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Hand Out Thermodinamika 2009

Hand Out Thermodinamika 2009

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Published by: mazterijo on May 14, 2009
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Thermodinamika

Prof. Dr. Ir. Santosa, MP
Program Studi Teknik Pertanian, Fakultas Teknologi Pertanian,
Universitas Andalas, Padang, Sumatera Barat
Mei 2!
I. B"SA#A$, SATUA$ DA$ D"FI$ISI
%.% Satuan
Satuan Panjang
1 m = 1.650.763,73 x panjang gelombang garis jingga-merah Kr-6.
= 3,!0 "t
= 3#,37 in
1 in$i = !,5%0 $m.
1 &m = 0,6!1 mi
1 "t = 0,30% m = 1! in
Satuan 'olume
1 (m
3
= 1 liter
Satuan )assa
1 &g = !, !0%6 pon.
= 6,5!1 x 10
-!
slug.
1 lbm = 0,%536 &g
Satuan Suhu
o
* = #+5 x
o
, - 3!
o
, = 5+# x .
o
* / 3!0
o
K =
o
, - !73,15
o
1 =
o
* - %5#,67.
Satuan 2a3a
1 4 = 1 &g . meter + (eti&
!
.
Satuan 5e&anan
1 atm .atmos"ir stan(ar0 = 1,013!5 x 10
6
(3ne +$m
!
.
1
= 1%,6#5# lb" +in
!
= 1%,6#5# psi
= 1,013!5 bar.
= 760 torr
= 1013!5 Pa
= 76 $m 6g
1 mi&ro 6g = 1 x 10
/ 3
mm 6g = 1,#33 x 10
/5
lb" +in
!
.
1 bar = 10
5
4 + m
!
.
1 Pa = 1 4 + m
!
.
1 mm 6g = 1 torr
1 in 6g = 3376, 4+m
!
.
1 in 6
!
7 = !%, 4+m
!
.
Satuan 8nergi
1 9 = 1 &g . m
!
+ s
!
.
1 :tu = !5! &al = 1055,0 9
1 &al = %,16 9
1 &&al = %16 9 = 1000 &al
1 9oule = 0,!% &al
Satuan ;a3a
1 (a3a &u(a = 735 &g m
!
+ (eti&
3
.
1 <att = 1 9oule +(eti&
%.2 Definisi
;e"inisi termo(inami&a =
>lmu pengetahuan mengenai panas (an si"at ?at 3ang berhubungan (engan panas (an
&erja.
;e"inisi massa jenis suatu ?at =
massa per satuan @olume.
;e"inisi @olume jenis .atau @olume spesi"i&0 suatu ?at a(alah =
@olume per satuan massa.
5e&anan =
&omponen ga3a 3ang tega& lurus pa(a suatu bi(ang per satuan luas.
!
Pa(a termo(inami&a, umumn3a (ipa&ai te&anan absolut, 3aitu te&anan 3ang
(ia(a&an oleh sistem pa(a batas sistem. Per&ataan absolut (iguna&an untu& membe(a&an
(ari te&anan relati" .gauge pressure0, &arena (i (alam pra&te&, pengu&ur te&anan (an
pengu&ur @a&um men3ata&an perbe(aan antara te&anan absolut (engan te&anan atmos"er.
;irumus&an =
P
absolut
= P
relati"
- P
atmos"er
..................................................................................10
;alam pra&te&, te&anan (iu&ur (engan mengguna&an pengu&ur te&anan :our(on
atau manometer "lui(a. Karena te&anan menurut prinsip hi(rostati& berban(ing langsung
(engan tinggi $airan (alam manometer, seperti 3ang (iperlihat&an pa(a 2ambar 1.

2ambar 1. )anometer
Pa(a 2ambar 1, terlihat bah<a =
∆ p = ρ . l. g .........................................................................................!0
(engan =
∆ p = perbe(aan te&anan
ρ = massa jenis "lui(a .&g+m
3
0
l = be(a panjang &olom "lui(a .m0
g = per$epatan gra@itasi = #, m+(eti&
!
.
1 &alori =
panas 3ang (ibutuh&an untu& menai&&an suhu 1
o
, (ari massa air 1 gram.
1 :tu =
panas 3ang (ibutuh&an untu& menai&&an suhu 1
o
* (ari massa 1 lbm.

%.& Pemuaian 'at (air
3
*lui(a
A
Bat $air a&an mening&at nilai spesi"i& @olume-n3a apabila suhu (inai&&an, sebagai
$ontoh (apat (ilihat pa(a 5abel 1.
Ta)el %. $ilai S*esifik +olume Ber)agai 'at *ada Tekanan % atm
SU,U -
o
(. SP"SIFI/ +01UM" -2m
&
3gram.
,
2
0 ,g ,
2
0 1,00013 0,07355% 11,1!5
50 1,01!07 0,07%!!3 13,161
100 1,0%3%3 0,07%#% 15,1#7
C&an (ila&u&an perhitungan perubahan @olume 6
!
7 (an air ra&sa .6g0 (ari .100
o
,-0
o
,0 (an .50
o
,-0
o
,0.
6
!
7 seban3a& 1 gram =
Perubahan @olume (ari =
'
100o,
/ '
0o,
= 1,0%3%3 / 1,00013 = 0,0%33 $m
3
.
1 s&ala
o
, = 0,0%33 $m
3
+ 100 s&ala= 0,000%33 $m
3
+s&ala.
'
50o,
/ '
0o,
= 1,01!07 / 1,00013 = 0,011#% $m
3
.
)a&a ban3a&n3a s&ala = 0,011#% $m
3
+ .0,000%33 $m
3
+s&ala0 ≅ !7,6 s&ala.
Prosentase &esalahan = .!7,6 / 500 + 50  x 100 D = %%, D.
Entu& 6g seban3a& 1 gram =
Perubahan @olume (ari =
'
100o,
/ '
0o,
= 0,07%# / 0,07355% = 0,001336 $m
3
.
1 s&ala
o
, = 0,001336 $m
3
+ 100 s&ala = 0,00001336 $m
3
+s&ala.
'
50o,
/ '
0o,
= 0,07%!!3 / 0,07355% = 0,00066# $m
3
.
)a&a ban3a&n3a s&ala = 0,00066# $m
3
+ .0,00001336 $m
3
+s&ala0 ≅ 50,07 s&ala.
Prosentase &esalahan = .50,07 / 500 + 50  x 100 D = 0,1% D.
;engan (emi&ian ma&a air ra&sa lebih teliti (aripa(a air sebagai isi termometer.
%.4 (ontoh Soal
%
1. )anometer (ipa&ai untu& mengu&ur te&anan "lui(a seperti pa(a 2ambar 1.
Pemba$aan perbe(aan tinggi &olom air ra&sa pengu&ur te&anan a(alah 0,1 m.
;ensitas air ra&sa a(alah 13600 &g+m
3
.
a0. :erapa nilai te&anan gauge .(alam Pa0 F
b0. :erapa nilai te&anan absolut .(alam Pa0 "lui(a 3ang (iu&ur te&anann3a F
Pen3elesaian =
a0. ∆ p = ρ . l. g
= 13600 &g+m
3
x 0,1 m x #, m+(eti&
!

= 133! &g+.m.(eti&
!
0 = 133! Pa
b0. P
absolut
= P
relati"
- P
atmos"er

= 133! Pa - 1 atm
= .133! - 1013!50 Pa = 11%653 Pa.
!. Kon@ersi&an =
a0. 500 torr = ..... atm = ..... Pa
b0. 15 in 6
!
0 = ... Pa = ..... atm
Pen3elesaian =
a0. 500 torr = 500 torr x .1 + 7600. atm + torr0 = 0,657# atm
= 0,657# atm x 1013!5 Pa + atm = 66661,7! Pa.
b0. 15 in 6
!
0 = 15 in 6
!
0 x !%, Pa + in 6
!
7 = 373! Pa
= 373! Pa x .1 + 1013!50.atm+Pa0 = 0,036 atm
3. ,airan 3ang a&an (ipa&ai sebagai pengisi termometer, mempun3ai si"at-si"at sebagai
beri&ut =
Suhu .
o
,0 = 0 60 100
;ensitas .g+ml0 = 1,0735 1,0%60 1,0!0%
5ermometer tersebut (itera (engan es 3ang se(ang men$air (an air 3ang se(ang
men(i(ih pa(a te&anan 1 atm. Kemu(ian termometer tersebut (ipa&ai untu&
mengu&ur ben(a 3ang suhun3a 60
0
,. :erapa
0
, suhu 3ang (itunju&&an oleh
termometer tersebut (an berapa &esalahann3a .(alam D0 F
Petunju& = 6itung terlebih (ahulu nilai @olume spesi"i& pa(a suhu 0
0
,, 60
0
, (an 100
0
, G
Pen3elesaian =
'olume spesi"i& = 1+ρ
Pa(a suhu 0
o
,, @olume spesi"i& = 1+1,0735 = 0,#315 ml+gram
5
Pa(a suhu 60
o
,, @olume spesi"i& = 1+1,0%6 = 0,#560 ml+gram
Pa(a suhu 100
o
,, @olume spesi"i& = 1+1,0!0% = 0,#00 ml+gram
'
100o,
/ '
0o,
= 0,#00 / 0,#315 = 0,0%5 $m
3
.
1 s&ala
o
, = 0,0%5 $m
3
+ 100 s&ala = 0,000%5 $m
3
+s&ala.
'
60o,
/ '
0o,
= 0,#560 / 0,#315 = 0,0!%5 $m
3
.
)a&a ban3a&n3a s&ala = 0,0!%5 $m
3
+ .0,000%5 $m
3
+s&ala0 ≅ 50,515 s&ala.
Prosentase &esalahan = .50,515 / 600 + 60  x 100 D = 15,1 D.
II. AP1I/ASI T,"#M0DI$AMI/A U$TU/ P"$5"#I$5A$ P#0DU/
P"#TA$IA$
2.% ,u)ungan Antar Parameter Pengeringan
C(a hubungan matematis antara (ebit aliran u(ara pengering .H, m
3
+jam0 (engan
spesi"i& @olume u(ara pengering .S@, m
3
+&g0, Ka(ar air a<al bahan (asar basah .Ka-
a<al, <.b., D0, Ka(ar air a&hir bahan (asar basah .Ka- a&hir, <.b., D0, :erat &ering
bahan .I(, &g0, Ia&tu pengeringan .t, jam0, Kelebaban mutla& pa(a plenum .6!,
&g+&g0, &elembaban mutla& pa(a outlet .63, &g+&g0, laju massa u(ara pengering .m(ot,
&g+jam0, laju penguapan air .I(ot, &g+jam0, (an ban3a&n3a air 3ang harus (iuap&an .),
&g0. Parameter thermo(inamis u(ara pa(a ling&ungan, plenum, (an outlet (igambar&an
pa(a gra"i& psi&ometri& seperti pa(a 2ambar !.
6
5am)ar 2. 5rafik Psikometrik
Keterangan = .10 ling&ungan, .!0 plenum, (an .30 outlet
- (ari titi& .!0 (itari& &e titi& .30 (engan nilai entalpi .h0 3ang sama,
&arena (iasumsi&an berlangsung se$ara a(iabatis
:iasan3a persamaan matematis 3ang menghuhung&an antar parameter tersebut (ipe$ah
menja(i empat 3aitu =
H = " .m(ot , S@ 0 ..................................................................................................10
m(ot = " .I(ot, 63 (an 6!0 ................................................................................!0
I(ot = ".), t0 ......................................................................................................30
) = ".Ka- a<al, <.b., Ka- a&hir, <.b. (an I(0 ..................................................%0
3ang (isaji&an (alam persamaan matematis sebagai beri&ut =
H = m(ot x S@ ... ...............................................................................................50
m(ot = I(ot + J 63 - 6!K .... ..............................................................................60
I(ot = ) + t .....................................................................................................70
) = L 100 x .Ka- a<al <.b. - Ka- a&hir, <.b.0 x I(M +
L . 100 - Ka- a<al <.b. 0 .100 - Ka- a&hir, <.b. 0 M ..................................0
2.2 (ontoh Pen6elesaian Soal
7
h
1 !
3
6!
63
9agung (i&ering&an pa(a mesin pengering. ;i&etahui si"at thermo(inami& pa(a plenum
.ruang pengering0 sebagai beri&ut = suhu termometer bola &ering = 1!0
o
*, suhu
termometer bola basah = #0
o
*. )esin pengering (ileng&api (engan blower (an heater.
;engan mengguna&an tabel uap jenuh &ering beri&ut =
Tem*,
o
F, t Tek, a)s., *si, * "ntal*i ua* 7enuh
#0 0,6#! 1100,#
1!0 1,6#!% 1113,7
a0. 6itung nilai &elembaban relati" pa(a plenum.
b0. 6itung nilai &elembaban mutla& pa(a plenum.
$0. 6itung nilai entalpi pa(a plenum.
(0. 9i&a (i&etahui &elembaban mutla& pa(a outlet a(alah !6 gram + &gN air 3ang harus
(iuap&an a(alah 15 &gN (an pengeringan berlangsung selama % jamN berapa &g + jam
massa u(ara pengering 3ang harus (ihasil&an oleh blower F
Pen3elesaian soal =
;ari tabel uap =
5<b = #0
o
* ⇒ p.<.b. = 0,6#! psia
5(b = 1!0
o
* ⇒ p.g. = 1,6#!% psia
p@ = p.<.b / L. 1%,7 / p.<.b. 0 . t(b - t<b 0 + .!00 / .1,3 x t<b00 M
⇔ p@ = 0,6#! / L. 1%,7 / 0,6#! 0 . 1!0 - #0 0 + .!00 / .1,3 x #0 00 M
= 0,5%1637 psia
)a&a =
a0. Kelembaban relati" = 16 = p@ + pg x 100 D
= 0,5%1637 + 1,6#!% x 100 D = 3! D
b0. Kelembaban mutla& = 6 = 0,6!! L p@ + . pn / p@ 0 M
⇔ 6 = 0,6!! L 0,5%1637 + . 1%,7 / 0,5%1637 0 M
= 0,0!37#5 lb uap + ib u(ara &ering
. ≅ 0,0!% &g uap + &g u(ara &ering0
$0. ;ari tabel uap, nilai h@ pa(a t(b = 1!0
o
* = 1!0
o
* = 1113,7 :tu+&g
8ntalpi = h = ,p . t(b - 6 . h@
= . 0,!% :tu + lb.
o
* 0 - .0,0!% lb+lb x 1113,7 :tu+lb0
= 55,5! :tu+lb

(0. Aaju penguapan air = I(ot = ) + t = 15 &g + % jam
= 3,75 &g+jam
m(ot = I(ot + J 63 - 6!K
= 3,75 &g+jam + .0,0!6 / 0,0!% 0 &g+&g
= 175 &g+jam.
9a(i, massa u(ara pengering 3ang harus (ihasil&an oleh blower a(alah 175 &g+jam.
III. AP1I/ASI VISUAL BASIC 6.0 U$TU/ P"M"(A,A$ MASA1A,
PAS(APA$"$
III.%De)it Udara *ada Alat 3 Mesin Pengering Produk Pertanian
1umus =
I)1 = KC1 + 100 O I575 .............................................................................10
I; = I575 - I)1 .........................................................................................!0
) = 100 O .KC1 - KC!0 O I; + ..100 - KC10 O .100 - KC!00 ........................30
I;75 = ) + 5 ..................................................................................................%0
);75 = I;75 + .63 - 6!0 .............................................................................50
H = );75 O S' ................................................................................................60
I575 a(alah berat bahan 3ang a&an (i&ering&an .&g0, KC1 a(alah &a(ar air .<.b.0
a<al bahan .(alam D0, KC! a(alah &a(ar air .<.b.0 a&hir bahan 3ang (i&ehen(a&i
.(alam D0, 5 a(alah lama proses pengeringan 3ang (i&ehen(a&i .jam0, S' a(alah
@olume spesi"i& ruang pengering .plenum0 .m
3
+&g0, 63 a(alah &elembaban mutla& pa(a
outlet .&g+&g0, 6! a(alah &elembaban mutla& pa(a plenum .&g+&g0, H a(alah (ebit
aliran u(ara pengering .m
3
+jam0.
List program =
Private Sub Command1_Click()
Dim WTOT As Single
Dim KA1 As Single
Dim KA As Single
Dim S! As Single
#
Dim "# As Single
Dim " As Single
Dim $ As Single
Dim T As Single
Dim W%1 As Single
Dim WD As Single
Dim % As Single
Dim WDOT As Single
Dim %DOT As Single
WTOT & !al(Te't1(Te't)
KA1 & !al(Te't(Te't)
KA & !al(Te't#(Te't)
T & !al(Te't)(Te't)
S! & !al(Te't*(Te't)
"# & !al(Te't+(Te't)
" & !al(Te't,(Te't)
W%1 & KA1 - 1.. / WTOT
WD & WTOT 0 W%1
% & 1.. / (KA1 0 KA) / WD - ((1.. 0 KA1) / (1.. 0 KA))
WDOT & % - T
%DOT & WDOT - ("# 0 ")
$ & %DOT / S!
Te't1(Te't & Str($)
2nd Sub
00000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000
Private Sub Command_Click()
Te't1(Te't & 33
Te't(Te't & 33
Te't#(Te't & 33
Te't)(Te't & 33
Te't*(Te't & 33
Te't+(Te't & 33
10
Te't,(Te't & 33
Te't1(Te't & 33
2nd Sub
00000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000
Private Sub Command#_Click()
2nd
2nd Sub
III.2Da6a Blo8er *ada Alat 3 Mesin Pengering Produk Pertanian
1umus =
;CPC = .P1 - P! - P3 - P%P) O )0 O H + .8 O 36000 ...................................70
P1 a(alah besarn3a te&anan untu& mengatasi gese&an pa(a saluran pipa lurus .Pa0, P!
a(alah besarn3a te&anan untu& mengatasi gese&an pa(a belo&an saluran .Pa0, P3 a(alah
besarn3a te&anan untu& mengatasi gese&an pa(a lantai .Pa0, P%P) a(alah besarn3a
hambatan pro(u& 3ang (i&ering&an, tiap satuan tinggi tumpu&an .Pa+m0, ) a(alah
tinggi tumpu&an pro(u& 3ang (i&ering&an .m0, H a(alah (ebit u(ara 3ang (ihasil&an
blo<er .m
3
+jam0, 8 a(alah e"isiensi (a3a penggera& blo<er, (alam (esimal .0 / 1,00,
;CPC a(alah besarn3a (a3a blower .<att0.
List program =
Private Sub Command1_Click()
Dim P1 As Single
Dim P As Single
Dim P# As Single
Dim P)P% As Single
Dim % As Single
Dim $ As Single
Dim 2 As Single
Dim DA4A As Single
P1 & !al(Te't1(Te't)
P & !al(Te't(Te't)
11
P# & !al(Te't#(Te't)
P)P% & !al(Te't)(Te't)
% & !al(Te't*(Te't)
$ & !al(Te't+(Te't)
2 & !al(Te't,(Te't)
DA4A & (P1 5 P 5 P# 5 P)P% / %) / $ - (2 / #+..)
Te't1(Te't & Str(DA4A)
2nd Sub
00000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000
Private Sub Command_Click()
Te't1(Te't & 33
Te't(Te't & 33
Te't#(Te't & 33
Te't)(Te't & 33
Te't*(Te't & 33
Te't+(Te't & 33
Te't,(Te't & 33
Te't1(Te't & 33
2nd Sub
00000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000
Private Sub Command#_Click()
2nd
2nd Sub
III.&De)it Udara 6ang dihasilkan Blo8er, Da6a Blo8er, dan /e)utuhan "nergi
Bahan Bakar
1umus =
I)1 = KC1 + 100 x I575 ..............................................................................0
I; = I575 - I)1 .........................................................................................#0
) = 100 x .KC1 - KC!0 x I; + ..100 - KC10 x .100 - KC!00 ......................100
I;75 = ) + 5 ................................................................................................110
1!
);75 = I;75 + .63 - 6!0 ...........................................................................1!0
H = );75 x S' ..............................................................................................130
P = H x SE)P + .8 x 36000 .............................................................................1%0
H: = H x .6P - 6A0 + S' x 0,!% .....................................................................150
:: = H: x 5 + 4K: .........................................................................................160
6P a(alah entalpi plenum .&9+&g0, 6A a(alah entalpi ling&ungan .&9+&g0, SE)P a(alah
total hambatan te&anan 3ang harus (iatasi .Pa0, 4K: a(alah nilai &alor bahan ba&ar
.&&al+&g0, P a(alah (a3a penggera& blo<er .<att0, :: a(alah &ebutuhan bahan ba&ar
.&g0.
List Program=
Private Sub Command1_Click()
Dim WTOT As Single
Dim KA1 As Single
Dim KA As Single
Dim T As Single
Dim S! As Single
Dim "# As Single
Dim " As Single
Dim "P As Single
Dim "6 As Single
Dim S7%P As Single
Dim 2 As Single
Dim 8K9 As Single
Dim $ As Single
Dim P As Single
Dim 99 As Single
WTOT & !al(Te't1(Te't)
KA1 & !al(Te't(Te't)
KA & !al(Te't#(Te't)
T & !al(Te't)(Te't)
13
S! & !al(Te't*(Te't)
"# & !al(Te't+(Te't)
" & !al(Te't,(Te't)
"P & !al(Te't1(Te't)
"6 & !al(Te't:(Te't)
S7%P & !al(Te't1.(Te't)
2 & !al(Te't11(Te't)
8K9 & !al(Te't1(Te't)
W%1 & KA1 - 1.. / WTOT
WD & WTOT 0 W%1
% & 1.. / (KA1 0 KA) / WD - ((1.. 0 KA1) / (1.. 0 KA))
WDOT & % - T
%DOT & WDOT - ("# 0 ")
$ & %DOT / S!
P & $ / S7%P - (2 / #+..)
$9 & $ / ("P 0 "6) - S! / .()
99 & $9 / T - 8K9
Te't1#(Te't & Str($)
Te't1)(Te't & Str(P)
Te't1*(Te't & Str(99)
2nd Sub
00000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000
Private Sub Command_Click()
Te't1(Te't & 33
Te't(Te't & 33
Te't#(Te't & 33
Te't)(Te't & 33
Te't*(Te't & 33
Te't+(Te't & 33
Te't,(Te't & 33
Te't1(Te't & 33
Te't:(Te't & 33
1%
Te't1.(Te't & 33
Te't11(Te't & 33
Te't1(Te't & 33
Te't1#(Te't & 33
Te't1)(Te't & 33
Te't1*(Te't & 33
2nd Sub
00000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000
Private Sub Command#_Click()
2nd
2nd Sub
III.4/elem)a)an #elatif, /elem)a)an Mutlak, dan "ntal*i *ada Proses
Pengeringan Produk Pertanian
1umus =
P' = PI: - ..P) - PI:0 x .5;: - 5I:0 + .!00 - .1.3 x 5I:000 .............170
16 = P' + P2 x 100 .........................................................................................10
6:8SC1 = 0,6!! x P' + .P) - P'0 ................................................................1#0
6 = .,P x 5;:0 - .6:8SC1 x 6'0 ...............................................................!00
6S> = 6 x 0,!5! + .0,%536 x 0,!%0 ...................................................................!10
5;: a(alah suhu termometer bola &ering .
o
*0, 5I: a(alah suhu termometer bola basah
.
o
*0, PI: a(alah te&anan uap air pa(a temperatur bola basah .psia0, P2 a(alah te&anan
uap jenuh .psia0, 6' a(alah entalpi uap jenuh .:tu+lb0, P) a(alah te&anan u(ara .atau
$ampuran uap air (an u(ara0 = 1%,7 psia, ,P a(alah panas jenis te&anan tetap = 0,!% :tu +
.lb.
o
*0, P' a(alah te&anan uap air .psia0, 16 a(alah &elembaban relati" .D0, 6:8SC1
a(alah &elembaban mutla& .&g uap + &g u(ara &ering0, 6 a(alah entalpi .:tu+lb0, 6S>
a(alah entalpi .&9+&g u(ara &ering0.
4ilai te&anan uap jenuh .Pg0 (an te&anan uap air pa(a temperatur bola basah (ipengaruhi
oleh suhu, 3ang (isaji&an pa(a 5abel 1 .;jojo(ihar(jo, 1#50.
15
Ta)el %. $ilai tekanan ua* 7enuh -Pg. dan tekanan ua* air *ada tem*eratur )ola
)asah -P8.)..
Tem*eratur,
o
F Tekanan a)solut, *si
3! 0.05%
35 0.0####5
%0 0.1!170
%5 0.1%75!
50 0.1711
60 0.!563
Tem*eratur,
o
FTekanan a)solut,
*si700.363100.506##00.6#!1000.#%#!1101.!7%1!01.6#!%130!.!!!51%0!.61503.
71160%.7%11705.##!107.5101#0#.33#!0011.5!6!101%.1!3!1!1%.6#6!!017.16!30!0
.70!%0!%.#6#!50!#.!5!6035.%!#!70%1.5!0%#.!03!#057.55630067.01331077.63
!0#.66330103.06
16
Tem*eratur,
o
FTekanan a)solut,
*si3%011.0135013%.63360163.0%370173.37301#5.773#0!!0.37%00!%7.31%10!76.75%
!030.3%303%3.7!%%031.5#%50%!!.6%60%66.#%7051%.7%0566.1%#06!1.%50060.5!
01!.%5%0#6!.55601133.15013!5.60013%!.#6!0176.66%0!05#.7660!365.%60!70.
170030#3.7705.%3!06.!
4ilai entalpi uap jenuh .h@0 (ipengaruhi oleh suhu, 3ang (isaji&an pa(a 5abel !
.;jojo(ihar(jo, 1#50.
Ta)el 2. $ilai ental*i ua* 7enuh -hv.
Tem*eratur,
o
F"ntal*i Ua* 9enuh
-Btu3l).3!1075.351077.1%0107#.3%5101.550103.76010.0
Tem*eratur,
o
F"ntal*i Ua* 9enuh
-Btu3l).7010#!.3010#6.6#01100.#1001105.!110110#.51!01113.71301117.#1%011!!.0
15011!6.11601130.!170113%.!10113.11#011%!.0!0011%5.#!1011%#.7!1!1150.%!!01
153.%!301157.0!%01160.5!50116%.0!601167.3!701170.6!01173.!#01176.300117#.7
31011!.53!0115.!330117.7Tem*eratur,
o
F"ntal*i Ua* 9enuh
-Btu3l).3%011#0.135011#!.336011#%.%37011#6.33011#.13#011##.6%001!01.0%101!0
!.1%!01!03.1%301!03.%%01!0%.3%501!0%.6%601!0%.6%701!0%.3%01!03.7%#01!0!.5
001!01.75!011#.!5%011#3.!560116.%501177.36001165.56!01150.36%01130.566011
0%.%601067.!700##5.%705.%#0!.7
List Program =
Private Sub Command1_Click()
Dim TD9 As Single
Dim TW9 As Single
Dim PW9 As Single
Dim P; As Single
Dim "! As Single
17
Dim P! As Single
Dim <" As Single
Dim "92SA< As Single
Dim " As Single
Dim "S= As Single
TD9 & !al(Te't1(Te't)
TW9 & !al(Te't(Te't)
PW9 & !al(Te't#(Te't)
P; & !al(Te't)(Te't)
"! & !al(Te't*(Te't)
P% & 1)(,
CP & .()
P! & PW9 0 ((P% 0 PW9) / (TD9 0 TW9) - (1.. 0 (1(# / TW9)))
<" & P! - P; / 1..
"92SA< & .(+ / P! - (P% 0 P!)
" & (CP / TD9) 5 ("92SA< / "!)
"S= & " / .(* - (.()*#+ / .())
Te't+(Te't & Str(P!)
Te't,(Te't & Str(<")
Te't1(Te't & Str("92SA<)
Te't:(Te't & Str(")
Te't1.(Te't & Str("S=)
2nd Sub
00000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000
Private Sub Command_Click()
Te't1(Te't & 33
Te't(Te't & 33
Te't#(Te't & 33
Te't)(Te't & 33
Te't*(Te't & 33
Te't+(Te't & 33
Te't,(Te't & 33
Te't1(Te't & 33
Te't:(Te't & 33
Te't1.(Te't & 33
End Sub
00000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000
Private Sub Command#_Click()
2nd
2nd Sub
/onversi Satuan
:eri&ut ini (ibuat &on@ersi satuan (ari nilai suhu
o
, 3ang a&an (irubah menja(i
o
*, nilai
suhu
o
* 3ang a&an (irubah menja(i
o
,, nilai entalpi .:tu+lb0 3ang a&an (irubah menja(i
&9+&g, (an nilai entalpi .&9+&g0 3ang a&an (irubah menja(i :tu+lb.
1umus =
1
C1 = # + 5 x B1 - 3! ........................................................................................!. !!0
C! = .B! - 3!0 x 5 + # ......................................................................................!. !30
C3 = B3 x 0,!5! + .0,%536 x 0,!%0 ..................................................................!. !%0
C% = B% x 0,%536 x 0,!% + 0,!5! ......................................................................!.!50
B1 = a(alah suhu
o
, 3ang a&an (irubah menja(i
o
*, B! = a(alah suhu
o
* 3ang a&an
(irubah menja(i
o
,, B3 = a(alah entalpi .:tu+lb0 3ang a&an (irubah menja(i &9+&g, B% =
a(alah entalpi .&9+&g0 3ang a&an (irubah menja(i :tu+lb, C1 a(alah hasil &on@ersi suhu
menja(i
o
*, C! a(alah hasil &on@ersi suhu menja(i
o
,, C3 a(alah hasil &on@ersi entalpi
menja(i &9+&g, C% a(alah hasil &on@ersi entalpi menja(i :tu+lb.
Kon@ersi satuan =
1 :tu = 0,!5! &&al
1 lb = 0,%536 &g
1 joule = 0,!% &al
List program =
Private Sub Command1_Click()
Dim >1 As Single
Dim > As Single
Dim ># As Single
Dim >) As Single
Dim A1 As Single
Dim A As Single
Dim A# As Single
Dim A) As Single
>1 & !al(Te't1(Te't)
> & !al(Te't(Te't)
># & !al(Te't#(Te't)
>) & !al(Te't)(Te't)
A1 & : - * / >1 5 #
A & (> 0 #) / * - :
A# & ># / .(* - (.()*#+ / .())
A) & >) / .()*#+ / .() - .(*
Te't*(Te't & Str(A1)
Te't+(Te't & Str(A)
Te't,(Te't & Str(A#)
Te't1(Te't & Str(A))
2nd Sub
00000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000
Private Sub Command_Click()
Te't1(Te't & 33
Te't(Te't & 33
Te't#(Te't & 33
Te't)(Te't & 33
Te't*(Te't & 33
Te't+(Te't & 33
Text7.Text = ""
Te't1(Te't & 33
1#
End Sub
00000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000
Private Sub Command#_Click()
2nd
2nd Sub
"nergi untuk Memanaskan Udara Pengering dan mengua*kan Air *ada Proses
Pengeringan
1umus =
I)1 = KC1 + 100 O I575 ...........................................................................!60
I; = I575 - I)1 .......................................................................................!70
) = 100 O .KC1 - KC!0 O I; + ..100 - KC10 O .100 - KC!00 ......................!0
I;75 = ) + 5 ................................................................................................!#0
);75 = I;75 + .63 - 6!0 ...........................................................................300
H1 = );75 O .6K8,>A! - 6K8,>A10 ..........................................................310
H! = I;75 O 6*2 .........................................................................................3!0
82 = H! + H1 O 100 .........................................................................................330
6K8,>A! a(alah entalpi pa(a plenum .&9+&g0, 6K8,>A1 a(alah entalpi pa(a inlet
.&9+&g0, 6*2 a(alah panas laten penguapan air .&9+&g0, I;75 a(alah laju penguapan air
.&g+jam0, );75 a(alah laju massa u(ara pengering .&9+jam0, H1 a(alah energi untu&
memanas&an u(ara pengering .&9+jam0, H! a(alah energi untu& menguap&an air .&9+jam0,
82 a(alah e"isiensi penguapan air .D0.
4ilai panas laten penguapan air .h"g0 bergantung pa(a suhu, (isaji&an pa(a 5abel 3
.;jojo(ihar(jo, 1#50.
Ta)el &. $ilai Panas 1aten Pengua*an Air -k93kg.
Tem*eratur,
o
(Panas 1aten Pengua*an Air
-k93kg.0.010!501.3!!%#6.65!%#.510!%77.715!%65.#!0!%5%.!!5!%%!.330!%30.%35!%1
.6%0!%06.%5!3#%.
Tem*eratur,
o
(Panas 1aten Pengua*an Air
-k93kg.50!3!.55!370.760!35.565!3%6.!70!333.75!3!1.%0!30.5!!#6.0#0!!
!0
3.!#5!!70.!100!!57.0110!!30.!1!0!!0!.6130!17%.!1%0!1%%.150!11%.!160!0!.617
0!0%#.510!015.01#01#7.!001#%0.!101#00.!!015.5!30113.#!%01766.5!5017
16.!!60166!.5
Tem*eratur,
o
(Panas 1aten Pengua*an Air
-k93kg.!701605.!!015%3.6!#01%77.!3001%05.031013!6.03!01!3.733011%0.63%010!
7.#350#3.%3607!0.7370%%!.!37%.1360.0
List program =
Private Sub Command1_Click()
Dim WTOT As Single
Dim KA1 As Single
Dim KA As Single
Dim T As Single
Dim "# As Single
Dim " As Single
Dim "K2C=6 As Single
Dim "K2C=61 As Single
Dim "?; As Single
Dim $1 As Single
Dim $ As Single
Dim 2; As Single
WTOT & !al(Te't1(Te't)
KA1 & !al(Te't(Te't)
KA & !al(Te't#(Te't)
T & !al(Te't)(Te't)
"# & !al(Te't*(Te't)
" & !al(Te't+(Te't)
"K2C=6 & !al(Te't,(Te't)
"K2C=61 & !al(Te't1(Te't)
"?; & !al(Te't:(Te't)
W%1 & KA1 - 1.. / WTOT
WD & WTOT 0 W%1
% & 1.. / (KA1 0 KA) / WD - ((1.. 0 KA1) / (1.. 0 KA))
WDOT & % - T
%DOT & WDOT - ("# 0 ")
$1 & %DOT / ("K2C=6 0 "K2C=61)
$ & WDOT / "?;
2; & $ - $1 / 1..
Te't1.(Te't & Str(WDOT)
Te't11(Te't & Str(%DOT)
Te't1(Te't & Str($1)
Te't1#(Te't & Str($)
Te't1)(Te't & Str(2;)
2nd Sub
00000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000
Private Sub Command_Click()
Te't1(Te't & 33
!1
Te't(Te't & 33
Te't#(Te't & 33
Te't)(Te't & 33
Te't*(Te't & 33
Te't+(Te't & 33
Te't,(Te't & 33
Te't1(Te't & 33
Te't:(Te't & 33
Te't1.(Te't & 33
Text11.Text = ""
Te't1(Te't & 33
Te't1#(Te't & 33
Te't1)(Te't & 33
2nd Sub
00000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000
Private Sub Command#_Click()
2nd
2nd Sub
;engan perhitungan manual =
.a0. Aaju penguapan air = I;75 = ) + 5
= 100 x .!!-1%0 x J!%0 / 0,!! x !%0K + L x .100-!!0 x .100-1%0M
= !,7#06# &g+jam .7K0
.b0. Aaju massa u(ara pengering = );75 + .63-6!0
= !,7#06# + .0,00 / 0,0060 = 13#5,3%# &g + jam .7K0
.$0. 8nergi untu& memanas&an u(ara pengering = H1 = );75 x .h! / h10
= 13#5,3%# x .7,7 / 6%,0 = 1#3#5,3 &9+jam .7K0
.(0. 8nergi untu& menguap&an air = H! = I;75 x h"g
= !,7#06# x !3#%, = 663,163 &9+jam .7K0
.e0. 8"isiensi penguapan air = 8g = H! + H1 x 100 D
= 663,163 + 1#3#5,3 x 100 D = 3%,%576 D .7K0
De)it Udara Pengering -II.
1umus =
H = );75 + ρ ...........................................................3%0
H a(alah (ebit u(ara pengering .m
3
+jam0, );75 a(alah laju massa u(ara pengering
.&g+jam0, ρ a(alah (ensitas u(ara pengering .&g+m
3
0.
4ilai (ensitas u(ara pengering (apat (ilihat pa(a 5abel %.
5abel %. ;ensitas E(ara
Tem*eratur,
o
(Densitas Udara -kg3m
&
.- 17,1,3!-
6,71,3!6%,%1,!7%15,61,!!!!0,01,!0!!6,71,17637,1,135%,#1,10#
Sumber = Soemitro .1#60
List program =
!!
Private Sub Command1_Click()
Dim WTOT As Single
Dim KA1 As Single
Dim KA As Single
Dim T As Single
Dim <"O As Single
Dim "# As Single
Dim " As Single
Dim WDOT As Single
Dim %DOT As Single
Dim $ As Single
WTOT & !al(Te't1(Te't)
KA1 & !al(Te't(Te't)
KA & !al(Te't#(Te't)
T & !al(Te't)(Te't)
<"O & !al(Te't*(Te't)
"# & !al(Te't+(Te't)
" & !al(Te't,(Te't)
W%1 & KA1 - 1.. / WTOT
WD & WTOT 0 W%1
% & 1.. / (KA1 0 KA) / WD - ((1.. 0 KA1) / (1.. 0 KA))
WDOT & % - T
%DOT & WDOT - ("# 0 ")
$ & %DOT - <"O
Te't1(Te't & Str(WDOT)
Te't:(Te't & Str(%DOT)
Te't1.(Te't & Str($)
2nd Sub
00000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000
Private Sub Command_Click()
Te't1(Te't & 33
Te't(Te't & 33
Te't#(Te't & 33
Te't)(Te't & 33
Te't*(Te't & 33
Te't+(Te't & 33
Te't,(Te't & 33
Te't1(Te't & 33
Te't:(Te't & 33
Te't1.(Te't & 33
2nd Sub
00000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000
00
Private Sub Command#_Click()
2nd
2nd Sub
!3
;engan perhitungan manual =
.a0. Aaju penguapan air = I;75 = ) + 5
= 100 x .!-1%0 x J300 / 0,! x 300K + L6 x .100-!0 x .100-1%0M
= ,13#535 &g+jam .7K0
.b0. Aaju massa u(ara pengering = );75 + .63-6!0
= ,13#535 + .0,00# / 0,0060 = !713,1 &g + jam .7K0
.$0. ;ebit u(ara pengering = H = );75 + ρ = !713,1 + 1,13
= !%01,0% m
3
+jam .7K0
DAFTA# PUSTA/A
;jojo(ihar(jo, 6arijono. 1#5. Dasar-dasar Termodinamia Teni. ,eta&an Pertama,
Penerbit P5 2rame(ia, 9a&arta.
Santosa. !003a. !enerapan "omputer. 9ili( >. *a&ultas Pertanian Eni@ersitas Cn(alas.
Pa(ang.
Santosa. !003b. !enerapan "omputer. 9ili( >>. *a&ultas Pertanian Eni@ersitas Cn(alas.
Pa(ang.
Santosa. !00%. !enerapan "omputer. 9ili( >>>. *a&ultas Pertanian Eni@ersitas Cn(alas.
Pa(ang.
Santosa. !005. QA*likasi +isual Basi2 :. dan +isual Studio.$et 2& dalam Bidang
Teknik dan PertanianR, >S:4 = #7#-731-755-!, Penerbit Cn(i, 8(isi > ,eta&an >,
Pog3a&arta. 30% hal.
Soemitro, 6. I., 1#6. Teori dan Soal-soal Mekanika Fluida dan Hidraulika. 8(isi
Ke(ua. 8rlangga. 9a&arta.
!%

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