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# ice Hot water

1) Fill the beaker with hot water 2) Place the beaker of hot water into a basin containing tap water 3) Observe the temperature changes in the hot water and tap water using thermometers 4) Continue observation until no change in the readings 5) Record your observations

THERMOMETER A
GROUP

THERMOMETER B
t= 6 min t= 8 min t= 0 min t= 2 min t=4 min t=6 min t= 8 min

t=0 min

t=2 min

t= 4 min

1 2 3 4 5

Heat

## is a form of energy or work

is the degree of hotness of an

Temperature

object

Heat

Temperature

A form of energy
The S.I unit of heat is Joule (J)

## Degree of hotness of an object

The S.I unit of temperature is Kelvin (K)

Derived quantity

Base quantity

When

an object is heated, it will absorb heat energy and the temperature will increase
an object is cooled, it will release heat energy and the temperature will reduce.

when

Heat

## energy flows from a substance at higher temperature to a substance at lower temperature

There is a net flow of energy from the hotter object to the colder object, known as the heat transferred

After some time, energy is transferred at the same rate between the objects

There

is no net flow of heat between two objects objects have the same temperature

Two

Heat

will be transferred from hotter object to the colder object The temperature of B will increase while the temperature of A will decrease The heat will flow from A to B until both have same temperature

## Liquid (mercury or alcohol)

glass

bulb

scale

Capillary tube

The

volume of liquid increases when it absorbs heat The liquid will expand and rise in the capillary tube The change in length indicates the temperature

A smaller bulb

Absorb heat energy in a shorter time and responds faster to temperature change

## The heat transfer from the surroundings to the mercury is faster

The expansion and contraction of mercury is consistent and sensitive to small changes in temperature

## Narrower capillary tube

Temperature

0C is lower fixed point ( ice point) Temperature 100C is upper fixed point (steam point)

l l0 x100 C l100 l0
l0

=The length of mercury at 0 l100 =The length of mercury at 100 l = The length of mercury at C

18.0 cm

3cm

13.0 cm

The

figure shows the length of a mercury column of a thermometer when the thermometer immersed in liquid Q What is the temperature of liquid Q?