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# Author information Josh, LRT Josh.lrt@facebook.com // rtcoolman@live.

## Additional Mathematics Project Work W.P.K.L. 2013

Name: JOSH, LRT Class: SCIENCE STREAM PHYSICS CLASS IC Number: 940901 14 **** SPM Registration Number: WP043 A000

## Additional Mathematics Project Work W.P.K.L. 2013

Introduction A parabola is a two-dimensional, mirror-symmetrical curve, which is approximately Ushaped when oriented as shown in the diagram, but which can be in any orientation in its plane. It fits any of several superficially different mathematical descriptions which can all be proved to define curves of exactly the same shape. One description of a parabola involves a point (the focus) and a line (the directrix). The focus does not lie on the directrix. The locus of points in that plane that are equidistant from both the directrix and the focus is the parabola. Another description of a parabola is as a conic section, created from the intersection of a right circular conical surface and a plane which is parallel to another plane which is tangential to the conical surface. A third description is algebraic. A parabola is a graph of a quadratic function, such as or ( ) , where a, b and c is real number.

Conic Sections

The line perpendicular to the directrix and passing through the focus (that is, the line that splits the parabola through the middle) is called the "axis of symmetry". The point on the axis of symmetry that intersects the parabola is called the "vertex", and it is the point where the curvature is greatest. The distance between the vertex and the focus, measured along the axis of symmetry, is the "focal length". The "latus rectum" is the chord of the parabola which is parallel to the directrix and passes through the focus. Parabolas can open up, Parabola Components down, left, right, or in some other arbitrary direction. Any parabola can be repositioned and rescaled to fit exactly on any other parabola that is, all parabolas are geometrically similar. Parabolas have the property that, if they are made of material that reflects light, then light which enters a parabola travelling parallel to its axis of symmetry is reflected to its focus, regardless of where on the parabola the reflection occurs. Conversely, light that originates from a point source at the focus is reflected ("collimated") into a parallel beam, leaving the parabola parallel to the axis of symmetry. The same effects occur with sound and other forms of energy. This reflective property is the basis of many practical uses of parabolas. The parabola has many important applications, from a parabolic antenna or parabolic microphone to automobile headlight reflectors to the design of ballistic missiles. They are frequently used in physics, engineering, and many other areas. Strictly, the adjective parabolic should be applied only to things that are shaped as a parabola, which is a two-dimensional shape. However, as shown in the last paragraph, the same adjective is commonly used for three-dimensional objects, such as parabolic reflectors, which are really paraboloids. Sometimes, the noun parabola is also used to refer to these objects. Though not perfectly correct, this usage is generally understood.

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## Additional Mathematics Project Work W.P.K.L. 2013

The parabola was explored by Menaechmus (380 BC to 320 BC), who was a pupil of Plato and Eudoxus. He was trying to dublicate the cube by finding the side of the cube that has an area double the cube. Instead, Menaechmus solved it by finding the intersection of the two parabolas and . Euclid (325 BC to 265 BC) wrote about the parabola. Apollonius (262 BC to 190 BC) named the parabola. Pappus (290 to 350) considered the focus and directrix of the parabola. Pascal (1623 to 1662) considered the parabola as a projection of a circle. Galileo (1564 to 1642) showed that projectiles falling under uniform gravity follow parabolic paths. Gregory (1638 to 1675) and Newton (1643 tp 1727) considered the properties of a parabola. The earliest known work on conic sections was by Menaechmus in the fourth century BC. He discovered a way to solve the problem of doubling the cube using parabolae. (The solution, however, does not meet the requirements imposed by compass and straightedge construction.) The area enclosed by a parabola and a line segment, the so-called "parabola segment", was computed by Archimedes via the method of exhaustion in the third century BC, in his The Quadrature of the Parabola. The name "parabola" is due to Apollonius, who discovered many properties of conic sections. It means "application", referring to "application of areas" concept, that has a Parabola Compass connection with this curve, as Apollonius had proved. The focusdirectrix property of the parabola and other conics is due to Pappus. Galileo showed that the path of a projectile follows a parabola, a consequence of uniform acceleration due to gravity. The idea that a parabolic reflector could produce an image was already well known before the invention of the reflecting telescope. Designs were proposed in the early to mid-seventeenth century by many mathematicians including Ren Descartes, Marin Mersenne and James Gregory. When Isaac Newton built the first reflecting telescope in 1668 he skipped using a parabolic mirror because of the difficulty of fabrication, opting for a spherical mirror. Parabolic mirrors are used in most modern reflecting telescopes and in satellite dishes and radar receivers. Thus, parabola is important in our daily applications. Human should continue apply the knowledge of parabolas to lead us into a more modern society.

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## McDonalds Sign Board

Satellite Antenna

## Leeds Grand Mosque

Bellagio's Fountains

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## Additional Mathematics Project Work W.P.K.L. 2013

Vertex (0,0)

When the vertex is not at origin, ( ) 4( ) ( ) 4 ( ) Where (, ) is the vertex. is the key of solution to the vertex, focus, directrix and latus rectum.

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4 ( ) is chosen.

4 (0 0) 0 0

4 .

0 4 4

/ ( 0)

0.

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## Generation of different parabolas 0 No 1. Shape Information Equation

Vertex: (0, 0) Roots: original 2. Vertex: (0, 0) Roots: inverted 3. Vertex: ( , 0) Roots: 0, 0 shifted 5 units right 4. Vertex: ( , 0) Roots: 0, 0 shifted + inverted

. 4

4 0

0/

( ) ( ) 4( ) 4

4 ( 4 . ( ) 0

) /( 0) 00 0

( 4

( )

0)

( ) 0

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## 1.4 Determination the maximum distance / coordinates of point

From question, the information we have are: The bird can keep it balance up to a maximum gradient with magnitude of 2

, So

| |

4 (

4 4 4 4 ) 0 4 (

4 4 4 4 ) 0

The maximum distance from horizontal and vertical axes that the bird can walk without slipping downwards is up to the coordinates (

) or (

).

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## From question, the information we have are:

( , )

The construction cost for the required partition is RM 100 per meter square

To calculate the required area, the method involve are integration of curve to find bounded area along x-axis and area of triangle. 0 . [ 4 Construction cost, 4 00 0 ] 4 0/ ] 1 [ ( )( )]

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## Additional Mathematics Project Work W.P.K.L. 2013

1.6 Determination of capacity of the air conditioning From question, the information we have are: Temperature to keep constant 4 000 00 0

00

4 0 ( 0 0 ) ( 00) 00 ( 4 )

000

0
0 0

000

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## Additional Mathematics Project Work W.P.K.L. 2013

Part 2 2.1 Observations When a cylindrical beaker is filled with water until half full and circular motion of stirring process begins, the observations are as below: 1. When stirring, the circular motion of glass rod will form a spiral depth, which will increase in vertical downwards depth which reached the bottom of cylindrical beaker.

Cylindrical beaker

Spiral Movement 2D

## Spiral Water Movement 3D

2. Through observations, height of spiral motion ( ) increases toward bottom of cylinder beaker while the water level at the center is displaced more results increase in water level near the wall of the beaker.

## Direction of water moving to the wall of beaker

3. So, as the spiral motion of water goes deeper, the higher the displace of water level near the wall of beaker. 4. The vertical cross-sectional of water level forms a parabola as it goes deeper. At the same time, the water level near to the wall of beaker is increases to maintain the volume of water in the beaker which is constant. So, spiral movement of water forms various parabolas with different heights.

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( ( ( [ ( )

0) 0) 0) 0] ( )

( )

is

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## Additional Mathematics Project Work W.P.K.L. 2013

Part 3 3.1 Find Given and form a progression and distance between each cable is 0

0 , 0, , 0,

(0 ) ( 0) ( )

( 0)

Progression of

are

, , ,

) 4

( 4

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Formula of AP,

)
, ( ) ( )

## 3.2 Find the cost of 19th cable from a progression

4 4

Length of 1 meter cable is cost RM 100 Thus, length of 19th cable length is and cost

00

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( )

## Given length of cable is 4

is the value of y. 4 ( )

Since, only the cable on the right side of the origin needs to be repaired.

So,

4 4 4
Where is the value of

4 4
The 34th cable needed to be repaired.

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## Additional Mathematics Project Work W.P.K.L. 2013

Further Exploration Topics Chosen: Parabola in Physics In physics the equations involving variety of sections including graphing, physical defining, gravity, object falling and so on. This time, I gonna to explore about the object falling or release in a parabolic motion which known as projectile motion.

Projectile, is when a particle is projected under gravity at a velocity u at an angle to the horizontal (neglecting air resistance) it follows the curve of a parabola. This motion Projectile is a 2D motion due to exist of 2 components in the action of kinetic projectiles. The components are vertical (y-axis) and horizontal (x-axis).

## At Fx, the motion should be constant velocity (due to linear).

Diagram below is Oblique Projectile: What we can saw in the diagram is: 1. The is constant, because there is no any force [horizontal] acting on it. 2. The is changing, because the height of motion per second is different. [Decreasing towards maximum point and increasing towards same level of initial point] 3. At highest point of the trajectory: 0 but . 4. Acceleration is constant and vertically downwards. Therefore, .

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## Projectile Equations and Formula:

Symbol define: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Since, the gravity is equal to acceleration and it is always towards to the earth. Therefore the equation is derived as: . To calculate Y component, informations needed is: a. b. c. Given that, Since, maximum point is reached, final velocity of ( ) 0

0.

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## Additional Mathematics Project Work W.P.K.L. 2013

d. Since, an object is projected from a starting time and end with a ending time. Therefore, Given that, 0

## calculate time of HALF projectile for component Y.

e. Instantaneous Given that, can calculate at any time by using the formula below:

( )

## calculate time of FULL projectile.

To calculate X component, informations needed is: a. b. Instantaneous horizontal displacement at any time is ( ) c. To find Range, R which is the total distance from start point X to end point. ( ) ( )( )

So, by knowing the method to gain the projectile equation, you can find out any range, angle, height, speed required in order to project object from starting to its destination. It is important to applied in scientific field and kept as knowledge towards future.

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## Additional Mathematics Project Work W.P.K.L. 2013

Conclusion Parabolas have widely used sports, physics and architecture field. Human design a parabolic satellite station to transmit their data to stay connected with peoples around the world. Sportsman uses the physics theory to determine what the best angle, speed and direction they may create another record for the next competitions. Besides, it also applied in architecture and arts, design of bridge, building and also drawing in the art block. Thus, learning parabolas is actually fun and interesting. So, would like to thanks to this great man which involve in my further explore of parabola in physics - Galileo Galilei which found that all objects thrown form a parabolic path, no matter what. He deduced this by the simple observation of watching objects being thrown. Galileo is responsible for the modern concepts of velocity and acceleration to explain projectile motion that is studied today: A projectile which is carried by a uniform horizontal motion compounded with a naturally accelerated vertical motion describes a path which is a semi-parabola. Go deeply, the knowledge of parabolas is the key for everything especially in engineering field, graphs of parabola show many information which tends to make our world getting more modern one day.

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## Additional Mathematics Project Work W.P.K.L. 2013

Reflection

a complicated math equation combined with few equation and finally had derived into this level. weeks of time to complete this project. On the ,

of single

| -,

I had try all the best to answer the questions by finding the method, guide and the most important understanding. For this, I finally knew that why I am learning 4 , the important is to be improved and to maximize the human brain, the power to solve all the questions that is naturally unsolved. With this learning, we may able to find out the that is still in the Unsolved list in the log book written by Qian Xuesen, the Aerodynamics Scientist who had develop missiles, rockets, and flying technology a great inventor, discover person, a historical future person that can change the world.

, , , ,

Doing, deriving, solving, trying, continuous Overnight, seeking the solutions, finally ask for the pro, Found out the answer; blow out with a feeling, The nature of forest blossom with tears and cheers

( )

Understand the solutions, trying to applying on the questions, And.finally you are the success one!