable Characteristics Well cured No odours No continued decomposition Cured compost Limited odour potential Minimal impact on soil carbon and nitrogen dynamics Uncured compost Minimal odour production High phytotoxicity potential Very immature compost High odour and phytotoxicity potential Not recommended for growing plants from seed > 2.0 Un-stabilized material Extremely unstable Very high odour and phytotoxicity Not recommended for use

0.5 1.0

Stable

1.0 1.5

Moderately stable

1.5 2.0

Unstable compost

Germination Test
The germination test is used to determine stability and maturity. The cress seed germination test entails the germination of water cress seeds in a 5 percent compost water extract (on a weight basis) A germination index is produced by taking the product of percent germination and root elongation and dividing by 100. An index below 60 indicates the compost is stable.

Standar Kualitas Kompos


Tidak ada standar Kualitas Kompos yang bersifat Internasional Setiap negara mempunyai standar sendiri The CAN/BNQ 0413-200 provides a voluntary standard to the composting industry

Standar Kualitas Kompos

Compost Maturity

Very Immature

C/N ratio greater than 25, and/or stability test is greater than 12, and/or NH4 is greater than 500 and no nitrate present. Unstable compost Odors likely High toxicity potential Immobilization (tie-up) of available nitrogen Stability test greater than 6 and less than 8 and/or when nitrate is detected and is greater than 25 ppm N. Cured compost Odor production not likely Limited toxicity potential Positive impact on available soil nitrogen Well-cured compost No continued decomposition No odors

Immature

Moderately Mature

Mature

Very Mature

Standar Kualitas Kompos di beberapa negara


Test parameter Salt
Average nitrogen (mg/L)

Germany <2.5 g/l


<300

Australia <2 g/l


800

USA <2 mmhos/cm


100-300

Phosphate (mg/L)
Potassium (mg/L) Maturity Organic matter % pH Foreign matter

<1200
<2000 * >15 Declared Maximum 0.5% >2mm

<800
<1500 * >20 5-2.7 Maximum 0.5% >2mm

80-2500
500-2000 Solvita 7-8 >30 06-Jul (1%) 2mm

Keunggulan Pemakaian Kompos


reduced soil erosion, particularly in areas of exposed soils; increased water retention in the upper soil profile, thus reducing the frequency of watering; release of nutrients for plant growth, reducing the need for fertilizers; suppression of soil borne plant pathogens, reducing the need for fungicides and bactericides.

COMPOSTING TECHNOLOGY
Teknologi composting dapat diklasifikasi menjadi: Close/Open Composting Batch/Continues Composting Small/Large Scale Composting Pemhasan akan didasarkan pada klasifikasi atas dasar Small/Large Scale Composting

Small Scale Composting


Diadopsi

untuk kepentingan rumah tangga/skala

kecil Dilakukan dengan cara heap didalam/dipermukaan tanah, dalam tong, dalam kranjang, atau dalam drum Teknologi yang dipakai didasarkan pada ketersediaan ruang, jenis bahan baku, lingkungan, dan saran yang dimiliki

Summary of small-scale systems


System Turning Heat generation Vectors Duration

Heap

Easy

Rapid

Present

6 months - 1 year

Cage type + circular bins

Easy

Moderate

Present

6 months - 1 year

Block/brick bin

Easy

Moderate

Present

6 months 1 year

Drums

Very easy

Very rapid

Present

2 - 4 months

Composting Technology

Large Scale Technology


Large-Scale Composting dapat dilakukan dengan beberapa metode/System:
Passive

Pile Windrow Aerated Static Pile In-Vessel

Passive Pile Dilakukan dengan membuat tumpakan bahan


berukuran lebar 2 m x tinggi 2 m Aerasi dilakukan secara pasive mengandalkan pergerakan udara bebas Tidak ada pengaturan kadar air dan pembalikan Sangat mungkin terjadi proses anaerob Durasi proses sangat panjang bisa sampai 2 tahun Paling murah dalam hal labour dan equipment

Windrow Composting
Dibuat

heap spt pada Passive Pile system dengan ukuran yang lebih panjang sampai 30 -40 m Ada proses pembalikan secara teratur minimal 1 x seminggu Bisa dilakukan di open area atau beratap bergantung pada iklim Durasi proses 5 10 minngu tergantung pada bahan baku dan frekuensi pembalikan

Windrow Composting

Materials mixed and formed into windrows Windrows 7 8 wide, 5 6 tall, varying lengths Compost turned and mixed periodically Aeration by natural/passive air movement Composting time : 3 6 months

Aerated Static Pile (ASP)


Sama

seperti Windrow system namun aerasi dilakukan dengan memasang pipa perforasi disepanjang jalur kompos Ada fan untuk meniupkan udara ke dalam pile Laju aerasinya bergantung pada jenis bahan yang dipakai antara 200 500 m3 udara/jam Durasi proses 3 5 minggu Biaya energi untuk aerasi tinggi sehingga jarang dipakai pada skala farm

Aerated Static Pile

Perbandingan composting skala besar


Parameter Passive pile Windrow Process time 12 - 24 6 - 12 (month) Process Minimal Moderate (turning) control/manageme nt Potential for odour High generation because of anaerobic pockets Capital investment Low Passive windrow 6 - 12 Minimal Aerated Static Pile 3-6 High

Moderate only when Minimal (odour turning absorbed in top layers) Low Moderate

Minimal (with suck air)

High

Operation cost
Compost quality

Low
Poor

High (labour)
Moderate

Low
Low to moderate

High
Good Porosity/moisture (Pile can settle) Sludge, mixed wastes, manure

Important Porosity/stru Porosity/structure Porosity/structure parameters cture Materials targeted Leaves/yard Mixed wastes, Manure, seafood trimmings manure most widely wastes used by farmers

In-Vessel Composting

More mechanically complex

More expensive
Smaller footprint (area) Relatively high operations & maintenance costs

In-Vessel Composting

Perbandingan Aneka Technolog Pembuatan Kompos


Technology Turned windrow Product quality average Process simple Speed short Capital & operational costs high Process control medium

Aerated pile

In-vessel

good

complex

shortest

highest

excellent