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OBSTS

AIM OF OBSTs
TO ASSIST IN DESTR OF EN BY : DENYING APCHs AND ROUTES TO DELAY AND CAUSE ATTRITION

DISORGANISING EN PLANS OF ATTACK


RESTRICTING EN MOV AND CHANNELISING HIM INTO AN AREA ENHANCING DEF POTENTIAL OF EXISTING NATURAL OBST SYS

TYPES OF OBST SYS


AXIAL LATERAL PRIMARY BELT SUBSIDIARY BELT

LATERAL OBSTS
PRIMARY BELT. SELECTED AND ORDERED BY THE HIGHEST COMMANDER AND IS CONTINUOUS ACROSS THE ENTIRE FRONT OF THE FORCE HE COMMANDS. THIS IS A PRIORITY TASK FOR ALL ENGINEERS IN THE FORCE. SUBSIDIARY BELT. AN OBSTACLE BELT SELECTED AND ORDERED BY THE HIGHEST COMMANDER OR BY A LOWER COMMANDER OVER AND ABOVE THE PRIMARY BELT. IT MAY BE FORWARD OF, OR BEHIND THE PRIMARY BELT OR TO A FLANK.

MINE LAYING
THE PRINCIPAL FUNCTION OF MINES IS THE SAME AS THAT OF ANY OTHER OBSTACLE I.E. TO HINDER THE ENEMY, TO CREATE A SITUATION IN WHICH THE DEFENDERS CAN TAKE ADVANTAGE OF THEIR WEAPONS AND TO SEPARATE THE INFANTRY FROM ARMOURED ELEMENTS OF AN ATTACKING FORCE BY IMPOSING VARYING DEGREES OF CAUTION ON THEM.

TACTICAL CONSIDERATIONS FOR LAYING MINEFIELDS


CONTINUOUS OBSTACLE IN DEPTH. MINEFIELDS SHOULD PREFERABLY BE SITED ALONG WITH THE NATURAL OBSTACLES

COVERED BY FIRE. MINEFIELDS LAID SHOULD PREFERABLY BE COVERED BY SMALL ARMS OF THE INFANTRY BATTALION.
COORDINATED SITING OF MINEFIELDS. INDISCRIMINATE LAYING OF MINES CAN BE OF GREAT NUISANCE TO OWN TROOPS. SURPRISE. MINEFIELDS SHOULD BE WELL CONCEALED.

DENSITY. THIS WILL DEPEND ON THE TERRAIN CONDITIONSAND UPON THE PERCENTAGE CASUALTIES/DELAY DESIRED TO BE ACHIEVED.
DESIGN. FRONTAGE, DEPTH, DENSITY AND TYPE OF MINE FIELDS SHOULD BE DECIDED AFTER DUE CONSIDERATION ON ENEMYS CAPABILITY TO BREACH THE MINE FIELD,

DENSITY
DENSITY IS THE AVERAGE NUMBER OF MINES PER METRE OF FRONTAGE OF THE MINE FIELD. DENSITIES ARE INDICATED AS

ANTI TANK DENSITY. ANTI PERSONNEL DENSITY.

PRINCIPLES OF SITING
INTERPOSED ACROSS LIKELY AVENUES OF APCH. SITED AHEAD OF DEFs TO HINDER PENETRATION. AROUND DEPTH DEFs TO PREVENT DEEP PENETRATION CONTINOUS ACROSS ENTIRE WIDTH OF APCHs BYPASSING SHOULD NOT BE POSSIBLE SHOULD BE UNDER OBSN AND FIRE

PLG OF MINEFDS
FMN CDR LAYS DOWN IN OUTLINE PLAN : TK & INF APPCH APPROX ALIGNMENT DENSITIES LOC OF GAPS & LANES ALLOTMENT OF MINES EFFORT BY INF / OTHERS POLICY REGARDING AND DEF SECTs PROTECTVE MINEFDs WITHIN DEF As

COORD
IN FRONT OF BNs BY INF OTHER MINEFDS BY ARMD REGT CDR / ENGRS / FMN CDR GAPS / LANES / MARKING POLICY BY DIV CDR

LANES & GAPS


INF LANE. 2 FT / .6 MTR. VEH LANE. 20 FT / 6 MTRS. GAPS. MIN 100 MTRS. LANES & GAPS : UTILITY MOV OF INF PTLS. FWD DPLY OF TEMP POSNS. WITHDRAWAL OF COVERING SCREENS. COUNTER ATTACK.

TPS AND

TYPES OF MINEFDS
PROTECTIVE DEFENSIVE TACTICAL NUISANCE DUMMY

PROTECTIVE MINEFDS
OBSTRUCT PENETRATION INTO DEF LOCs, DEF POSTS, HABOUR AREAS. COVERED BY LMG & RL. NEAR EDGE OUT SIDE WIRE OBSTS.

MAY BE LAID BETWEEN FWD & DEPTH LOCs.


LAID BY TPS OCCUPING DEFs.

ORDERED BY CDR NOT BELOW BN CDR.


LAID BY ALL ARMS EXCEPT AC AND SIGS.

DEFENSIVE MINEFDs
OBSTRUCT PENETRATION BETWEEN DEF AREAS. PROVIDE DEPTH & DENS TO PROTECTIVE MINEFDS. COVERED BY MMGs, ATGMs, ARTY. NEAR EDGE OUT SIDE WIRE OBST. LAID BY ENGRS. PLANNED & ORDERED AT DIV LEVEL.

TACTICAL MINEFDS
CHANNELISE EN INTO KILLING AREAS. LAID TO FLANKS TO DISCOURAGE BYPASSING. MUST BE COVERED BY FIRE / PATROLLED. LAID BY ENGRS. PLANNED AT HIGHEST LEVELS.

NUISANCE MINEFDS
LAID ALONG EN ROUTES OF ADV /XG PLACES/ AA/FUP. SMALL FRONTAGE. RETROGRADE OPS. LAID BY ENGRS. RECORDS PREPARED.

DUMMY MINE FDS


LAID WHEN EN IS MINE CONSCIOUS.

RESPONSIVE / REACTIVE MINE FDS


RESPONSIVE MINEFDS. PLANNED BUT NOT LAID INITIALLY GENERALLY LAID BY MOGs REACTIVE MINE FDS. SITING NOT PLANNED INITIALLY GENERALLY LAID BY RDMs

TYPES OF MINES

TYPES OF MINES
ANTI PERS BLAST- MINE A PERS NMM 14

FRAGMENTATION - MINE A PERS FRAG M 16


DIRECTIONAL - MINE A PER M16 A1 (CLAYMORE) ANTI TK MINE A TK ND MK 1 MINE A TK MK 3 BAR MINE MINE A TK INFLUENCE ADRUSHY HPD F-2

MINE ANTI PERSONNEL NMM 14

MINE ANTI PERSONEL M 16

BAR MINE

INFLUENCE MINES
BASED ON HOLLOW CH (SHAPED CH) PRINCIPLE PHYSICAL CONTACT & PRESSURE NOT REQD. ACTIVATED BY SEISMIC VIBRATION AND OR CHANGE IN MAG FD VIBRATION. FULL WIDTH ATTACK.

BETTER WT/EXPLOSIVE RATIO.


contd

INFLUENCE MINES
ARMING DELAY-GETS ARMED ONLY WHEN PERS HAVE MOVED TO SAFETY DISTANCE. ANTI TRAWL DEVICE. OP LIFE - LIFE OF BTY. BLAST PROOF. ALD. REDUCTION IN NO OF MINES, PERS AND TPT

METHODS OF MINE LAYING


STRIP METHOD ROW METHOD SCATTERED METHOD CLUSTER METHOD

MINE FIELD

STRIP METHOD OF MINE LAYING


6* TP 4* 2* SSM 3* 6* 9* A PERS A TK FRAG ESM

PAK CLUSTER METHOD OF MINE LAYING


2 RADIUS
TP 3* 3* SSM ESM

MINE LAYING EQPT


MECH MINE LAYER UNIVERSAL FOR ND MK1 & 2 AND BAR MINES MINE PLANTING EQPT 2A FOR BAR MINES AND A PERS MINES MINE LAYING EQPT FOR INFLUENCE MINES

MINEFD LAYING RATES


ENGR MLP 700 MINES /24 H CYCLE INF MLP 500 MINES /24 H CYCLE DESERTS - LAYING RATES 70% MTNS - LAYING RATES 40%

PRESENT CONCEPT
EVAL OF EARLIER SYSTEM

SHORTCOMINGS IN EARLIER
SYS OF MINEFD PLG
(GRAPHS FE PAMPHLET NO 5 & ERPB 94) BASED ON Mk V HC MINES AND WIDER TR WIDTH.. ONLY DENSITY GIVEN FOR PARTICULAR OF ROWS NOT GIVEN. CAS % ; NO

INTRO OF NEW MINE NOT TAKEN INTO CONSIDERATION.


METHODOLOGY OF PREP OF GRAPH NOT KNOWN. TR WIDTHS OF TKS HAVE CHANGED SINCE.

ONLY EXTENDED FMN FOR NEGOTIATING A MINEFD.


COMBINATION OF MINES NOT TAKEN INTO ACCOUNT.

STOPPING POWER

STOPPING POWER
STOPPING POWER CAN BE DEFINED AS THE PROBABILITY THAT A TANK WILL GET DESTROYED WHILE CROSSING A MINEFD. IT IS EFFECTIVENESS OF A MINEFD RELATED TO PASSAGE OF TKS THROUGH IT AND IS EXPRESSED IN TERMS OF PERCENTAGE. IN OTHER WORDS IT MEANS POTENCY OF MINEFD.

HIT PROBABILITY
SYNONYMOUS TO CAS. IT IS THE PROBABILITY OF A TK GETTING DESTROYED IN A MINEFD. FACTORS AFFECTING ARE AS FOLLOWS: SIZE AND TYPE OF MINE TR WIDTH MIN WIDTH OF PRESSURE PAD FOR ACTAUTION SPACING BETWEEN MINES IN A ROW WIDTH OF A TK PROBABILITY THAT A MINE FUNCTIONS EFFECTIVELY/RELIABLY

EFF RG

EFF RG
EACH MINE HAS AN EFF RG WHICH CAN BE DEFINED AS THE DISTANCE WITHIN WHICH IF A TK TR COMES, IT WILL GET DESTROYED.

EFF RG - ND MKI

T1 W= TR WIDTH
W
6Cm

= 58 Cms
EFF RG = W +6 =64Cms

9 Cm

W+6

EFF RG -ND MKI

T1
W = TR WIDTH

= 58 Cm
9
6

EFF RG = W + 6

W W+6

= 64 Cm

EFF RG - ND Mk III

56 Cm
76 Cm

10

W = TR WIDTH
= 58 Cm EFF RG = W +56 = 114 Cm

W +56

EFF RG - ND Mk III

10

56 Cm 76 Cm

W= TR WIDTH

= 58 Cm
EFF RG = W +56

W +56

= 114 Cm

IN CASE IS THE ANGLE BETWEEN THE DIRECTION OF TK APCH AND MINE, THEN :-

Eff Rg = W + 56 Sin

EFF RG : INFLUENCE MINE= TK WIDTH(T)

PROBABILITY OF TK CAS (BASED ON SPACING)


Ser No Mines 30 1 2 3 ND Mk I ND Mk III Influence .11 SPACING (L) MTRS 24 .14 12 .11 .16 .28 9 .14 .21 6 .21 .32 3 .27 -

PROBABILITY OF TK CAS (BASED ON SPACING)

PROBABILITY(P)

= 2X EFFECTIVE RG SPACING

STOPPING POWER = 1- { (1-PROBABILITY OF CAS DUE TO MINE TYPE 1) X (1- PROBABILITY OF CAS DUE TO MINE TYPE 2) X (1- PROBABILITY OF CAS DUE TO MINE TYPE 3)}

SAMPLE CALCULATION
CONSIDER A MINEFD COMPRISING THREE ROWS
ROW ONE ND MK1 WITH DENSITY 1/6 ROW TWO ND MK111 WITH DENSITY 1/6 ROW THREE INF MINE WITH DENSITY 1/30 STOPPING POWER = 1-((1-0.21)x (1-0.32)x (1-0.11)) = 0.52 OR 52%

STOPPING POWER OF MINES ND MK I


TABLE FOR STOPPING POWER ND MK I MINES
S No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Row1 1/3 1/6 1/9 1/12 1/6 1/3 1/6 1/3 1/3 Row 2 0 1/6 1/9 1/12 1/6 1/3 1/6 1/3 1/3 Row3 0 0 1/9 1/12 1/6 0 1/6 1/3 1/3 Row 4 0 0 0 1/12 0 0 1/6 0 1/3 Total Dens 1/3 1/3 1/3 1/3 1/2 2/3 2/3 1 4/3 Mines/ Km 333 333 333 333 500 667 667 1000 1334 SP 28% 37% 36% 37% 49% 48% 61% 62% 73%

STOPPING POWER OF MINES ND MK III


SL No Row1 Row2 Row3 Row 4 Total Dens Mines/Km SP

1
2

1/6
1/9

1/6
1/9

0
1/9

0
0

1/3
1/3

333
333

53%
50%

3 4

1/12 1/6

1/12 1/6

1/12 1/6

1/12 0

1/3 1/2

333 500

50% 68%

STOPPING POWER OF MIXED ANTI TANK MINEFD


Ser Mine 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 ND MkI ND MkI ND MkI ND MkI ND MkI ND MkI ND MkI ND MkIII ND MkI ND MkI ND MkI ND MkI ND MkI ND MkI Row1 Dens 1/12 1/12 1/12 1/3 1/6 1/9 1/9 1/12 1/9 1/12 1/6 1/12 1/9 1/9 Mine ND MkI ND MkI ND MkI ND MkIII ND MkI ND MkI ND MkIII ND MkIII ND MkIII ND MkIII ND MkIII ND MkIII ND MkIII ND MkIII Row 2 Dens 1/12 1/12 1/12 1/12 1/6 1/9 1/6 1/12 1/12 1/12 1/6 1/6 1/6 1/6 Mine ND MkI ND MkI ND MkIII ND MkIII ND MkIII ND MkIII ND MkIII ND MkIII ND MkIII ND MkIII ND MkIII ND MkIII ND MkIII ND MkIII Row 3 Dens 1/12 1/12 1/12 1/12 1/12 1/12 1/6 1/12 1/12 1/12 1/6 1/6 1/6 1/9 Mine ND MkIII ND MkI Influence Influence Influence Influence Influence Influence Influence Influence Influence Influence Influence Influence Row 4 Dens 1/12 1/12 1/30 1/30 1/30 1/30 1/30 1/30 1/30 1/30 1/30 1/30 1/30 1/30 Mine/ Km 333 333 283 534 450 339 478 284 310 284 533 450 478 422 SP 40% 37% 41% 54% 53% 44% 64% 47% 46% 44% 67% 63% 64% 58%

REDUCTION IN REQMT OF MINES BY 30 TO 40 PERCENT.

ADVANTAGES BASED ON STOPPING POWER


A SCIENTIFIC METHOD FOR MINEFD PLG. GIVES CDR A QUANTIFIABLE PARAMETER IN TERMS OF STOPPING POWER OF EACH MINEFIELD LAID IN HIS SECTOR. FACILITATES SAVING OF MANPOWER AND RESOURCES.

CAPABILITIES OF EXISTING EQPT PROFILE CONSIDERED (BOTH IA AND PAK); HENCE MAKING STUDY USER FRIENDLY.
PROVIDES MULTIPLE OPTIONS TO CHOOSE BASED ON AVAILABILITY OF MINES.