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Fungsi Gamma

Didefinisikan sebagai


1 1
0 0
( ) lim
b
n x n x
b
n x e dx x e dx

I = =
} }
,
yang konvergen untuk n > 0.

Rumus berulang untuk fungsi Gamma adalah

I(n+1) = n I (n) = n! dimana I (1) = 1.
Untuk n = 1, 2, 3,
I (2) = I (1+1) = 1I (1) = 1!
I (3) = I (2+1) = 2I (2) = 2 * 1! = 2!
I (4) = I (3+1) = 3I (3) = 3 * 2! = 3! ...dst.

Secara umum I(n+1) = nI(n) = n !,
untuk n bil. bulat positif.
Bukti bahwa ( ) ( ) 1 , 0 n n n n I + = I >

( )
( )( ) ( )( )
( )
0 0
1
0
0
1
0
1 lim
lim |
lim , 0
M
n x n x
M
M
n x M x n
M
M
n M n x
M
n x e dx x e dx
x e e nx dx
M e n x e dx n n n

I + = =


=
`

)


= + = I >
`

)
} }
}
}

Bukti bahwa ( ) 1 !, 1, 2, 3,... n n n I + = =

( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
0 0
1 lim lim 1 1
1, 2, 3,... , 1
2 1 1 1,
3 2 2 2.1 2!,
4 3 3 3.2! 3!,
...
1 !
M
x x M
M M
e dx e dx e
n n n n
n n n n



I = = = =
= I + = I
I = I =
I = I = =
I = I = =
I + = I =
} }




Bukti bahwa
1
2
t
| |
I =
|
\ .


( )
2 2
2 2
2
2
1
1
2
0 0
2
0 0
2
2 2 2
0 0
/ 2
0 0
0
1 1
2
, 2
1 1 1 1
2 , 2
2 2
1
4 , tan
2
4 4
2 2
1
2
t t
y x
x y
r
r
t e dt e dt
t
t y dt ydy
e ydy e xdx
y x
y
e dxdy r x y
x
e
e rdrd
t
u
u
t
u t
t





+

=
| |
I = =
|
\ .
= =
| | | |
I = I =
| |
\ . \ .
( | | | |
I = = + =
| | (
\ . \ .
= = =

| |
I =
|
\ .
} }
} }
} }
} }

Formula-formula terkait Fungsi Gamma:

-
12( 1)
( 1) 2 , 0 1
n n n
n n n e e
u
t u
+
I + = < <
-
( ) (1 ) , 0 1
sin
x x x
x
t
t
I I = < <

- ( )
2 1
1
2 ( ) 2
2
x
x x x t

| |
I I + = I
|
\ .

- ( )
( )
( )
1
1 2
2
1 2 1
( ) ... 2
m mx m
x x x x m mx
m m m
t
| | | | | |
I I + I + I + = I
| | |
\ . \ . \ .

-
/
1
1
1
( )
x x m
m
x
xe e
x m

=

| |
= +
`
|
I
\ .
)
[
, konstanta adalah konstanta Euler
- ( )
( )( ) ( )
( )
1.2.3...
1 lim . lim ,
1 2 ...
x
k k
k
x k x k
x x x k

I + = = H
+ + +

Dimana ( ) , x k H dinamakan Fungsi Gauss H.

- ( )
2 3
1 1 139
1 2 1 ...
12 288 51840
x x
x x x e
x x x
t


I + = + + +
`
)

- Ini dinamakan Deret Asimtot Stirling untuk Fungsi Gamma.

-
( )
( )
( )
0
' 1 ln
'
1 1 1 1 1 1
... ...
1 2 1 1
x
e xdx
x
x x x n x n

I = =
I
| | | | | |
= + + + + +
| | |
I + +
\ . \ . \ .
}

Fungsi Beta






Didefinisikan sebagai


}

=
1
0
1 1
) 1 ( ) , ( dx x x n m B
n m

yang konvergen untuk m > 0 dan n > 0 .

B (m,n) = B (n,m).
Dengan mengambil x = sin
2
u, maka

u u u
t
}

=
2
0
1 2 1 2
cos sin 2 ) , ( d n m B
n m


Hubungan fungsi Beta dengan fungsi Gamma


) (
) ( ) (
) , (
n m
n m
n m B
+ I
I I
=

Bukti bahwa ( ) ( ) , , m n n m B = B

( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( )
1 1
1 1
1 1
0 0
1
1
1
0
1
, 1 1
1 ,
n m
m n
m
n
x y
m n x x dx y y dy
y y dy n m

=
B = =
= = B
} }
}




Bukti bahwa ( )
/ 2
2 1 2 1
0
, 2 sin cos
m n
m n d
t
u u u

B =
}


( ) ( )
( ) ( )
2
1
1
1
0
/ 2
1 1
2 2
0
/ 2
2 1 2 1
0
sin
, 1
sin cos 2sin cos
2 sin cos
n
m
m n
m n
x
m n x x dx
d
d
t
t
u
u u u u u
u u u



=
B =
=
=
}
}
}

Bukti bahwa ( )
( ) ( )
( )
, , 0, 0
m n
m n m n
m n
I I
B = > >
I +

( )
( )
( ) ( )
( )( )
( )
( ) ( )
( )
( )
2
2
2 2
2 2
2
2
2 1 2 1
0 0
2 1
0
2 1 2 1
0 0
2 1 2 1
0 0
/ 2
2 1 2 1 2 1
0 0
2 1
0
, 2
2
4
4
cos , sin
4 cos sin
4
m z m x
n y
m x n y
x y
m n
m n m n
m n
z x m z e dz x e dx
n y e dy
m n x e dx y e dy
x y e dxdy
x y
m n e d d
e d
t

|

| |
| | |

+
= =

+
=
= I = =
I =
I I =
=
= =
I I =
=
} }
}
} }
} }
} }
} ( )( )
( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
/ 2
2 1 2 1
0
/ 2
2 1 2 1
0
cos sin
2 cos sin
, ,
m n
m n
d
m n d
m n n m m n m n
t
|
t
|
| | |
| | |

=

=
= I +
= I + B = I + B
}
}

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