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Version 227 Unit 3 Exam vandenbout (51335) This print-out should have 27 questions.

ns. Multiple-choice questions may continue on the next column or page nd all choices before answering. 001 10.0 points Which compound should be most viscous? H 1. H C H H C H H C H H C H H 2. H O H C H correct H 3. O H C H H 4. H C H H C H H C H H C H H C H H C H H C H H C H H C H H C H H C H H C H H C H O H H O H C H O C H H C H H C H H C H H C H H C H H C H H O C H H H

2. Compounds with octahedral geometries do not have eight atoms bonded to the central atom. 3. Octahedral electronic geometries may have four atoms bonded to the central atom. 4. If a compound has a square planar molecular geometry, it corresponds to an octahedral electronic geometry. 5. Angles in compounds with octahedral molecular geometries are typically 90 and 180 degrees. 6. Octahedral molecular geometries always require sp3 d2 hybridizations. Explanation: Compounds with octahedral geometries have expanded valence shells. These are exceptions to the octet rule. 003 10.0 points

This question is merely a placeholder for the points in the hand-graded portion of the exam. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. yes CORRECT sure without a doubt absolutely do I have a choice?

Explanation: Explanation: You would predict that the most viscous compound exhibits the greatest amount of intermolecular forces, and thus contains the most O H functional groups (the more -OH groups, the more hydrogen bonding). 002 10.0 points Select the FALSE statement about compounds with octahedral geometries. 1. The central atom in compounds with octahedral geometries always obey the octet rule. correct This question is merely a placeholder for the points in the hand-graded portion of the exam. 004 10.0 points is more/less polar than SO2 3 because

SO2 4

1. more; the tetrahedral geometry increases the polarity of S O bonds O bonds 2. more; it has four polar S rather than three polar S O bonds. 3. less; the four polar S O bonds in

Version 227 Unit 3 Exam vandenbout (51335)

SO2 4 are symmetrical and cancel the dipole moments. correct

How many carbons are in this structure? 1. seven correct

4. less; it is a resonance structure. 2. ve 5. more; the four polar S O bonds in 2 SO4 are arranged non-symmetrically leaving a net dipole moment. Explanation: SO2 has no lone pairs on the central S 4 atom. It has tetrahedral molecular geometry. Each bond angle is 109.5 . The dipole moments cancel and the molecule is non-polar. SO2 has one lone pair on the central S 3 atom. It has pyramidal molecular geometry. The bond angles are not equal so the dipole moments cannot cancel. This molecule is polar. 005 10.0 points 3. four 4. six 5. eight Explanation: The carbons are all implied at the ends of the bonds (lines) and also where there are angles (bends) in those bond lines. 007 (part 2 of 3) 10.0 points Part 2: What is the hybridization of the atom show at the position labeled a ? 1. sp
s p p p ??? p

2. sp3 d2 3. sp2 correct 4. sp3 5. sp3 d Explanation: There is a double, a single, and one more implied single bond to a hydrogen which is 3 total electron regions which matches up with an sp2 hybridization. 008 (part 3 of 3) 10.0 points Part 3: Even though there are no lone pairs shown on this structure, how many lone pairs are actually there ? 1. four pairs 2. two pairs 3. one pair 4. none

The hybridized orbital marked ??? is of what type? 1. sp2 correct 2. sp3 d 3. sp3 4. sp Explanation: To make the hybrid orbital, the s orbital and only 2 of the 3 available p orbitals were hybridized, as evidenced by the fact that one of the p orbitals appears not to have been hybridized. The hybrid orbital thus produced would be sp2 . 006 (part 1 of 3) 10.0 points Part 1: Consider the line structure given below: a N OH

Version 227 Unit 3 Exam vandenbout (51335) 5. three pairs correct Explanation: The nitrogen needs one pair and the oxygen needs two pairs to give 3 total lone pairs in the structure. 009 10.0 points For which of the following is the type of solid INCORRECTLY given? 1. C6 H6 , molecular solid 2. KF, ionic solid 3. H2 O, molecular solid 4. Ni, metallic solid 5. CsI, covalent solid correct Explanation: CsI is an ionic solid. An ionic bond is a bond between a cation Cs+1 and an anion I 1 . 010 10.0 points A substance has a melting point of 1200 K. It conducts electricity while melting but not in the solid. This substance would be classied as 1. a metallic solid. 2. an ionic solid. correct 3. a covalent network solid. 4. a hydrogen bonded solid. 5. a molecular solid. Explanation: Ionic solids are held together by electrostatic attractions between cations and anions. In a melted phase, the ions can move and therefore can carry current. 011 10.0 points Consider the molecule CF4 .

1. It has four non-polar bonds and is a nonpolar molecule. 2. It has four polar bonds and is a polar molecule. 3. It has four anti-bonds and is a polar bear. 4. It has four non-polar bonds and is a polar molecule. 5. It has four polar bonds and is a non-polar molecule. correct Explanation: Fluorine has a very high electronegativity when compared to carbon. A covalent bond between two molecules with such dierent electronegativities is polar. The molecular geometry of the molecule CF4 is tetrahedral, and all the bonds have an equal dipole moment since they are all between the same atoms (C and F). The net dipole of the molecule is zero since all of the individual dipoles cancel each other out. A molecule with no net dipole moment is non-polar. 012 10.0 points If a molecule of AB2 has 2 lone pairs of electrons on A, what would you expect the B-A-B angle to be closest to? 1. 62.5 degrees 2. 109.5 degrees correct 3. 90 degrees 4. 120 degrees Explanation: This molecule ts the general formula AB2 U2 . These structures, which have 4 regions of high electron density, have tetrahedral electronic geometries, and they have bond angles close to 109.5 degrees. 013 10.0 points

Version 227 Unit 3 Exam vandenbout (51335) In the molecule H3 C C H3 C C CH3 CH3

the six carbon atoms (do, do not) lie in the same plane, and the bond angle at a doublebonded carbon atom is approximately how many degrees? 1. do not; 90 .

Unsaturated fats have at least one double bond. Along the fatty acid chain, there is a bend at each double bond. (Imagine an elbow.) Packing of such fats is less dense at the molecular level, and fewer dispersion forces are possible. This results in a less rigid substance. 015 10.0 points

2. do; 180 . 3. do; 90 . 4. do not; 180 . 5. do; 120 . correct 6. do not; 109 .

The bonding in metals like tin and lead is best described as (localized, delocalized) whereas the bonding in insulators or semiconductors (such as diamond or silicon) is best described as (localized, delocalized). 1. 2. 3. 4. delocalized; localized CORRECT localized; localized delocalized; delocalized localized; delocalized

Explanation: Metallic solids are solids composed of metal atoms that are held together by metallic bonds. These bonds are like huge molecular orbitals that span across the whole solid. Electrons are not just held between a few of atoms in a sigma bond. Rather, there is a sea of electrons everywhere. In covalent, molecular, and ionic solids, electrons are localized in bonds between atoms. 016 10.0 points

7. do; 109 . 8. do not; 120 . Explanation: 014 10.0 points What structural feature makes unsaturated fats less rigid than saturated fats? 1. Unsaturated fats have weaker covalent bonds along the chain; weaker covalent bonds result in reduced rigidity. 2. Unsaturated fats have a bend that reduces the strength and number of dispersion forces between molecules. correct 3. The statement is untrue; saturated fats are more rigid because their C-C bond lengths are shorter and stronger than for unsaturated fats. 4. The statement is untrue; saturated fats are more rigid because of their higher molecular weight. Explanation:

Use VSEPR theory to predict the shape of the molecule SeF6 . 1. linear 2. None of these 3. bent or angular 4. trigonal-pyramidal 5. tetrahedral 6. trigonal-bipyramidal 7. octahedral correct

Version 227 Unit 3 Exam vandenbout (51335) 8. trigonal-planar Explanation: geometry of SeF6 = ? The Lewis structure for SeF6 is

F Se


The molecule is an exception to the octet rule because Se has an expanded octet (12 e in this case). The six areas of high electron density make the molecular geometry octahedral. F

Explanation: The MO theory is a powerful theory that, based on Quantum mechanical calculations, and with the help of a powerful computer, can very quickly calculate the energies of electrons in a small or large molecule as the relative positions of the atoms of the molecule are moved relative to each other. This iterative calculation results in the lowest energy arrangement of all the atoms and all the electrons of the atoms in the molecule, thus leading to the prediction of the most likely arrangement of the atoms and electrons. Therefore, the shape, magnetism (pair or unpaired electrons residing in orbitals), and the energy dierence of the HOMO and LUMO can be calculated. 018 10.0 points Which of the following combinations of hybridization and molecular geometry is not possible? 1. sp3 ; tetrahedral 2. sp2 ; angular 3. sp3 d; linear 4. sp3 d2 ; octahedral 5. sp3 d2 ; angular correct 6. sp3 ; angular Explanation: Angular molecular geometries can only be formed from sp2 and sp3 hybridizations. 019 10.0 points A molecule with tetrahedral geometry must be nonpolar. 1. False correct 2. True Explanation:

Se F


017 10.0 points Which of the following are important contributions that MO theory makes to chemistry. I. The ability to use MO theory with a computer to calculate the minimum energy geometry of a molecule. II. The ability to predict the energy at which a molecule will absorb light. III. The ability to predict whether or not a molecule should be paramagnetic or diamagnetic. 1. only I 2. I and II 3. I, II, and III correct 4. only II 5. none of them 6. II and III

020 10.0 points Which molecular geometries can stem from

Version 227 Unit 3 Exam vandenbout (51335) tetrahedral electronic geometry? 1. trigonal pyramidal, seesaw 2. tetrahedral, trigonal bipyramidal, linear, angular, seesaw 3. tetrahedral, trigonal pyramidal, angular correct 4. only tetrahedral 5. tetrahedral, T-shaped, linear Explanation: Tetrahedral, trigonal pyramidal and angular are three molecular geometries that can stem from tetrahedral electronic geometry. 021 10.0 points Which of the following molecules is incorrectly matched with molecular geometry? 1. NH3 : tetrahedral correct 2. H2 O : angular 3. AsF5 : trigonal bipyramidal 4. TeF6 : octahedral 5. SiF4 : tetrahedral Explanation: The electronic geometry of NH3 is tetrahedral, but its molecular geometry is trigonal pyramidal. 022 10.0 points Which represents a false statement?

4. All angular molecules are sp2 hybridized. correct Explanation: Angular molecules can be sp2 or sp3 hybridized. 023 10.0 points What are all of the intermolecular forces that are responsible for the existence of ice? 1. dipole-dipole and London forces 2. dipole-dipole and ion-ion 3. hydrogen bonding and dipole-dipole 4. London forces 5. dipole-dipole, London forces, and hydrogen bonding correct Explanation: Ice is solid H2 O. This molecule exhibits dispersion. Because it is polar it also exhibits dipole-dipole interactions. Finally because of the H bonded to the electronegative O atom it also exhibits hydrogen bonding; this polar bond can orient and interact with the lone pair of an O atom on another H2 O molecule. 024 10.0 points

Examine the structural formula for aspirin.





1. All molecules with four regions of electron density have sp3 hybridization. 2. The sp2 hybridization corresponds to trigonal planar electronic arrangements. 3. All square planar molecules have octahedral electronic arrangements.

Each number identies a dierent functional group within the molecule. Which functional group includes only sp2 hybridized carbon atoms? 1. functional groups 2 and 3 only 2. functional groups 1 and 2 only correct

Version 227 Unit 3 Exam vandenbout (51335) 3. functional group 2 only 4. functional group 1 only 5. functional groups 1, 2, and 3 6. functional groups 1 and 3 only 7. functional group 3 only Explanation: The benzene ring contains 6 carbon atoms all of which are sp2 . The carboxylic acid contains a sp2 C . However, Group 3 also includes a methyl group which is sp3 . 025 10.0 points Which of the following molecules would be expected to have the lowest boiling point? 1. C2 H6 2. C12 H26 3. C8 H18 1. CH3 CH2 OH 4. CH4 correct 2. CH3 CH2 COOH 5. C16 H34 Explanation: These molecules are all very similar in that they are made up only of hydrogen and carbon. They are all covalently bonded, nonpolar, and cannot form hydrogen bonds. Therefore the only intermolecular force that attracts these molecules to each other are dispersion forces. Dispersion forces are generally stronger for molecules that have more electrons or are larger, so you would predict that the smallest molecule in this group (CH4 ) would have the weakest intermolecular forces and thus would have the lowest boiling point. 026 10.0 points A molecule with a central atom and two bonded atoms is bent with a bond angle of 117 . Assuming the central atom satises the octet rule, how many lone pairs does it have? 3. CH3 CH2 OCH2 CH3 correct 4. CH3 OH 5. H2 O 1. 3 lone pairs 2. 1 lone pair correct 3. 2 lone pairs 4. 0 lone pairs 5. 4 lone pairs

Explanation: Only a molecule with two singly bonded atoms and one lone pair (a pair of nonbonding electrons) would satisfy all of the constraints laid out in the problem, most notably the bond angle which implies trigonal planar geometry and thus 3 regions of high electron density (RHED). Since two of these are atoms, the third must be a lone pair. Example: NOH. 027 10.0 points Which of the following has the highest vapor pressure?

Explanation: The compound with the highest vapor pressure will be the one that most readily evaporates (the one with the weakest intermolecular forces). All of the choices exhibit London (van der Waals) forces and are also polar, so they can exhibit dipoledipole interactions. However, unlike the other choices, CH3 CH2 OCH2 CH3 does not have O H bonds and so cannot exhibit hydrogen bonding. Although CH3 CH2 OCH2 CH3 is the largest molecule, the higher London forces are not strong enough to counteract the lack of hydrogen bonding so overall it has

Version 227 Unit 3 Exam vandenbout (51335) the weakest intermolecular forces.