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HAMDARD INTITIUT OF MANAGEMENT SCIENCES

BUSINESS RESEARCH METHODOLOGY – REPORT ON SLUMS OF KARACHI

METHODS OF BUSINESS RESEARCH


REPORT ON THE TOPIC OF

SLUMS OF KARACHI

Submitted to: Mr. AKTAR AHSAN

Submitted by:

3) MR. M. Faisal Panawala


(MEN-2200649)
4) MR. Muhammad Ashar Jameel
(MEN-2200344)

Submission Date:
23rd APRIL, 2007

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HAMDARD INTITIUT OF MANAGEMENT SCIENCES
BUSINESS RESEARCH METHODOLOGY – REPORT ON SLUMS OF KARACHI

TABLE OF CONTENTS

S/ NO. DESCRIPTION PAGE NO.

01. LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL 04


02. PREFACE 05
03. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 06
04. INTERNATION SCENARIO 07
05. HIGHLIGHTS OF UN REPORT 08

06. REVISITING KARACHI’S HERITAGE 10

07. POPULATION GROWTH CHART OF


KARACHI 12

08. GENERAL PATTERN OF POPULATION 12

09. MODERN KARACHI 13

10. SLUMS IN THE WAY OF KARACHI


KARACHI’S PROGRESS 14

11. ADULT MORTALITY IN SLUMS OF


KARACHI 16

12. DETERMINANTS OF CHILD MORTALITY


IN KARACHI 17

13. DEVELOPMENT SCENARIO IN SINDH 18

14. ROLE OF NGO’S IN SOCIAL SECTOR 21

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HAMDARD INTITIUT OF MANAGEMENT SCIENCES
BUSINESS RESEARCH METHODOLOGY – REPORT ON SLUMS OF KARACHI

23rd April, 2007

Mr. Akhtar Ahsan


Hamdard Institute of Management Sciences
Hamdard University
City Campus
Karachi.

Subject: LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL

Dear Sir,

With all due respect we are thankful to you for giving us a worth-while
opportunity to have the new experience which is not only fruitful in our present
but also will help us in future because of its practical nature and application.

Enclosed find herewith a term report for Business Research Methodology. This
report is prepared on Slums of Karachi. In order to make this report reliable,
authentic and near to the facts, we tried our level best to get as much information
from concerned people as we can.

Report is submitted for your kind perusal please.

1. Mr. Faisal Panawala ____________________

2. Mr. Muhammad Ashar Jameel ____________________

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HAMDARD INTITIUT OF MANAGEMENT SCIENCES
BUSINESS RESEARCH METHODOLOGY – REPORT ON SLUMS OF KARACHI

PREFACE

To fulfill the requirement of our report we four students combined together were
asked to make a group and prepare a research report on slums of Karachi. We
chose the area of Nazimabad, layri, Akhtar Colony, Khoprapar etc to conduct our
research.

During preparation of this report, all the members of the group completely
cooperated with each other. Each of us tried our best to incorporate and implement
all the aspects taught to us in the course.

Now, the decision about the authentication and standard of the report is in the
hands of our respected teacher Mr. Aktar Ahsan and we hope that our report will
receive a favorable consideration at our teacher’s hands.

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HAMDARD INTITIUT OF MANAGEMENT SCIENCES
BUSINESS RESEARCH METHODOLOGY – REPORT ON SLUMS OF KARACHI

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

First of All we are grateful to Almighty Allah, for his blessings that enabled us to
understand and undertake the opportunity for completing this report with the right
approach and sense of direction.

We wish to express our sincere thanks to Mr. Akhtar Ahsan the respected teacher
for giving us an opportunity to work on a practical approach project and giving us
the guidance to complete the same.

We would also like to thank all the friends, colleagues and concerned persons who
helped us in the preparation of this report.

Special thanks go to all of our team members who contributed in the formation of
this report in order to make it they tried their level best and each member collected
as much information as they can.

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HAMDARD INTITIUT OF MANAGEMENT SCIENCES
BUSINESS RESEARCH METHODOLOGY – REPORT ON SLUMS OF KARACHI

International Scenario

At least one billion people live in slums, with the highest


percentage of them found in Asia, Africa and Latin America,
according to a new report by the United Nations Human
Settlements Program (UN-HABITAT). The UN report The
Challenge of Slums: Global Report on Human Settlements
2003 was published on World Habitat Day, 6 October 2003. At
a press briefing, Anna K. Tibaijuka, UN-HABITAT executive director, told City Mayors
that at least 40 per cent of settlements in the world were classified as slums.

The UN General Secretary Kofi Annan said that slums represented the
worst of urban poverty and inequality. Yet the world had the
resources, know-how and power to reach the target established in the
Millennium Declaration. He appealed to the world: “It is my hope that
this report, and the best practices it identifies, will enable all actors
involved to overcome the apathy and lack of political will that have
been a barrier to progress, and move ahead with greater determination
and knowledge in our common effort to help the world’s slum dwellers to attain lives of
dignity, prosperity and peace.”

Key findings in the report show that Asia has about 550 million people living in slums,
followed by Africa with 187 million, and Latin America and the Caribbean with 128
million. While slums have largely disappeared in developed countries, the report still
found that there were approximately 54 million urban dwellers in high-income countries
living in slum-like conditions.

The UN findings also revealed that sub-Saharan Africa had the highest rate of slum-
dwellers with 72 per cent of the urban population living in slums, followed by South
Central Asia with 59 per cent, east Asia with 36 per cent, western Asia with 33 per cent,
and Latin America and the Caribbean with 32 per cent. Although the concentration of

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HAMDARD INTITIUT OF MANAGEMENT SCIENCES
BUSINESS RESEARCH METHODOLOGY – REPORT ON SLUMS OF KARACHI

slum dwellers is highest in African cities, in numbers alone, Asia accounts for some 60
per cent of the world’s urban slum residents. The report stresses the urgent need to do
much more to improve the lives of slum-dwellers.

Some highlights from the UN report

• Some 923,986,000 people, or 31.6 per cent of the world’s total urban population, live in
slums; some 43 per cent of the urban population of all developing regions combined live
in slums; some 78.2 per cent of the urban population in the least developed countries live
in slums; some six per cent of the urban population in developed regions live in slum-like
conditions.

• The total number of slum-dwellers in the world increased by about 36 per cent during
the 1990s and in the next 30 years, the global number of slum-dwellers will increase to
about two billion if no concerted action to address
the challenge of slums is taken.

• More than 41 per cent of Kolkata’s (Calcutta)


slum households have lived in slums for more
than 30 years.

• In most African cities between 40 per cent and


70 per cent of the population lives in slums or
squatter settlements. Many African cities will be
doubling their population within two decades. In a
city like Nairobi, 60 per cent of the population lives in slums which occupy about five per
cent of the land.

• While most slum-dwellers depend on the informal sector for their livelihoods, slum
populations in many parts of the world (for example in Pune, Pakistan and Ibadan,

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HAMDARD INTITIUT OF MANAGEMENT SCIENCES
BUSINESS RESEARCH METHODOLOGY – REPORT ON SLUMS OF KARACHI

Nigeria) quite often include university lecturers, university students, government civil
servants and formal private sector employees.
• About one out of every four countries in the developing world has laws that contain
clauses that impede women owning land and taking mortgages in their own names.
• All slum households in Bangkok have a color television.

Among the report's findings:

• Expectations of better access to education are unmet for most slum-dwellers; a


2003 study found that one in five children in the Nairobi slum of Kibera had no
access to primary schools
• Poor sanitation, described as a "silent tsunami", means illness and death are rife;
in one part of Harare, 1,300 people share one communal toilet with just six
squatting holes
• In Cape Town's slums, children under the age of five are five times more likely to
die than those living in the city's high-income districts
• Young adults living in slums are more likely to have a child, be married or head a
household than their counterparts living in non-slum areas

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HAMDARD INTITIUT OF MANAGEMENT SCIENCES
BUSINESS RESEARCH METHODOLOGY – REPORT ON SLUMS OF KARACHI

REVISITING KARACHI'S HERITAGE


Due to its legacy as an important colonial port city, Karachi is scattered with
innumerable examples of beautiful Victorian and colonial architecture. However, a lot of
it is in a state of disrepair and is threatened with decay and destruction due to unchecked
commercialism and misuse. These pages attempt to bring the classical heritage of
Karachi to light and discuss the threats presently faced by it.

COLONIAL PUBLIC
THE CHURCHES OF KARACHI
ARCHITECTURE

SADDAR AREA HERITAGE MC LEOD ROAD HERITAGE

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HAMDARD INTITIUT OF MANAGEMENT SCIENCES
BUSINESS RESEARCH METHODOLOGY – REPORT ON SLUMS OF KARACHI

CLIFTON AREA HERITAGE OTHER MID CITY HERITAGE

CENTRAL CITY and


BUNDER ROAD HERITAGE
BURNES ROAD HERITAGE

KEAMARI/PORTSIDE HERITAGE

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HAMDARD INTITIUT OF MANAGEMENT SCIENCES
BUSINESS RESEARCH METHODOLOGY – REPORT ON SLUMS OF KARACHI

KARACHI POPULATION GROWTH CHART

Increase/ Average
No. of Per cent
Decrease Over Annual
Year Population Years in Increase/
Last Census / Growth
Between Decrease
Survey Rate

1941 435,887 135,108 10 44.90 3.70

1951 1,137,667 701,780 10 161.00 11.50

1961 2,044,044 906,377 10 79.70 6.05

1972 3,606,746 1,562,702 11 76.50 5.00

1981 5,437,984 1,831,238 9 50.80 4.96

1998 9,802,134 4,540,422 17 86.29 3.52

Source: Government of Pakistan Census Reports.

GENERAL FEATURES

Name Karachi
Area 3527sq.km
Population Density 2795 per sq km
Average house hold size 7
Literacy rate 60%
Nos of town ; 18
Nos of diagnostic centre 55
Nos of treatment centers 111
Average public transport fare Rs.10 one way
Average time travel 45 minutes one way by public transport.
Large no of migrants who have flocked to Karachi in search of opportunities
Source: Ismat Ara Khusheed Deputy Director,PTP Sindh

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HAMDARD INTITIUT OF MANAGEMENT SCIENCES
BUSINESS RESEARCH METHODOLOGY – REPORT ON SLUMS OF KARACHI

The 1998 census results have yet to be tabulated and as such an age-sex pyramid cannot
be constructed. However, if one projects the 1981 census results by using the 1972-81
trends, then one can safely say that about 50 per cent of Karachi’s population is below 19
years old. What this means in social, economic, cultural and political terms, has yet to be
understood and catered to. It is also important to note that the census results have not
been accepted by the Karachi political parties which include the MQM, the Sindhi
nationalist leaders, the PPP, the ANP and the religious parties. There is a consensus that
Karachi’s population is over 12 million. The Markazi Jamiat Ulema Pakistan (MJUP) has
also pointed out that there are over 10 million national identity card holders and their
minor dependants in Karachi. The MJUP claim has not been verified or rejected by the
government.

MODERN KARACHI

While the inner and historic core city of Karachi


has dilapidated and decayed beyond recognition,
losing its former glory and splendor, Karachi
overall as a port city, has turned out to be a fine
city with great economic prospects. Presently
Karachi is a bustling port city of about 14 million
people and is the financial and industrial center of
Pakistan's economy. The city has very modern port facilities that handle the bulk of the
trade of Pakistan and the landlocked Central Asian countries. This city of ample sunshine
and cool sea breezes is also the melting pot of Pakistan where people from all provinces
come to make a living. There was a brief period
where violence dominated the life of Karachi,
but like any other great city, this transition
period has taken a back seat to opening new
horizons and new prospects for this ever-
expanding, ever-evolving city.

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HAMDARD INTITIUT OF MANAGEMENT SCIENCES
BUSINESS RESEARCH METHODOLOGY – REPORT ON SLUMS OF KARACHI

SLUMS IN THE WAY OF KARACHI PROGRESS


Karachi is Pakistan's biggest city and greatest hope,
with aspirations of becoming the next Shanghai. But in
the way of its rapid progress stands Asia's largest slum.
Slums sits in the heart of the financial capital, but plans
to transform it are being met with fierce opposition.
Every inch of the slum is occupied. Rows of corrugated
iron shacks are packed with the belongings of the hundreds of families who live here.
Young children play with stray dogs among the filth and rubbish. There is little sign of
clean drinking water and the sanitation facilities are appalling - up to 80 people are forced
to share one toilet.
Slums of Karachi like Layri, Akhter Colony, Korangi &
others bears all the hallmarks of Pakistan's most crippling
problems. Sixty-year-old Razman has been living in the
slum for 10 years. He invites our group members into his
tiny home. There is a small stove in one corner and a tired
old fan, if we stretch our arms out we could touch both
walls of the room that is home to the five members of his
family, including two small children.
"We want change and for conditions to improve for the
people who live here. There is nowhere for my
grandchildren to play but I cannot afford to move from
here," he says.

"My vision would be that it would be transformed into one of the better suburbs of
Karachi - it will be forgotten as any kind of slum - there will be state of the art modern
amenities and a lot of happy people living”, Karachi Government

But many of the residents have other ideas. They refuse to be transformed by
international companies who have little or no idea of their community and what it needs.

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HAMDARD INTITIUT OF MANAGEMENT SCIENCES
BUSINESS RESEARCH METHODOLOGY – REPORT ON SLUMS OF KARACHI

Their neighborhood may be plagued by a crippling infrastructure but at the heart of


Karachi is a bustling business district that generates up to $39m a year.
The tiny alleys that lead through the maze that
is Asia's biggest slum are packed with small
workshops. Here tanners thrash the hide of
freshly cut leather and paint the square strips
to be sewn into handbags. It's the kind of
business that keeps half of the residents like
Aslam Khan in employment.
"I would not be able to afford the cost of hiring a room outside Layri. If the plans of
demolishing Layri of Expressway project goes ahead, we will lose so much business," he
says.

Many are suspicious that the motivation to demolish Layri is purely about money. The
slum is a prime location for the financial capital, which makes the land its worth to be
weighted in gold.
Syed Ali grew up in Karachi's slums and now represents the slum dwellers in their fight
against the government's plans.
"Selling this land to the global market and giving it over for
commercial use - how will that improve our lives? Ninety per
cent of the people here want a stake in their future and a say in
how it is transformed. It has to work from the bottom up - not
top down. They have tried to tackle Layri before and never been
successful," he says.

Visitors to the slum are struck by the uniqueness of Layri - most describe it as being like
a city in itself, with a community of people living and working together which many wish
to preserve. In return for building tenement houses to shelter the former residents, the
chosen developer will win the right to build on the rest of the land. The plans could be
used as a blueprint to tackle poverty in the rest of Pakistan's slums. But the planners and
the government face a fierce battle. Close to where the slum sits is the main railway track

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HAMDARD INTITIUT OF MANAGEMENT SCIENCES
BUSINESS RESEARCH METHODOLOGY – REPORT ON SLUMS OF KARACHI

bringing trains from across Pakistan to its wealthiest city - and the slum dwellers threaten
to bring it to a grinding halt
Syed Ali says if the plans are given the go-ahead "all we have to do is simply step out of
our homes".
He explains: "We will completely block the railways. A hundred thousand of us will
squat there and bring the whole city and the whole of Pakistan to a stop."

ADULT MORTALITY IN SLUMS OF KARACHI

OBJECTIVE: Cause-specific death rates are rarely available to guide health


interventions for adults in South Asia. We report mortality patterns among Karachi's
urban poor.
METHODS: We conducted verbal autopsies for adult deaths under active surveillance
during 1990-1993 in five urban slums of Karachi. Two physicians (Dr. M. Amin
Panawala & Dr. Irshad Ali) assigned underlying cause of death by consensus. Analysis
included cause- and category-specific rates, 45Q15s and comparison with 1991 Japanese
national statistics.
RESULTS:
• All 345 adult deaths (15-59 years) in the 5 slums (total population 415,389) were
included.
• Male mortality exceeded female (4.4 vs 3.3/1000, p = .02).
• Noncommunicable diseases claimed 59% of deaths, communicable and
reproductive 27% and injuries, 15%.
• The leading identified death rates (/100,000) among women were: circulatory
disorders (66), maternal causes (33), tuberculosis (30), and burns (23).
• Among men they were: circulatory disorders (124) tuberculosis (30) and road
traffic accidents (30).
• Overall Karachi adult mortality was 3.7 times Japanese rate. Compared to Japan,
adults in Karachi had one to two orders of magnitude excess mortality due to
maternal causes, tuberculosis and burns.

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HAMDARD INTITIUT OF MANAGEMENT SCIENCES
BUSINESS RESEARCH METHODOLOGY – REPORT ON SLUMS OF KARACHI

• Circulatory disorders and tuberculosis accounted for 47% of excess male


mortality; these plus maternal causes and burns accounted for 55% of excess
female mortality.
CONCLUSION: These mortality levels and patterns compel interventions and
research for poor urban adults beyond maternal health. Women's health would
equally benefit from tuberculosis control or burn prevention. Men need safer travel.
Both need improved cardiovascular health.

DETERMINANTS OF CHILD MORTALITY IN SLUMS OF


KARACHI

Pakistan has an infant mortality rate (IMR) of 90.5/1000 live births, and the country's
child mortality level of 117.5 is worse than in other South Asian countries. Rapid
population growth combined with rural-to-urban migration has led to the creation of
urban slums in which morbidity levels are usually higher than in rural populations. A
study was conducted in January 1993 in 6 slums of Karachi where the Aga Khan
University has operated primary health care programs since 1985. Researchers recorded
the deaths of 347 children under age 5 years old due to diarrhea and acute respiratory
infections (ARI) during 1989-93. 235 mothers of these children were interviewed.
The following are discussed as risk factors for under-5 child mortality:
• the use of traditional healers
• poor nutritional status
• incomplete or no immunization
• the quick change of healers
• inappropriate child care arrangements, and mother’s literacy
• short birth interval, bottle feeding, and nuclear family structure

Maternal autonomy, appropriate health-seeking behavior, and child-rearing processes


identified in the study point to the need for intervention strategies which go beyond the
usual primary health care initiatives and involve communities in developing social
support systems for mothers.

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HAMDARD INTITIUT OF MANAGEMENT SCIENCES
BUSINESS RESEARCH METHODOLOGY – REPORT ON SLUMS OF KARACHI

The role of family health-seeking behavior in under-five-year child mortality was


explored through the combined approach of examining health-seeking behavior regarding
treatment generally, and in specific in relation to illness before death. A population-based
case control study was carried out during the period 1993–1994 using 222 deaths from
diarrhea and acute respiratory illness (ARI) in children under five years of age in six
slums of Karachi as cases, and 419 controls matched on age, disease (diarrhea and ARI)
and slum. Factors significantly associated (p<0·05) with child mortality in the
multivariate analysis were: mothers changing healers quickly, using a traditional healer or
an unqualified doctor and mothers to whom doctors did not explain the treatment, even
when maternal education was controlled for. Seeking effective medical services is highly
influential on whether the child survives or succumbs to ARI or diarrhea. As mothers are
the first providers of care, an attempt should be made to try and improve their skills
through health education so that they can use simple and effective treatments for minor
illnesses. They should also be taught to recognize potentially life-threatening conditions,
to seek care early and to persist with treatment.

DEVELOPMENT SCENARIO IN SINDH

A recently released report of the World Bank “Securing Sindh’s Future: The Prospects
and Challenges Ahead” has revealed startling facts about state of the governance and
socio-economic wellbeing of Sindh, particularly in rural areas. The whole document is
littered with hard evidences of depressing facts of development in the province, which
has been an all time major contributor of the national economy. Both at provincial and
federal level overall governance of Sindh seems to be the single largest factor of socio-
economic degradation of Sindh. This is tragic that a province which has been contributing
enormously in the economic health of country is suffering from negative growth in
almost every development indicator, even worst than that at the time of independence.

Sindh had 40% higher per capita income than Punjab and nearly 55% higher than the rest
of country. It gradually started declining in early 70s and touched to only 36% higher
in1991-92 and further fell to barely 16% by 2004-05. This downslide of incomes has

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HAMDARD INTITIUT OF MANAGEMENT SCIENCES
BUSINESS RESEARCH METHODOLOGY – REPORT ON SLUMS OF KARACHI

resulted in growth of poverty. During the last decade per capita income rise in Punjab and
NWFP was recorded as 1.6 and 2.3 percent, whereas Sindh registered only 0.9 percent
increase. It is worth mentioning here that a sizable number of people from these two
provinces are settled in Sindh. This impact has also been experienced at household level.
According to the World Bank estimates 81% of households in Sindh did not experience
any improvement in their economic situation as compared to the previous year, as against
72% in the rest of country.
While discussing the socio-economic indictors of Sindh a major factor of Karachi always
jacks up the figures. For example poverty in Sindh goes underestimated due to indicators
of Karachi where a sizable number of people from other provinces reside and are much
well of than the local population. For example Household Income and Expenditure
Survey-2001 (HIES) shows 36.7% poverty in Sindh. If figures of Karachi are excluded
the number touches to an alarming height of 48.4%. Likewise urban centers of Sindh
other than Karachi have similar poor indicators as the rest of rural Sindh. Hence socio-
economic indicators are much better in Karachi if compared with the rest of Sindh. This
shows skewed development in favor of urban base. In the long run this disparity will
bring negative implications for Karachi itself since this development gape will invariably
push people to migrate from rural areas to Karachi only to aggravate its nearly crippled
infrastructure and services. Urban slums haphazard growth is already at its worst. Though
all this should not lessen the concern for urban poverty yet it indicates towards the vivid
rural urban gape in the economy. The World Bank report also recognizes the fact that
both gender and geographical based disparities are a major area of concern. Considering
the both dimensions, the following facts are quite reflective.

• For every 100 boys being immunized in urban Sindh, only 70 girls get immunized
in rural Sindh
• 87% of babies are full immunized in urban Sindh as against only 62% in rural
Sindh
• For every 100 boys enrolled in primary schools of urban Sindh, only 43 girls are
enrolled in rural areas of Sindh.

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HAMDARD INTITIUT OF MANAGEMENT SCIENCES
BUSINESS RESEARCH METHODOLOGY – REPORT ON SLUMS OF KARACHI

In 2001-02 for the first time in history, the percentage of households below poverty line
in Sindh surpassed the rest of country. This has a direct bearing on other social indicators.
Taking literacy for example, during ten years from 1995-96 to 2004-5 literacy rate
increased by 61% in NWFP and 35% in Punjab, whereas the increase in literacy rate of
Sindh was only 24% i.e. 57% and 11% less than the two provinces. During the same
period the net enrollment in primary level increased by 34% in NWFP and 29% in
Punjab, whereas Sindh registered dismally low only 6% increase in the net primary
enrollment. This unfortunate situation is a result of bad policies and bad management of
resources. Public fund utilization in Sindh remained very low. According to the data of
the Finance department of Sindh, during last seven years nine out of 10 sectors
underutilized their allocated funds

ROLE OF NGO’S IN SOCIAL SECTOR


The NGOs can be involved at planning and implementation levels, which is still lacking
for which, the governments in the region carries greater responsibility. However, it
seems, the issue of donor dependence has been exaggerated in media as the research on
indigenous philanthropy conducted by the Pakistan Centre of Philanthropy (PCP) in 1998
did not verify the impression of donor dependence for the sector. The research revealed
that in Pakistan individuals gave estimated Rs70 billion in cash and goods while, foreign
aid for 1997-98 made up for Rs6 billion in grants. Comparing indigenous grants to
foreign grants, Pakistanis gave 30 billion in money alone, more than 5 times of foreign
aid. Although the figures for indigenous philanthropy in other countries of South Asia is
not available but the magnitude of this will not be much different in the other countries of
the region because of the faith-based social structure across the region.

The road map for working of the two sectors together can be touching the following
factors:
1. Choosing right projects: There is no shortage of potential projects for working
together. The key is to choose the right project; one that meets the criteria set out earlier,
and has real commitment from the two sectors to make it a success.
2. Committing the best: Ideally in fact, every project needs commitments from the

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HAMDARD INTITIUT OF MANAGEMENT SCIENCES
BUSINESS RESEARCH METHODOLOGY – REPORT ON SLUMS OF KARACHI

sectors involved. High-level local political commitment is particularly important. For


example, the progress achieved by the Grameen Bank in Bangladesh owes much to the
fact that it had a high-profile commitment shown by the Grameen Trust.
3. Identifying local support: This is extremely important to the success of a project. The
local NGOs have great potentials in leading on the ground by advising on local priorities,
contributing contacts, and offering a link to government and the local NGOs. The
collaboration with the NGOs have proved particularly fruitful for the people of rural
Malir, Karachi, Pakistan when Darsano Channo Union Council, Malir, and HANDS; an
intermediary NGO, built partnership to run the Jamkando Hospital.
4. Small packages: Small or medium-sized projects need to be packaged to attract
investor interest. Larger projects have their own dynamism. Smaller ones have
disproportionately higher transaction costs and political risks.
5. A balance between process and result: There are no short cuts to a government-NGO
partnership project. The public sector administration culture, being procedure/process
driven and the NGOs' voluntary culture, being missionary zeal driven, are fundamentally
different. Therefore, the culture and working style of the two sectors should be reconciled
in the greater benefits of masses.
6. Mutual trust: The government and NGOs have little experience of working together
except they have the reference of regulators and regulated. Partnership having the basis of
shared ownership, as well as responsibility makes a project successful.

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