Anda di halaman 1dari 62

PBL Case Study: Sally

Presented by: Laura MacLellan Jacqueline Schulz Roberta MacDonald

Meet Sally

10 years old
diagnosed with autism at age 3

Integrated into a regular grade 5 classroom

participates in most classroom activities with modifications

Meet Sally

Academic level: Kindergarten Verbal skills: speaks in 3- to 5-word sentences Self-care: independent with most self-care routines Social skills: good play skills with familiar classmates

The task
Parents recently attended workshop, excited about the idea of Sally learning to read

want to know about literacy interventions

School team

wants to know about literacy instruction

Components of literacy instruction Challenges Research-based literacy programs Summary

Language Skills
Reading and understanding Simple Text

Phonological Awareness

Reading Instruction
Recognition of Sight Words
Letter Sound Correspondence

Application of Decoding Skills

Decoding Skills

(Adapted from Light & McNaughten, 2011)

Language Skills
Knowledge and skills in the form, content, and use of language
vocabulary, sentence structures, recognizing stories and different kinds of text

(Light & McNaughten, 2011)

Language Skills
Read, Read, Read!

Phonological awareness skills

Skills that enable students to manipulate phonemes and sounds, and recognize similarities or differences in the sounds of words Sound blending skills
The ability to build words by blending the individual sounds that make up the word

Phoneme segmentation skills

Skills that enable students to break words down into their component sounds (Light & McNaughten, 2011)

Phonological Awareness: Example Activity

Phonemic Awareness Task
Deleting phonemes

Demonstration Activity
Students identify the word that remains when a phoneme is removed Students break a word into its individual sounds by counting the sounds or by moving a marker for each sound. Students make new words by adding a phoneme to a word. Students make a new word by replacing a specified phoneme with another.

T: What word is left when we drop the /s/ from the word spot? S: pot T: Show me how many phonemes are there in the word bake. S: three /b/ /a/ /k/ T: What word do you make when you add a /b/ to the beginning of the word ring? S: bring T: Say the word bag. Now change the /b/ to an /r/. What is the new word? S: rag

Segmenting words into phonemes

Adding phonemes

Substituting phonemes

Directly from Effective Reading Instruction (2004)


Letter-sound correspondence
Knowledge of the relationship between sounds and letters:
- that sounds are represented by letters (phonics)

(Light & McNaughten, 2011)


Letter-sound Correspondence: Example Activity

T: Our new sound is /k/. Listen for the /k/ sound in these words. The teacher says each word slowly, emphasizing the initial sound. cat can cup T: Now, Im going to say the words again as I write them on the board. The first letter in each of these words says /k/. The teacher repeats cat, can and cup, exaggerating the /k/ phoneme each time the letter c is written.

T: In these three words, the letter c stands for the sound /k/. Say the words with me.
Ss: cat can cup

The teacher points to the letter c in each word as students say the word. The teacher will introduce other letters that can represent the /k/ sound in later lessons after students have had considerable practice with this letter-sound correspondence. 13

Decoding skills
Ability to apply knowledge of letter-sound correspondences and sound blending skills to sound out regular words

(Light & McNaughten, 2011)


Decoding Skills: Example Activity

The instructor presents a written word. The learner
looks at the letters in the word thinks of the sounds for each of the letters blends them together determines the word

Directly from Light & McNaughten (2011)


Application of decoding
Incorporating knowledge of letter sounds and the ability to blend sounds to sound out words when reading

(Light & McNaughten, 2011)


Application of Decoding Skills: Example Activity

The instructor reads each sentence and pauses at simple regular words for the learner to decode The learner decodes the word and then says it

Directly from Light & McNaughten (2011)


Application of Decoding Skills: Example Activity


Recognition of sight words

ability to recognize a word (and understand its meaning) by looking at the letters without sounding it out

(Light & McNaughten, 2011)


Recognition of Sight Words: Example Activity

Fossett & Mirenda (2006)

car apple



Video from Brenda


Recognition of Sight Words: Example Activity

The learner must listen to the target sight word spoken out loud -- the select the correct written word the from the group of written words provided

Directly from Light & McNaughten (2011)


important in word recognition
trial pronunciation

plays an important role in understanding what is read

reading comprehension!


Image from the Florida Center for Instructional Technology clip art web site:


Reading & understanding simple texts

Ability to decode or recognize each word in sequence in the text, access the meaning of the words, process the words together in sequence to derive the full meaning of the text, and relate it to prior experience and knowledge

(Light & McNaughten, 2011, para 10 )


Reading and Understanding Simple Texts: Example Activity

The instructor presents a simple written sentence. The learner
looks at each of the words in the sentence in the correct sequence decodes the words, or recognizes them by sight summarizes the meaning of the sentence by answering two simple questions
Who is it about? What happened?
Directly from Light & McNaughten (2011)


Phonological awareness and Language Skills

Studies that show its importance in reading

Torgesen, Wagner, & Rashotte, 1994 Jorm, Share, Maclean, & Matthews, 1989 Cunningham, 1989 Foorman, Francis, Fletcher, Schatschneider, & Mehta, 1998; Lundberg, Frost, & Peterson, 1988 NICHD, 200

Letter Sound Correspondence and Decoding Skills (Phonics) Recognition of Sight Words

- Adams, 1990, 2001 - Foorman et al., 1998 - NICHD, 2000 - Mirenda, 2003 - Fosset & Mirenda, 2006 - Pikulski, 1995 - NICHD, 2000 - Logan, 1997 - Nagy & Scott, 2000 - Baker, Simmons, & Kameenui,1995 - NICHD, 2000 - Baker & Brown, 1984 - Beck & McKeown, 2001

Application of Decoding skills, Reading Simple Texts (Oral Reading Fluency)

Application of Decoding skills, Recognition of Sight Words, Reading Simple Text (Vocabulary) Application of Decoding Skills, Reading Simple Text (Reading Comprehension)


So where is Sally?
Unable to read or spell Can write letters by hand Can recognize letter on a computer keyboard


Recommendations for Sally

Language Skills
Reading and understanding Simple Text

Phonological Awareness

Reading Instruction
Recognition of Sight Words
Letter Sound Correspondence

Application of Decoding Skills

Decoding Skills


What are some challenges to literacy acquisition for children with autism?


Challenge: Working memory (WM)

The term WM describes the ability to store (keep online) information and process the information at the same time.
(Baltruschat et. al., 2011, p. 268)


Model of Working Memory

The majority of WM research has been conducted within Baddeleys original tripartite framework (Baddeley & Hitch, 1974). In this framework, Working Memory is defined as a multidimensional system with three parts that interact:
Central executive Phonological loop Visuospatial sketchpad
quote and summary from (Montgomery, Magimairaj & Finney, 2010, p. 79)


Central Executive: Mission Control

coordinates and controls activities in the WM has finite attentional resources that regulate:
allocation updating sustained attention inhibition

(Montgomery, Magimairaj & Finney, 2010, p. 79)

Edited image from


Phonological Loop
slave to the central executive Retains verbal information in shortterm memory
(Montgomery, Magimairaj & Finney, 2010, p. 79)


Visuospatial Sketchpad

Retains visuo-spatial information in shortterm memory

(Montgomery, Magimairaj & Finney, 2010, p. 79)


Working memory in children with autism

Research has found evidence of working memory
deficits in individuals with ASD across a wide range of chronological and mental ages (Geurts, Verte, Oosterlaan, Roeyers, & Sergeant,2004; Ozonoff, 1997; Verte, Geurts, Roeyers, Oosterlaan, & Sergeant, 2006; see Hill, 2004 for a recent review).
(Baltruschat et. al., 2011, p. 268)


How does this impact literacy?

In a longitudinal study of 98 children, Alloway & Alloway found that ...childrens working memory skills at 5 years of age were the best predictor of literacy and numeracy 6 years later.
(Alloway & Alloway, 2010, p. 20)


How does this impact literacy?

blending sounds to decode words subvocal rehearsal (saying sounds in their heads)

Image from the Florida Center for Instructional Technology clip art web site:


Challenge: Speech Production

Lack of speech production introduces challenges when assessing ability of the learner to sound out words.


Sample modification for nonverbal sounding out

(Light & McNaughton, 2009, p.14)


Challenge: Executive Function

planning & decision making error correction & troubleshooting category formation organization

Sumiyoshi, Kawakubo, Suga, Sumiyoshi, & Kasai, (2011), p. 252


Challenge: Language Skills

Comprehension Written output


Addressing the challenges: Research-based Reading Programs

Interactive to Independent Literacy Model
(Kaderavek & Rabidoux)

Accessible Literacy Learning (Light & McNaughton)

Early Learning Skills Builder (Browder, Ahlgrim-Delzell, Courtade, Gibbs, Flowers)

Leveled Literacy Intervention System (Fountas & Pinnell)

Route 66
(Partnership between the Centre for Literacy and Disability Studies [CLDS] of the University of North Carolina [UNC] and Benetech)


Interactive to Independent Model

Explores three different models of literacy learning:
Social interaction Participation Situated Pragmatics

(Kaderavek & Rabidoux, 2004)


Interactive to Independent Model

Social interaction based on Vygotsky (1978)
We believe that a childs literacy development is stunted when the cognitive-linguistic processing of reading is given preeminence rather than enhancing opportunities for genuine, motivating, communicative literacy interactions. (Kaderavek & Rabidoux, 2004, p. 242)


Interactive to Independent Model

Participation based on Beukelman and Mirenda (1998)
the goal is to remove any barriers limiting a communicators access to social interaction we thus view it imperative to eliminate any barriers precluding active literacy participation by nontraditional learners. (Kaderavek & Rabidoux, 2004, p. 242)


Interactive to Independent Model

Situated Pragmatics based on Duchan et al. (1994)
service providers should develop intervention goals that allow children to participate in naturally occurring contexts goals and procedures should fit a childs experiences and abilities... (Kaderavek & Rabidoux, 2004, p. 242)


Interactive to Independent Model

Five levels of communication partnership facilitating literacy development:
Level 1 focuses on joint attention and the ability to maintain a focus around a shared storybook or literary artifact. Level 2 interactive balance and turn taking between emergent learner and literacy partner. Level 3 beginning of symbolic understanding of written forms. Level 4 conventional literacy supported by social interaction. Level 5 conventional literacy at independent level.

Accessible Literacy Learning (ALL)

Light & McNaughton Comprehensive Scripted assessment & instruction Adaptations Targeted skill instruction + regular shared reading experiences Complete set of teaching materials in a binder for each skill area 3 shared reading books Not themed

Accessible Literacy Learning (ALL)


Early Literacy Skills Builder (ELSB)

Browder, Ahlgrim-Delzell, Courtade, Gibbs, Flowers Comprehensive Scripted assessment & instruction Adaptations Targeted skill instruction + regular shared reading experiences Complete set of teaching materials in 6 leveled binders and accompanying student materials Themed: Moe the Frog

Early Literacy Skills Builder (ELSB)


Leveled Literacy Intervention (LLI)

Fountas & Pinnell Comprehensive Scripted assessment & instruction Adaptations * Targeted skill instruction + regular shared reading experiences Complete set of teaching materials including instruction, ProD, and books K level program covers 3 reading levels, including 70 titles, 4 copies each

Leveled Literacy Intervention (LLI)


Route 66
Partnership between the Centre for Literacy and Disability Studies (CLDS) of the University of North Carolina (UNC) and Benetec Web-based program Not comprehensive in targeted skills instruction like the other programs Scripted teacher script alongside student readings Adaptations Targeted skill instruction + regular shared reading experiences

Route 66

Images taken from the Route 66 web site trial pages.


Recommendation for Sally

ALL or ELSB both good for targeted skills
Need to know Sallys interests 10 years old, may find Moe character too young

Opportunities for interactive reading experiences with peers Content that is meaningful Reading at home with family


Recommendations for Sally

students with autism can benefit from literacy instruction that incorporates the use of multiple instructional strategies that are carefully matched to the stages or phases of development through which all readers pass on their way from emergent reading to skilled reading. (Mirenda, 2003, p. 275)


Importance of Literacy
Literacy is not a luxury, it is a right and a responsibility. If our world is to meet the challenges of the twenty-first century we must harness the energy and creativity of ALL our citizens.
- President Clinton on International Literacy Day, 8 Sept 1994.


Adams, M.J. (1990). Beginning to read: Thinking and learning about print. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Adams, M.J. (2001). Alphabetic anxiety and explicit, systematic phonics instruction: A cognitive science perspective. In S. Neuman, & D. Dickinson, (Eds), Handbook of Early Literacy Research (pp. 60-80). Alloway, T. & Alloway, R. (2010). Investigating the predictive roles of working memory and IQ in academic attainment. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 106, 20-29 Baltruschat, L., Hasselhorn, M., Tarbox, J., Dixon, D. R., Najdowski, A. C., Mullins, R. D., & Gould, E. R. (2011). Addressing working memory in children with autism through behavioral intervention. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 5(1), 267276. Baker, L., & Brown, A. (1984). Metacognitive skills and reading. In P. Pearson, M. Kamil, R. Barr, & P. Mosenthal (Eds.), Handbook of reading research (pp. 353395). New York: Longman. Baker, S.K., Simmons, D.C., & Kameenui, E.J. (1998). Vocabulary acquisition: Research bases In: D.C. Simmons, E.J. Kameenui (Eds.), What reading research tells us about children with diverse learning needs: Bases and basics (pp. 183-217). Mahwah, NJ, US: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers. Beck, I.L., & McKeown, M.G. (2001). Text Talk: Capturing the benefits of read-aloud experiences for young children. Reading Teacher, 55, 10-21 Browder, D. M., Ahlgrim-Delzell, L., Courtade, G., Gibbs, S. L., & Flowers, C. (2008). Evaluation of the effectiveness of an early literacy program for students with significant developmental disabilities. Exceptional Children, 75(1), 33-52.


Crick Software. (2011) Clicker changing the way children write. Retrieved from Cunningham, A. E. (1989). Phonemic awareness: The development of early reading competency. Reading Research Quarterly, 24, 471-472. Don Johnston (2008) The scientific-based research underlying read:outloud. Retrieved from Foorman, B.R., Francis, D. J., Fletcher, J.M., Schatschneider, C., & Mehta, P. (1998). The role of instruction in learning to read: Preventing reading failure in at-risk children. Journal of Educational Psychology, 90, 37-56.

Fossett, B., & Mirenda, P. (2006). Sight word reading in children with developmental disabilities: A comparison of paired associate and picture-to-text matching instruction. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 27, 411-429, doi: 10.1016/j.ridd.2005.05.006
Fountas, I., & Pinnell, G. (nd). Research Base for Leveled Literacy Intervention. Retrieved from: Hecker, L., Burns, L., Elkind, K., & Katz, L. (2002) Benefits of assistive reading software for students with attention disorders. Annuals of Dyslexia Association, 52, 243-272. IntelliTools: A Cambrian Learning Technology Company. (2007) #2 Language arts for students with significant disabilities. The research basis for research project. Retrieved from Jorm, A., Share, D. L., Maclean, R., & Matthews, R. G. (1989). Phonological recoding skills and learning to read: A longitudinal study. Applied Psycholinguistics, 5, 201-207. Kaderavek, J., & Rabidoux, P. (2004). Interactive to independent literacy: A model for designing literacy goals for children with atypical communication. Reading & Writing Quarterly, 20, 237-260. doi:10.1080/10573560490429050


Light, J. & McNaughton, D. (2009). ALL Curriculum Guide. Pittsburgh, USA: Mayer-Johnson LLC. Light, J. & McNaughton, D. (2011). Literacy Instruction for Individuals with Autism, Cerebral Palsy, Down Syndrome and Other Disabilities. Retrieved from Learning Point Associates (2004). A Closer Look at the Five Essential Components of Effective Reading Instruction: A Review of Scientifically Based Reading Research for Teachers. Naperville, IL: Learning Point Associates Logan, G. D. (1997). Automaticity and reading: Perspectives from the instance theory of automatization. Reading & Writing Quarterly, 13, 123-147. Lundberg, I., Frost, J., & Petersen, O. (1988). Effects of an extensive program for stimulating awareness in preschool children. Reading Research Quarterly, 23, 263-284. Lynch, S.J., van den Broek, P., Kremer, K.E., Kendeou, P., & White, M., & Lorch, E.P. (2008). The development of narrative comprehension and its relation to other early reading skills. Reading Psychology, 29, 327-365, doi: 10.1080/02702710802165416 Mirenda, P. (2003). "He's Not Really A Reader...": Perspectives on supporting literacy development in individuals with autism. Topics in Language Disorders, 23, 271-282. Montgomery, J. W., Magimairaj, B. M., & Finney, M. C. (2010). Working memory and specific language impairment: An update on the relation and perspectives on assessment and treatment. American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, 19(1), 78-94.

Nagy, W.E., Scott, J.A. (2000). Vocabulary processes. In M.L. Kamil, P.B. Mosenthal, P.D. Pearson, R. Barr, (Eds) Handbook of reading research, Vol. III (269-284) Mahwah, NJ, US: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers.
National Institute of Child Health and Human Development. (2000). Report of the National Reading Panel. Teaching children to read: An evidence-based assessment of the scientific research literature on reading and its implications for reading instruction: Reports of the subgroups. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office. Parette, H., Hourcade, J., Dinelli, J., & Boeckmann, N. (2008) Using Clicker 5 to enhance emergent literacy in young learners. Early Childhood Education Journal, 36(4), 355-363. doi: 10.1007/s10643-008-0288-6 PCI presentation slide:. retrieved from PCI software: retrieved from

PCI software: retrieved from Pikulski, J.J. (1994). Preventing reading failure: A review of five effective programs. Reading Teacher, 48, 30-40.

Robinson, S., Goddard, L., Dritschel, B., Wisley, M. & Howlin, P. (2009) Executive functions in children with autism spectrum disorders. Brain and Cognition, 71, 362-368.
Sumiyoshi, C., Kawakubo, Y., Suga, M., Sumiyoshi, T., & Kasai, K. (2011). Impaired ability to organize information in individuals with autism spectrum disorders and their siblings. Neuroscience Research, 69(3), 252-257. doi:10.1016/j.neures.2010.11.007 Torgesen J., Wagner R., & Rashotte C. (1994). Longitudinal studies of phonological processing and reading. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 27, 276-291. Vacca, J. (2007). Autistic children can be taught to read. international Journal of Special Education, 22(3), 54-61. doi:10.1080/10573560490429050 Whalon, K., Otaiba, S., & Delano, M. (2009). Evidence-based reading instruction for individuals with autism spectrum disorders. Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities, 24(3), 3-16. doi:10.1177/1088357608328515

Williams, C., Wright, B., Callaghan, G., & Coughlan, B. (2002) Do children with autism learn to read more readily by computer assisted instruction or traditional book methods? : A pilot study. Autism, 6, 71-91. doi: 10.1177/1362361302006001006
Wilson, G., Martens, P., Poonam, A., & Altwerger, B. (2004). Readers, instruction, and the NRP. Phi Delta Kappan, 86(3), 242-246. Woolley, G. (2010). Developing reading comprehension: combining visual and verbal cognitive processes. Australian Journal of Language and Literacy, 33(2), 108-125. Zeece, P. (2006). Sound reading and reading sounds: The case for phonemic awareness. Early Childhood Education Journal, 34(2), 169-175. doi:10.1007/s10643-006-0125-8