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PROGRAM PENSISWAZAHAN GURU (PPG)

MOD PENDIDIKAN JARAK JAUH


IJAZAH SARJANA MUDA PERGURUAN DENGAN KEPUJIAN

MANAGING THE PRIMARY ESL CLASSROOM TSL3109

BAHASA INGGERIS MAJOR

INSTITUT PENDIDIKAN GURU KEMENTERIAN PELAJARAN MALAYSIA ARAS 1, ENTERPRISE BUILDING 3, BLOK 2200, PERSIARAN APEC, CYBER 6, 63000 CYBERJAYA Berkuat kuasa pada Jan 2012

Falsafah Pendidikan Kebangsaan

Pendidikan di Malaysia adalah suatu usaha berterusan ke arah memperkembangkan lagi potensi individu secara menyeluruh dan bersepadu untuk mewujudkan insan yang seimbang dan harmonis dari segi intelek, rohani, emosi, dan berdasarkan kepercayaan dan kepatuhan kepada Tuhan. Usaha jasmani ini adalah bagi melahirkan rakyat Malaysia yang berilmu pengetahuan, berketrampilan, berakhlak mulia, bertanggungjawab, dan berkeupayaan mencapai kesejahteraan diri serta memberi sumbangan terhadap keharmonian dan kemakmuran keluarga, masyarakat, dan negara.

Falsafah Pendidikan Guru Guru yang berpekerti mulia, berpandangan progresif dan saintifik, bersedia menjunjung aspirasi negara serta menyanjung warisan kebudayaan negara, menjamin perkembangan individu, dan memelihara suatu masyarakat yang bersatu padu, demokratik, progresif, dan berdisiplin.

Cetakan April 2013 Kementerian Pelajaran Malaysia


Hak cipta terpelihara. Kecuali untuk tujuan pendidikan yang tidak ada kepentingan komersial, tidak dibenarkan sesiapa mengeluarkan atau mengulang mana-mana bahagian artikel, ilustrasi dan kandungan buku ini dalam apa-apa juga bentuk dan dengan apa-apa cara pun, sama ada secara elektronik, fotokopi, mekanik, rakaman atau cara lain sebelum mendapat izin bertulis daripada Rektor Institut Pendidikan Guru, Kementerian Pelajaran Malaysia.

MODUL PEMBELAJARAN INI DIEDARKAN UNTUK KEGUNAAN PELAJAR-PELAJAR YANG BERDAFTAR DENGAN INSTITUT PENDIDIKAN GURU, KEMENTERIAN PELAJARAN MALAYSIA BAGI MENGIKUTI PROGRAM PENSISWAZAHAN GURU (PPG) IJAZAH SARJANA MUDA PERGURUAN. MODUL PEMBELAJARAN INI HANYA DIGUNAKAN SEBAGAI BAHAN PENGAJARAN DAN PEMBELAJARAN BAGI PROGRAM-PROGRAM TERSEBUT.

Cetakan April 2013 Institut Pendidikan Guru Kementerian Pelajaran Malaysia

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CONTENT

PAGE

Falsafah Pendidikan Kebangsaan Falsafah Pendidikan Guru Notis Hak Kerajaan Content Page Learners Guide Introduction Allocation of Topics

i i ii iii-vii viii-x xi xiii-xiv

SESSION 1: TOPIC 1 INTRODUCTION TO CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT 1.0 Synopsis 1.1 Learning Outcomes 1.2 Framework of Topics 1.2.1 The Concept of Classroom Management 1.2.1.1 The Function and Nature of Classrooms 1.2.1.2 The Role of Instruction as a Central Classroom Activity 1.2.1.3 Classroom Instruction and Management Practices 1 1 2 4 6

7 14

1.2.2 Teacher and Learner Roles in Effective Classroom Management 1.2.2.1 Responsibility 1.2.2.2 Accountability 1.2.2.3 Expectation 1.2.2.4 Consistency 1.2.2.3 Objectivity

13 14 15 16 20 21

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CONTENT

PAGE

SESSION 2: TOPIC 2 CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT: APPROACHES, THEORIES AND MODELS 2.0 Synopsis 2.1 Learning Outcomes 2.2 Framework of Topics 2.2.1 Approaches 2.2.1.1 Authoritarian Classroom Management 2.2.1.2 Behaviour Modification 2.2.1.3 Group Processes/A Social-Psychological View 2.2.1.4 Socio-Cultural 24 24 24 25 26

27 28 36

SESSION 3 and 4: TOPIC 2 CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT: APPROACHES, THEORIES AND MODELS 2.2.2 Theories and Models 2.2.2.1 Building the Foundation 2.2.2.2 Theories of Assertive Tactics 2.2.2.3 Theories of Democratic Teaching 2.2.2.4 Theories of Instructional Management 2.2.2.5 Theories of Congruent Communication

38 38 48 50 52 53

SESSION 5: TOPIC 3 MANAGING RESOURCES AND FACILITIES: RULES, EXPECTATIONS AND PROCEDURES 3.0 Synopsis 3.1 Learning Outcomes 3.2 Framework of Topics

55 55 55

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CONTENT

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3.2.1 Physical Classroom Environment 3.2.1.1 Organising Physical Space 3.2.1.2 Locating Instructional Space 3.2.2 Social Cultural Environment 3.2.2.1 Safe Environment 3.2.2.2 Creating Positive Environment 3.2.3 Conventions and Routines for Organising Instructional Time 3.2.3.1 Begining and Ending the Day or Period 3.2.3.2 Classwork / Homework 3.2.3.4 Monitoring 3.3.3.5 Feedback 3.2.3.6 Managing Pupil Location and Grouping

56 56 58 59 59 61

62 63 65 68 69 69

SESSION 6: TOPIC 4 COMMUNICATION SKILLS FOR CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT 4.0 Synopsis 4.1 Learning Outcomes 4.2 Framework of Topics 4.2.1 Communication Skills 4.2.2 Effective Communication 4.2.2.1 Effective Communication 4.2.3 Personal Characteristics of a Good Communicator 4.2.4 How Effective Communication Skills Help Build Good ESL Lessons 4.2.5 Managing Verbal Communication in the Classroom 4.2.6 Non-Verbal Communication 4.2.7 Managing Non-Verbal Communication in the Classroom v

72 72 72 73 73 74 76 77 78 81 82

CONTENT

PAGE

SESSION 7: TOPIC 5 OBSERVING AND RECOGNISING PATTERNS OF BEHAVIOUR 5.0 Synopsis 5.1 Learning Outcomes 5.2 Framework of Topics 5.2.1 Patterns of Observable Behaviour 5.2.2 Desruptive Behaviour 5.2.1.1 Violent Behaviour 5.2.1.2 Non-Violent Behaviour 5.2.1.3 Effects of Disruptive Behaviours on ESL Classroom 5.2.1.4 Reasons for Disruptive Behaviour 5.2.1.5 Managing Disruptive Behaviour 5.2.3 Non-Desruptive Behaviour 86 86 86 87 90

92 93 94 95 100 103

SESSION 8: TOPIC 6 DEVELOPING, MONITORING AND MAINTAINING PRODUCTIVE PUPIL BEHAVIOUR 6.0 Synopsis 6.1 Learning Outcomes 6.2 Framework of Topics 6.2.1 Productive Behaviour 6.2.2 Patterns of Procuctive Behaviour 6.2.3 Develop, Monitor and Maintain Productive Behaviours 6.2.4 Motivation 6.2.5 Encouragement 6.2.6 Criticism

105 105 105 106 107 109 110 113 114

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CONTENT

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SESSION 9 and 10: TOPIC 7 DEVELOPING A PERSONAL CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT PLAN 7.0 Synopsis 7.1 Learning Outcomes 7.2 Framework of Topics 7.2.1 Reflective Sessions 7.2.2 Approaches, Theories and Models 7.2.2.1 Teacher-Directed Approach 7.2.2.2 Collaborative Approach 7.2.2.3 Pupil-Directed Approach 7.2.3 Expectations 7.2.4 Rules and Procedures 7.2.5 Consequences 7.2.6 Communication Skills 117 117 117 118 120

121 123 124 127 130 131 133

REFERENCES APPENDICES PANEL PENULIS MODUL IKON

135 142 152 154

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LEARNERS GUIDE

INTRODUCTION This module has been prepared to assist you in organising your own learning so that you may learn more effectively. You may be returning to study after many years fr om formal education or you may possibly be unfamiliar with a self-directed learning mode. This module gives you an opportunity to manage your own learning and to manage the way in which you use your resource and time. SELF-DIRECTED LEARNING Self-directed learning requires that you make decisions about your own learning. You must recognise your own pattern and style of learning. It might be useful if you were to set your own personal study goals and standard of achievement. In this way you will be able to proceed through the course quite easily. Asking for help when you need it, ought to be viewed as creating new opportunities for learning rather than as a sign of weakness.

TARGET GROUP Bachelor of Education (TESL) Primary Education with Credit students registered with Institute of Teacher Education, Ministry of Education Malaysia who are following the Graduating Teacher Programme (Program Pensiswazahan Guru/PPG).

STUDENT INTERACTION HOURS

Based on Institute of Teacher Education, Ministry of Education Malaysia (IPG KPM) standard, students are required to complete 40 interaction hours for each credit hour. Estimated allocated learning hours are as in Table 1.

Bachelor of Education (TESL) Primary Education with Credit students registered with Institute of Teacher Education, Ministry of Education Malaysia who are following the Graduating Teacher Programme (Program Pensiswazahan Guru/PPG).

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Learning Activities

Allocated Learning Hour According to Course Credit 3 credit Without Practical (3+0) With Practical (2+1) (1+2) (0+3) 2 credit Without Practical (2+0) With Practical (1+1) (0+2) I credit Without Practical (1+0) With Practical (0+1)

Reading learning module and completing exercises / self directed tasks / practical Attending face-toface interaction (5 times) Practical Online Discussion Coursework Revision Practical/ Examination

70

60

70

62

70

65

10 7 20 10 2

10 10 7 20 10 2

5 5 20 10 2

5 8 5 20 10 2

5 5 15 5 2 40

5 5 5 15 5 2

Total Learning hours 120 80 * Practical will be carried out on Sunday or during an intensive course.

SEQUENCE OF SESSIONS/TOPICS IN MODULE The module is written in Sessions. Each session will cover a few topics. How long you take to go through a Session or a topic clearly depends on your own learning style and your personal study goals. There are tasks set within a topic to help you recall what you have learnt or to make you think about what you have read. Some of these tasks will have answers and/or suggested answers. For tasks without answers provided, you might find it helpful to discuss them with someone like a colleague or make notes of your answers and take them along to the next Tutorial Session. You may discuss with your lecturer, tutor or colleague via email if you face problems with the module. Tasks that have been set for Tutorial discussion or to be handed in during Tutorial Sessions will need to be completed before the tutorial takes place. Assignments that have to be handed in must be handed in according to schedule. This will be a means for you (and your Tutor) to know how much progress you have made in your course. You should bear in mind that the process of learning that you go through is as important as any assignment you hand in or any task that you have completed. So, instead of racing through the tasks and the reading, do take time to reflect on them.

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ICON

You will find that icons have been used to capture your attention so that at a glance you will know what you have to do. Appendix A gives you an explanation of what the icons mean.

Based on Institute of Teacher Education, Ministry of Education Malaysia (IPG KPM) standard, students are required to complete 40 interaction hours for each credit hour. Estimated allocated learning hours areAND as in ASSESSMENT Table 1. EXAMINATION

Another important component of this course is the project for School-based Assignment for the Major course only. This component recognises the fact that teaching in the classroom is an important of learning to Primary become a teacher. Hence, the assignments that you do for Bachelor of aspect Education (TESL) Education with Credit students registered with this component will form part of the overall of assessment your performance. is therefore Institute of Teacher Education, Ministry EducationofMalaysia who are It following the important that you approach this(Program assignment and all other Guru/PPG). coursework assignment with the Graduating Teacher Programme Pensiswazahan right attitude. The School-based Assignment will be given in a separate document.

There is an end of course examination that you will be required to do. The date and time will be made known you when you sign up for the course. The written is expected You will find thatto icons have been used to capture your attention so examination that at a glance you will to take place in an examination venue to be identified. know what you have to do. Appendix A gives you an explanation of what the icons mean.

Based on Institute of Teacher Education, Ministry of Education Malaysia (IPG KPM) standard, students are required to complete 40 interaction hours for each credit hour. Estimated allocated Here are some useful hints for you to get you going. learning hours are as in Table 1. 1. Find a quiet study corner so that you may set down your books and yourself to study. Do the same when you visit a library. 2. Set a time every day to begin and to end your study. Once you have committed a set time, keep to When you have finished module, continue read other prescribed Bachelor ofit!Education (TESL) Primary your Education with Credit to students registered with reference books or internet materials. Institute of Teacher Education, Ministry of Education Malaysia who are following the Graduating Teacher Programme (Program Pensiswazahan Guru/PPG). 3. Spend as much time as you possibly can on each task without compromising your study goal. 4. Revise and review what you read. Take time to recollect what you have read. 5. Consult sources other than what has been given to you. Do not accept information at face value. 6. Start a filing system so that you know where you have kept that insightful article! 7. Find a friend who could help you study.

INTRODUCTION

Welcome to Managing the Primary ESL Classroom session.

Graduating Teacher Programme or Program Pensiswazahan Guru (PPG) Distance Learning Mode (PPJ) English Language (Major) for Primary Schools, is one of the major subjects offered by the Institute of Teacher Education Malaysia (IPGM). It is offered to English language teachers who want to upgrade and enhance themselves in teaching English Language as a subject. There are fourteen modules offered for English Language (Major) for Primary Schools. This Module TSL3109 Managing The Primary ESL Classroom covers 45 hours. It has seven main topics which are spread across ten interaction sessions.

Session 1 covers Topic 1 Introduction To Classroom Management. It focuses on the concept of Classroom Management and the Role of teachers and pupils in effective classroom management.

Session 2 covers the first part Topic 2 Classroom Management: Approaches, Theories and Models. It focuses on the Approaches to Classroom Management.

Session 3 and 4 cover the second part of Topic 2 Classroom Management: Approaches, Theories and Models. This part of the topic focuses on the theories and models of Classroom Management. Session 5 covers the topic Managing Resources and Facilities: Rules, Expectations and Procedures. It focuses on the Classroom Environment, and Conventions and Routines for Organising Instructional Time. Session 6 covers the topic Communication Skills For Classroom Management. It focuses on Communication skills, Skills for effective communication, Personal characteristics of good communicators, Verbal Communication and Non-Verbal Communication, and Managing verbal and non-verbal communication.

Session 7 covers the topic Observing and Recognizing Patterns of Behaviour. It focuses on the Patterns of Observable Behaviour which includes Non-Desruptive Behaviour & Disruptive Behaviour. Session 8 covers the topic Developing, Monitoring and Maintaining Productive Learner Behaviour. It focuses on Student behaviours: Destructive and Non-destructive behaviours; Productive Behaviours group and individual; and Motivation, Encouragement & Criticism.

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Session 9 and 10 cover the topic Developing a Classroom Management Plan. It focuses on Reflective practice; Approaches, theories and models; Expectations; Rules and Consequences, and Communication Skills.

By going through all the sessions diligently and doing the tasks given, you will be able to enhance your knowledge in Managing the Primary ESL Classroom. You will also know your own strategies in developing a Personal CMP.

There are no prescribed course books and the sessions are designed to be self-contained. Before you begin working on the content of these sessions, we recommend that you should have access to certain reference books.

We are sure that you are looking forward to begin this module with excitement. It is interesting to refresh your memory and obtain new ideas and knowledge. You should read the input notes carefully. You should also do all the exercises and then check your answers with the notes in the module, reference books or your tutor. When you have checked your answers (and revised if necessary), go on to do the tutorial questions. Good Luck and Happy Working! Remember, Practice Makes Perfect!

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ALLOCATION OF TOPICS

Code & Name of Course: TSL3109 Managing the Primary ESL Classroom There are 7 topics in this module and are divided into ten sessions. The table below shows the allocation of topics through the modular learning or/and during face interaction.
Int. Hrs. Total no. of hours

Session

Topic Introduction to Classroom Management

Sub-Topic The Concept of Classroom Management - The function and nature of classrooms - The role of teaching as a central classroom activity - Classroom instructions and management practice Teacher and Learner Roles in Effective Classroom Management

3 6

Classroom Management: Approaches, Theories and Models

3 and 4

Classroom Management: Approaches, Theories and Models

Approaches - Authoritarian classroom management (Power Types and Power Bases) - Behaviour modification - Group process /sociopsychological - Instructional classroom management - Socio-cultural Theories and Models of Classroom Management - Building the Foundation (Skinner, Glasser and Gordon) - Theories of Assertive Tactics (Lee and Marlene Canter) - Theories of Democratic Teaching (Rudolf Dreikurs) - Theories of Instructional Management (Jacob Kounin) - Theories of Congruent Communication (Haim Ginott)

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Managing resources and facilities: rules, expectations and procedures Communication Skills for Classroom Management

Physical classroom environment Social cultural environment Conventions and Routines for Organising Instructional Time

Observing and recognizing patterns of behavior Developing, monitoring and maintaining productive student behaviour both individual and group behaviour

Communication skills Skills for effective communication Personal characteristics of good communicators Verbal and non - verbal communication Managing verbal and non verbal communication Patterns of Observable Behaviour Non-Disruptive Behaviour Disruptive Behaviour (Violent and Non-violent) Student behaviours: Patterns - Disruptive and non-disruptive behaviours - Productive Behaviours group and individual Student behaviours: Developing, monitoring and maintaining productive student behaviours - Motivation - Encouragement vs criticism reflective approaches, theories, models expectations rules and consequences communication skills procedures Total

3 6 3

3 3

6 3

9 & 10

Developing a Personal Classroom Management Plan

45 hours

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TSL3109 MANAGING THE PRIMARY ESL CLASSROOM

TOPIC 1 INTRODUCTION TO CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT

1.0 SYNOPSIS Topic 1 focuses on the concept of Classroom Management and the role of teachers and pupils in effective classroom management. It provides teachers with a brief description of classroom management, the function and nature of classrooms, the role of instruction as a central classroom activity, and classroom instructions and management practices. It also looks at teacher and pupil responsibility, accountability, expectation, and consistency in effective classroom management.

1.1 LEARNING OUTCOMES By the end of Topic 1, you will be able to: outline the concept of classroom management identify the functions & nature of classroom explain the role of teaching as a central classroom activity identify classroom instructions & management practices 1.2 Framework of Topics Introduction to Classroom Management
Concept of Classroom Management Function and Nature of Classrooms Instruction as Central Classroom Activity Classroom Instruction & Management Practices Roles in Effective Classroom Management Responsibility Accountability Expectations Consistency Objectivity

TSL3109 MANAGING THE PRIMARY ESL CLASSROOM

CONTENT

SESSION ONE (6 hours)

1.2.1 The Concept of Classroom Management As teachers it is your professional responsibility to manage your classroom effectively to provide meaningful and fruitful learning experiences to your pupils. What strategies should you possess to be effective and efficient in your classroom? Study the scenario below and suggest how you would manage this class: It is an English language lesson and Amin is copying an exercise from the board while the teacher walks around monitoring the pupils at work. One of his classmates Samy, reaches over and pokes his side. Startled, Amin jumps from his seat and this results in his exercise book getting scribbled. He pushes Samy and a scuffle follows (adapted from Hardin, 2008). An inept teacher, in a disordely, unsafe and hostile classroom environment as above, may not be able to provide favourable instruction and learning experiences to his pupils. The following are research findings on classroom management and instruction: poor classroom management skills and disruptive pupils were major reasons for teachers to perform badly. a safe and orderly classroom is essential for academic success. classroom management is the most important variable for pupil achievement. planning instructional strategies to facilitate learning and using classroom management techniques effectively is vital for effective instruction. (Marzano and Marzano, 2003)

Hence teachers need to posses effectual classroom management strategies to manage pupil behaviour and at the same time be able to create a safe, orderly and pupil-friendly environment to execute instruction productively (Manning and Bucher 2013).
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Albert and Troutman (1986) emphasised that the ability of teachers to provide a conducive environment for learning by cooperatively managing time, space, resources, and pupil roles and behaviours is the essence of classroom management.

In their definition of classroom management Manning & Bucher (2013) included strategies to provide physical and psychological safety in the classroom; techniques for changing pupil misbehaviours and instruction self-discipline; methods of assuring an orderly progression of events during the school day; and instructional techniques that contribute to pupils positive behaviours.

To summarise, the goal of classroom management includes not only a favourable climate that fosters pupils learning but also instructional and behaviour modification techniques that inculcate positive behaviour and self-discipline among the pupils.

In other words, the fundamentals of effective classroom management are the methods and strategies used to provide a safe and conducive classroom environment, instil self-discipline and prevent disruptive behaviours, maintain an orderly development of daily activities, and of course implement instruction successfully.

A positive and productive learning environment is the key to academic success and making sure your pupils feel they are in an environment that allows them to achieve is of utmost importance. It is your responsibility to control the environment and interaction in your classrooms so that time is not lost due to desruptive behaviours.

Keeping pupils focused in order to get the most out of their daily classroom experiences is also an important factor which can be successfully done through the employment of

TSL3109 MANAGING THE PRIMARY ESL CLASSROOM

different instructional techniques. Time lost to disruptive behaviour and the inability to keep the pupils focused on the core processes of learning can result in low achievement.

In managing their classrooms and executing instruction, teachers need to recognise options, make decisions and take actions based on their own attitudes, intentions, beliefs and values as well as researched educational theories. If teachers are unable to positively recognise options, make decisions and take actions they would be faced with a disorganised classroom. Undeniably, having poor classroom management skills would make teachers less effective instructional leaders as it could be difficult for them to conduct instruction and learning in a chaotic environment.

To be an effective classroom manager teachers need to observe positive behaviours, take into consideration the diverse nature of the classroom population and make appropriate decisions to facilitate and maximise pupils learning. This includes planning and preparing effectual instructional materials and activities, setting rules and procedures for classroom routines, as well as organizing and decorating the classroom to create a productive learning climate.

1.2.1.1 The Function and Nature of Classrooms The classroom generally functions as a place for the process of instruction and learning to take place. For pupils to be fully engaged in the instructional process, the classroom climate has to be conducive to their intellectual, social and emotional needs. It has to be a safe, friendly and comfortable environment for them to interact productively with the teachers and among themselves. According to Steele (cited in Ellen, 2002), to be an ideal place for maximizing instruction and learning, the classroom has to provide security and shelter, opportunities for social contact, symbolic identification, task instrumentality and pleasure.

i. Security and Shelter Although the classroom should be a safe and comfortable place for instruction and learning, it should not give a feeling of being inviting and soft. The classroom set up should not allow
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for any form of intrusion and interference, and at the same time it should not make available opportunities for privacy.

ii. Social Contact As for social contact, the furniture should be arranged in such a way that it allows pupils to communicate during classroom activities, be it pairwork or small group work. Arranging the physical setting for instruction is a logical starting point for classroom management because it is a task that teachers face before school begins. Teachers will find it easier to plan other aspects of classroom management once teachers know how the physical features of the classroom will be organized.

iii. Symbolic Identification The walls of the classroom should be a source of information for the pupils at all times. The walls should effectively communicate information about the pupils through their classwork and teachers through the types of information they post on them. Posters and charts created by the pupils should be displayed on the walls as a source of information and motivation for the pupils. There should be a bulletin board on the wall where teachers can rotate pictures that reflect the time or subject matter that goes with the instruction units so the pupils can see real pictures of the time. It would be helpful to tell pupils what is

expected of them and how to succeed in the class. Daily routines and procedures should be implemented and posted. A weekly calendar of assignments and due dates should also be visible. A consistent use of these things will make pupils familiar with them and achieve a sense of security in the classroom.

iv. Task Instrumentality In terms of task instrumentality, the classroom materials that would be used by the pupils should be made available on bookshelves in a neat, orderly way and arranged accordingly by topic and when it would be used. Pathways should be visible and pupils should have the ease to carry their books and place any unused books in their desks or shelves at the back
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of the classroom. The seating arrangement should allow for ease and clarity of viewing for all aspects of instructional presentations.

v. Pleasure To make it pleasurable for pupils to be in the classroom, the environment should have a pleasant and relaxing atmosphere. The walls should not be brightly coloured as that would be a source for distraction. The furniture should be neatly organised and the floors clean to promote a healthy and comfortable learning environment.

To be effective, teachers need to create a positive learning environment through actions and deeds. The foundation of a positive climate is positive interaction between teachers and the pupils and among the pupils. A positive environment encourages pupils to be excited about their school experience and about learning.

1.2.1.2 The Role of Instruction as a Central Classroom Activity The fundamental purpose of classrooms is to provide an environment for the process of instruction and learning. Instruction is the academic process of carrying out activities that induce learning among pupils. Effective instruction activities can motivate pupils to learn in ways that make a sustained, substantial, and positive influence on how they think, act, and feel.

Instruction activities in the classroom too involve interaction between the teachers and pupils as well as between pupils and pupils. Through these interactions teachers not only impart content knowledge and language skills, but educate pupils on social skills, relationships, self-discipline, values and beliefs. It is through instruction and learning activities too that pupils learn to communicate and develop confidence and self-esteem.

Hence, the role of instruction as a central classroom activity is to positively develop pupils and equip them with the knowledge and skills to be able to adjust themselves to society and the environment.
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TSL3109 MANAGING THE PRIMARY ESL CLASSROOM

1.2.1.3 Classroom Instruction and Management Practices Instruction and classroom management are not two separate entities (Manning & Bucher, 2013). A classroom that is well managed can act as a suitable setting for effective instruction and a well planned lesson which engages pupils in purposeful and meaningful tasks will support good behaviours in the classroom. Conversely, poor classroom management will not be supportive toward instruction even though a wide range of effective instruction strategies are used. Similarly, instruction with weak strategies may not work as expected even if the classroom is effectively managed.

i. Effective Classroom Instructions The primary role of teachers is to plan and deliver instructions effectively and efficiently. To be able to do so teachers need to make wise choices about the most effective instruction strategies to employ, which are: selecting appropriate teaching materials and devise suitable activities to facilitate pupil learning; and making effective use of classroom management techniques to ensure a conducive environment for learning with minimal disruptive behaviours. (Marzano, Pickering, & Pollock, 2001)

Effective classroom instructions thus constitute having: a wide array of instructional strategies at your disposal; being skillful at identifying and articulating the proper sequence and pacing of your content; and being highly skilled in classroom management techniques.

ii. Instructional Strategies Teachers need to employ instructional strategies that make the most of class time and keep pupils engaged. This involves: considering pupils attention span when planning instructional activities;
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TSL3109 MANAGING THE PRIMARY ESL CLASSROOM

alternating teacher-centered activities such as presentation and teacher modeling, and pupil-centered activities like practice sheets and independent reading; and familiarising pupils with transition times and procedures between activities like from small group activities to whole group instruction.

Besides these, teachers need to have a time limit for activities so that they can be carried out successfully. Excessively long or too short presentation and independent activities will negatively impact the overall effectiveness of the lesson as well as hamper the pupils full understanding of the concept being taught. Group tasks or hands-on activities that provide pupils with too much or too little time to finish will hinder pupil learning. If teachers are long-winded or the task takes too long to complete, pupils may become bored and tune out. Too easy a task, will result in pupils finishing before the allotted time, giving an opportunity for mischief. Teachers also need to prepare extra activities for pupils who finish tasks early to keep them actively engaged while the other pupils complete the task.

In addition, focusing on effective instructional strategies can prevent academic and behaviour difficulties and thereby facilitate increased pupil achievement, especially among poor and minority pupils who tend to lag behind their more affluent peers. The following are findings of researchers on effective instructional strategies: Effective teachers have higher rates of positive pupil responses. Pupils attending to academic tasks cannot at the same time be engaged in disruptive, off-task behaviour. Effective instruction minimizes disruptive behaviour through higher rates of academic engagement. (Espin, & Yell, 1994; Sutherland, Alder, & Gunter, 2003 in Regina & Daniel, 2007).
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TSL3109 MANAGING THE PRIMARY ESL CLASSROOM

Instruction that is effective in encouraging high rates of academic engagement and on-task behaviour is characterized by the following key features: Appropriate level of instructional material or task It is particularly important to provide pupils with planned, sequential instruction, materials and tasks at their appropriate instructional level. If information and materials are beyond pupils current skill level it will frustrate them and they may engage in behaviours that avoid engagement in the lesson (Wehby, Symons, Canale, & Go, 1995 in Regina & Daniel 2007). As a result, teachers may remove the instructional or task, or the offending pupils from the instructional environment. material

Too easy materials may result in pupils engaging in inappropriate behaviours out

of

boredom and lack of challenge. When pupils are provided with materials of appropriate levels of instructional difficulty, their on-task behaviour, task completion and comprehension increases (Gickling & Armstrong, 1978 in Regina & Daniel 2007). Studies show that pupils who are actively engaged and provided with frequent opportunities to respond to academic tasks are less disruptive and demonstrate improved academic skills (Sutherland & Wehby, 2001 in Regina & Daniel 2007).

Effective instruction is even more critical for at-risk pupils who display poor academic and social outcomes because they have fewer academic skills and require increased instruction in order to accelerate learning (Donovan & Cross, 2002 in Regina & Daniel 2007). Besides, the instructional environment may be experienced differently by them. As such, instruction has to be adjusted appropriately (e.g. more opportunities for practice and review, lower reading-level texts, books on tape, or small-group instruction) in order to increase successful learning opportunities for them. Feedback Effective instruction provides feedback for both the pupils and the teachers in a variety of ways: through discussion, in writing and non-verbally, but never solely through
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testing. Most importantly, the feedback serves to motivate both pupils and teachers, promoting an active learning situation. Teachers personal qualities Teachers personal qualities are also important for effective instruction. Having a mastery of the subject and the enthusiasm to impart the knowledge are paramount. Other essential characteristics are being approachable, accessible, a sense of humour and having respect for the pupils.

Effective teachers are always willing to seize the teachable moment. Teachers should take advantage of a pupil's question or observation, or some incident from real life and spin it into their lesson. Pulling all these together is genuine passion for teaching which effective teachers show when they enthusiastically and professionally engage pupils in lessons to help them learn and retain what is taught.

iii. Effective Classroom Management Practices Although effective instruction can reduce behaviour problems, it does not fully eliminate them (Emmer & Stough, 2001 in Regina & Daniel 2007). The primary purpose of classroom management is to gain control of the classroom so that pupils time in the classroom is optimised for learning. According to Brophy, (1983 in Regina & Daniel 2007) a good classroom manager adheres to three principles: be willing to accept responsibility for classroom control; advocate to long-term, solution-oriented approaches to problems and abstain from short-term, control responses; and endeavour to discover underlying personal problems (impulsivity, lack of awareness, home problems, etc.) for symptomatic behaviour.

Besides principles, Brophy also cited the following theoretical teacher orientations: the self-concept/personal adjustment orientated teacher encourages discouraged pupils, builds self-esteem by arranging for and calling attention to success and
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improving peer relationships; the insight (cognitive) orientated teacher spends time with problem pupils individually, getting to know them personally, attempting to instruct and inform them; and the behaviouristic teacher offers incentives, negotiates contracts, calls attention to and reinforces desirable behaviour.

Effective classroom management requires a comprehensive approach that includes structuring the school and classroom environment, actively supervising pupil engagement and implementing classroom rules and routines.

iv. Structuring the school and classroom environment To structure a classroom so that it supports positive pupil behaviour teachers need to have forethought and planning. To be highly effective, teachers have to structure the classroom environment so that it decreases the likelihood of inappropriate pupil behaviour, increases desirable pupil interactions, and sets up pupils for success. Effective classroom structuring requires attention to the following features: Creating a physical arrangement that eases traffic flow, minimizes distractions, and provides teachers with good access to pupils in order to respond to their questions and better control behaviour. Making efficient use of classroom time, including transitions between various classroom activities. Ensuring that the nature and quality of pupil interactions is positive by clearly communicating appropriate behaviours for particular classroom activities. For example, pupils may be expected to interact with one another during cooperative learning activities but not during independent work at their seats. (Paine et.al, 1983 in Carolyn and Weinstein 2006).

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v. Rules and routines The use of rules is a powerful, preventive component of classroom organization and

management plans. Rules establish the behavioural context of the classroom by specifying what behaviours are expected of pupils, what behaviours will be reinforced, and the consequences for inappropriate behaviour. Rules stated or worded positively to describe the expected behaviour, rather than what not to do, can prevent problem behaviour easily (Colvin, Kameenui, & Sugai, 1993; Kerr & Nelson, 2002 in Carolyn and Weinstein, 2006).

Guidelines for the construction of classroom rules indentified by educators are as follows: Rules should be kept to a minimum to allow pupils to remember them. Rules should contain language that is simple and appropriate to the developmental level of the pupils and classroom. Rules should be positively stated. Rules should be developed for various situations or contexts as needed. Rules should be consistent with the schoolwide behaviour plan. (Martella, Nelson, & Marchand-Martella, 2003 )

In addition to establishing rules, teachers also need to incorporate routines into their efforts to organize the classroom. Routines for turning in homework or engaging in small-group activities allow the classroom to run efficiently with fewer disruptions from pupils, thus enabling teachers to attend to other aspects of instruction. To be effective, teachers need to teach rules and routines systematically, not only at the beginning but also throughout the school year. Emphasize these rules and routines on occasions when increased violations are likely to occur (e.g., before school breaks) or if warranted by inappropriate behaviour. This type of instructional approach to social behaviour neutralizes the reactive or extreme approaches to behaviour management that ultimately are ineffective (Colvin et al.,1993 in Carolyn and Weinstein, 2006).

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After classroom rules and routines are established, strategies to acknowledge and encourage pupils appropriate use of these rules and routines must be incorporated into the classroom management plan. This include: specific, contingent praise; a token economy system, in which pupils earn rewards for behaviour; and behaviour contracts

Arranging consequences in order to increase desired behaviour is a critical component of effective classroom organization and management. Like all behavioural reinforcement, however, these strategies are effective only if they provide initial reinforcement in close temporal proximity to occurrences of the desired behaviour; also, they are more effective if they are linked to the classroom rules and expectations.

To be effective, teachers have to implement such strategies appropriately to manage classwide behaviour, the behaviour of targeted groups of pupils, and the behaviour of individual pupils as part of a comprehensive classroom-management plan. Teachers also need to be aware that no single strategy will be effective for every pupil at all times and in all contexts. Effective classroom management requires teachers to be adept at employing multiple strategies and to be skilled at recognizing when current strategies are ineffective and modifications are necessary.

1.2.2 Teachers and Pupil Roles in Effective Classroom Management Teachers and pupils have specific roles in effective classroom management. This topic will discuss the roles of teachers and pupils in terms of responsibility, accountability, expectations, consistency and objectivity.

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1.2.2.1 Responsibility It is the teachers responsibility to formulate a classroom management plan to facilitate the development of an effective learning environment. Teachers need to provide quality instruction which is an engaging and interactive learning experience for pupils; and organise classroom activities to meet pupils need for survival, belonging, power, fun and freedom. This can be done by involving pupils in class matters like deciding classroom rules and procedures; taking charge of classroom duties and resposibilities; making responsible choices regarding the lesson content; and demonstrating their accomplishments.

Another shared responsibility can be creating a discipline solution that would help pupils act more responsibly in the future (Kyle, Kagan, & Scotts, 2000 in Charles, 2002). Although teachers and their pupils can share the responsibility of formulating rules and consequences, it is the teachers responsibility to enforce compliance with the rules. It is also the teachers responsibility to manage and control pupil behaviours; develop positive relationships with pupils; and conduct activities that foster friendship and cooperation among pupils (Glasser & Dotson, 1989 in Charles, 2002).

Another vital duty is to communicate with parents and administrators of ongoing problems within the classroom before a situation gets out of control. This builds an atmosphere of trust and respect that motivates all parties to work together for the benefit of the pupils. Pupils too have an obligation in the development of a quality learning environment. A quality educational environment will exist only if all pupils: obey disciplinary guidelines, be fully engaged in classroom activities; and meet all behavioural and academic expectations.
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For example, in cooperative and collaborative learning environments, each pupil has to contribute for the success of the project. Other responsibilities of pupils are: to show respect for self and others which can contribute to a quality learning environment and reduce disciplinary distractions; not to be tardy as it is disruptive and can negatively impact the academic progress of the class; and to listen actively, which means to pay close attention to fully absorb what the teacher is saying, explaining or teaching.

1.2.2.2. Accountability Accountability is a crucial element for the effectiveness of classroom management. To maintain a positive environment in the classroom at all times, teachers and pupils have to be accountable for every action or behaviour that does not contribute to that environment.

Teachers are accountable if teachers hold pupils responsible for their work. If teachers give pupils work and do not check their work it demonstrates a lack of accountability. Checking pupils progress and providing pupils with timely feedback is the key to teacher accountability. Frequent feedback encourages pupils to persevere, whereas absence of feedback causes pupils to surmise that their work is not valued (Henley, 2006).

Ultimately, the goal of any accountability system is to help pupils develop into independent learners; thus, teacher procedures should give as much responsibility as possible to the pupils themselves, rather than having the pupils depend on either teachers or their parents to see that their work is completed.

Pupils on the other hand are accountable for their learning and behaviour (Manning & Bucher, 2013), and the mistakes they make (Charles, 2002). For example, in cooperative group activities pupils are held individually accountable for the intended learnings (Johnson et al, 1984 in Larrivee, 2009). Generally, the basis of pupil accountability consists of class rules of behaviour which they must understand and comply.
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Pupils are accountable for: communicating appropriately with peers and teachers, be it verbal or non-verbal paying attention in class and on task preparing materials they would need for classroom participation asking permission and procedures for various activities, including leaving the room when necessary behaving appropriately toward teacher requests and directions keeping the classroom clean and orderly being respectful at all times, and not being tardy (Seganti, 2008 in Charles et al, 2011)

In disciplining pupils, accountability means that there is an immediate consequence if something is not done or a behaviour is not acceptable, and that consequence must matter. In the case of disruptive pupils, they must be made accountable for any behaviour which does not contribute to the desired classroom climate. In the case of a consequence where the pupils have to come for detention class for a wrong doing, they are accountable to do so. If pupils do not take heed of a behavioural consequence, then the teacher has not made them accountable for their action.

1.2.2.3 Expectation Research shows that teacher expectancies on pupils behaviour and academic performance can strongly affect the academic achievement of the pupils. Teachers can form inaccurate expectations of their pupils and behave differently to various pupils. This may lead to them behaving just as the teachers have expected. In other words, pupils tend to conform to teacher erroneous expectations of their behaviour and academic performance. (Tsiplakides & Keramida, 2010).

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The following is a summary of the factors and sources that affect the formation of teachers expectations: Teachers beliefs about pupils ability and intelligence based on their performance Pupils socioeconomic background, gender, ethnicity and social class Pupils conduct in the school and classroom conduct Pupils test scores, and/or previous academic achievement An older sibling's performance on a younger sibling's performance (Carolyn and Weinstein, 2006)

According to Rosenthal and Jacobson (in Tsiplakides & Keramida, 2010) teachers can in subtle and unintended ways convey their expectancies of their pupils behaviour.

Listed below are some of the ways teachers might convey their expectations and the effects: Labelling pupils as less able based on their characteristics and using differential practices and behaviour can have a negative effect on ttheir personal judgments about teacher capabilities to provide effective instruction. Providing praise to low achievers for success in relatively simple tasks, while withholding blame for failure can have a negative effect on their pupils motivation and self-esteem as they may think that teachers have little confidence in their abilities and expect little from them. Adopting different questioning techniques based on pupil ability can convey that teachers expect much or little from the pupils. For example, there is a possibility that teachers might pay more attention to the answers of high achievers and wait longer before calling on someone else. Seating the able pupils in the front rows and the less able pupils in the back rows can convey expectations of high and low performance. Providing capable pupils more opportunities to perform publicly on meaningful tasks, giving them more choices in assignments, and showing them more respect as individuals is showing less care and attention to the less able.
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Interacting differently with high achievers tells the low achievers that they are not significant. Creating a warmer socioemotional climate for brighter pupils, such as smiling more often to high achievers can also indicate that the not so bright pupils are not important. (Tsiplakides & Keramida, 2010).

As pupils have different ability levels and require different instructional approaches, materials and rates, teachers cannot have the same expectations for all pupils and the same delivery of instruction to them all. Teachers should rather focus on the problems created when differential treatment is given to pupils. Differential treatment can either create or sustain differences in pupil performance which would probably not exist if pupils were treated more equitably.

The following are suggestions on how teachers can promote the communication of positive expectations: Create a classroom culture in which language errors are seen as a normal part of the language acquisition process. Fostering the belief that mistakes are opportunities for learning should be given priority (Dornyei, 2001). Use cooperative learning in small groups to complete projects. Cooperative learning, promotes peer-cooperation, purposeful communication, and interaction with authentic texts. Peer-cooperation can raise expectations, because it involves all pupils, emphasizes collaboration over competition and can foster the development of a friendly and supportive language community (Shokouli & Zadeh-Dabbagh in Keramida, 2010 ). Provide effective praise and feedback the focus should be on the care and effort pupils put into their work and on the knowledge or skills they gain. Do not encourage pupils to compare themselves with others (Brophy, 2004). Tsiplakides &

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Provide criticism that helps pupils realize how they could do better rather than criticizing pupils themselves or using personal criticism. In addition, teachers should not be influenced by pupil performance when providing criticism. Research has revealed that teachers are more prone to critisizing low-achieving pupils for a wrong answer than high-achieving pupils (Good & Brophy, 2000). Use portfolio assessment because this approach focuses attention on quality rather than just grades, and can encourage pupils to self-improve over time. Moreover, Brophy (2004) posits that teachers need to show their pupils that they care for them and are committed to their progress; are willing to listen to and value their opinions and feelings; and put priority on collaboration, rather than competition among pupils.

Communicate expectancies for success by forming groups with pupils from all levels of language performance, and do not marginalize low achievers. This can be done by - not supplying answers impatiently to children of lesser ability depriving them of opportunity to think and answer (Covington, 1998) - giving equally academically challenging tasks and using the same questioning strategies for all pupils (Alderman, 2004). For example, teachers tend to ask weak pupils questions which are at the lowest level (e.g. questions of knowledge). By contrast, they usually provide high achievers with opportunities to answer higher level questions (e.g. questions requiring an analysis or drawing a conclusion). Avoid using the following as they can promote the communication of low expectations - calling on low-achieving pupils less often to answer questions; - providing fewer clues to low achievers when they cannot answer questions; - rarely expressing personal interest in low achievers; and - making social comparisons between pupils in front of the classroom. - smiling less often to weak pupils, staying farther away physically, or avoiding eye contact with them.
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Develop a positive classroom climate by not forming differential expectations for pupils based on qualities such as gender, ethnicity, or parents background (Schunk, Pintrich, and Meece, 2008). Similarly, teachers should avoid forming expectations based on such factors as record files, colleagues, information from other teachers or even the familys reputation (Good and Brophy, 2000). Finally, reassess your expectations from time to time as pupils performance or behaviour may change in the course of the school year. Teachers expectancies of pupils behaviour should be communicated from the very beginning of the year through rules and procedures of how they should behave in class and the consequences of breaking the rules. As for academic work, pupils need to meet requirements and deadlines for which there will be consequences and incentives. Just like teachers, pupils have expectations of teachers in the classroom. First of all they will expect teachers to deliver instruction effectively and efficiently by taking into considerations all the variables such as pupils needs, ability, interest, motivation and the diverse nature of pupils. They will also expect teachers to be consistent in implementing the rules and procedures without any form of injustice or partiality. And above all pupils will expect teachers to treat all pupils alike and provide equal opportunities to experience learning.

1.2.2.4. Consistency One of the most important traits that teachers need to have to be effective is consistency. Teachers have to make the policy and then be consistent about applying it throughout the entire duration of the semester or year. Pupils will perform at their best if the rules, procedures and routines are kept consistent as they will become familiar to them. Lack of consistency on the teachers part will promote a sense of uncertainty among pupils and this often leads to a higher incidence of disruptive behaviour.

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Establishing

consistent

rules,

procedures

and

routines

can

facilitate

classroom

management and pupil achievement. The less time that pupils have to be off-task and the fewer discipline problems, the more likely teachers will be able to have quality classroom management.

Behavioural and academic consequences too should be consistently applied to be accepted favourably by pupils. Pupils will react negatively if teachers are unfair and show partiality to some pupils over others (Campbell, 1999). Worse still if pupils are allowed to get away with breaking the rules as that will teach them that rules and regulations do not matter and can always be broken without consequence. What ever the level of the pupils are, being consistent with rewards for good behaviour and punishment for bad behaviour will help teachers run a dynamic, organized and positive classroom. If pupils need to be punished, make sure the punishment fits the crime.

If teacher policy does not work as intended, teachers should continue to be consistent and wait till the end of the semester or year before they make any changes. Teachers should not make any acceptance to any rules what ever the situation. All violations of the rule should be treated the same (Campbell, 1999) although it is quite difficult to enforce as pupils might experience genuine problems. In cases where teachers need to make an allowance for one case, they might as well reconsider the policy because there surely will be another pupil who just does not fit the circumstances for which the policy was designed. Teachers have to be consistent when making deals with pupils over awarding credit points or deducting marks for late submission of work irrespective of the characteristics of the pupils. Whether they are academically strong or academically weak, pupils must be treated all the same (Campbell, 1999). Failing which teachers will be faced with the task of judging whether one pupils reason for an infringement is better and more acceptable than anothers. Being consistent will protect teachers from such situations and allow teachers to focus on other instructional matters.
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1.2.2.5 Objectivity Teachers have the professional responsibility to practice effective classroom management and instruction which includes: managing pupil behaviour; establishing safe classrooms; and providing learning experiences for a diverse pupil population in an orderly and pupilfriendly manner.

In addition, teachers have to establish rules, procedures and routines to develop selfdiscipline and reduce disruptions during the teaching and learning process. In doing all these teachers need to have specific goals so that teachers do not falter or change policy as situation gets difficult for them to control or make decisions. It is vital that in implementing the policy there should be neutrality, fairness at all times, and no prejudice whatsoever.

In other words, objectivity in classroom management is essential for teachers if they want to effectively manage their classroom and successfully deliver instruction.

Exercise 1 1. Discuss briefly the concept of effective classroom management. 2. Explain briefly the factors that make classroom management effective. 3. Discuss briefly the role of instuction as a central classroom activity. 4. Explain briefly the factors that teachers would consider to plan and deliver instructions effectively and efficiently.
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Exercise 2 1. The primary purpose of classroom management is to gain control of the classroom so that pupils time in the classroom is optimised for learning. Discuss how teachers would gain control of teachersr classroom to optimise the pupils time for learning. 2. Discuss the roles of teachers and pupils in effective classroom management.

Tutorial 1. Discuss characteristics of: effective classroom instructions effective management practices

2. Discuss how different roles played by teachers and pupils would lead to effective classroom management.

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TOPIC 2 CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT: APPROACHES, THEORIES AND MODELS

2.0 SYNOPSIS Topic 2 focuses on Classroom Management approaches, theories and models. It provides teachers with explanations and discussions of the different approaches, theories and models of classroom management.

2.1 LEARNING OUTCOMES By the end of Topic 2, teachers will be able to: Outline and explain different approaches, theories and models of classroom management. Explain the Authoritarian Classroom Management and Behaviour Modification. Explain group process / Socio- psychological, Instructional classroom management and Socio-cultural approaches. Understand and discuss Building the Foundation and Theories of Assertive Tactics. Discuss theories of Democratic Teaching, theories of Instructional Management and theories of Congruent Communication.

2.2 Framework of Topics Classroom Management


Approaches Authoritarian Behaviour Modification Group Processes/ . Socio-psychological Instructional Management Socio-cultural Theories and Models Building Foundation Assertive Tactics Democratic Teaching

Instructional Management Congruent Communication

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CONTENT

SESSION TWO (6 hours)

2.2.1 Approaches Before exploring the various approaches, theories and models of classroom management it would be useful to understand the difference between the key concepts approaches, theories and models.

An approach is a set of correlative assumptions or beliefs based on theoretical principles on dealing with instructional behaviour, pupil behaviour, classroom environment and the degree of teacher-pupil control (Balson, 1982) in setting rules and procedures for effective classroom management (Manning and Bucher, 2013). In other words, approaches describe what a teacher assumes to be the most appropriate way to manage a classroom.

Theories on the other hand are underlying principles that provide the foundation for classroom management approaches and strategies. Theories influence the phylosophy of teachers classroom management strategies which focus on psychological aspects of human behaviour and the interactions between pupils and teachers (Hardin, 2008). Theories underlying classroom management approaches and strategies are based on studies conducted on human behaviour, specific human needs and motives, and skills that teachers need to identify problems and student needs in order to change the class environment and instructional practices to improve student behaviour.

Models which are based on approaches and theories, consists of specific strategies and techniques used to manage instructional behaviour and student behaviour in the classroom (Manning and Bucher, 2013). There can be a number of models for each classroom management approach. For example the Canters Assertive and Skinners Behaviour Modification models can be classified as models under the authoritarian approaches. The Kounin and Jones models are examples of the Socio-psychological approach whilst the
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Inner Discipline and Discipline without stress are examples of Socio-cultural approaches. For a brief overview of the different approaches of classroom management refer to Appendix 1.

2.2.1.1 Authoritarian classroom management (Power Types and Power Bases) Teachers who adopt the authoritarian approach to classroom management have full responsibility for regulating the classroom. They devise and enforce specific rules to control pupil behaviour in the classroom. They are entirely in power and deal forcefully and quickly with misbehaviour making the authoritarian approach models of classroom management power systems. The common authoritarian models of classroom management are: i. Skinners behaviour modification model In this model teachers shape pupil behaviour through systematic reinforcement including rewards and negative reinforcements. (Manning and Bucher, 2013) ii. Jones positive classroom discipline Frederic Jones positive classroom discipline model emphasises the effectiveness and efficiency of teachers behaviour in getting pupils to get involved in the learning process. Those advocating to this model manage their classrooms by providing engaging lessons, helping pupils with work problems and giving incentives to promote responsibility. They set clear limits and organise their classroom effectively (Hardin, 2008; Charles, 2002; Manning and Bucher, 2013) iii. Canters assertive discipline Lee and Marlene Canter believe that teachers and pupils have rights in the classroom. They expect teachers to be assertive, to set clear rules of behaviour and expectations, and enforce them calmly through a discipline hierarchy of consequences. Teachers have to communicate needs and requirements to pupils clearly and firmly, and respond with

appropriate actions. They are to get pupils to fully comply to rules without violating the interest of the pupils (Hardin, 2008; Charles, 2002; Manning and Bucher, 2013)
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The following are some of the possible limits and control enforced by authoritarians: Pupils are assigned to seats where they have to sit during the lessons and usually for the whole term. Pupils are to be often quiet in the classroom and cannot interrupt the teachers. Pupils do very little verbal exchange and discussion and consequently do not get the chance to adopt and practice communication skills. Pupils are rarely given permission to leave the class (hall passes) and their excused absences are seldom accepted. Pupils have to obey the rules without any question or face the consequences. Pupils are not taken on trips or other out of classroom events as these are considered as distractions to the learning process. P upils hardly initiate any activity in the classroom. Pupils are not motivated or encouraged to set personal goals. 2.2.1.2 Behaviour modification The behaviour modification approach is based on the ideas and work of Skinner. The basis of this approach are the assumptions that pupils will change their behaviour in order to get desired rewards (Larrivee, 2009). Teachers who adopt this approach believe that pupil behaviour can be changed by altering the consequences that follow their actions and behaviours. They use reinforcement principles systematically to change some aspect of educational practice or pupil behaviour. Generally pupils can receive three types of consequences for their actions: positive and negative reinforcement to maintain or increase the occurance of a desired behaviour; and punishments to discourage them from inappropriate actions. Positive reinforcement for desired behaviours include rewards such as praises, grades, stickers and tokens. Negative reinforcement include giving pupils extra weekend homework, denying visits or their seating arrangements changed.

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There are two levels of punishments which are labelled as Punishment I and Punishment II. - Punishment I which involves undesirable stimulus such as a private reprimand, isolation or a trip to the headmasters office, is given to pupils who commit undesirable actions. - Punishment II involves stricter actions of removing or withholding a desired or anticipated positive stimulus. For inappropriate behaviours, pupils can lose free time or be excluded from some fun activities as watching movies or using the computer for a specific period of time.

Both punishment I and II, can eliminate or decrease undesired pupil behaviours provided they are appropriately used.

The use of tokens is a reinforcement system whereby pupils earn tokens for their academic performance and positive classroom behaviours. These tokens can then be periodically exchanged for a desired activity or reward.

2.2.1.3 Group processes in the classroom / A Social-Psychological View ESL classrooms are social settings: teaching and learning occur through social interaction between teachers and pupils. The interactions and relationships between teachers and pupils, and among pupils, as they work side by side, constitute the group processes of the classroom. Group processes are significant in developing interpersonal skills, intrapersonal skills, social competence and empathy which are essential for real life situations.

The effectiveness of group processes can be affected by peer-group relationships. A peer group is a collection of interdependent, interacting individuals with reciprocal influence over one another. In classrooms as few as two people can form groups, as long as the paired individuals have reciprocal influence through communication and mental contact. When the teacher engages the whole class in a learning activity common to all, then everyone forms into a single group, or as Thelen (1981) wrote, a "miniature society". The teacher and pupils
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of one class can be a whole group or from time to time many subgroups. Therefore groups are not simply people in proximity, but an entity, which share and work toward a common goal.

From the social-psychological perspective, pupils of a class form a miniature society with peers, teachers and aides. As members of the miniature society they are interdependent and interact with one another striving for common goals. Many subgroups in the class affect how the larger classroom society works as how individuals relate to and interact with one another formally and informally. Hence over a period of time, these informal relationships with peers increase in power and concentration . In effect, pupils self-concept is formed by the peer group influence which can be either threatening or supportive.

As members of a social group, pupils need to achieve the social motives of affiliation, achievement and power in order for them to feel comfortable and secure. Inability to satisfy these goals will lead to negative conditions of loneliness and rejection, incompetence, powerlessness, and alienation. Hence, this will result in high self-esteem in pupils and their positive attitudes toward school, and ESL teaching and learning.

The group processes in the ESL classroom will contribute to higher learner achievement if the social climate is positive and how teachers manage their teaching and learning effectively. The next section will describe the elements of positive classroom climate and characteristics of effective teachers.

i. Classroom Climate ESL classroom climate refers to the emotional tones associated with pupils' interactions, their attitudinal reactions to the class, as well as to pupils' self-concept and their motivational satisfactions and frustrations. Climate can be measured by observing physical movements, bodily gestures, seating patterns, and instances of verbal interaction (Table 2.1).
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Table 2.1: Classroom Climate Indicators Do pupils stand close or far away from the teacher? Are pupils at ease or tense? How frequently is affective support communicated by smiles, winks, or pats on the back? Do pupils move quietly with measured steps to their desks, or do they stroll freely and easily, showing the class feels safe? Are pupils reluctant to ask the teacher questions? How do pupils relate to one another? Are they quiet, distant, and formal, or do they walk easily and laugh spontaneously? How often do pupils put a peer down or say something nice to one another? Do pupils harass or bully other pupils? How often does fighting erupt? How often does peacemaking occur? Are sessions run primarily by the teacher or do pupils also take the lead? Do seating patterns shift from time to time, or do they remain the same, regardless of the learning activity? Are pupils working together cooperatively?

A positive climate exists when the following properties are present: leadership occurs as power-with rather than power-over; communication is honest, open and transactional; high levels of friendship are present among classmates; expectations are high for the performance of others and oneself; classroom norms are supportive in maximising pupils ESL competency; and conflict is dealt with constructively and peacefully.

Although each of these six properties of climate can be important by itself, positive climate is an ensemble of all of them. In other words how each property is integrated with one another will shape a general climate of an ESL classroom.

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ii. Effective Teachers In general, effective teachers display the following characteristics to create a positive climate in the ESL classroom as described in the next section. Leadership styles Lippitt and White, with guidance from Lewin (Mills, 2007), observed effects on youth of three leadership styles: autocratic, democratic, and laissez faire. Autocratic leaders made all decisions about group goals and work procedures. Democratic leaders specified group goals, but urged group members to decide among alternative ways of working. Laissez-faire leaders abdicated authority, permitting youth to work as they pleased. Groups with democratic leaders performed best with high quality work output and high morale. Autocratically lead groups had high quality work output, but low morale. Groups with laissez-faire leaders performed worst overall. Classroom research has shown that although autocratic teachers can get pupils to accomplish high amounts of academic work, they also create conformity, competition, dependency, and resentment. Pupils of democratic teachers accomplish both a great deal of excellent academic work, and establish positive social climates. Effective Communication Effective communication is the key in understanding differences between autocratic and democratic teachers. Autocratic teachers use one-way communication in persuading pupils to accept learning goals and procedures as well as rules for classroom behaviour; such unilateral direction giving is often an ineffective way of transmitting information.

In contrast, democratic teachers use two-way communication often to encourage pupils to participate in making decisions for themselves and in establishing group agreements for classroom procedures. By using transactional communication whereby pupils and teachers reciprocate in trying to understand one another, democratic teachers help build a climate that is participatory, relaxed, personal, and supportive. Attributes of democratic teachers who are effective transactional communicators are receptiveness
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to pupils' ideas, an egalitarian attitude, openness, warmth, respect for pupils' feelings, sensitivity to outcasts, a sense of humor, and a caring attitude. Levels of friendship Such participatory teachers understand that friendships in the classroom peer group cannot be separated from teaching and learning; friendly feelings are integral to instructional transactions between teachers and pupils and among pupils. Pupils who view themselves as disliked or ignored by their peers often have difficulty in performing up to their academic potential. They experience anxiety and reduced self-esteem, both of which interfere with their academic performance. As outcasts they might seek revenge, searching for ways to be aggressive toward teachers and peers. By watching their teacher interact with the class, pupils learn who gets left out and who gets encouragement and praise.

Teachers can help rejected pupils obtain peer support by giving them an extra amount of encouragement and praise in front of their peers, and by assigning them to work cooperatively with popular classmates. Teachers with friendly classes see to it that they talk and attend to every pupil rather than focusing on a few, and often reward pupils with specific statements for helpful and successful behaviour; they seek to control behavioural disturbances with general, group-oriented statements. High expectations In tandem to positive climate are the expectations that teacher and pupil hold for one another. Teachers' expectations for how each pupil might behave are particularly important because they affect how teachers behave toward that pupil. Thus, teachers should engage in introspection and reflection to diagnose their expectations, and obtain feedback from colleagues about how they are behaving toward particular pupils. Teachers should also use diverse information sources to understand what makes their pupils behave as they do. In particular, teachers should reflect on their expectations and attributions toward girls and boys, pupils of different social classes and ethnic
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groups. Teachers should deliberately seek new information about pupil strengths in order to free themselves of stereotypes. Classroom norms Classroom norms form when most pupils hold the same expectations and attitudes about appropriate classroom behaviours. Although norms guide pupils' and the teacher's behaviour, they are not the same as rules. Rules, on the hand are regulations created by administrators or teachers to govern pupils' behaviour which are not neccessarily group norms. Pupil norms frequently are in opposition to teachers' goals, and can become counter productive to individual pupil development. Teachers should strive to help pupils create formal group agreements to transform preferred rules into pupil norms. In particular, cooperative peer-group norms enhance pupil self-concept and language learning more than do norms in support of competition. Managing conflict Conflict, natural and inevitable in all groups, exists when one activity blocks, interferes, or keeps another activity from occurring. Conflicts arise in classrooms over incompatible procedures, goals, concepts, or interpersonal relationships. The norms of cooperation and competition affect the management of conflict differently. With cooperative norms pupils believe they will obtain their self-interest when other pupils also achieve theirs. Teachers should strive, therefore, to build a spirit of teamwork and cooperation in their classes, so that pupils will feel that it is in their self-interest to cooperate with their peers. When a competitive spirit exists, particularly when pupils are pitted against each other to obtain scarce rewards, a pupil succeeds only when others lose. In the competitive classroom, interpersonal conflict will arise frequently between pupils.

For teachers to build and maintain successful classrooms with high pupil achievement and positive social climate, they should attend to their leadership style, communication skills, friendliness and warmth, expectations and stereotypes of pupils, tactics for establishing pupil group agreements, and their skills in managing conflict.
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2.2.1.4 Instructional classroom management Teachers who use the instructional approach to classroom management prevent most management problems by actively engaging pupils in high-interest lessons geared to meet their interests, needs, and abilities. Thus, pupils are motivated to attend class, positively participate in activities, and manage their own behaviour. Kounin (1970) and Jones (1979) in Moore & Hansen (2012) advocate the instructional approach to classroom management.

The premise that forms the basis for the instructional approach to classroom management is that well-planned and well-implemented instruction will prevent most classroom problems. The assumption is that pupils will not engage in disruptive behaviour when well-planned and well-implemented lessons engage pupils in the learning process with activities that meet their interests, needs, and abilities. Lets now look at two models of classroom management that focus on the principles of the instructional approach.

i. The Kounin Model In a comprehensive comparison of effective and ineffective classroom managers, Jacob Kounin (1970) in Marzano et al (2003) found that teachers handle classroom problems differently. The primary difference was in the things the successful managers did that tended to prevent classroom problems. They were totally aware of everything in the classroom environment; they kept pupils actively engaged; and they conducted wellplanned lessons with smooth transitions. Kounin concluded that some teachers are better classroom managers because of their skill in four areas: withitness, overlapping activities, group focusing, and movement management (Charles, 2002).

Withitness is the skill to know what is going on in all parts of the classroom at all times; nothing is missed. Withit teachers respond immediately to pupil misbehavio ur and know who started what. A major component of withitness is scanning the class frequently, establishing eye contact with individual pupils, and having eyes in the back your head. Withit teachers dont make timing errors (waiting too long before intervening) or target errors (blaming the wrong person and letting the real perpetrators escape responsibility for
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misbehaviour). Withit teachers prevent minor disruptions from becoming major and know who the instigator is in a problem situation.

Effective classroom managers are also skilled at overlapping. Overlapping means handling two or more activities or groups at the same time. Essentially, it is the ability to monitor the whole class at all times. It involves keeping a small group on task, for example, while also helping other pupils with their seatwork.

Finally, Kounin notes that successful classroom management also depends on movement management and group focusthat is, the ability to make smooth lesson transitions, keep an appropriate pace, and involve all pupils in a lesson. Moreover, effective managers do not leave a lesson hanging while tending to something else or change back and forth from one subject or activity to another. They keep pupils alert by holding their attention, by holding them accountable, and by involving all pupils in the lesson.

ii. The Jones Model Based upon over 10 years of researching classroom difficulties, Frederick Jones (1979) in Moore (2005), found that teachers lose 50% or more of their instructional time through pupils time-wasting (e.g., talking and walking around the room). Jones contends that this wasted instructional time can be reclaimed when teachers correctly implement four strategies: limit setting, good body language, incentive systems, and giving help efficiently.

Limit setting is the establishment of classroom boundaries for appropriate behaviour. According to Jones, these limits should include the formation of rules of behaviour, as well as descriptions of appropriate work behaviour, procedures for getting supplies and materials, instruction on what to do when stuck on seatwork, and what to do when finished with assigned seatwork.

Ninety percent of discipline and keeping pupils on task, Jones contends, involved the skillful use of body language. Body language is a set of physical mannerisms that tend to get
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pupils back to work, the most effective of which are physical proximity to pupils, direct eye contact, body position (body orientation toward pupil), facial expressions, and tone of voice.

Jones contends that incentive systems also can be used effectively to keep pupils on task and to get them to complete their work. Indeed, he suggests that preferred activities, such as time on the computer, free time, use of educational games, and free reading, can serve as motivational rewards for desired behaviours. Furthermore, Jones adds, the use of peer pressure represents a quite effective motivator. For example, time can be deducted from the class-preferred activity time when an individual pupil misbehaves. The deduction of time can be recorded, as Jones suggests, with a large stopwatch placed at the front of the room, so the whole class can see. If a large stopwatch is not available, a standard amount of time (e.g., one minute) can be deducted for each instance of misbehaviour.

Finally, Jones found that giving help efficiently is related to time on task. His research revealed that teachers on the average spend 4 minutes helping individual pupils who are having difficulty with seatwork. Jones recommends that this time be cut to no more than 20 seconds per pupil. Doing so allows more pupils to be helped and reduces the tendency for pupils to work only when the teacher is standing near them.

Setting limits, using body language, implementing an incentive system, and giving help efficiently will not eliminate all behaviour problems. When such problems do develop, Jones suggests, a back-up system, such as in-class isolation or removal from the room, is needed.

2.2.1.4 Socio-cultural In Malaysia, a classroom consists of different pupils of a different ethnic background and social setting. A multicultural setting is a common scene prevalent in ESL classroom. Managing a classroom is challenging because, definitions and expectations of appropriate behaviour are culturally influenced, and conflicts are likely to occur when teachers and pupils come from different cultural backgrounds (Weinstein, Tomlinson-Clarke, and Curran, 2004)
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The goal of classroom management is to create an environment in which pupils behave appropriately, not out of fear of punishment or desire for reward, but out of a sense of personal responsibility. Weinstein et. al (2004) outline the following five expectations that teachers should have: A teacher should recognize his/her own ethnocentrism and biases. A teacher should know his/her pupils' cultural backgrounds. A teacher should understand the broader social, economic, and political context in which the class is situated. A teacher should be able and willing to use culturally appropriate management strategies. A teacher should commit to building a caring classroom.

Concepts such as culturally responsive pedagogy or culturally responsive literacy have been explored in academic literature since the 1990s, primarily in the context of primary and secondary education, and the need for teacher training in cultural awareness is now broadly recognized. Multicultural competence can develop a culturally responsive pedagogy in the Malaysian ESL classroom. These competencies are shaped by a number of theories and models that will be discussed in the next section,

Exercise 1. Compare and contrast the Canters assertive model and the behaviour modification model. 2. Briefly discuss the consequences of actions in the Behaviour Modification approach. 3. Explain whithitness in Kounins model. 4. Explain the five expectations of teachers in the socio-cultural approach.

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SESSION THREE AND FOUR (6 hours) 2.2.2 Theories and Models 2.2.2.1 Building the Foundation (Skinner, Glasser and Gordon) Building the foundation by Skinner, Glasser and Gordon will provide teachers an understanding of the key concepts of a variety of classroom management theorists that will help teachers develop their own philosophy and techniques of classroom management. No one model will provide all the answers that ESL teachers need to manage a classroom effectively but the knowledge of these theories will allow effective teachers to build a management style that combines proactive and reactive elements and that combines ESL instruction and classroom management into a unique, effective style. a. The Skinners Model of Shaping Desired Behaviour Human behaviour can be shaped along desired lines by means of the systematic application of reinforcement. The reinforcers may be teacher praise, good grades, or even such tangible items as stickers or appropriate vouchers. Pupils who do not follow the procedures, who misbehave, or who perform poorly are denied desired rewards or are punished in some way.

i. Key Ideas This model includes new applications of Skinner's basic ideas. Skinner himself never proposed a model of school discipline. Other writers have taken his ideas on learning and adapted them to controlling the behaviour of pupils in schools. The following ideas reveal the essence of Skinner's model: Behaviour is shaped by its consequences, by what happens to the individual immediately afterward. Systematic use of reinforcement (rewards) can shape pupils' behaviour in desired directions. Behaviour becomes weaker if not followed by reinforcement. Behaviour is also weakened by punishment.
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In the early stages of learning, constant reinforcement produces the best result. Once learning has reached the desired level, it is best maintained through intermittent reinforcement, provided only occasionally. Behaviour modification is applied in two ways: - The teacher observes the pupil perform an undesired act; the teacher rewards the pupil; the pupil tends to repeat the act. - The teacher observes the pupil perform an undesired act; the teacher either ignores the act or punishes the pupil, then praises a pupil who is behaving misbehaving pupil becomes less likely than before to repeat the act. Behaviour modification successfully uses various types of reinforcers. They include social reinforcers such as verbal comments, facial expressions, and gestures; graphic reinforcers such as marks and stars; activity reinforcers such as free time and collaborating with a friend; and tangible reinforcers such as prizes and printed awards. correctly; the

ii. Reinforcers The Skinners model can be a powerful model for classroom teachers, one that can be easily modified and implemented with pupils of all ages and backgrounds. One of the key tenets the model are the use of reinforcers. Types of reinforcers that are commonly used in schools fall into four categories: Social - Social reinforcers consist of verbal comments, gestures, and facial expressions. Many pupils work diligently just to get a smile, pat, thumbs up (non verbal) or verbal comment from the teacher, for example , awesome, excellent, nice going etc. Graphic - Graphic reinforcers include marks of various kinds such as numerals, checks, happy faces, and special symbols. Teachers make these marks with felt pens and rubber stamps. They may enter them on charts or use a paper punch to make holes in cards kept by the pupils. They may attach stars or stickers that are commercially available in large quantities and varieties.
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Activity - Activity reinforcers include those activities that pupils prefer to do in school. Any activity can be used as a reinforcer if pupils prefer it to another. For younger pupils (Year 1-3) sitting near the teacher, choosing the song, caring for the pet, sharing a pet or toy is are examples of activities to reinforce academic excellence. Activities for older pupils (Year 4-6) are such as playing a game, free reading, decorating the classroom, having extra recess time, going to an assembly Tangible Tangible reinforcers are real objects that pupils can earn as rewards for desired behaviour and are more powerful for some pupils than other types of reinforcers. They are widely used with pupils who have special behaviour problems. Many primary teachers use tangible reinforcers regularly. Examples of inexpensive reinforcers are: popcorn, raisins, chalk, crayons, felt pens, pencils, badges, etc.

iii. Application The Skinners model can be applied in a classroom situation. The following is an example to illustrate the model in a primary classroom. Classroom scenario Zack, in Mr. Kamals class, is quite docile. He never disrupts class and does little socializing with other pupils. However, despite Mr. Kamals best efforts, he can hardly get Zack to participate in class activities. He rarely completes an assignment. He doesn't seem to care. He is simply there, like a bump on a log, putting forth virtually no effort.

Based on the scenario above, these are the possible ways to deal with the situation: Catch Zack being good (doing anything that is appropriate). Reward him whenever he participates or works.

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Reiterate the class rules regarding class work. Praise Zack whenever he follows the rule. Consider stronger reinforcers. If praise is ineffective, use points, tokens, or other tangible objects to reinforce and shape Zack's improvement. Set up a contract with Zack. Identify a reward that is exceptionally attractive to him. Outline what he must do in order to earn the reward. Share the contract with Zack's parents to enlist their support. Reinforce every improvement Zack makes. b. The Glassers Model of Choice Theory Glasser's work in the field of school discipline has two main aims. The first is to provide a classroom environment and curriculum which motivate pupils and reduce inappropriate behaviour by meeting pupils' basic needs for belonging, power, fun and freedom. The second focus is on helping pupils make appropriate behavioural choices that lead ultimately to personal success.

i. Key Ideas Often, teachers need to help pupils learn to make good behavioural choices so they can become responsible individuals able to satisfy their needs in the real world. Thus, they must be guided toward reality whereby the onus is on pupils. Listed below are some of key iideas of Glasser. Pupils are rational beings. They can control their own behaviour. They choose to act the way they do. Good choices produce good behaviour. Bad choices produce bad behaviour. Teachers must always try to help pupils make good choices. Teachers who truly care about their pupils accept no excuses for bad behaviour. Reasonable consequences should always follow pupil behaviour, whether it is good or bad. Class rules are essential and they must be enforced. Classroom meetings are effective vehicles for attending to matters concerning class rules, behaviour and discipline.
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Glasser's views about discipline were simple but powerful:


Behaviour is a matter of choice. Good behaviour results from good choices. Bad behaviour results from bad choices. A teacher's duty is to help pupils make good choices.

Psychologists and educators often delve into pupils' backgrounds for underlying causes of misbehaviour. One often hears comments such as, "What can you expect, Aznil comes from a broken home", or, "Ling was an abused child, theres a reason for her to be aggressive". Glasser neither denies that such conditions exist nor that they influence behaviour. He simply says that humans have rational minds and can make rational choices.

According to Glasser, pupils are capable of understanding what is generally regarded as acceptable school behaviour and can choose to behave in acceptable ways. However, in order to make good choices, pupils must see the results of these choices as desirable. If bad behaviour gets them what they want then they will make bad choices. This is where the teacher can be influential in helping pupils become aware that they choose their own actions. The teacher encourages them to acknowledge their behaviour and evaluate introspectively on their behaviour. The teacher refuses to accept excuses for bad behaviour. Instead, the teacher always directs the pupil's attention to alternative, more acceptable, behaviour. ii. Teachers Responsibilities The essence of discipline then, lies in helping pupils to make good choices. Even though both teachers and pupils have important roles to play in maintaining effective discipline, Glasser firmly believes that teachers have greater responsibility to maintain good discipline. According to Glasser, the following are some of the teacher's responsibilities in helping pupils making good choices as described below. Emphasise pupil responsibility Since good behaviour comes from good choices and since pupils ultimately must live with the choices they make, their responsibility for their own behaviour. is always kept in
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the forefront. Discussions in which this responsibility is explored and clarified occur in classroom meetings. These meetings occur as regular parts of the curriculum. Pupils sit in a circle with the teacher and discuss matters that concern the class. Establish rules that lead to success Rules which leads towards personal and group achievement should be established by teachers and pupils together. Age, ability, and other realities of the pupils should be taken into consideration when formulating rules. Rules must reinforce the basic idea that pupils are in school to study. Accept no excuses For discipline to be successful, teachers must accept no excuses. Glasser uses this "no excuse" dictum in two areas. The first has to do with conditions outside the school. What goes on there does not excuse bad behaviour in school. Those conditions may, indeed, cause bad behaviour, but that does not make it acceptable.

The teacher must never say "we can excuse Jamal's behaviour. today because he has trouble at home. It is okay if he yells and hits."

The second area in which teachers should accept no excuses concerns pupil commitment. Once a pupil has decided on a course of good behaviour and has made a commitment to it, the teacher must never accept excuses for the pupil's failing to live up to that commitment. Call for value judgment When pupils exhibit inappropriate behaviour, teachers should help them make value judgements about it. The following is an example based on Glasser to illustrate how to help pupils make value judgement.

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Teacher : What are you doing? (asked in unthreatening tone of voice.) Pupil : Im waiting for a bright idea to appear. (Will usually give an honest answer if not threatened.) Teacher : Is that helping you or the class? Pupil : No.

Teacher : What could you do that would help? Pupil : Why not brainstorm with your friends? (Names better behaviour; if pupil cannot think of any, teacher suggests appropriate alternatives and lets pupil choose.) Invoke reasonable consequences. Glasser stresses that reasonable consequences must follow whatever behaviour the pupil chooses. These consequences will be desirable if good behaviour is chosen compared to poor behaviour. Teachers should not manipulate events that stop pupils from experiencing unpleasant consequences. Their experience of pleasant and unpleasant consequences will help pupils to choose the right behaviour and take charge of their own lives. Be persistent Caring teachers work towards one goal - getting pupils to commit themselves to desirable courses of behaviour. Commitment means consistency, doing something repeatedly, intentionally, while making sure that it is right. To convey this idea and to instill it in pupils, teachers themselves must be consistent. They must always help pupils make choices and make value judgments about their bad choices. Carry out continual review. For Glasser, the classroom meeting is central to the implementation of a good system of discipline. This magic circle facilitates pupils in identifying problems and working towards solution for behaviour issues, curriculum matters or pupils concerns (Gartrell, 2011). Glasser advocates three types of classroom meetings:
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- social problem solving whereby conflicts are discussed - educational diagnostic whereby educational ideas are addressed, and - open ended meetings are when real life problems are worked out. Discussions in classroom meetings focus on two things: - identifying the problem, and - seeking solutions to the problem. iii. Application The following is an example to illustrate Glassers model applied in a primary classroom. Classroom scenario Latif, a pupil in Mr. Engs class, is quite docile. He never disrupts class and does little socializing with other pupils. But despite Mr. Eng's best efforts, Latif rarely completes an assignment. He doesn't seem to care. He is simply there, putting forth virtually no effort.

Based on the scenario above, Glasser would suggest the following. First that Mr. Eng thinks carefully about the classroom and the programme to try to determine whether they contain obstacles that prevent Latif from meeting his needs for belonging, fun, power, and freedom. He would have Mr. Eng talk directly with Latif about this matter and make necessary changes for him if possible. If no changes seem warranted, Glasser would have Mr. Eng talk with Latif so as to accomplish the following: Make sure Latif understands his work responsibilities as a pupil in the class. Make sure Latif understands that he can choose his behaviour - to work or not - and that his choice brings with it either desirable or undesirable consequences. Accept no excuses from Latif for not beginning and completing his work. Help Latif identify some alternative behaviours from which he can choose. Continually press Latif to make value judgments about his choice of behaviour. Make sure that when Latif shows improvement, he receives consequences that are very attractive to him. Never give up on Latif.
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c. Gordons Model The central tenet of Gordons approach to classroom management is the importance of developing meaning and mutually beneficial relationships. Gordon rejects traditional models of reward and punishment because they are based upon an assertion of power and foster no intrinsic motivation. Instead Gordon focuses on how pupils conflicts can be resolved in a way that will improve their relationships with their teacher and peers (Manning & Bucher, 2013).

i. Key Ideas Gordon (1974) outlined a number of ideas that could be implemented in an ESL classroom in managing pupils behaviour towards achieving effective teaching and learning process. Gordons model is a graphical tool used to identify who owns the problem when someones behaviour causes a problem or inconvenience. Using a simple frame of reference for problem ownership, i.e., I own the problem, the other owns the problem, no problem area, teachers can plot pupils behaviour into a diagram called Behaviour Window, which helps teachers to use appropriate communication skills, such as, active listening, confrontative I-messages, shifting gears ,no-lose conflict resolution and values collisions in resolving a conflict. Some of the key concepts and teachings in Gordons model are:

Authority -a condition that can be used to exert influence or control over others. There are several types of authority.

Problem Ownership - individual troubled by a problem is said to "own" the problem. Behaviour Window - a visual device of Gordon's used to determine if there is a problem and who owns it.

"I" messages - messages that tell another person how you feel about their behaviour. "You" messages - blaming statements Confrontative "I" Messages -messages that attempt to influence another to stop the unacceptable behaviour.

Shifting Gears -changing from Confrontative to a listening posture Win-Lose conflict resolution -ends the dispute temporarily with a winner and a loser.
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No-Lose conflict resolution - everyone wins Door openers - words or actions that invites folks to talk about what is on their minds Active Listening -carefully listening and demonstrating understanding of what another person is saying

Values Collisions- is anything a person believes will make the quality of life better or very concrete like food or money

ii. Application In applying the model Gordon proposes a six step problem solving process in managing conflict (Manning & Bucher, 2013) which are: defining a problem generating possible solutions evaluating the solutions deciding which soluiton is the best determining how to implement the decision assessing how well the solution solved the problems The following is an example to illustrate Gordons model in a primary classroom. Classroom scenario

Hakimi is unable to concentrate on his task while working with his peers on Social Studies task. He tends to be playful and diverts his group members attention by being hilarious.

Applying the six steps approach the following are the possible ways to deal with the the above situation: Approach the problem by asking the pupil neutral open questions to gain information about why the pupil cannot concentrate on the task. Listen attentively to the response to build trust and communication.
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Ask the Hakimi for suggestions on ways to help pupils to stay focus on their task. From the different ways that Hakimi had suggested ask him list down the strengths and weaknesses. Ask Hakimi to choose the best way to stay focused. Work on details on how the chosen way could be implemented. After implementing the way that Hakimi had decided on, assess whether it works for him or not. 2.2.2.2 Theories of Assertive Tactics: Lee & Marlene Canters Assertive discipline is a structured, systematic approach designed to assist educators in running an organized, teacher-in-charge classroom environment. Canter (2010) believe that teachers have the right to determine what is best for pupils, and to expect compliance. No pupil should prevent you from teaching, or keep another pupil from learning. Pupil compliance is imperative in creating and maintaining an effective and efficient learning environment. To accomplish this goal, teachers must react assertively, as opposed to aggressively or non assertively.

More than being a director, assertive teachers build positive, trusting relationships with their pupils and teach appropriate classroom behaviour (via direct instruction.describing, modelling, practicing, reviewing, encouraging, and rewarding) to those who don't show it at present. They are demanding, yet warm in interaction; supportive of the youngsters; and respectful in tone and mannerisms when addressing misbehaviour. Assertive teachers listen carefully to what their pupils have to say, speak politely to them, and treat everyone fairly (not necessarily equally).

i. Key Ideas The key ideas of Assertive Discipline are: Rewards and punishments are effective. Both teachers and pupils have rights to feel comfortable. Teachers create an optimal learning environment.
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Teachers apply rules and enforce consequences consistently without bias or discrimination. Teachers use discipline hierarchy which informs pupils of consequences of misbehaviour and how it dealt with based on the level of severity. Teachers are assertive, not nonassertive or hostile. In order to use Assertive Discipline, teachers should: Dismiss the thought that there is any acceptable reason for misbehaviour (Biologically based misbehaviour may be an exception). Decide which rules you wish to implement in your classroom. Devise four or five rules that are specific and easily understood by your pupils. Determine negative consequences for noncompliance (You will be providing a consequence every time a pupil misbehaves). Choose three to six negative consequences (a "discipline hierarchy"), each of which is more punitive or restrictive than the previous one. These will be administered if the pupil continues to misbehave. Determine positive consequences for appropriate behaviour. For example, along with verbal praise, you might also include gift vouchers that are given to pupils for proper behaviour. Pupils write their names on the cut up pieces of paper and drop them into a container for a daily prize drawing. Even if a pupil is having a bad day, there is a reason to improve. Pupils might get a gift voucher have a chance to redeem a gift from the local supermarket. Others might receive notes of praise to be shown to their parents. Group rewards are also used. A marble might be dropped into a jar for each predetermined interval that the class as a whole has been attentive and respectful. When the jar is full, a special event is held. Some assertive teachers write a letter of the alphabet on the board for each period/ activity of good group behaviour. When the letters spell "Pizza Party" (or some other activity), that event is held.
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Conduct a meeting to inform the pupils of the rules. Explain why rules are needed. List the rules on the board along with the positive and negative consequences. Check for understanding. Review the rules periodically throughout the year in order to reiterate important points and consolidate the rules. Have the pupils write the rules and take them home to be signed by the parents/ guardians and returned. Attach a message explaining the rules and requesting their help. Become skilled in the use of other assertive discipline techniques: - Communicate your displeasure with a pupil's misbehaviour, but then be sure to tell the pupil what he/she should be doing. For example, consider: "Syihan, please put the pencil down on the desk and pass your paper forward." Notice that the teacher told the pupil what to do. Often pupils continue to display inappropriate behaviour when they have been told to discontinue it because they do not know what they should be doing. Now that you have given a direction, you can reinforce the pupil for compliance or punish the pupil for non compliance. Be sure to add emphasis to your directions by using eye contact, hand gestures, and the pupil's name. - Recognize and quickly respond to appropriate behaviour. This quick action will encourage the pupils to display the desired behaviour more often. Be aware that some pupils may need to be reinforced quietly or non-verbally to prevent embarrassment in front of peers. - Learn to use the "broken record" technique. Continue to repeat your command (maximum of three times) until the pupil follows your directions. If directions are not followed at that point, the sequential list of penalties is implemented. Do not be sidetracked by the pupil's excuses.

2.2.2.3 Theories of Democratic Teaching Essentially, every action of the pupil is grounded in the idea that he is seeking his place in the group. A well-adjusted pupil will conform to the requirements of the group by making valuable contributions. A pupil who misbehaves, on the other hand, will defy the needs of
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the group situation in order to maintain social status. Whichever of the above mentioned goals he chooses to employ, the pupil believes that this is the only way he/ she can function within the group dynamic successfully. Dreikurs states that "his goal may occasionally vary with the circumstances: he may act to attract attention at one moment, and assert his power or seek revenge at another" (Dreikurs, 1968 in Kohn, 2006). Regardless if the pupil is welladjusted or is misbehaving, his main purpose will be social acceptance. The main arguments, strategies and usefulness of theories of democratic teaching are described in Table 2.2.
Table 2.2: Main arguments, strategies and usefulness of Democratic Teaching. Main Argument/Tenets Classrooms are democratic with apprppriate teaching styles. Mutual respect motivates pupils to behave constructively. Constructive behaviour occurs out of their heightened sense of social interest. Three types of teachers: autocratic.(harsh boss), permissive (uninvolved and no expectations), and democratic (support internal motivation and responsibility). Pupils who do not feel a sense of belonging will resort to: attention gaining, power seeking, revenge, or displaying inadequacy. Praise supports completion. Encouragement supports the process. Logical consequences produce better results than punishment. Strategies/Techniques Provide lessons with social interest in mind. Provide a teaching environment that supports pupils sense of belonging. Come up with a set of classroom rules as a group. Support responsibility through freedom of choices in lesson plans. Avoid power struggles and encourage pupils who display inadequacy. In group critiques, ask about Encourage pupils rather than praise them. Provide pupils with logical consequences to mistaken goals to support responsibility and avoid punishment. process rather than focusing on the final product by itself. Reflection/Usefulness ESL classes allow pupils to work in small groups and as a large group to support social group belonging.

Social groups can take place in criticism, aesthetics, and production. Allow time for each of these. Encourage pupils who seem discouraged in the process of a product, rather than praising them for their completion.

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2.2.2.4 Theories of Instructional Management: Jacob Kounin Kounins theory on classroom management and discipline (Kounin in Everston, 1996) is important because without some idea on how to control the pupils in an ESL classroom, there will be chaos. The most important aspect of teaching pupils is classroom management and teachers cannot successfully teach a language class if they are not in control. Teachers can implement Kounins theory as suggested in Table 2.3.
Table 2.3: Main arguments, strategies and usefulness of Instructional Management Main Argument/Tenets There is a difference between well managed and ill-run classrooms and this termed as instructional management. Withitness means the teacher knows what is going on at all times in the classroom. Do not allow for dead time during transitions. Keep momentum by keeping the pupils engaged in language activity at all times. Momentum keeps the pupils engaged and on track with their material. Lesson presentation should be smooth to keep pupils engaged. Ask pupils questions to ensure that they are not experiencing Pupils may experience satiation when they have been overexposed to a certain topic or strategy. Ask pupils their input before planning lessons what interests them/ what do they want to learn/ Provide pupils with enjoyable and challenging lessons. what challenging techniques do they want to learn? satiation. . Give lessons multiple times and reflect on your instructional management during teaching. Enjoyable and challenging lessons go hand in hand with ESL classes. Teachers can ask pupils what challenges them the most and what they want to learn. Group work is a great time to move throughout the classroom and make sure that everyone is on task and understands the material. Strategies/Techniques Withitnessscan constantly, make notes of repeated behaviours, get to know the pupils on a personal level, keep moving through the classroom. Reflection/Usefulness In an ESL classroom, withitness is very important because teacher is constantly scanning the classroom and observing whether pupils are using English language while communicating with their friends.

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2.2.2.5 Theories of Congruent Communication: Haim Ginott Haim Ginott believes that effective classroom management depends a lot on the way in which the teacher interacts with students. It is believed that the teacher is a decisive element in the classroom, who can shape students in anyway depending on the teachers behaviour. Ginott promotes the use of congruent messages and to respect students as they are for effective classroom management (Charles, 1999). Congruent communication is open, harmonious with pupils feelings about themselves and their situations, and without sarcasm. It sends sane messages (Tauber, 2007) about a situation that involves a pupil, but not the personality or character of the pupil. These messages are used to guide pupils away from inappropriate behaviour. Teachers should avoid using evaluative praise as it is destructive to the pupils character. Instead, teachers should resort to use appreciative praise as it shows appreciation for what the pupil has done and the effort taken. According to Ginott, both teachers and pupils should interact appropriately to maintain positive classroom behaviour. Congruent communication can be achieved when teachers: promote self-discipline for both teachers and pupils; believe the essence of discipline is finding effective alternatives to discipline; accept and acknowledge pupils without labeling, arguing, disputing, or belittling the individual; avoid evaluative praise and use appreciative praise instead; avoid saying you and I messages to pupils; demonstrate their best behaviours, and invite rather than demand pupil cooperation.

Pupils, on the other hand should behave properly according to classroom norms and accept responsibility for their behaviour.

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Exercise 1 1. Briefly discuss how you would use the four types of reinforcers in your ESL classroom. 2. Glasser stressed that rules should be established by teachers and pupils together. Give an example on how you would apply it in your ESL classroom and lead towards personal and group achievement of your pupils. 3. With reference to the classroom scenario on Page 47, write an I message that you would like to convey to Hakimi. 4. Shamim has been playing truant during your ESL lesson for four times, applying Canters discipline hierarchy briefly describe how you would handle the situation. 5. Jonathan attempts to answer a question that you posed during your ESL lesson but his answer was wrong. Taking into account democratic teaching tenets how would you provide feedback to his response.
6. As an ESL teacher, briefly discuss how you would apply withiness in your primary classroom.

Tutorial

1. Discuss how the studied approaches, theories and models would lead to effective classroom management. 2. Simulate a situation in a classroom where the three theories / approaches could be applied. 3. In groups, simulate a situation in a classroom where the three approaches (authoritarian, group process and socio-psychological) could be applied.
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TOPIC 3 MANAGING RESOURCES AND FACILITIES: RULES, EXPECTATIONS AND PROCEDURES

3.0 SYNOPSIS Topic 3 focusses on the rules, expectations and procedures in managing resources and facilities in a classroom. It provides suggestions and strategies in creating a more

organized classroom as well as creating a comfortable and conducive environment in the classroom.

3.1 LEARNING OUTCOMES By the end of Topic 3, you will be able to: outline and explain the effective physical classroom management for effective lessons. outline and explain the effective social cultural environment for effective lessons. outline and explain the conventions and routines for organising instructional time.

3.2 FRAMEWORK OF TOPICS Managing Resources and Facilities


Physical Classroom Environment Social Cultural Environment Conventions and Routines for Organising Instructional Time Classwork/ Homework

Physical Space

Safe Environment

Positive Environment

Begining & Ending the Day /Period Transitions

Instructional Resources

Monitoring

Managing Learner Location & Grouping

Feedback

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CONTENT

SESSION FIVE

3.2.1 Physical Classroom Environment Classroom resources should be managed effectively to accommodate and conduct a variety of educational activities. Teachers have different ideas on their ideal classroom and the way they organise and arrange their classroom might be influenced by their different styles of teaching. However, regardless of their teaching styles, teachers should consider all areas of the classroom when organizing the physical environment. Resource and facilities management is crucial in creating a conducive physical environment to enable effective teaching and learning. The following section will give you insights on how to optimize resources and facilities in the classroom.

A safe, clean, comfortable and attractive classroom can stimulate learning and help build an efficient classroom community. However, setting up the physical environment of your classrooms can be quite daunting, especially when faced with old buildings, crowded classrooms and insufficient storage space. By organising the physical environment as proposed by Charles and Senter (2005) in their six facets of the physical environment you can make the most of your classroom.

3.2.1.1

Organising Physical Space

i. Floor Space In deciding how to utilise your classroom floor space, you have to think of the pupils movement during the different instructional activities conducted in the classroom. This would affect the pupils seating arrangements and the layout of the furniture in the classroom.

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ii. Seating Seating arrangement normally depends on how you conduct your lessons. When pupils are taught as a group they should be seated as near to you as possible, facing a chalkboard or whiteboard. Primary pupils may come together on a carpet in front of the class for wholegroup instruction. You may sit with them on the carpet or in a chair, often near a small board. Designating marks or coloured squares on the carpet is a common method of arrangement.

For ease of movement aisles and gaps in seating should be maintained, but the distance between you and the farthest pupil should be minimized as possible. When pupils are taught in small groups, they may be called to special areas where extra chairs are kept or to which they bring their own chairs. Ideally, the floor arrangement will keep you in fairly close proximity to pupils working at their desks. You must be able to oversee everyone in the class and the pupils are aware of that too.

iii. Work and activity areas A classroom sometimes is too congested with pupils desks and chairs and this will affect the work and activity areas in the classroom. However, you do not need so much of the activity areas because most of the class activities are done on the pupils a ssigned seats. If there is extra space, you may want to use it to set up for a quiet reading corner.

Your table is also one important area in the classroom. It must represent your authority and position so whenever a pupil is called to come and see you there, they feel honoured and proud. First of all, the table must be clean so it can be a good example for pupils. The area can also be made attractive by having an attractive file cabinet, and shelves for a small collection or personal books. The table should also be positioned so it oversees the entire class.

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iv. Wall Space Classroom walls offer excellent instructional possibilities. Chalkboards or whiteboards are normally placed to face the pupils. They are routinely used to post daily information, assignments and also for explanations and demonstrations. Bulletin boards tend to be used mostly for decorations and rarely for instruction. It also can be used to display pupils work . It provides recognition of pupils achievements which builds their self-esteem and is highly motivating. Pupils can learn from each other and at the same time instil their sense of ownership in the classroom.

3.2.1.2

Locating Instructional Space

i. Shelf space Textbooks, reference books and other special materials can be stored or displayed on shelves. Special materials to motivate and extend pupils experiences can also be kept on shelves in most classrooms. These include video and audio CDs and tapes, games, puzzles, puppets, toys and other materials.

ii. Cupboard This is the best place for you to keep pupil supplies, worksheet, audiovisual equipments, ESL specific equipment. Pupil supplies include such things as writing paper, construction papers, pencils, scissors, glue, paints, crayons, rulers and pens.

Personal set of cleaning materials is can also be kept in the classroom closet and these includes brooms, dust cloths, cleanser, paper towels and rags. In short, a cupboard is a place where you can store any teaching and learning materials or anything that is related to the classroom materials or pupils worksheets or supplies. Whatever it is, the stuff must be properly arranged and easily accessible.

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3.2.2 Social Cultural Environment 3.2.2.1 Safe Environment Malaysia is a multi racial country and the pupils diversity is obviously displayed in the classroom. These different ethnic groups that practise different norms and beliefs, and these cultural diversities in the classroom is something that you need to be aware of since it has an impact on your classroom management. You should always bear in mind that it is important for them to build a warm, caring, supportive and challenging classroom climate that will ensure effective social emotional teaching and learning. Fraser and OBrien (1985) suggest that teachers may safely proceed on the premise that classrooms function best when they provide a positive and structured climate, one that reflects warmth, support and pleasant circumstances with very low levels of fear.

i. Psychologically safe Teachers are said to be able to create a safe environment when their pupils do not feel threatened mentally or physically. Psychologically pupils would feel safe if they know that teachers are sensitive about their cultural diversity. Your pupils will feel safe because culturally, different ethnic group have different customs or practice which do not comply with their own customs or practice. They do not have to explain about their misbehaviours and this will create a very peaceful state of mind among them and emotionally they would feel safe knowing that the classroom is a place that does not practice discrimination and has high tolerance towards the cultural diversity.

ii. Physically safe Violence and bullying cases in schools are factors that can cause unsafe environments in schools where pupils can be physically harmed by their peers or other pupils in the school. Pupils are said to be physically safe if they are not harmed physically either by their peers or teachers. Sometimes teachers want to take the law into their own hands by punishing the pupils physically. This should be avoided because teachers should always be seen as warm and caring individuals who will protect their pupils as they will protect their own
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children. Once you have broken the trust that the pupils have in them, most likely learning will not be able to take place naturally and effectively.

iii. Strategies In Promoting a Safe School No one person or group can bear the responsibility for creating and maintaining safe classrooms. Instead, a collaborative effort must be made that includes teachers, pupils and parents (Manning and Bucher, 2013). Working with teachers In school, teachers play vital role in promoting a safe environment in school by : - helping pupils to develop social competencies, problem-prevention skills and coping skills; - emphasizing pro-social attitudes and values about self, others and work and avoids negative labelling and tracking; - monitoring pupils academic progress, behaviour and attitudes on a regular basis; - nurturing role models who show supports, warmth, mentoring and responsiveness to pupils needs. Working with pupils You can provide opportunities for pupils to assume responsibility for safer schools by: - creating a buddy system in the classroom in which current pupils help the new arrivals; - getting the pupils involved in a class project together such as a classroom beautification campaign; and - establishing pupils tip lines which provide anonymous, non threatening way for pupils to report school crime. However, it is often controversial because some parents and teachers do not want pupils placed in awkward situations.

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Working with parents and community members You can also enlist the help of parents to promote safe classrooms by: - Encouraging them to communicate with teachers and making special effort to know their childrens friends and childrens activities at and away from school. - Familiarising with the school safe school policy as well as an individual teachers safe classroom policy.

3.2.2.2 Creating Positive Environment It is your responsibility to establish and maintain a positive psychosocial environment, though pupils can help in this effort. According to Charles and Senter (2005), there are many factors that contribute and significantly influence the psychosocial environment of the classroom and one of them is human relations skills. Human relations skills Good human relations enable people to interact pleasantly and productively, both of which are essential to a participative environment that promotes school learning. These skills are as follows: - Friendliness is a trait that is admired everywhere and a skill that can be learned bysmiling, speaking in a considerate way, using names, asking how they are, inquiring about family and work. Others tend to respond to us in the same way. - Maintaining a positive attitude we show it by looking at the bright side of things and avoiding complaining, faultfinding or backbiting behaviours known to undermine positive climates. People with positive attitudes believe that all problems can be solved and deal with problems rather than complaining about them. - Ability to listen - it shows genuine interest in the other person, indicates that the others observations are valued, and enhance the quality of communication by bringing out a genuine exchange of ideas. - Ability to compliment genuinely It is evident that most people like to receive compliments and they react positively toward individuals who compliment them. (Charles and Senter, 2005)
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3.2.3 Conventions and Routines for Organising Instructional Time Conventions and routines are a vital part of efficient classroom operations. Some researchers and writers term them as rules, procedures, and routines (Karen, 1999; Jones, 1987 & Dreikurs, 1968 in Manning & Buchers, 2013). Teachers using procedures are able to manage time better, have less discipline problems, and are able to complete more curriculum. Some have routines and procedures for everything, from using the restroom to how to enter the room. Classroom rules, procedures and routines create a smooth running classroom that is beneficial for all students.

Conventions and routines are a vital part of efficient classroom operations. Some researchers and writers term them as Rules, Procedures, Rights, Expectations, Responsibilities, Standards or Consequences. Nevertheless all these terms refer to organising classroom instructional time. According to Karen (1999), Perhaps the most important item under classroom operation is rules. Whether the teachers refers to them as rules, rights, expectations or responsibilities, these principles govern classroom operation and become the written and unwritten code that allows a classroom to work.

Fredric Jones (Jones 1987a), cited in Maning et. al. (2013) developed his Positive Classroom Management Theory to help teachers address an array of pupil behaviour regardless of the grade levels, developmental levels or diversity of pupils. Jones (2007), suggested specific teacher strategies and recognized the importance of instructional effectiveness in classroom management. His key concepts are shown below: Developing classroom structures, including rules, procedures and physical

arrangements. Remaining calm and using body language to set limits. Teaching pupils cooperation and responsibility Providing backup systems
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Dreikurs (in Manning and Bucher, 2013) called for democratic teaching and classroom management procedures. His early work has had significant influence on educators and classroom management theorists, especially those who believe in developing supportive classrooms In Democratic Teaching and Management, a multifaceted model of classroom management, four aspects stand out: identifying and addressing mistaken goals of misbehaviour, acting as democratic rather than autocratic or permissive teachers, using logical consequences rather than punishment, and understand the difference between praise and encouragement. Dreikurs believed that when teachers act in a democratic fashion, they demonstrate effective instruction and provide a collaborative learning community where teachers and pupils work towards common goals. Based on the the theoritical concepts and framework mentioned above, here are some suggestions for organising instructional time in the classroom. These are only suggestions not the only ultimate approach. Teachers are expected to organise their instructional time in accordance to physical environment of the classroom, school policies and ethos. Adopt and adapt according to the theoritical concepts and framework discussed.

3.2.3.1 Begining and Ending the Day or Period At the beginning of the class period, the pupils come in, hand in their homework, and then immediately get out their notebooks. They will write down the date and the objective(s) for the day. Then, they will copy down the Food For Thought quotation of the day and do a quick-write on what they think the quote means. This process takes up the first 5 minutes of class. While they are doing the quick-write, the teachers will be taking down attendance. Then the teachers will have volunteers share their ideas. For any papers that pupils hand in to the teachers, there is a paper header procedure. The pupils must write their name, date, and bell/block on the upper right margin of the paper. On the upper left margin, they must write the title of the assignment. There is a procedure for turning in assignments.The teachers will have large collection bins on the counters. There is a bin for each bell/block. Each bin is divided down the center with a divider. One side will be for homework, and the
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other side will be for in-class work. Homework is deposited in the homework side as soon as the pupils come into the classroom at the beginning of class. After a pupils finishes a class assignment, they go and drop their work into the class work site. Tests are NOT dropped into the bin, however. They are directly given to the teachers when the pupil is finished.

i. The bathroom procedure At the beginning of the year, each pupil makes his own bathroom card (a large neon yellow index card) with his name on it, and keeps it in his English notebooks. There is a premade hall/bathroom pass by the door. Only one pupil at a time can leave to use the bathroom. The pupils cue by raising their hand, holding their bathroom pass. When the teachers acknowledges by noddinghis/her head, they put their card on their desk, get the hall pass and leave. The large, bright cards helps the teachers to keep track of who is gone.

ii. The direction-giving procedure First the teachers will tell the pupils what the assignment is. Then they will tell them to repeat the assignment back to the teachers (Give & Get). Next, they will give a time limit. Following which they will tell them how they will be evaluated (whether the assignment will be collected or not, whether the teachers will discuss it or not afterwards). Then, they will ask if there are any questions. If so, they will answer them. Finally, they will hand out the assignment. If this is a group assignment, then they will place them into groups and then hand out the assignment.

The procedure for assigning groups is: The teachers use a deck of cards. It contains the same number of face cards for each suite to match the number of pupils he/she wants in a group. For example, if the teachers are assigning 4 groups of 5, they would have 5 face cards from each suite (different shapes or colours). The teachers shuffle the cards, and walk around, handing one to each pupil. Then they name a suite and the pupil who is holding that suite goes to one corner of the room. The teachers repeat this until everyone is in a group.
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iii. Time limit procedure The teachers use a countdown timer on PowerPoint. It flashes re d at 10 minutes, 5 minutes, 1 minute, and then will say STOP. If the pupils are in groups, someone in the group should also be keeping track of the time.

3.2.3.2 Classwork/Homework i. Homework Folder Procedure Each month, the teachers will give two pupils in each bell/block the role of being the homework keeper. One or the other will copy down the homework for the day, the date it was assigned, and the date it is due. They will put this in a file cabinet folder. They will also include any handouts that supplemented the lesson, and that will be helpful for homework. The teachers assign this role to two pupils so that the job still gets done if one is absent. Absent pupils can go to the homework folder to get homework assignments that they have missed.

ii. Homework policy Pupils write homework in a composition book every day. It is the pupils responsibility to bring their composition book to and from school everyday. Unless certain circumstances arise, pupils have one assignment a day that takes approximately twenty to thirty minutes. The teachers can check the homework the following day but does not grade it since asssistance is usually given in the lower grades. Pupils who do not hand in homework in a timely fashion make it up in the classroom and make up missed homework during free time in the room. Pupils receive a weekly homework sheet with a list of assignments.

3.2.3.3 Transitions i. Transitions Into and Out of the Room Beginning the School Day Teachers should establish a routine to open each class day. The routine should be supervised and led by the teachers so that it is done efficiently and helps pupils settle
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in to the classroom. The routine need not be elaborate or time consuming. Some suggestions for teachers to begin the day:-

- riddle for the day - a discussion of the days lunch menu, - the pledge of allegiance - date and birthdays - discussion of school events or
- other items of interest

Not only does this routine establish a whole-class focus, it also gives pupils a chance to get some of their chatter out of the way before beginning academic content activities. Leaving the room Pupils will leave the room en masse at several times during the day: at recess and for lunch, physical education, music, computer lab or perhaps some other instructions. A common technique used is to have the pupils line up after appropriate materials have been put away, with the quietest table or row lining up first. Teachers should decide what behaviours are appropriate in line. Returning to the classroom Frequently teachers establish a procedure for this transition, particularly after recess or lunch time. - Pupils are to enter the room quietly and take their seats; - They may read or rest with their heads on their desk; - Pupils who need to use bathroom, sink, pencil sharpener or drinking water may do so, one at atime at each area.

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When pupils return from an out-of-room activity that has left them noisy or unusually chatty, or if they are excited when returning from recess, the transition activity should give the time to wind down before starting academic work. Teachers might permit quiet social talk as they settle in and get ready for the next lesson. Monitor pupils so that wind down time doestnt become wind up time. Between Activities Movement between activities is more difficult to manage when pupils complete or start them at varying times. The teacher is frequently working with one or a few pupils at a time. Less supervision of movement is possible and pupils may begin to wander around frequently, wasting time and distracting other pupils. Pupil movement should be regulated by procedures that make clear when and for what purpose pupils may move around, converse with other pupils or be out of their seats. Identifying the reason for excessive wandering or out-of-seat behaviour can be helpful in remedying it. If pupils have completed their work satisfactorily and have nothing to do, then more challenging work or enrichment is appropriate. Ending the day A routine is needed at the end of the day to ensure that pupils desks and work areas are cleared off, materials to go home are ready and pupils leave on time. Planning ahead for the end of the day guards against hurried closings, lost papers and a feeling of confusion and chaos. Other important end-of-day tasks include briefly reviewing important things learned that day, foreshadowing coming events and checking materials that will be taken home. If teachers have pupils who leave early to ride a bus, do only the essentials with them and complete the rest of the routine after they leave.

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3.2.3.4 Monitoring Monitoring is to heighten class teachers awareness of what is actually occuring in the dayto-day organization and management of their own classrooms and allow opportunities for considering : The improvement of practice The improvement of understanding of practice by practitioners; The improvement of the situation in which practice takes place (Carr and Kemmis,1986)

i. Class consequences Non-verbal warning (stern look, positioning, cue) Verbal Warning Pupil-Teacher meeting Phone call home/Detention Referral/ Meeting with the Headmaster/HEP

ii. Class incentives Homework passes. Free Time at the end of class (PAT time). Points towards their overall grade. At the end of an unit, have an approved movie day. Play the radio (appropriate music). Class chooses between two activities to do that day.

iii. Class cues Saying Ladies and Gentlemen or boys and girls to get attention. Turning lights on and off to get attention. Put index finger to mouth to tell students to be quiet. Pupils put pencils down when done with an assignment. Pupils raise hands holding bathroom card to signal.
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3.2.3.5

Feedback

Feedback, however briefly makes pupils feel valued. One way of treating pupils with dignity and respect is to expect them to do well. High expectations are important to pupil acheivement. Teacher feedback and actions can demonstrate this confidence in pupils or undermine pupils effort. Teachers can offer feedback in: oral comments written comments suggestions during guided practice question and answer suggestions on homework and in-class assignments progress reports and notes home to parents

Feedback must be specific, clear and must provide the pupil with the opportunity to act on it. Some examples of feedback statements are: This is good. If you add an example it will be excellent! Good start on that description of the main character! Can you add two more adjectives? You have compared two characters, now add some contrast.

Written feedback on papers offers so much more to a learner than comments such as Vague, Awkard and Do over!

3.2.3.6 Managing Pupil Location and Grouping Ideally classrooms should be arranged so that the pupils are in a U shape, where the desks on the sides are diagonal, facing the board. With this arrangement, the teachers can see every pupil, and every pupil can see the board. This set up puts the focus on the center of the room where the teachers will be teaching. The teacherss desk is at the back of the room so that he/she can see all of the pupils. Also, this set-up allows for ease of putting
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them into groups or partners. There is plenty of room to walk in- front- of and behind desks, as well as room to walk behind rows.

Teachers can also use other means of pupil location and grouping according to their needs. Classroom management theories and organising instructional time are based on the idea of developing classrooms providing a climate of respect, a democratic environment, cooperatively developed rules, logical consequences and a focus on the rights and welfare of both teachers and pupils.

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Exercise 1 Discuss the questions below. 1. What are your considerations when setting up your classroom at the begining of the year? 2. How can a teacher create the right ambience in the classroom that would create a conducive environment for teaching and learning to take place? 3. How can the supportive approaches to classroom management and organiising instructional time be used to help calm down and tame the pupils? 4. Devise two types of pupil location and grouping for story-telling sessions and role play.

Tutorial 1. Discuss how effective physical classroom environment and social cultural environment would contribute to effective lessons. 2. Discuss how classwork / homework, monitoring and feedbacks help create effective classroom sessions. 3. Discuss how good management of pupil grouping helps ESL pupils improve their English proficiency. 4. Discuss how effective communication skills would lead to effective lessons. 5. Discuss the impact of personal characteristics of good and bad communicators to young ESL pupils. 6. Discuss how effective use of different types of verbal and non-verbal communication skills would lead to effective classroom management. 7. Discuss ways to manage verbal and non-verbal communications in a primary ESL classroom.
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TOPIC 4 COMMUNICATION SKILLS FOR CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT

4.0 SYNOPSIS Topic 4 introduces teachers to communication skills for classroom management. It focuses on communication skills, skills for effective communication, Personal characteristics of good communicators, verbal and non-verbal communication, and managing verbal and nonverbal communication in an ESL classroom.

4.1 LEARNING OUTCOMES By the end of Topic 4, teachers will be able to: Identify different effective communication skills for classroom management. Identify personal charateristics of good communicators. Identify different effective communication skills for classroom management. Differentiate verbal and Non-verbal communication skills. Identify and manage different verbal and Non-verbal communication skills effectively.

4.2 FRAMEWORK OF TOPICS Communication Skills for Classroom Management


Communication Skills Skills for Effective Communication Personal Characteristics of Good Communicators Verbal and Non-verbal Communication Managing Verbal and Non-verbal Communication

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CONTENT

SESSION SIX (6 hours)

4.2.1 Communication Skills Communication is the act or process of transmitting information about ideas, attitudes, emotions, or objective behaviour Mirriam Webster Dictionary 2010

Communication requires a sender, a message, and a recipient, although the receiver need not be present or aware of the sender's intent to communicate at the time of communication; thus communication can occur across vast distances in time and space. Communication requires that the communicating parties share an area of communicative commonality. The communication process is complete once the receiver has understood the message of the sender. A person is said to have good communication skills when he/she is able to convey the message intelligibly so that the other person understands it.

When it comes to teaching, communication is the vehicle that moves education forward. It is a process of interchanging thoughts, feelings and information. It is the means by which teachers motivate, inform, guide, encourage, build relationships, meet needs and otherwise stir the eductional pot (Jones, 2000).

4.2.2

Effective communication

An effective communication is one in which the receiver understands the sender's message and is capable of conveying it to other people. Effective communication is one in which the conversation made by the sender and the receiver is interactive. One has to know the intention of the sender. Effective communication is clear in content and respectful of the other person. You can achieve this by choosing your words carefully and selecting ones that correctly represent your thoughts and feelings in a non-judgmental way.
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Effective communication is key to maintaining good personal relationships. Communication can include non-threatening sharing of information, or it may involve emotionally heavy topics that are likely to set off negative reactions in the person listening. Before you begin speaking with a significant other on a difficult subject, first check your feelings and the message you want to communicate. Remove from your speech and body language triggers that suggest you mean something different from what you are saying.

It is not far-fetched to say that good and effective communication contributes more to the quality of teaching and also effective classroom management than does any other skill.

4.2.2.1 Skills for Effective Communication The list of communication skills presented below, should be helpful in interacting with people in an effective manner. i. Staying focussed Staying focused while communicating is very important. Concentrating hard should help in catching the speaker's views and responding to them with ease. It can be irritating for a speaker to repeat his words again and again; careful listening is therefore, as important as proper speaking. Proceeding further without listening correctly is even more dangerous. It is therefore, necessary to maintain high concentration levels in order to communicate in a proper manner.

ii. Effective listening skills Effective listening skills is as important as speaking in the communication process. Good listeners do not have to spend much time in understanding what the other person has to say. They are capable of responding precisely since the whole thing is understood quickly. Feedback offered by good listeners reduces the effort of speakers to elaborate on points to be communicated.

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iii. Making eye contact Making eye contact while speaking and listening is a way to assure the speaker that you are following the communication process interestedly. Looking away from the speaker or not just concentrating properly would exhibit your poor communication skills.

iv. Body language Body language should be given as much importance as verbal communication. It is one of the important elements in the list of interpersonal skills. An open stance indicates that a person is interested in communicating. If the arms are kept crossed and shoulders placed in a hunched position, it suggests that the person is not interested in communicating.

v. Attitude Attitude of the speaker also holds great importance in the communication process. Listening to the speaker patiently and then keeping forth your views should be the right thing to do. The attempt should not be that of winning over an argument but, understanding the subject being discussed.

vi. Speaking clearly Speaking clearly is an important thing to keep in mind. Merely pronouncing the words clearly is not enough. The listener should be able to understand your views/thoughts clearly. Any kind of ambiguity can lead to confusion.

v. Being polite You should not use harsh language even if you find the speaker's views conflicting with that of yours. Disagreeing or displaying your disapproval about a certain conflict in a polite manner is always possible. Once again, patience is the key to handle such type of situations.

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vii. Keeping an open mind Keeping an open mind helps in understanding the thoughts of others without getting into conflict-mode. Objective analysis of a particular statement helps in preventing arguments and carrying on with the communication process. Explaining a particular concept to an audience requires you to be aware of the level of understanding of listeners. For the communication process to be fruitful, both the thinking plane of the audience and speaker should be the same.

There are instances when you need to repeat your statement or message to the listeners without getting irritated. Keeping your head and staying patient is the key to maintaining the communication process hurdle-free. Making your communication process creative is possible with a little bit of effort. For example, teachers in a school may have conflicting views. However, expressing them tacitly/creatively should keep them from using a negative tone while presenting their viewpoints.

We often make mistakes while speaking and listening (not concentrating enough), and thereby, respond in a wrong way. You should always learn from the mistakes you have made in the past. This approach helps in culling the errors one-by-one and thereby, improving the communication process (http://www.ehow.com).

4.2.3 Personal Characteristics of A Good Communicator All the skills in the world will not help you communicate effectively if you are not interested in other people and in the world around you. You should think about how you would like people to treat you and then treat them in the same way. A good communicator: remembers pupils names, greets them in a friendly manner and speaks to them with courtesy and respect. always sends suitable non-verbal messages that supports his words as he knows that what is communicated non-verbally can be more meaningful than words.
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focuses on the person with whom he is speaking making the person feel very important, which enhances the effectiveness of the communication. listens effectively as listening is an effective way to show interest in another person. Effective listening involves not just remaining silent, but nodding ones head in agreement, making little response noises, using prompters like interesting'' or tell me more,'' or asking pertinent questions to show one is paying attention. Open-ended questions that requires longer answers encourage the other person to talk. masters the rules of etiquette and good manners to be positive and polite as these are vital for effective interpersonal relationships. usually reads great books to develop his communication skills. He is also interested in learning the proper way to speak well because he believes in the saying Speech is a mirror of the soul. As a man speaks, so is he.

4.2.4 How Effective Communication Skills Help Build Good ESL Lessons Having effective communication skills will make teachers non-judgemental towards their pupils; thus treating them with respect. Psychologically the pupils will feel appreciated, which will help develop their self-confidence and self-esteem as well as enhance their class performance. Teachers too will improve their self-confidence and ability to conduct good lessons. Hence effective communication skills: i. Promote Pupils Self Esteem Pupils will feel that their thoughts or ideas are appreciated when teachers listen to their opinions. This increases their self esteem and confidence. Confident pupils are less likely to second guess their answers on tests, and self-assured pupils are more likely to speak up in class. Class participation leads to increased learning for the entire class. ii. Build Teachers Self-Confidence Communicating effectively also boosts teachers self-confidence over time which in turn helps them to effectively deal with pupils. Consequently, they will be able to deliver their lessons efficiently and motivate as well as inspire their pupils to excel in their studies.
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iii. Prevent Misunderstandings Communicating and expressing effectively can minimize the risk of misunderstanding among pupils. Teachers will be able to deliver their lesson in the best possible way so that teaching and learning takes place in the classroom. They will use various communication strategies to ensure that the lesson is well understood and the pupils achieve the learning outcome for that day.

iv. Improve Class Performance Teachers who practise effective communication will notice an improvement in the overall class performance. Teachers can gauge the effectiveness of a lesson through their pupils feedback. By asking questions, teachers can determine if their pupils were able to retain the imparted information. Since there will be less room for misunderstanding to occur in the class, the pupils will learn better and this will contribute to better class performance. (http://www.ehow.com/facts)

4.2.5 Managing Verbal Communication in the Classroom Throughout the school day, teachers will be communicating with the pupils and most of the time the communication can be divided into various purposes such as to inform, to instruct, to relate, to control and to motivate. i. Informing Pupils and Conducting Instruction Teachers inform pupils most of the time and this is done regularly. Normally after a teacher has informed the pupils, he will continue checking the pupils understanding by asking questions or repeating himself.

ii. Conducting Instruction Teachers use most of their communication skills in deliivering a lesson to gain the pupil attention, provide motivation, give directions, explain cncepts and procedures, pose questions, provide feedback, reteach by providing corrective instruction and second chances and redirect inappropriate behaviour.
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iii. Gaining Attention Frequently attention is gained by making statement such as: Everyone listen ! Simon says, listen! Freeze! ( for a hyper active class.)

Often non-verbal signals are used such as: Knock on the table Rhythmic hand clap Raising hand/s

Pupils should be taught to respond immediately to these words or signals. It is very important for teachers to gain their pupils full attention before they start a new lesson.

iv. Providing Motivation Teachers provide motivation and encouragement as they engage their pupils in lessons. Teachers should realize that teaching does not just mean imparting knowledge, but it is also a process of nurturing ones personal growth. Whatever the teacher says to the pupils has a great impact on them. Compare the folowing statements by teacher A and B: A: There you go. I know you can do it! B: Why are you so slow! This is such an easy question. Dont tell me you cannot do it! Obviously teacher A is able to motivate and boost the pupils self esteem, while Teacher B would definitely kill the pupils interest and motivation. The mot ivation that Teacher A gives is known as intrinsic motivation: motivation that moves the pupils from inside. They want to learn because they are motivated to learn. Teachers can also provide motivation with statements such as: Boys and girls, this is a contest lesson to see if you can set a new record for youself or for the class. There is a surprise hidden somewhere in the lesson, watch for it.
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v. Giving Directions Giving good directions is essential for good classroom management which can help to evade problems. Therefore in giving instructions a teacher should : be clear; short and precise; model what he means and if necessary show examples; and check to make sure pupils understand

iv. Posing Questions Questions keep pupils focussed and active. A good question might be asked to encourage pupils participation. Questions also force pupils to use various leve l of thoughts, Benjamin Bloom (1956) listed six levels in a hierachy of thinking: memory comprehension,

application, analysis, synthesis and evaluation.

v. Providing Supportive and Corrective Feedback Giving comments and feedback are common practice in classroom activities, however the main issues here is how supportive your comments are and also how effective your feedbacks are. This comments can be given either publicly or privately depending on the manner of the comments and the teachers reasons for providing the comments. Private (Individual focus) In general, comments should be private if they single out a pupil. For example when a teacher wants to boost ones self esteem or to provide corrective feedbacks, he can give out these comments. This is some of the best work Ive seen you do." Youve made a mistake here. How can you correct here. I think something is bothering you. How can I help?

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Public (Group Focus) Comments can also be given out publicly when a teacher wants to give reminders or procedures which are appropriate to the entire class. Below are some of the comments that can be made publicly. This is some of the best work weve done. It seems that many of you are mking the same mistakes. Let me explain that part again before I continue with the lesson.

vi. Redirecting Inappropriate Behaviour Sometimes, pupils do not act appropriately in the class, There are many factors that contribute to these behaviours but whatever the reasons are a teacher needs to be aware of this inapproprite behaviour immediately. Pupils can normally put back on course through redirection such as the following: Ah Seng. (Just say the pupils name quietly) You need to be finished in five minutes. I know you are tired, but lets see if we can finish this. Ill help you.

4.2.6 Non-Verbal Communication Communication is the transfer of information from one person to another. Most of us spend about 75 percent of our waking hours communicating our knowledge, thoughts, and ideas to others. However, most of us fail to realize that a great deal of our communication is of a non-verbal form as opposed to the oral and written forms. Non-verbal

communication includes facial expressions, eye contact, tone of voice, body posture and motions, and positioning within groups. It may also include the way we wear our clothes or the silence we keep.

In person-to-person communications our messages are sent on two levels simultaneously. If the nonverbal cues and the spoken message are incongruous, the flow of communication is hindered. Right or wrong, the receiver of the communication tends to base the intentions of the sender on the non- verbal cues he receives.
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Knowledge of non-verbal communication is important managers who serve as leaders of organizational "teams," for at least two reasons:

To function effectively as a teacher or the manager must interact with the pupils successfully. Non-verbal cues, when interpreted correctly, provide him with one means to do so.

The teachers project attitudes and feelings through non-verbal communication. Some personal needs such as approval, growth, achievement, and recognition may be met in effective teams. The extent to which these needs are met is closely related to how perceptive the teacher and the pupils are to non-verbal communication in themselves and in others on the team.

If the pupils show a true awareness to non-verbal cues, the class will have a better chance to succeed, for it will be an open, honest, and confronting unit.

4.2.7 Managing Non-Verbal Communication in the Classsroom In an effective classroom, one would see that the teacher is able to conduct his or her lesson peacefully and properly where pupils listen attentively to their teacher and at the same time participate and interact positively. This situation may occur in a very ideal situation where you have a class of very motivated and well behaved pupils; but nothing is perfect in this world.

Most of the time teachers will be facing pupils with various background and various attitudes in the classroom. To create a harmonious and effective teaching and learning environment, creative and resourceful teachers may use various means and strategies in their teaching and one of it may involve nonverbal communication. Using nonverbal communication may save a lot of the teachers energy and at the same time the flow of the teaching process will be smoother and more efficient.

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i. Facial Expressions Facial expressions usually communicate emotions. The expressions tell the attitudes of the communicator. Researchers have discovered that certain facial areas reveal our emotional state better than others. For example, the eyes tend to reveal happiness or sadness, and even surprise. The lower face also can reveal happiness or surprise; the smile, for example, can communicate friendliness and cooperation. The lower face, brows, and forehead can also reveal anger.

Reserchers believe, verbal cues provide 7 percent of the meaning of the message; vocal cues 38 percent; and facial expressions 55 percent. This means that, as the receiver of a message, you can rely heavily on the facial expressions of the sender because his expressions are a better indicator of the meaning behind the message than his words. At the same time as the sender of the message, your facial epression will determine whether your message will not just be understood by your pupils but appreciated at the same time (Healy, 1999).

A teacher who delivers his lesson accompanied by the right facial expression will display his own enthusiasm and sincerity that would be appreciated by his observant pupils.

ii. Eye Contact Eye contact is a direct and powerful form of non-verbal communication. The teacher generally maintains eye contact longer than the pupils. The direct stare of the sender of the message conveys candour and openness. It elicits a feeling of trust. Downward glances are generally associated with modesty. Eyes rolled upward are associated with fatigue.

In many instances the simplest and most effective corrective move is for the teacher to make solid eye contact with the pupils. Proficient classroom managers often rely heavily on their eyes as basic tools for keeping a class orderly and attentive. This avoids the

unnecessary use of the voice to deal with the localized and relatively routine problems, thereby avoiding a potential distraction for pupils who are busy working.
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iii. Paralanguage Is the content of your message contradicted by the attitude with which you are communicating it? Researchers have found that the tone, pitch, quality of voice, and rate of speaking convey emotions that can be accurately judged regardless of the content of the message. The important thing to gain from this is that the voice is important, not just as the conveyor of the message, but as a complement to the message. As a communicator you should be sensitive to the influence of tone, pitch, and quality of your voice on the interpretation of your message by the receiver.

iv. Cueing / Gesturing Cueing may involve consistent gestures that may suggest or indicate the teachers intentions or instructions. For example, a teacher might raise her hand as a cue for pupils to volunteer to answer a question. A teacher might also hold a book in the air to accompany a request that the class take it out too. There are many other creative gestures that a teacher can use in the class so he or she will not repeat herself all the time. By pointing emphatically to a pupils seat , a teacher may effectively signal Sit down, please.

On a different occasion, and with a younger class, a finger to the lips serves as a reminder to pupils that the present activities requires silence. Most good classroom managers have cultivated their sign language to the point where they are able to save themselves and their pupils a lot of unnecessary verbalization, at the same time maintain orderly and productive classrooms.

v. Pausing In the middle of a lesson, when pupils start talking and disrupting the class, a teacher can just stop and pause. Pausing can be a very effective move in getting the pupils attention. However, it must be done deliberately and dramatically for example by pausing in the middle of your sentence. At the same time your body should be paused too with your arms folded and accompanied by a look that demand something from the pupils such as Im
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waiting or Let me have your attention now. You should be prepared to wait several seconds or longer for everyone to focus their attention on you.

vi. Moving In During a lesson, there will always be some pupils who are not paying attention or simply ignoring you by chit-chatting with their friends. Instead of yelling their names and interrupting your own lesson, you can walk around the class and move deliberately in the direction of the misbehaving pupil/s. In these instances, your physical presence is sufficient to check the pupils misbehaviour without the need for verbal intervention. Teachers can lean over the pupils and give them the kind of facial expression and penetrating eye contact that would definitely send the message such as Pay attention! (Healy, 1999).

Exercise 1 1. Communiction skills are very important and they are even more important to teachers. Why? 2. What problems may arise if ones communication is not effective? 5. Describe a situation where you would use non verbal communications to check pupils misbehaviour. 6. Discuss the importance of giving comments and feedbacks to pupils.

Tutorial Questions 1. Discuss how effective use of different types of verbal and non-verbal communication skills would lead to effective classroom management. 2. Discuss ways to manage verbal and non-verbal communications in a classroom.
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TOPIC 5

OBSERVING AND RECOGNIZING PATTERNS OF BEHAVIOUR

5.0 SYNOPSIS Topic 5 focuses on patterns of behaviour in a classroom. It discusses the general concept of behaviour and misbehaviour highlighting the two types of misbehaviour namely disruptive and non-disruptive behaviour as well as patterns of behaviour for each type. It also

discusses the effects of and reasons for disruptive behaviours in a classroom from social and psychological perspectives. This topic ends with discussions on ways to manage disruptive behaviours in classrooms.

5.1 LEARNING OUTCOMES By the end of Topic 5, teachers will be able to: Recognize and identify different patterns of behaviour. Compare and contrast between disruptive and non-disruptive behaviours.
Explain ways to manage the different patterns of behaviour.

5.2 FRAMEWORK OF TOPIC

Observing and Recognizing Patterns of Behaviour


Disruptive Behaviour Violent Behaviour Non-Violent Behaviour Effects of disruptive behaviours on ESL classroom Reasons for disruptive behaviour Managing disruptive behaviour Non-Disruptive Behaviour

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CONTENT

SESSION SEVEN (3 hours)

5.2.1 Patterns of Observable Behaviour Classrooms are complex social sytems in which teachers and pupils interact in a variety of ways across contexts. In a normal size classroom in Malaysia, usually there are 30 to 40 pupils who have different individual needs, values as well as individual ways of behaving, interacting and socializing with one another during teaching-learning activities. In such situation, it seems rather challenging for pupils with different characteristics and personalities to sit through a class period and share the same environment without causing any disruptions. Similarly, it is also challenging for teachers to create effective learning environments and at the same time to recognize individual emotional needs and deal with behavioural problems. The multiple dynamics of a classroom can be a challenge for any teachers. Hence, teachers need knowledge on recognizing patterns of pupils behaviour and skill on managing pupil behaviour to ensure the teaching-learning process is effectively delivered

i. Definition of Behaviour In order to understand behavioural problem and how they affect pupils engagement in the learning process, first we need to define the concept behaviour. Charles (2002) defines behaviour as everything people do, good or bad, right or wrong, helpful or useless, productive or wasteful (p.2). He also claims that behaviour is context -specific and may be communicated or displayed through a combination of attitudes, words and actions. In other words, it may be expressed verbally and non-verbally.

As behaviour cannot be separated from the context and situation in which it occurs, it explains why some pupils may behave in one way at school and another way at home. Other than being context-specific and situational, behaviour is shaped by ones values, expectations of significant others as well as society. Pupils relationships with teachers,
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peers, parents and school community shape their interactions and responses to the situation or environment. Hence, the ways a pupil responds to situations or environments reflect his/her behaviour. This suggests that behaviour is social in nature and its social norms determine what is considered appropriate and inappropriate behaviour. Inappropriate behaviour, in this context of discussion, is also referred to as misbehaviour.

ii. Understanding Misbehaviour While the concept of behaviour is fairly straightforward and explicit, the concept of misbehaviour is indistinct and implicit. It involves a high degree of subjectivity as different teachers place different interpretations on what is appropriate and inappropriate behaviour according to many factors such as their personal teaching philosophies and personalities. Hence, it is difficult in arriving at a definition which all can agree and interpret consistently. According to Charles (2002), misbehaviour is regarded as behaviour that is inappropriate in a situation or setting and that it occurs and done willfully or intentionally. Fighting, interfering with the work of other children, running about the class, talking out of turn and shouting out are some examples of misbehaviour. Gordon ( in Charles,2002) regards misbehaviour as a specific action of the child seen by the adult as producing an undesirable consequence for the adult (p.90). He uses the concept problem ownership to explain the extent of the effects of pupil behaviour in a classroom from non-disruptive to disruptive. If a pupils behaviour does not bother anyone else in the classroom, then the problem owner is the pupil. But if a pupils behaviour affect others in the classroom and causes difficulties for the teachers (pupils become inattentive and lesson is disrupted), then the problem owner is the teacher. In this case, since the teacher is the problem owner, she has to take corrective actions to overcome the problem.

In addition, Manning & Bucher (2013; p.6) summarize general descriptions of misbehaviour as follows: behaviour problems challenge all teachers, regardless of the school, grade level, or geographical location
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Behaviour problem differ in frequency and intensity, yet thay are similar in type. Although some schools do not experience any violence, all schools have some pupils who generally goof off and disturb others. Behaviour problems disturb teachers and pupils, negatively affect the teaching and learning process, and ultimately hinder academic achievement.

iii. Types of Misbehaviour Since behaviour is shaped by individuals values, expectations, nature of relationships with others and is context-specific, the frequency and intensity of misbehaviours are considered unique to each individual and in each setting (Mannin g & Bucher, 2013). Misbehaviours can range from relatively minor off-tasks behaviours to more serious acts of violence. It is imperative for teachers to be able to identify, analyse and classify pupils behavioural pattern before planning for intervention strategies.

Meyers (2003) classifies pupil misbehaviour into two types, namely overt and covert. Overt misbehaviours are more open and observable such as pupils talking during lesson, kicking others, damage properties, etc. Covert misbehaviours are more passive such as sleeping during lesson, arriving late to class, acting bored and disengaged.

Charles (2002; p.3) on the other hand, classifies misbehaviour into five types according to degree of seriousness. The relative seriousness of the five types of misbehaviour is in descending order. Aggression: physical and verbal attacks on teachers, pupils, or property. Immorality: acts contrary to accepted morality, such as cheating, lying and stealing. Defiance of authority: refusal to do as the teachers requests. Class disruptions: talking loudly, calling out, walking the room, clowning, tossing things. Goofing off: fooling around, out of seat, not doing assigned tasks, dawdling, daydreaming.

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The first two (aggression and immorality) are considered more serious compared to the last three (defiance of authority, class disruptions and goofing off) and of which are more prevalent in classrooms. Although the last three are much less serious, they have detrimental effects on teacherss ability to teach effectively and pupils learning.

Behavioural problems that disrupt a lesson is identified as disruptive behaviour. On the contrary, behavioural problems that do not disrupt a lesson is regarded as non-disruptive behaviour.

5.2.2 Disruptive Behaviour It is important to differentiate between disruptive classroom behaviour from non-disruptive classroom behaviour. Being able to correctly identify and distinguish these two types of misbehaviours will help teachers to employ appropriate strategies for intervention. Levin & Nolan (1991;p.24) define disruptive behaviour as having the following characteristics: Interferes with the teaching act; Interferes with the rights of others to learn; Psychologically and physically unsafe; and Destroys property.

To help teachers recognize and gain a better understanding of the nature of disruptive behaviours in a classroom, analyse the following behavioural problems according to the characteristics of disruptive behaviour described above (Table 5.1).
Table 5.1: Recognizing disruptive behaviours (adapted from Nolan & Levin,1991) Descriptions of behavioural problem (Misbehaviour) 1. A pupil continually calls out while the teachers is explaining material Disruptive behaviour because the behaviour..... interferes with the teaching act interferes with the rights of others to learn (i.e the whole class) destroys school property

2. A pupil quietly scratches his name into his desk.

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3. A pupil quietly passes notes to his neighbour

interferes with the teaching act interferes with the rights of others to learn (i.e his neighbour)

4. A pupil continually teases and harasses his classmates

interferes with teaching act interferes with the rights of others to learn is psychologically and physically unsafe (intimidating others and evoke anger)

5. Making faces at others when the teachers is not looking.

Interferes with the right of others to learn Is psychologically and physically unsafe (evoke anger) Is psychologically and physically unsafe

6. A pupil doesnt wear safety goggles while welding in industrial arts class.

Other patterns of disruptive behaviour which have the same characteristics include: wanders about classroom fidgets in seat shows disrespect for other peoples property refuses to follow instructions talks when teacher talks threatens other pupils or teacher throws objects in class

While ability to merely recognize disruptive behaviours in classrooms can provide useful information about pupil behaviour in general, it is still inadequate because teachers also need to be able to identify specifically types of disruptive behaviours, namely violent and non-violent. This is especially important when developing strategies for prevention and intervention because crime (violent) and routine classroom misbehaviour (non-violent) are inherently different problems that require different solutions ( Levin & Nolan, 1991; p.29).

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5.2.1.1. Violent Behaviour Effective teaching and learning can take place only in a harmonious learning environment. Hence, schools should be safe places where children can grow and learn. Unfortunately, lately episodes of violence and aggression are increasing in educational settings instilling fear in both the teachers and the children. The occurence of violence in schools if not addressed promptly will destroy the fabric of learning and the growth as well as the

development of children. Historically, school violence is just about pupils who committed crime but today school violence is multifaceted incorporating aspects of victimization, aggression, hostility,bullying, sexual assault and criminal activity (Manning & Bucher, 2013). Violent behaviours, therefore, comprise many dimensions.

World Health Organization (WHO) describes a person with violent behaviour as having the following features: Intentional use of force or power Threatens against, attempts to harm or does harm oneself, another person, a group or community A high likelihood to cause death, psychological harm, maldevelopment and deprivation. (WHO Global Consultation on Violence and Health,1996)

Pupils who have the propensity for violence to self and others usually exhibit violencerelated behaviour patterns. These behaviour patterns which are also considered as warning signs of potential violent acts inform school administration and teachers,in particular, to act responsibly so that schools remain safe. Based on research findings, patterns of violencerelated behaviour or warning signs of violence include: High tendency to be argumentative with adults Explosive temper tantrums Verbal and physical aggression Deliberately damage and destroy school property Physical and Mental Bullying
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Alcohol and/or drug use Took something from others by force Vulgarly insulted someone Threw things at someone else Brought weapons to school Annoyed teachers and other pupils in the classroom Intolerance for differences Low tolerance for frustration (Basch, 2011; Manning & Butcher, 2013; Holtappels, 2000)

Research on the impact of violence in the schools has confirmed that violence-related behaviour has created an enormous threat to the emotional, physical, and spiritual well being of pupils who are not only victims of violence but also perpetrators, that is, the person who commit the violent acts (Chisholm & Ward,2004).

5.2.1.2 Non-Violent Behaviour Both violent and non-violent disruptive behaviour have an adverse effect on the quality of teaching and learning as well as learning environment. However, unlike violent disruptive behaviour, non-violent disruptive behaviour does not lead to psychological harm to others and crime or cause death. Hence, managing non-violent disruptive behaviour is different from managing violent behaviour. Managing non-violent behaviour is within the responsible of teachers and school (sometimes parents). On the other hand, managing violent

behaviour involves not only school administration and parents but aslo outside law enforcement agencies (police) and outside professional assistance (non-government organizations) ( Levin & Nolan, 1991).

Nevertheless, pupils who display non-violent disruptive behaviour have a high tendency to exhibit violent behaviour if pre-emptive actions are not taken to defuse the inappropriate act from escalating and spreading. Finger tapping on desk, talking loudly, calling out, walking
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the room, clowning, tossing things may not only interfere with the teaching acts and the rights of others to learn but can escalate into intervention. violence and aggression if there is no

5.2.1.3

Effects of Disruptive Behaviours on ESL Classroom

A classroom is a physical context in which a wide range of teaching and learning experiences takes place. As such the ultimate success of pupils will be heavily dependent upon the success that is facilitated in classrooms, where majority of their time is spent (Moyles, 2009; Manning & Bucher,2013; Charles, 2002; Levin & Nolan, 1991). Hence, if the classroom is characterized by disruptive behaviours, it will have an adverse effect on pupils and teachers in terms of :

i.

Teaching and Learning environment

As mentioned earlier, disruptive behaviour interferes with pupil academic learning time . Dealing with frequent disruptive behaviours every day erodes teaching and learning time in ESL classrooms, undermines quality classroom climate, builds trauma and increases teachers dissatisfaction with teaching, which in turn affect quality of instructions.

Moreover, as teachers begin to deal with more behavioural problems their motivation to teach and assist pupils in learning English will deteriorate. To make matters worse, if teachers themselves have a low tolerance for frustration, their motivation to teach is replaced by who cares and get even attitude resulting in teache r-pupil power struggles (Levin & Nolan,1991). This, in effect, will build up tension, anxiety and hostility between the teachers and disruptive pupils which subsequently will lead to more disruptive problems. Thus perpetuating a vicious cycle. ii. Pupils Psychological safety Continued occurences of violent behaviours and aggressions instil fear in pupils. This atmosphere is not conducive to the provisons of a safe environment. When pupils begin to feel that their own safety is threatened their ability to focus on the lesson and pay attention
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to schoolwork will be greatly affected. They will even lose their confidence in their teachers ability to protect them from peer victimization. When this fear escalates and reaches a high enough level, they will decide not to attend school or school activities, contributing to low academic achievement. iii. Future behaviours

Childhood is the foundation period of life where attitudes, habits and patterns of behaviour are established and moulded. How a child is moulded during this crucial period will determine his ability to adjust to life as he grows older (Cooper, 2004). Evidence from research suggests some continuity and consistency as well as change in behaviour during child development, implying that behaviour problems appear to be just a phase in development. Thus a child who is seen as a disruptive child in primary school may or may not be a disruptive child in secondary school. So, if teachers ignore repeated behavioural problems in her class, there is a strong tendency that the unacceptable behaviour will reoccur in future. From the perspective of behaviourists, all behaviour including unacceptable behaviour occurs because it is reinforced.

In terms of social learning, other pupils who observe their teachers not taking actions against the disruptive pupil will imitate the unacceptable behaviour in future. This is because pupils who are exposed to frequent acts of problem behaviour tend to use these acts as socially acceptable models of behaviour.

5.2.1.4

Reasons for Disruptive Behaviour

Pupils misbehave for a variety of reasons and knowing the underlying cause of a pupils misbehaviour helps the teacher to determine which intervention strategies may or may not be successful. Behavioural problems are usually caused by a mixture of interacting factors, some of which reside within the individual pupil, while others are related to conditions within environment in society, school and home.

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i. Individual Self-Perception of academic competence According to Bandura (1986), a personal belief in self-efficacy influences how much effort an individual will invest and how long she or he will persevere when facing the obstacles and even failures. A combination of both, effort and failure may be a serious threat to self-worth. Pupils with insubstantial or low academic self-esteem may seem to be reluctant to invest much effort in academic tasks. Their fear of failure and the potential damage this can have on their self-esteem makes them choose to dawdle and potter around disturbing others in class instead of staying on-task.

Evidence from research has shown that a learning climate which strongly highlights social comparison (e.g. comparing ones ability with another pupil or class) is likely to create anxieties among pupils. and threaten their self-confidence. In a case of pupils who have experienced repeated failures in school subjects, such social comparison reminds them of their own shortcomings and incompetence, and therefore leads to frustration. They develop hatred and seek revenge against teachers who they believed to be responsible for the experience of failures and for making failures public. This may in turn lead to aggressive behaviour towards the teachers. Social Recognition According to Alberts principal teaching (in Charles,2002; p71), pupils need to feel that they belong in the classroom which suggests pupils must perceive themselves to be important, worthwhile and valued. Some pupils misbehave because they want

recognition and acceptance. They misbehave under the mistaken believe that the socially unacceptable behaviour will result in the recognition they seek (Levin &

Nolan,1991). Disruptive behaviours such as attention-seeking, power-seeking and revenge-seeking are common misbehaviour exhibited by pupils who seek recognition and acknowledgement from others.

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Attention-seeking pupils ask irrelevant questions, some continually ask for teachers approval or assistance during lessons. They behave in this way to seek teachers attention, and to make others in the class notice them, hence making them feel important and belong in the classroom as others acknowledged their presence.

However, if these pupils do not get the attention they seek or a teacher reprimands them for disrupting a lesson, they usually react negatively against the reprimands and confront the teacher openly. They seek power to challenge teachers authority through misbehaviour believe I can do what I want to do and nobody can make me do anything I dont want to do. These power-seeking pupils argue, ignore, become stubborn and become disobedient to show that they are in control of the situation (ibid).

When power-seeking pupils fail to control their environment and see themselves as losing the intended recogniton they seek, they become vengeful. Revenge-seeking pupils vent their anger and frustration by hurting, disturbing and harrassing others as well as damaging class furniture. They learn that when they misbehave, they become the center of teachers and pupils attention.

ii. Society Social problems such as drugs, rape, crime, road rage, child abuse and teenage pregnancy which are consistently reported in newspapers, internet, and on television can have significant effect on childrens view of the world and the ir psycho-social development behaviour. This is because children develop behaviour patterns, attitudes and values about social interaction at ages between 3 and 11 years and it is claimed that during these formative years, engagement and exposure to inappropriate behaviours can create distorted views of society and the acceptability of certain behaviours (Cyntia,2003).

A diverse body of research demonstrates that for many children, repeated exposure to harassment or physical violence on television contributes to an acceptance of violence as a way of solving interpersonal conflicts and desensitizes children to violence or harassment.
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When children are desensitized to violence, they tend to be inconsiderate or less empathetic. They are more likely to imitate what they observe from media when they find themselves in a situation with some degree of similarity such as a situation of conflict. iii. School Environment Meaningful learning will take place when the learning environment facilitates pupils to engage fully with the range of opportunities available to them. If pupils are engaged in interesting academic activities, disruptive behaviour will be less likely to occur. Adopting teaching strategies that appeal to pupils learning style, interest and need s will engage pupils to learning and keep pupils on task throughout the lesson. When pupils are not engaged in classroom, they are less likely to benefit from instruction and more likely to disrupt the teacher or other pupils. In many cases, pupils display disruptive behaviour in classroom as a reaction to poor teaching or a de-motivating environment.

iv. Physio-Psychological Needs Motivation Schools failure to meet pupils physiological needs has also been cited as one of the factors that contribute to disruptive behaviour. From the perspective of Maslows

hierachy of individual needs, pupil motivation can significantly influence the learning environment. When learning is effectively facilitated and pupils are able to successfully demonstrate understanding of new knowledge and skills which they have learned in class, they feel positive about themselves and are motivated to learn. This positive feelings about themselves will lead to the development of self-esteem and self-respect which subsequently will further motivate pupils to learn and stay focus on the lesson, hence reducing off-task behaviours in class. Lack of sense of belonging Pupils who exhibit behavioural problems are more likely to be rejected by peers.The rejection factor can escalate their already diminished sense of belonging. Moreover,

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pupils who are rejected by peer group will often form bonds with others with similar behavioural problems to form their own peer group or gang. Physical and psychological safety Schools which have high rates of behavioural problems does not only threaten the physical and psychological safety of pupils but also influence pupils who observe it to act in similar harmful ways. This can encourage initiation or maintenance of anti social behaviour, thus perpetuating a viscious cycle. Being a victim of any form of violent acts or harassment can also affect pupils achievement, feeling unsafe at school and lower

emotional well-being , academic

connectedness with school. They may feel isolated, withdrawn and insecure which may result in development of fear and resentment. Fear and resentment repressed over a long period may lead to hostility.

v. Home Environment Children learn from seeing, say things they have heard, copy things they have seen and learn actions and attitudes from others. Home environment has great influence on childrens psychological and moral development.

Initial and minor violent act begins within the parent-child bond or within the parent-parent bond, which in turn influences the behaviour of the child. Manning & Bucher (2013; p.8) point out when pupils see violent and aggressive behaviours at home , they might begin to consider such behaviours as acceptable methods of dealing with problems. Since violent behaviour is usually persistent, the aggresive behaviour has time to develop and become enduring.

Child- rearing practices engaged in within the family also have a direct influence on the pupils behaviour in school. Homes that could be considered abusive where parents were hostile to the child and handed out angry physical punishment tend to develop patterns of
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aggressive and violent behaviour. There is a tendency for the child to use the same aggressive behaviour patterns with his peers in school. In other words, what is learned at home will influence what the pupil would do in school.

5.2.1.5

Managing Disruptive Behaviour

Fundamental to the understanding of behaviour problems is recognition that there is no one method or strategy to manage disruptive behaviour. It is thus important for schools and teachers to have an accurate picture of the nature and prevalence of behaviour that

interfere with teaching and learning. Once the disruptive behaviour has been identified and clarified, it is important for teachers to consider causes for the disruptive behaviours before selecting and adopting strategies to prevent the behavioural problems from escalating.

Based on insights from theories and research on effective behaviour management, suggested strategies to prevent and manage disruptive behaviours include:

i. Engage pupils academically and socially Engagement in the classroom includes behaviours that are important for learning (attending to instructions and completing seatwork) and social behaviours that facilitate learning (following classroom rules, working cooperatively with other pupils). When pupils are not engaged in the classroom either academically or socially, they are less likely to actively involve in the learning process and more likely to disrupt other pupils or the teacher. Increasing pupils on-task behaviour in the classroom will enable teachers to maximise learning time. By varying the types of activities during a lesson according to the developmental level of pupils and ensuring the duration of the learning activities match pupil attention spans will increase pupils engagement in the learning tasks, thus minimise disruptive behaviours.

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ii. Set and maintain clear and concise classroom rules and procedures Teachers are advised to keep classroom rules simple and to state rules in terms of what pupils should do than what pupils should not do. The purpose is to set reasonable limits for behaviour, create norms for classrom behaviour and communicate thoughts and concerns for the learning environment. To ensure that pupils understand what is expected from them, the rationale for each rule and procedure, teachers need to teach and demonstrate the class rules and procedures consistently and fairly so that they fully accept the logical consequences in which they will be imposed if they violate any of the rules or procedures.

iii. Set clearly defined learning goals/objectives Setting clearly defined goals for each lesson communicates pupils accountability and responsibility for learning. At the beginning of a lesson, teachers can tell pupils what they did during the previous class, what they will do during the present lesson including the activities or tasks for the lesson in order to achieve the set learning goals/ objectives. When the learning goals or objectives are clearly communicated, pupils will direct their focus and commitment toward achieving the goals. Disruptive behaviours are less likely to occur as their accountability for completing a definite task in a given time motivates them to engage in the learning activities.

iv. Verbal Recognition Some pupils display an abnormally strong need for attention from a teacher. They are out of their seat most of the time or ask irrelevant questions. Teacher can subtly ignore their attention-seeking behaviour by praising all other pupils for in-seat behaviour. Praise and give encouragement to the attention-seeking pupil when he/she demonstrates appropriate behaviour.

v. Develop an acknowledgement system An effective way to focus pupil attention on desired behaviour
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is to set a good

acknowledgement system. Acknowledgements are positive verbal statements such as

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Thanks for helping me distribute the papers, Thanks for behaving good today. Acknowledgements such as these are crucial if teachers wish to establish a positive classroom environment.

Acknowledgement system may also involve predefined rewards awarded to individual pupilss for selected target behaviour. Rewards can be in the form of tokens or merit points and pupils can trade points or tokens for a variety of tangible (stickers, school supplies, stamps) and intangible items ( a note to parents, extra timefor recess, first to line up, class leader for the day).

vi. Do a perception check Sometimes pupils can be disruptive simply by displaying nonverbal behaviours aimed at the the teacher that communicate disapproval, such as making faces or rolling their eyes. This can be a form of passive aggresive behaviour intended to challenge the teacher. If these behaviours are one-time reactions, tehy are probably best ignored, but if they persist and annoyed, it is time to deal with them.

Teacher can do a perception check either by describing the behaviour in neutral, objective terms (e.g. Ali, I noticed that you were rolling your eyes just now) or by asking for feedback ( e.g. Can you tell me what was going on?). Here, the teacher communicates curiosity rather than accusation which will make the pupils become aware of their inappropriate behaviours.

vii. Develop weekly progress report Similar to acknowledgement system, developing a progress report works especially well with pupils who exhibit frequent and consistent patterns of disruptive behaviour. Progress report can be a simple checklist item that a teacher can use to monitor targeted pupil disruptive behaviour at the end of the week. A point is given each time the pupil behaves appropriately or has improved his/her behaviour. The points collected can be exchanged for rewards at a later time.
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viii. Pupil-teacher conference Communicating with pupils who displayed disruptive behaviour either before or after class can be a powerful strategy to curb disruptive behaviours. Apart from showing them that the teacher care for them, it also communicates teach ers expectations. When communicating with the pupil to find out why he/she is misbehaving, teacher must make sure that it is done in a non-threatening and non-judgemental manner. The communication should only focus on the pupils behaviour. Avoid negat ive statements ( You always give me headaches. You cant sit still for a second and you cant stop talking), instead start off by pointing out the positive attributes of the pupil. Communicate how the pupils disruptive behaviour affects the lesson and o ther pupils. The teacher can ask the pupil to change and then develop a plan of action including a progress report to monitor the changes in his/her behaviour.

5.2.2 Non-Disruptive Behaviour Non-disruptive behaviours are minor irritants and merely motivational problems but if these behaviours are prolonged, repetitive, persistent and spread they may become disruptive ( Charles, 2002; Levin & Nolan, 1991). Examples of non-disruptive behaviours are pupils who: refuse to turn in homework are not prepared for class are daydreaming, doodling and looking out the window spend a lot of time looking through own things, desk, book , etc say they are getting to the task or are working on something but they are not. quietly draw pictures on a piece of paper while lesson is being presented talk during a transition between activities

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These behaviours generally do not interfere with other pupils learning and teaching acts, or threaten and intimidate others or damage school property. They are minor irritants as long as they are brief in duration. However, teachers need to employ effective motivational strategies to work with these pupils individually in order to protect the classs rights to learn in a safe learning environment.

Exercise 1 1. Compare and contrast the differences and similarities between disruptive and nondisruptive behaviour. 2. Discuss the different patterns of misbehaviour. How are these patterns similar to or different from pupils in teachersr classroom? 3. Study the scenario below and suggest ways to manage the behavioural problem. Scenario A Year 3 pupil is a drummer and drums with his fingers on everythingthe walls walking down the hallway, on his desk, on other people etc. His drumming on his desk during independent work time is becoming increasing annoying to other pupils.

Tutorial 1. Discuss effective ways to recognize different patterns of behaviour. 2. Reflect on past experiences on how teachers handled disruptive behaviours in an ESL classroom. 3. Discuss ways on how to develop, monitor and maintain positive behaviours in an ESL classroom. 4. Identify ways how pupils misbehave and how to handle them positively.
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TOPIC 6

DEVELOPING, MONITORING AND MAINTAINING PRODUCTIVE PUPIL BEHAVIOUR

6.0

SYNOPSIS

Topic 6 focuses on ways to develop. monitor and maintain productive behaviour. It defines the concept of productive behaviour and discusses patterns of productive behaviour both for individual and group behaviour. It also provides teachers with suggestions on ways a teachers can develop and monitor productive behaviour of pupils in a classroom. It also discusses concepts of and differences between motivation, encouragement and criticism as well as ways to motivate and encourage pupils.

6.1

LEARNING OUTCOMES

At the end of Topic 6, pupils will be able to: Develop, monitor and maintain productive pupils behaviours. Identify the productive behaviours of pupils. Differentiate between motivation, encouragement and criticism. Explain ways to motivate and encourage

6.2

TOPIC FRAMEWORK

Developing, Monitoring and Maintaining Productive Pupil Behaviour

Productive Behaviour

Patterns of Productive Behaviour

of
Develop, Monitor, Maintain Productive Behaviours Motivation

Encouragement

Criticism

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CONTENT

SESSION EIGHT (6 hours)

6.2.1 Productive Pupil Behaviour Generally, teachers have clear ideas about the behaviour and attitude of their pupils which they like to see in classrooms. Productive pupil behaviours do not only make the job of teaching less stressful, but also enable teachers to focus on their teaching and ultimately increase pupils academic success. As behaviours are learned and are influenced by situation in which it occurs, teachers can help those pupils who regularly misbehave develop productive and responsibe behaviours by altering some aspects of the classroom situation. In other words, prevention of problem behaviours involves the establishment of classroom environment that promotes and maintains productive pupil behaviours

Desirable or productive pupil behaviour, according to Wentzel (2002), can be defined in terms of the absence of negative or disruptive actions. She described productive behaviours as positive actions where the outcomes (e.g. positive classroom environment) benefit others in the classroom. Their positive actions are prompted by empathy, moral values, and a sense of personal responsibility. Pupils exhibiting productive behaviours frequently display normative or socially competent behaviour (e.g. cooperative, respect for others, compliant). This suggests that, encouraging productive behaviours can have extended effects in the classroom and for individual pupil. One of the positive effects is positive ecological and psychological classroom environment. As discussed in earlier topic, a positive classroom environment enriches the teaching and learning experience for teachers and pupils.

Productive behaviours are influenced by many contextual factors including interpersonal interactions and relationships with teachers and peers. Interactions with teachers and peers can provide pupils directly with resources (information, advice, modeled behaviour) that facilitate learning. However, the ways pupils interact with peers and teachers as well as with the demands of the classrooms, tend to shape and define classroom-specific social
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competence for pupils to function in positive and productive ways. This, in turn will influence their behaviours.

There are views that suggest pupils are competent and productive when they are able to achieve goals that are valued by themselves and their teachers. In addition, these goals should be accomplished in ways that lead to other positive outcomes for the pupils. For instance, positive interactions with peers can enhance the development of a range of intellectual skills such as problem-solving and decision making ,which in turn can enhance intellectual development (Wentzel, 2002; Damon & Phelps,1989).

6.2.2 Patterns of Productive Behaviour Pupils are most likely to display productive behaviour and are socially competent when they believe they can achieve the goals inherent in the demands of classroom life and their own personal goals. Based on research related to teachers perception of pupil productive behaviour in a classroom (Corrie, 2011; Wentzel, 1998), teachers perceive productive behaviours, both for individual and group behaviour, as having three characteristics. These characterics can serve as a guide to identify productive behaviours in pupils. The three characteristics are: i. Socially integrative characteristics such as sharing, being helpful to others and being responsive to rules. ii. Motivational qualities such as hardworking, doing seat work, follow the flow of lesson iii. Performance outcomes such as getting good grades and completing homework. According to self-determination theory, pupils have a psychological need to relate to other people . When pupils have positive interpersonal interaction involvement with peers or with the teachers, they will develop positive image about themselves and will become more engaged in learning tasks. Usually, pupils who as an individual displays productive behaviour in classroom will also exhibit productive behaviours when she/he is working with others or in groups.
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Hence, the examples of patterns of pupil productive behaviour as listed below in Table 6.1 include productive behaviours prevalent for individual and working in groups:
Table 6.1: Productive Behaviour Descriptions of productive behaviour 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 Understand how the system in classroom works Get along well, courteous and tactful when talking with others Comply with the classroom rules Conform to the social norms and culture of the class community Behave well when follow teacherss instructions Consistently stay on tasks Respect others in group/class Always pay attention in class Responsible Complete homework/task Turn in quality work Stay in seat Resilient Take initiative/ Proactive Treat class property with care Ask permission in responsible manner Use time wisely Cooperative Give and accept compliments Respect diversity of others Allow opportunities for other group members to participate Sharing and helping others solve learning/social problems Respect group leaderSupport team win and loseIndividual / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / Group / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / /

(Corrie, 2011; Morgan,S., 2008; Wentzel, 2000)


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6.2.3

Develop, Monitor and Maintain Productive Behaviours

Monitoring and maintaining productive classroom behaviour for the purpose of improving teaching and learning is critical. Classrooms where pupils engaging in learning are classrooms where teachers: Plan lessons that highlight productive time, that is, time spent on lessons adapted to pupils needs and interests, rather than just engaged time, which involves tasks designed to keep pupils busy and quiet. Modify or adapt instructional strategies when necessary to meet individual needs of pupils. Ask, How can I better capture pupils interest and excitement? Are my pupils bored?

are following

expectations,

Use positive classroom rules. As rules create clear behaviour expectations, make sure the desired behaviours are explicitly described and reinforced on a regular basis. Include pupils in creating the rules .

Give rewards, praise and encouragement when pupils demonstrate productive behaviour. Effective use of contingent praise will reinforce and increase a variety of productive pupil behaviours and academic skills,

Resolve minor inattention and disruptions before they become major problems. A teacher can monitor the rest of the class, acknowledge other requests for assistance and handle disruptions promptly by scanning the classroom for misbehaviours regularly, making regular eye contact with pupils and demonstrating teacher Whit-it-ness

Minimise delays in teaching-learning activities and provide work that reduces frustration. In this way pupils will have less time to talk, walk around the classroom, and otherwise use time unproductively.

Create positive interdependendence by designing a group task where participation of every member is necessary to its completion. Pupils must clearly understand their interdependence in accomplishing the task.

Encourage exchange of ideas by providing groups a considerable face-to-face interaction. Besides consolidating and building new understanding, face-to face interaction allows everyone in the group be prepared, has a chance to contribute and responsible for the task assigned.
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Create and provide accountability system which provides feedback to the individual pupil as well as to the group. members of the group should be aware that each individual will receive a grade and that each is a participant in the evaluation process.

Teach social competency skills in order to develop ability to maintain peer relationships and exhibit pro-social behaviour in classroom and school.

Teach and practice interpersonal and small group skills to develop ability to resolve conflict in a constructive manner and communicate effectively. Create meaningful tasks which support cooperative learning. A challenging problem solving group task accompanied by scaffoldings will encourage pupils to rely on one another.

Teach metacognitive strategies to help each member become self-regulated pupils, develop thinking and problem solving skills. Consistently and clearly inform pupils of intended learning objectives, teach them expected learning strategies, and monitor learning progress. (Henry,D., & Riddoch, 2006; Severs, 2003; Damon & Phelps, 2001)

Developing, monitoring and sustaining productive behaviour does not only reduce behaviour problems in a classroom, but can also lead to higher pupil achievement. Therefore, an environment conducive to pupil productive behaviour should be promoted and maintained in order to sustain pupil productive behaviour.

6.2.4

Motivation

Motivation is an inner drive that arouses pupils, steers them in particular directions, goals,or tasks and causes them to be persisitent in trying to achieve the goals or completing the task successfully (Lenin & Nolan,1991). A pupils motivation is influenced by a number of beliefs, interests and attitudes which can be positive and negative in their effects.

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A pupil who is positively motivated would always pay attention to the lesson, involve actively in the lesson, direct her/his energy to the learning tasks and believe she/he has the ability and confidence to succeed. In contrast, a pupil who is not motivated or lacking in motivation would aim to only do enough to avoid failure, have little confidence or expectation of

succeeding in the task and have low interest in the lesson.

There are two types of motivation, namely intrinsic motivation and extrinsic motivation. Intrinsic motivation deals with behaviour performed for its own sake in order to experience satisfaction. This is to say, intrinsically motivated pupils work on academic tasks because they find them enjoyable and interesting. They do not rely on explicit rewards or recognition. Task participation is its own reward. They pursue an academic task on their own initiative without having to be coerced and regularly evaluate their own progress using their own criteria.

Extrinsic motivation, on the other hand, deals with behaviour performed to receive some extrinsic rewards or recognition. Pupils who are extrinsically motivated rely solely on

tangible rewards and desirable results for their work or effort such as receiving good grades or special privileges in the classroom. Since they rely primarily on rewards, there is a tendency that once these rewards are no longer available or considerably diminished, pupils will show little inclination to continue the academic task or activity.

Previous studies (Hidi & Harackiewicz, 2000; Schunk et al, 2008) have indicated that intrinsic motivation can promote pupil learning and achievement better than extrinsic motivation. However, teachers need to realize that the presence of extrinsic and intrinsic motivation is always not mutually exclusive. There are cases where pupils may be both intrinsically and extrinsically motivated.

a. Ways to motivate pupils It is easy to tell when pupils are motivated to learn and stay on task; they pay attention to teachers, they begin working on task immediately and volunteer to answer questions. Thus,
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it is important that teachers have a good understanding of the strategies that can be used to motivate pupils. Teachers can actively manipulate many of the environmental and contextual variables to increase pupil motivation. Adapted from Nolan & Levin (1991), some of the variables which teachers can actively manipulate to motivate and encourage pupils are: i. Pupil Interest - Relate teaching and learning materials to pupil interest in life outside school. - Design variety of activities which pupil enjoy such as simulation, group work,video viewing, games to avoid boredom.

ii. Pupil Needs Create activities that provide ample opportunities for pupils to meet some of their basic human needs such as sense of belonging and self-esteem through group work and pair work.

iii. Success Create success for pupils by designing activies that are manageable within the time duration given and according to pupils ability level. Ensure pupils experience success by making learning goals or objectives clear and teaching content of the lesson clearly in small steps. Encourage success by teaching pupils study skills.

iv. Variety and Novelty Ensure variety in topics and activities when teaching as this can encourage mastery learning. Variety of topics and activities can maximize different pupils with different learning styles. Design variety in classroom activities that can promote novelty and will capture pupils attention such as simulation, language games, storytelling and amazing facts. Novelty can occur when pupils experience something new, unusual or unexpected.
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learning opportunities for

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v. Tension Create a moderate amount of tension to enhance motivation and increase pupil learning. When there is no tension in the learning situation, pupils tend to be relaxed and not serious about learning.

vi. Feeling Tone Create and establish a moderately positive atmosphere where the climate is friendly and pleasant but focused on the learning task at hand. An extremely positive feeling tone or climate can direct pupil attention away from the learning task. A neutral tone is non-stimulating while an extreme negative feeling tone is threatening and can lead to tension overload.

vii. Feedback Give specific feedback to pupils soon after or at the time of performance or presentation. The feedback must focus on pupils performance ( assignment, test score and pupil work), not on pupils personal attributes. These feedbacks allow pupils to keep track of their own progress over time.

6.2.5 Encouragement Encouragement, is a comment which shows acceptance, emphasizes effort and improvement, appreciates contributions, gets one to evaluate his/her own performance, and instills faith and confidence (Adler,1946; p. 509). It is a a process that focuses on the individuals potential and ability in order to enhance self -esteem ,self-confidence and selfworth. When a teacher uses encouragement (e.g. I noticed you put a lot of effort into this assignment, Im really proud of you. Your effort really seems to have paid off, I like reading your essay. You used many descriptive words to describe your vacation), it

inspires them with confidence, allows pupils to to become aware of their own strengths and stimulates motivation from within them (intrinsic motivation). It focuses on what the pupils do, highlighting their capabilities, contibutions
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and efforts. In context of classroom

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management, encouragement is a more psychologically healthy approach to stimulating positive behaviour.

i. Considerations when using encouragement There are many ways and techniques of using encouragement in classroom management. Kelly & Chick (1982) propose Adlerian approach to using encouragement in helping pupils to accept their own basic worth as a given and to stimulate pupils to evaluate the value of their own behaviour as well as take greater responsibility for their own actions. They

highlight considerations a teacher has to take when planning to use encouragement in a classroom such as: value pupils as they are use words that build the pupils self-esteem plan for experiences that create success demonstarte genuineness to pupils demonstrate non-verbal acceptance through touch recognize pupils effort avoid emphasis on liabilities show appreciation for pupils cooperation

6.2.6 Criticism Criticism is the act of making comment about someones performance or behaviour. This implies that the comments can be presented in a positive or negative tone. Comments that highlights individual shortcomings, limitations and focuses on past wrongdoings are called destructive criticism. Unlike encouragement which shows acceptance and focuses on individuals potentials and abilities, destructive criticism focuses on individuals

inadequencies and personhood which can erode his/her self-esteem (Baron, 1988).

and self-efficacy

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However, when the comment acts as a catalyst for growth and change, exposes individual to alternative options which leads to reassessment of task performance, then this type of criticism is called positive or constructive criticism (ibid). Constructive criticism is intended to help individuals recognize or interpret ways to improve past performance or future attempts.

For young children, wheather or not the comments made about their work or performance are destructive or constructive criticism depends on their sociocognitive maturity and understanding (Cutting & Dunn, 2002). Children with mature sociocognitive understanding are able to read and correctly interpret what their teacher says may take criticism more seriously than children who are less able to interpret their teachers comments. A well developed social cognition may help children to deal with criticism. This is to say, children who are better at understanding others will be more able to rationalize teacher criticism and understand that criticism of school work is constructive and is intended to promote learning and improvement.

Exercise 1 1. List some examples of expected productive behaviours you wish to have in your class. Give reasons. 3. You plan to organize a group work activity for your English lesson. What are the considerations you would take to promote productive group behaviour. Discuss. 4. Pupil motivation is an essential element necessary for quality education. How do teachers know when pupils are motivated? 5. Compare the differences between motivation, encouragement and criticism.

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Tutorial 1. Discuss the effects of good and poor motivating strategies on young ESL pupils. 2. Discuss ways on how to develop, monitor and maintain productive behaviours of young ESL pupils. 3. Find and present successful cases of good motivation strategies on young ESL pupils.

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TOPIC 7

DEVELOPING A PERSONAL CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT PLAN

1.0 SYNOPSIS Topic 7 focuses on developing a personal classroom management plan. It provides teachers with brief descriptions on teacher reflection, theoretical approaches of classroom management, expectations, rules and consequences, procedures, and communication skills. 7.1 LEARNING OUTCOMES

By the end of Topic 7, teachers will be able to: Outline and develop a personal Classroom Management Plan (CMP) Identify and differentiate different approaches, theories and models in Personal CMP Explain how to do reflective sessions in managing an ESL classroom. Outline the expectations of teachers and pupils in the management of an ESL classroom Identify the rules, consequences and procedures in developing a Personal CMP Identify and explain the effective communication skills in preparing a good Personal CMP

7.2 Framework of Topics

Developing a Personal Classroom Management Plan

Reflection Sessions Expectations Consequences

Approaches, Theories and Models Rules and Procedures Communication Skills

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CONTENT

SESSION NINE AND TEN (6 hours) 7.2.1 Reflective Sessions Evertson et al. (1989) Good classroom management doesnt just happen. Smoothly running classroom where pupils are highly involved in learning activities and that are free from desruption and chronic misbehaviour do not happen accidently. Indeed such classrooms exists because teachers have a plan to make them happen and are prepared to carry out the plan and meet that goal. When teachers develop a Personal CMP (Appendix 4 - 8), they integrate classroom management theory and practice into how they teach, how their pupils learn and how the classroom works. The Personal CMP places this theory and practice into a structure where teachers can implement in a classroom, emphasizing teachers strengths and supporting weaknesses. The plan structures teachers teaching and pupils learning, and supporting teacher and pupil autonomy and promotes a sense of community. The Personal CMP maximizes instructional and learning time and minimizes interruptions, distractions and disruptions. Classroom management, instruction and teacher behaviour interact to create a productive and positive learning environment. The Personal CMP reflects teachers personality, experience and skills and includes their own ideas and practices they have observed in effective classrooms, ideas the teachers have read in textbooks and professional journals, ideas from education courses, and ideas colleagues have shared. Ultimately, a teachers Personal CMP style must become an extension of the teachers personality and philoso phies combined with the chemistry of the pupils in the classroom. The Personal CMP must be personal, realistic and filled with meaningful content and insights. Teachers can maintain their plan easily throughout the year as it supports who they are and what they want to be in the classroom.
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Reflection is an important part of the practice of teaching and essential in pulling together the teachers personality and philosophies as well as classroom experiences to devise an effective personal CMP. To be and remain effective, teachers need to assess their own as well as pupils classroom performance and behaviour, analyzing and evaluating how they work and how the classroom works. Reflecting is a critique of a teaching lesson, learning activity, classroom management or behavioural problem. The evaluation aspects of reflection provide teachers with an opportunity to get in touch with their teaching selves, analyse their teaching goals and classroom management. Kohn (1996 in Bosch, 1999), suggests that teachers must think about their long term goals and reflect on whether these goals are animated in their classrooms.

Bosch, K (1999), refers to reflective recall as the method designed for reflection and revising the Classroom Management Plan (CMP). According to her, reflective recall is a method that lets teachers use time, thought and insight to impact how they and the classroom work. Reflective recall comprises four-steps which are Stop, Recall, Review and Revise. In the first step, teachers must physically stop everything to spend time reflecting on a lesson, situation, problem or classroom management. In the next step they recall lessons, events, situations and experiences. In the review step, they think about the recalled information and connect it to the CMP. Teachers may want to reflect on this information alone or discuss the lesson, event, situation or experience with a fellow teacher or friend. In the final step teachers revise their strategies by adding, changing or eliminating ideas or linking the components and ideas to each other consequently enhancing their classroom instruction and classroom management skills.

i. Reflection Questionnaire To help teachers think and promote further understanding of their teaching self they can use a reflection questionnaire (Figure 7.1). Their answers to the questionnaire will make them reflect on their own practice and subsequently assist them in planning and implementing their own Personal Classroom Management Plan (Bosch, 1999).
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REFLECTION QUESTIONNAIRE 1. What does the term classroom management mean to you? Reflect on your philosophy of education. Write five I believe statements about teaching.

2.

3.

List your strengths. Think about both personal strengths and talents. Circle that particularly apply to classroom teaching.

4.

Ask several family members and friends to tell teachers what they like best about you, and list their responses below. Note responses similar to yours.

5.

List your weaknesses. Circle those the CMP may need to support.

6.

List the most important qualities you wish to foster in your pupils.

7.

How do you introduce yourself to the class? Complete a concept map on What is Good Teaching?

8.

9.

Write a brief paragraph on how you make a difference in the lives of your pupils.

10. Find and copy a favorite qoute, poem or story that conveys an understanding of your teaching self.

Figure 7.1: Reflective Questionnaire

7.2.2

Approaches, Theories and Models

Before teachers can make any classroom management plan for their classroom, it is vital for teachers to be aware of the principles and consequences of decisions and strategies they wish to implement. A good understanding of the different approaches, theories and models of classroom management and ...consideration of teachers own beliefs of pupils
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development (Edwards and Watts, 2004) will help teachers make the right decisions and select strategies that will work for their situation. At this point, it would be useful to have an overview of the different approaches, theories and models of classroom management (Appendix 1).

From the overview, classroom management theories, approaches and models differ in terms of pupil self-regulation to the degree of teachers control over their pupils. These differences can be categorised as teacher-directed approach, collaborative approach and pupil-directed approach as shown in Table 7.1 (Balson, 1982).

Table 7.1: Categories of Approaches Relative Power Teachers Control Mixed Discipline Models Behaviour Modification Assertive Discipline Democratic Discipline Choice Theory Positive Behaviour Leadership Teacher-directed Approach Collaborative Approach Theoretical Bases Teachers Effectiveness Training Responsible Thinking Process Pain Pupil-directed Approach Pupils Autonomy

7.2.2.1 Teacher-Directed Approach i. Theory Teacher-directed theory believes that human behaviours can be promoted or reinforced by the environment, so that childrens behaviours can be changed under the influence of environment conditions, such as rewards, encouragements, consequences and

punishments. Therefore, teachers give pupils little autonomy because they do not believe that pupils are able to self-monitor or self-regulate adequately. Hence, teachers should adjust the external conditions to achieve expected behaviours only (Martin and Pear, 2007).
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ii. Model Demonstration in practice One of the famous discipline models based on the teachers-directed theory is Canters assertive discipline model, which gives teachers a system to set up their expectations and rules, avoid negative behaviours by negative consequences and reinforce preferred behaviours through rewards or encouragements. There are a few steps to apply assertive discipline model to classroom management problems. Establishing positive pupil-teachers relationships is the first step. Teachers need to establish good relationship with pupils based on mutual trust and respect in order to make sure their expectations are met. Hence, teachers could attend pupils activities, such as sports events and drama plays and so on, and praise their achievements in these activities to promote a better relationship. The next step is to clarify rules and expectations. Rules in class are mostly based on teacherss needs, and they need to be clearly specified and explained. A short list of rules is preferable rather than long one since it is easier for pupils to understand, remember and follow. The following step is to track misbehaviours, which is to make sure their demands are met after they clarified their rules and expectations. Through the step, pupils would know that their behaviours are monitored and examined. All following rewards and consequences are provided based on the observation as well. (Edwards and Watts, 2004) The three steps above is the basis of the assertive discipline model. Next is to use consequences to enforce boundaries. With advance preparation, the discipline hierarchy could be set up to differentiate severity of misbehaviours. Consequences or punishments could become more and more serious when pupils continue to misbehave. Besides negative consequences, positive consequences also need to be applied to encourage desirable behaviours. Frequently supplying negative consequences will increase the tense and depression in classroom, while praise, rewards and encouragements will ease the tense and depression. However, the Canters claimed that rewards can not replace
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punishments, and a balance between positive and negative consequences are needed in the assertive discipline system. The last but not the least, establishing strong parent support is very important. Parents play a vital role in helping teachers maintain good classroom discipline. A successful teachersparent communication could also show parents that teachers are really interested in helping their kids (Edwards and Watts, 2004).

7.2.2.2 Collaborative Approach i. Theory Collaborative theory assumes that childrens behaviours are influenced from both inner and outer factors, and the purpose of their behaviours is always to satisfy some needs. Pupils would like to control their own life to meet their needs, so that they are able to achieve responsible self-determination, if teachers could offer appropriate guidance. In other words, teachers have to teach pupils how to be responsible and allow them to gain more selfcontrol over their behaviours.

ii. Model demonstration in practice William Glassers Choice Theory model is based on the collaborative theory. It explains why and how all human beings behave and that all behaviours are driven by five basic needs: survival, belonging, power, fun and freedom. Teachers, therefore, need to teach pupils how to control their behaviour in a way that they can satisfy their needs, and meanwhile, they do not deprive others to satisfy theirs. (Charles, 2002) In practice, choice theory includes significant prevention components. Glasser suggested three types of classroom meetings to prevent discipline problem - social-problem-solving meetings, open-ended meetings and educational diagnosis meetings. Social-problem-solving meetings are focused on class. It encourages pupils to solve discipline problems from class expectations. The behaviours that the class finds
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unacceptable are listed through collective discussions. Here, pupils gain a chance to make decisions to create their own classroom circumstance based on sufficient information which is provided by teachers. It is a way to maximum satisfaction in class. Pupils are also welcomed to contribute on the rule formulations, consequently, pupils would feel more obligations to the class issues, and the classroom rules would make more sense to them as it also contains their own determinations. Open-ended meetings are used to support regular curriculum, in which pupils could ask questions relevant to their learning circumstance. Also, it encourages pupils input on the class operations in order to promote a more enjoyable and productive learning environment. Educational diagnosis meetings are for pupils to evaluate their academic achievements and find out the blind side of their knowledge. Teachers should offer quality teaching and activate pupils genuine motivation by locating their needs and interests. Encouraging pupils to go through a process of self-evaluation, improvement and repetition could achieve a better work quality and protect their self-esteem as well. When class rules are broken, Glasser (in Manning and Bucher, 2013) suggested that teachers intervention should not be punitive, but make logic sense to pupils. Although negative consequences would be applied when the classroom rules are breached, pupils are encouraged to accept and consider these consequences as reasonable outcomes for contravening rules rather than pure punishments.

7.2.2.3 Pupil-Directed Approach i. Theory The pupil-directed theory believes that children are capable for complete rational selfregulations, since the blueprint of their future is already in them. Pupils would grow up naturally and teachers role in this process is to promote their self -growth by providing conditions.

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ii. Model Demonstration in practice A well-known model of the theory is the teachers effectiveness training model, which believes that pupils will make correct decisions and solve problems with the assistance from parents and teachers. Besides, punishments are not going to stop pupils contrary to regulations. In contrast, the punitive punishment would cause aggression in children. (Gordon, 1989 in Manings and Bucher, 2013) The teachers effectiveness training model is relied on good connection between teachers and pupils, which is based on good communication. Applying the teachers effectiveness training model to solve discipline problems, first of all, the problem ownership has to be located. If pupils behaviour causes problems for the pupil only, the pupil owns the problem; if pupils behaviour causes no problem for either teachers or the pupil, no one owns the problem; if pupils behaviour causes problems for teachers or other pupils, teachers own the problem. When teachers own the problem, they should deal with pupils misbehaviours in a positive, non-adversarial manner. Usually, teachers may minimize or eliminate the behaviour problems by modifying the physical or psychological environment. Besides, sending pupil a confrontive I-message to clarify the problem, its effect and teachers feeling is also a method to gain the pupils cooperation and support. When a pupil responses the I-message in a resisting way, teachers need to shift gears from an assertive position to a listening position to reach an acceptable solution by considering the pupils needs and feeling. In addition, if a conflict occurs in the classroom, trying to find a no-lose method of conflict resolution is much better than a win-lose one. When pupils own the problem, they need a way to release the distressful feelings and emotions, so that, as teachers, just listening to their problems will help a lot, which exhibits a posture of willingness to help the pupil. Some body movements, facial expressions and door openers could show teachers positive attitude and promote the conversation. Furthermore, teachers should avoid expressions such as giving order, warning, preaching, analyzing,

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lecturing and criticizing, since these expressions will restrain pupils willingness of talking, which will block the communication road between teachers and pupil. There are also some explicit strategies regarding the prevention of discipline problems. Firstly, preventing I-message could be used to modify the possible misbehaviours later and receive desirable future support and cooperation from the pupils. Then, in order to achieve a safe, efficient and harmonious classroom, rules of the class should be set up by both teachers and pupil through discussions, which is much like the way to obtain no-lose conflict resolution. Besides, teachers need to share the power and decision making with pupils to manage the class with the anticipation of pupils. Consequently pupils will have more confidence and self-esteem in the class, and they are required to behave more responsibly.

iii. Discussion The strengths and limitations of the example models - assertive discipline model, choice theory and the teachers effectiveness training model - are listed in Table 7.2 below, in which the advantages and disadvantages of each approaches would be located as well. (Edwards and Watts, 2004)
Table 7.2: Advantages and Disadvantages of Models/Theory Discipline Model Advantages Simple for application Focus on teacherss desire Parents and administrators are involved in discipline process Disadvantages Inhibition of pupils self-regulation Punishments may cause consequences such as embarrassing, rebellion or revenge Underlying the causes of discipline problems Difficult for pupils to experience true sense of autonomy if the outside influences are too strong Difficult for teachers to show respectful behaviour if pupils keep challenging them Time consuming Time consuming Not applicable in emergency or dangerous situations Over reliance on pupils willingness

Assertive Discipline (Teachers-directed)

Choice Theory (Collaborative)

Developing effective teachers-pupil relationship Promotion of self-autonomy and selfdetermination to meet pupils need High-lighting the teacherss need Promotion of honest communication Encouraging self-discipline Forming good teachers-pupil relationship

Teachers Effectiveness Training (Pupildirected)

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The three approaches are essentially different in the cognition of pupils. The teachersdirected theory does not believe that pupils are able to self-regulate, so the strategies emphasize on the teachers desire and neglect pupils needs. The pupil-directed theory believes pupils self-regulation, so its strategies highlight the pupils willingness, but impair teachers interventions. The collaborative theory believes that pupils self-regulation must be guided by teachers, so that strategies of collaborative theory are trying to balance both of their needs. Hence, in practice, factors such as the age group of pupils and school learning environment could be considered to find a suitable classroom management plan.

7.2.3 Expectations Research has explored the complex factors and the many potential sources that affect the formation of teacher expectations. For example, Alderman (2004) provides a useful summary of the major sources of the expectations that teachers hold for their pupils based on research by Alvidrez & Weinstein (1999) and Baron, Tom & Cooper (1985). i. Teachers beliefs about pupils ability and their beliefs about intelligence Alderman (2004: 174) explains that when teachers consider intelligence as a fixed pupil characteristic, they are more likely to label pupils as smart or dumb and teach them according to the label. Weinstein argues that one contributor to teacher judgments of ability is pupil performance (Weinstein, 2002:54). ii. Pupils socioeconomic background, gender and ethnicity. Dusek and Joseph conducted a meta-analysis of research on teacher expectancies and concluded that pupil characteristics such as pupil's conduct in the school, race, classroom conduct, and social class were related to teacher expectancies (Dusek and Joseph, 1983: 327).

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iii. Pupils test scores, and/or previous academic achievement Rivers (1980) quoted in (Dusek and Joseph, 1983) has found that in the early elementary school years an older sibling's performance may influence teachers expectancies (either positive or negative) for a younger sibling's performance. In addition, van Matre et al (2000) suggest that teachers held higher grade, graduation, and college attendance expectancies for females than for males and for middle-socio economic status (SES) than low-SES pupils which can be similar to ESL primary school teachers expectations of their pupils.

The following are differing ways teachers treat and respond to pupils who are low-acheiving versus pupils who are high-achieving (Good and Brophy, 2002). Waiting less time for pupils who are low-acheiving than for pupils who are high-

acheiving to answer questions before giving the anser or going to another pupil. Giving pupils who are low-acheiving the correct answer rather that offering clues or repharising the questions. Calling on pupils who are low acheiving less often. Asking pupils who are low-acheiving only easy questions. Expecting less academic work from pupils who are low-acheiving. Making fewer efforts to improve the performance of pupils who are low-acheiving. Accepting and using fewer ideas of pupils who are low-acheiving. The anxiety created by the often unreasonable expectations and demands of todays

classroom, a teacherss own dissatisfaction with self, adds to the feelings of helplessness. Sometimes teachers fail to discriminate between the actual expectation of teaching and their own self-imposed expecations. Idealism, dedication and commitment can result in unreasonable and virtually unattainable expectations. The teachers own assumptions about a problem, or a pupil perceived as a problem, can drive behaviour in unproductive directions.

The pressure to conform to a picture of the perfect teacher lies at the root of much selfinduced stress. The teachers own thoughts and feelings undermine more effective
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behaviour. Such limiting beliefs are expressed in self-verbalizations. Teachers should learn to replace negative thought patterns with affirming ones. Two especially destructive ways of thinking about problems and issues are: All-or-None Thinking Mr. Puven doesnt like me, so none of the teachers here likes me. My Headmaster let me down. Ill never trust him again. Catastrophic Thinking I messed up again. I cant do anything right. Why even try? It wont do any good shes a hopeless case. The following I should statements represent some commonly held teaching myths, (Larrivee 2009). I should Like and care for all pupils Have no preferences or prejudices Be consistent in my actions with pupils Remain calm and collected at all times Hide my true feelins and place pupils feelings above mine. Be able to solve all problems. Cope with all situations without anxiety, stress or conflict. Run my classroom so that there is no confusion, uncertainty or chaos. Having realised the various sources that affect the formation of teachers expectations, it is important for teachers to plan ways to achieve their behavioural expectations of their pupils. Determining, teaching and reinforcing over time appropriate rules, procedures and consequences will help teachers to meet these expectations.

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7.2.4 Rules and Procedures Classrooms are unpredictable places. On the first day of school, pupils do not know when they can go to the washroom, if they will be punished for leaving their seats, or how the person in front of the room will treat them all year. At any moment, the fire alarm could ring, the intercom could blare with announcements, someone could start a fight, the overhead light could blow, a child could have a seizure, a senior assistant could ask teachers to step out into the hall during the lesson, a snake slithering in the classroom or a strong wind and heavy rain causing havoc. These and a host of other distractions and dangers create a lot of potential areas for confusion and rather unsafe feelings for pupils.

Determining rules and procedures, teaching them to pupils and outlining the benefits of working within them, is a critical up-front investment of a teachers time and energy. These pieces of classroom management plan help to promote appropriate pupil behaviour, prevent pupil misbehaviour and create a sense of order and consequences in the classroom. Rule, procedures and explanation of them, tell pupils how the teachers expects them to behave. Teachers can adopt the guidelines in Table 7.3 when crafting classroom rules (Gimbert, 2010).
Table 7.3: Guidelines on Crafting Classroom Rules Characteristics 1. Rules should be in positive statements and not in negative statements. Rationale Positive rules explain what pupils should be doing. Negative stated rules simply tell pupils what to avoid and challenge pupils to find inappropriate behaviours that fall outside the scope of the rule. Pupils should be able to understand the behavioural expectation. Examples to follow Respect your classmates in your words and actions. Listen when someone else is talking. Class time is for class activities. Come to class prepared with all required materials. Follow the teachers direction. Every pupil will demostrate habits of a responsible pupil. Always use appropriate conduct. Examples to avoid No disrespectful comments. No talking out of turn. No toys or games in class.

2. Rules need to be stated clearly. (Avoid vague rules unless intended to be discuss extensively with pupils).

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3. Rules should be few.

When there are fewer rules, each rule will seem more important. Fewer rules are easier for pupils to remember and for teachers to enforce. Just a few rules will avoid the sense that the teacher is trying to control a pupils every movement.

Rules such as Class time is for class activities or Follow the teachers directions.

No gum, food or drink in class. Bring homework, book, norebook and pen/pencil to class everyday. Be on tim. No profanity. No leaving the room without permission.

Address many behaviours in one rule.

Keeping rules short, few and at the same time clear to pupils is not easy. In order to establish such rules and procedures teachers have to make sure each rule is broad enough to cover more than one specific behavioural expectation and yet not too explicit. To ensure their expectations are fair and realistic, teachers need to determine the kind of classroom environment they want to establish and also consider the age and maturity of the pupils.

7.2.5 Consequences While consequences are often framed as something used only after a rule has failed, they are more accurately viewed as part of the structure that makes rules work. A pupil needs to know up-front, what would happen if he/she were to break a rule or does not comply with the procedure. The pupil can choose to follow the rule or break the rule and incur the negative consequences. Helping pupils realize this cause and effect relationship, and they have the power to choose the resulting effect, is one of the many ways teachers can empower their pupils and help them develop self-discipline. Gimbert (2010) posits that selfdiscipline involves the capacities to regulate oneself, to anticipate consequences and to give up immediate gratification to receive a long term goal. This is one of the most important behavioural skills teachers can teach their pupils.

In establishing consequences, the teacher will want to take into account what characteristics make some consequences more effective than others. First, the degree of consequences should increase gradually, so as to give pupils adequate warning before imposing a more severe penalty. Effective consequences flow logically and naturally from the pupils
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behaviour. Finally, effective consequences keep the pupils dignity intact. Table 2.4 illustrates the characteristics of effective consequences (Gimbert, 2010)
Table 7.4: Characteristics of Effective Consequences Characteristics Consequences should be gradual, progressing from less severe to more severe as misbehaviour is reapeated. Rationale This sends the message that pupils have potential to behave and simply need to understand and choose to follow the expectation. When they repeat the misbehaviour, they choose the more severe consequences. Examples to follow 1. Mild Warning 2. Short detention after class or school 3. Written plan for improvement 4. Guardian contact 5. Severe clause: Sent to Headmaster If a pupil runs to be the first in line, he receives a mild warning and is asked to walk instead at the end of the line. (Natural) When a pupil misbehaves during rehearsal for an activity, he/she receives a mild warning and is told that if the poor behaviour continues, he/she will have to sit out of the rehearsal until the next day. (Logical) If three pupils interrupt the teacher during a class period, they all receive mild warning. Examples to avoid 1. Warning 2. Sent to office or 1. Phone call home 2. Parent conference 3. In school detention

Consequences should be natural and/or logical

Natural consequences follow from the event or situation, as pupils are allowed to experience the outcome of their poor choices or behaviour, highlighting the rationale of the rule. Logical consequences are structured learning opportunities arranged to teach appropriate behaviour.

When a pupil is disrespectful to a group member during group work, he/she is allowed to remain in the group but is held in from recess. (neither logical or natural

Consequences should maintain the dignity of the pupil.

Consequences should be consistent from pupil to pupil and delivery of consequences should always address the particular behaviour in question, not the pupil and his/her behavioural history.

If three pupils interrupt the teacher during a class period, the first gets ignored, the second gets a harsh warning and the third pupil, who had a history of not raising his/her hand, gets detention after school because the teacher is so so fed up by that time.

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7.2.6

Communication Skills

Effective communication help teachers to show that they care about pupils and want them to succeed. Both verbal and non verbal communication strategies of teachers should reflect the cultures of pupils. Teachers should use familiar words and expressions and refer to things that the pupils are interested ini. To communicate clear expectations, the tone should be firm. Directives should be straighforward. Humor can be used to lighten situations; however, it should be culturally and developmentally appropriate. Sarcasm is inappropriate and jokes should never be made at the expense of individual pupils (Bondy et al., 2007).

Teachers should use communication patterns that are familiar to different cultural groups. For example, pupils from working class families are often used to direct orders (Work on your exercises now) rather than polite requests (Please begin to work on your assignment) or indirect requests (Would you like to begin your work....). Stressing logical consequences (if you dont study, you wont pass the test) may not work with some cultural groups. However, they might respond to comments about bringing shame to the family if they are successful on the test (Weinstein et al., 2013

Exercises 1 1. List an array of potential consequences and discuss how to implement them in the classroom. 2. Discuss the Collaborative Approach in Personal Classroom Management and its effectiveness in your own school. 3. Explain briefly the effective communication skills that you would consider in preparing your own Personal CMP?

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Tutorial 1. Discuss strategies to develop a Personal Classroom Management Plan. 2. Discuss characteristics of a good Personal Classroom Management Plan. 3. Discuss what would you need to consider when preparing a Personal Classroom Management Plan. 4. Prepare a Personal Classroom Management Plan and share with friends.

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Appendix 1 The following table shows a comparison of early influential writers and contemporary models in classroom management.
Pioneers in Classroom Management Theorists 1. Fritz Redl and William Wattenberg B.F. Skinner Jacob Kounin Models Classroom haviour and classroom discipline Behaviour modification Instructional management Congruent communication Democratic teaching Approaches Authoritative/ democratic Authoritarian Authoritative/ democratic Democratic Main Assumptions Pupils in groups behave differently to individuals; teachers support pupil self-control and offer in the moment help to change behaviour. Teachers shape pupil behaviour through systematic reinforcement including rewards and negative reinforcements. Teachers prevent misbehaviours through awareness in the classroom and by using effective lesson management techniques (pupil movement, group awareness, smoothness of lesson delivery) to influence pupil behaviour. Teachers encourage pupil autonomy through dignity and awareness of pupils feeling about situations and themselves. Teachers assists pupil self-discipline by focusing on the situation not the pupil and view pupils as capable of making good decisions. Teachers promote pupil self-discipline in a democratic classroom where pupils and teachers make decisions on how the class will work. Pupil behaviour is goal directed and all pupils want to belong. Pupils misbehave out of mistaken goals. Teachers use logical consequences and encouragement instead of praise, and should never use punishment. Disciple is best achieved through pupil self-control.Teachers use I messages in influencing pupil behaviour, preventive strategies and incorporate a no-lose approach to conflict. The teachers and pupils have rights in the classroom. Clear rules of behaviour and expectations are written and enforced through a discipline hierarchy of cosequences. Teachers and school meet pupil needs in order for them to flourish. Quality teachers instruction assists in meeting these needs. Teachers encourage pupil involvement and responsible behaviour.

2. 3.

4.

Haim Ginott

5.

Rudolph Dreikurs

Democratic

6.

Thomas Gordon Lee and Marlene Canter William Glasser

Teachers effectiveness training Assertive discipline Choice theory and quality school

Liberal

7.

Authoritarian

8.

Democratic

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Contemporary Models in Classroom Management Theorists 1. Linda Albert Models Cooperative discipline Approaches Democratic Main Assumptions Discipline is best achieved through cooperation. Teachers need to establish a classroom that is safe, where pupils feel connected and belong. Pupils assist in the development of a code of conduct. Pupil behaviour is viewed as an opportunity for learning. Teachers work to instil an inner sense of control in pupils. The classroom is structured to allow opportunities for responsibility. It is based on a belief that pupils will make good decisions, are worth the effort and have the capacity to take positive charge of teachersr lives. Teachers provide a classroom where pupils come to view themselves as capable and able to have control in teachersr lives. The classroom climate is built on mutual respect and cooperation. Class meetings are key to class relationship building. Teachers maintain pupils involvement in learning through effective and efficient teachers behaviours such as engaging lessoins, setting clear limits, classroom organisation, helping pupils with work problems and incentives to promote responsibility. As a part of school-wide approach, teachers provides learning communities that are built on trust, cooperation and consistency of message across the school. Pupils take on leadership roles and responsibility in developing self-discipline. Effective instruction and increasing pupil achievement are important in taking pupils from being tourists to citizens. Teachers need to have clear classroom procedures that are taught to pupils in the first weeks of school in order to teach effectively. Teachers planning and organisation are essential and pupil behaviour is the result of poor teachers classroom management. Teachers and pupils work cooperatively to solve problems in the class. Misbehaviour is seen as a starting point in helping pupils develop self-responsibility. Teachers work with pupils, as if on the same side (win-win) to solve problems and continually reaffirm self management and proactive life skills.

2.

Barbara Coloroso

Inner discipline

Democratic

3.

Jane Nelson and Lynn Lolt Frederic Jones

Positive discipline Positive classroom discipline Cosistency management and cooperative discipline Pragmatic Classroom Management Win-win discipline

Authoritative/ democratic Authoritarian

4.

5.

Jerome Freiberg

Democratic

6.

Harry and Rosemary Wong Spencer Kagan, Patricia Kyle and Sally Scott

Authoritarian

7.

Authoritative/ democratic

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8.

Richard Curwin and Allen Mendler Alfie Kohn

Discipline with dignity

Democratic

Teachers maintain a positive learning environment that supports pupil dignity and gives a sense of hope to those pupils struggling with school. Teachers consider individual situations rater than relying on a rigid hierarchy of consequences and provide choices for pupils. Teachers model the values promoted in the classroom. Teachers work to develop classrooms as learning communities. In these communities pupils and teachers develop respectful relationships and collectively solve problems (class meetings). Teachers respect pupil interest in instruction and costructing learning that movespupils to deeper levels of thinking. Teachers focus on pupil responsibility and empower pupils to make choices about behaviour. Pupils are more likely to behave when given responsibility. Pupils are taught a framework for behaving appropriately. Teachers are positive, offer choices and develop self-reflection as a step towards changing behaviour. Teachers provide guidance and support for pupils to behave responsibily. Pupils need to be taught right from wrong, to comply with adult authority, and when developmentally ready, to begin to make choices about behaviour. Teachers train pupils so that they can work successfully in society. Schools are set within society and therefore we need to educate pupils to live in a democratic society. The focus is on pupil rights and responsibilities and in developing ethical behaviour as reflected in societys laws. The teachers organises the classroom for effective instruction and learning opportunities.The organisation includes teaching rules and procedures from day one of the school year and developing pupil accountability for behaviour and learning. The classroom is viewed as a social and communicative setting suited to pupil-centred instruction.

Beyond discipline

Democratic

10

Marvin Marshall

Discipline without stress

Authoritative/d emocratic

11

Ronald Morrish

Real discipline

Autocratic

12

Forest Gathercoal Carolyn Evertson and Alene Harris

Judicious discipline Classroom organisation and management program (comp)

Authoritative/d emocratic Authoritative/d emocratic

13

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Appendix 2 The following table highlights the characteristics of effective consequences. (Gimbert, 2010)
Characteristics Consequences should be gradual, progressing from less severe to more severe as misbehaviour is reapeated. Rationale This sends the message that pupils have potential to behave and simply need to understand and choose to follow the expectation. When they repeat the misbehaviour, they choose the more severe consequences. Natural consequences follow from the event or situation, as pupils are allowed to experience the outcome of their poor choices or behaviour, highlighting the rationale of the rule. Logical consequences are structured learning opportunities arranged to teach appropriate behaviour. Examples to folow 1. Mild Warning 2. Short detention after class or school 3. Written plan for improvement 4. Guardian contact 5. Severe clause: Sent to Headmaster Examples to Avoid 1. Warming 2. Sent to office or 1. Phone call home 2. Parent conference 3. In school detention

Consequences should be natural and/or logical

If a pupil runs to be the first in line, he receives a mild warning and is asked to walk instead at the end of the line. (Natural) When a pupil misbehaves during rehearsal for an activity, he/she receives a mild warning and is told that if the poor behaviour continues, he/she will have to sit out of the rehearsal until the next day. (Logical) If three pupils interrupt the teachers during a class period, they all receive mild warning.

When a pupil is disrespectful to a group member during group work, he/she is allowed to remain in the group but is held in from recess. (neither logical or natural

Consequences should maintain the dignity of the pupil.

Consequences should be consistent from pupil to pupil and delivery of consequences should always address the particular behaviour in question, not the pupil and his/her behavioural history.

If three pupils interrupt the teachers during a class period, the first gets ignored, the second gets a harsh warning and the third pupil, who had a history of not raising his/her hand, gets detention after school because the teachers is so so fed up by that time.

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Appendix 3 The following table gives examples of rules that do and do not meet these guidelines, (Gimbert, 2010) Characteristics 1. Rules should be in the form of positive statement. Avoid rules framed as negative statements. Rationale Positive rules explain what pupils should be doing. Negative stated rules simply tell pupils what to avoid and challenge pupils to find inappropriate behaviours that fall outside the scope of the rule. Pupils should be able to understand the behavioural expectation Examples to follow Examples to avoid Respect teachersr classmates in teachersr words and actions. Listen when someone else is talking. Class time is for class activities. No disrespectful comments. No talking out of turn. No toys or games in class.

2. Rules need to be stated clearly. (Avoid rules that are vague unless teachers intend to discuss the rule extensively with pupils). 3. Rules should be few.

Come to class prepared with all required materials. Follow the teacherss direction.

Every pupil will demostrate habits of a responsible pupil. Always use appropriate conduct. No gum, food or drink in class. Bring homework, book, norebook and pen/pencil to class everyday. Be on tim. No profanity. No leaving the room without permission.

Each rule appears more important when there are fewer of them. Fewer rules are also easier for pupils to remember and for teachers to enforce. Finally, having just a few rules avoids the sense that the teachers is trying to control a pupils every movement.

Rules such as Class time is for class activities or Follow the teacherss directions. Address many behaviours in one rule.

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Appendix 4 CLASSROOM ORGANISATION

My Personal Classroom Management Plan

Teaching Goal :

Classroom Organisation

Classroom Environment Draw or describe room arrangement

Sketch bulletin board ideas

Class Motto

Classroom Operation

Rules 1.

2.

3.

4.

5.
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Appendix 5 My Personal Classroom Management Plan

Routine and procedures

Consequences

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

Incentives

Cues

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Appendix 6 My Personal Classroom Management Plan

Instruction

Lessons

Instructional Strategies

Individual Instructional Strategies

Questioning Strategies

Examples of questions

Respo nses to pupils

When a pupil gives a correct answer.

When a pupil gives a partially correct answer.

When a pupil gives an incorrect answer

Pupil self-evaluation opportunities

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Appendix 7 My Personal Classroom Management Plan

Effective Teaching Practices

Building positive relationships

Between teachers and pupils

Among classmates

With parents

Strategies to develop pupil social skills

Strategies to develop pupil problem-solving and decision-making skilss

Strategies to develop pupil self-control

Preventive discipline strategies

Classroom technology plan

ASSESSMENT

Grading Plan

Recording grades in the grade book


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Appendix 8 My Personal Classroom Management Plan

Homework policy

Progress Report

Pupil opportunities to impacr grades

Extra credit

Rewrites

Drop a grade

Special assignment

Collection of points to be factored into the final grade

REFLECTION

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PANEL PENULIS MODUL PROGRAM PENSISWAZAHAN GURU MOD PENDIDIKAN JARAK JAUH (PENDIDIKAN RENDAH)

NAMA MUHAMAD RAJA ABDULLAH Pensyarah TESOL mdrajaendran2011@gmail.com KELULUSAN:

KELAYAKAN
M.ESL Universiti Malaya B.Ed.(Hons) TESOL Universiti of Leeds, UK Ass. Diploma in TESOL Sheffield City Polytechnic/ Trinity College London Sijil Perguruan TESOL MPKNPKT

PENGALAMAN KERJA
14 tahun sebagai guru di sekolah rendah 6 tahun sebagai guru di sekolah menengah 13 tahun sebagai pensyarah di IPG

DR SITI ROHANI BT. MOHD ZAIN Pensyarah TESOL sitizain07@yahoo.com.my

KELULUSAN
PHD Ed. Universiti Sains Malaysia M.A Linguistics Indiana University, Blomington, USA B.A. English Indiana University, Blomington, USA

PENGALAMAN KERJA
5 tahun sebagai guru di sekolah menengah 19 tahun sebagai pensyarah di IPG

PUVENESWAREN A/L KARUPPIAH Pensyarah TESOL eswaranpu@yahoo.com

KELULUSAN

M.Ed. (Educational Management & Administration), Universiti Sains Malaysia B.Ed.(Hons) TESL University of Nottingham, UK Sijil Perguruan TESOL MPK Ipoh

PENGALAMAN KERJA
Pensyarah dalam bidang TESOL 15 tahun sebagai guru di sekolah rendah 5 tahun sebagai guru di sekolah menengah 11 tahun sebagai pensyarah di IPG

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TARSAME SINGH A/L MASA SINGH Pensyarah TESOL tarsame@tm.net.my

KELULUSAN
M.Ed. (Educational Technology) Universiti Sains Malaysia B.Ed.(Hons) TESOL University of Lancaster, UK Sijil Perguruan Khas MPIK KL Sijil Perguruan TESL MP

PENGALAMAN KERJA
22 tahun sebagai guru di sekolah menengah 4 tahun sebagai pensyarah di IPG

AHMAD KAMAL BIN ABDUL GHANI Pensyarah TESOL ringo2901@yahoo.com

KELULUSAN M.A.Linguistics Universiti Malaya B. Ed. TESL (Hons) UPSI KDPK TESOL MP Kinta Sijil Perguruan TESOL MP Ipoh PENGALAMAN KERJA 14 tahun sebagai guru di sekolah rendah/ menengah 7 tahun sebagai pensyarah di IPG

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IKON Rehat

Perbincangan

Bahan Bacaan

Buku Rujukan

Latihan

Membuat Nota

Senarai Semakan

Layari Internet

Panduan Pengguna

Mengumpul Maklumat

Tutorial

Memikir

Tamat

NOTA: SILA GUNAKAN IKON-IKON Di ATAS BAGI TUJUAN / MAKSUD SEPERTI YANG DINYATAKAN.
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