Anda di halaman 1dari 152

VMware vSphere: Install, Configure, Manage

Student Lab Manual ESXi 5.1 and vCenter Server 5.1

VMware Education Services VMware, Inc. www.vmware.com/education

VMware vSphere: Install, Configure, Manage ESXi 5.1 and vCenter Server 5.1 Part Number EDU-EN-ICM51-LAB-STU Student Lab Manual Revision A Copyright/Trademark Copyright 2012 VMware, Inc. All rights reserved. This manual and its accompanying materials are protected by U.S. and international copyright and intellectual property laws. VMware products are covered by one or more patents listed at http://www.vmware.com/go/ patents. VMware is a registered trademark or trademark of VMware, Inc. in the United States and/or other jurisdictions. All other marks and names mentioned herein may be trademarks of their respective companies. The training material is provided as is, and all express or implied conditions, representations, and warranties, including any implied warranty of merchantability, fitness for a particular purpose or noninfringement, are disclaimed, even if VMware, Inc., has been advised of the possibility of such claims. This training material is designed to support an instructor-led training course and is intended to be used for reference purposes in conjunction with the instructor-led training course. The training material is not a standalone training tool. Use of the training material for self-study without class attendance is not recommended. These materials and the computer programs to which it relates are the property of, and embody trade secrets and confidential information proprietary to, VMware, Inc., and may not be reproduced, copied, disclosed, transferred, adapted or modified without the express written approval of VMware, Inc. Course development: John Tuffin, Steve Schwarze, Jerry Ozbun Techincal review: John Krueger Technical editing: PJ Schemenaur Production and publishing: Ron Morton, Regina Aboud

www.vmware.com/education

TA B L E

OF

C ONTENTS

Lab 1: Installing VMware vSphere Graphical User Interfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Lab 2: Configuring VMware ESXi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Lab 3: Working with Virtual Machines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Lab 4: Using VMware vCenter Server . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .19 Lab 5: Standard Virtual Switches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .27 Lab 6: Accessing ISCSI Storage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .31 Lab 7: Accessing IP Storage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .35 Lab 8: Managing VMware vSphere VMFS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .39 Lab 9: Using Templates and Clones . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .47 Lab 10: Modifying a Virtual Machine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .53 Lab 11: Migrating Virtual Machines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .59 Lab 12: Managing Virtual Machines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .67 Lab 13: Managing vApps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .75 Lab 14: Access Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .79 Lab 15: User Permissions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .83 Lab 16: Resource Pools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .89 Lab 17: Monitoring Virtual Machine Performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .93 Lab 18: Using Alarms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .97 Lab 19: Using vSphere High Availability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .103 Lab 20: (Optional) Designing a Network Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115 Lab 21: Configuring VMware vSphere Fault Tolerance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119 Lab 22: vSphere Distributed Resource Scheduler . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .125 Lab 23: VMware vSphere Update Manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .135 Lab 24: (Optional) Installing VMware vCenter Server . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .145

VMware vSphere: Install, Configure, Manage

ii

VMware vSphere: Install, Configure, Manage

Lab 1

Installing VMware vSphere Graphical User Interfaces


Objective: Install student desktop components
1. Access your student desktop system. 2. Install the vSphere Client.

Preparing for the lab


Record the following information: Desktop Administrator password Location of installation software Setup language Your VMware vSphere ESXi host name ESXi host user name ESXi host root password

Lab 1 Installing VMware vSphere Graphical User Interfaces

Task 1: Access your student desktop system


In this task, you will log in to your student desktop system as user Administrator.
1. Ask your instructor how to access your student desktop system. For example, your instructor

might have you use Remote Desktop Connection.


2. Log in to your student desktop system as user Administrator, with the password that you

recorded in Preparing for the lab.

Task 2: Install the vSphere Client


In this task, you will install the VMware vSphere Client on your desktop system and verify that the installation succeeded. Students should do the steps in this task individually.
1. Go to the location of the installation software, which you recorded in Preparing for the lab. 2. Double-click autorun.exe and click Run. If Security Warning dialog boxes appear, click Run

to continue.
3. In the VMware vCenter Installer window, click vSphere Client. 4. Click Install to start the installation wizard. If Security Warning dialog boxes appear, click Run

to continue.
5. When prompted by the install wizard, perform the following actions.

Field/Setting Setup Language Welcome page End-User Patent Agreement License Agreement User Name Organization Destination Folder Ready to Install the Program

Action Select the setup language that you recorded in Preparing for the lab and click OK. Click Next. Click Next. Select I agree to the terms in the license agreement and click Next. Type VMware student. Type VMware and click Next. Accept the default and click Next. Click Install.

Lab 1 Installing VMware vSphere Graphical User Interfaces

6. When the installation is complete, click Finish.

7. Click Exit to close the VMware vCenter Installer window. 8. Log in to your ESXi host with the vSphere Client. a. Double-click the vSphere Client icon on your student desktop system.

b. Enter the IP address or host name of your ESXi host in the IP Address/Name field. You

recorded the name in Preparing for the lab.


c. Type root for the ESXi user name and type the password that you recorded in Preparing

for the lab.


d. Click Login. e. Select Install this certificate and do not display security warnings for <host_name>

to prevent this warning from being displayed in the future.


f. Click Ignore to proceed with the connection. g. Click OK when the VMware Evaluation Notice dialog box is displayed. 9. In the Inventory pane, click Inventory to verify that your ESXi host is displayed at the top of

the inventory view on the left side of the window.


10. In the vSphere Client menu bar, select File > Exit to close the vSphere Client.

Lab 1 Installing VMware vSphere Graphical User Interfaces

Lab 1 Installing VMware vSphere Graphical User Interfaces

Lab 2

Configuring VMware ESXi


Objective: Configure an ESXi host
In this lab, you will perform the following tasks:
1. Connect to an ESXi host with the vSphere Client. 2. View the host hardware configuration. 3. Configure the DNS and routing information for an ESXi host. 4. Configure an ESXi host as an NTP client. 5. Configure an ESXi host to use the directory services.

Preparing for the lab


Record the following information: Your VMware vSphere ESXi host name ESXi host root password Active Directory (AD) domain name Domain administrator user name Domain administrator password Preferred DNS server VMkernel default gateway Network Time Protocol (NTP) server
Lab 2 Configuring VMware ESXi 5

Task 1: Connect to an ESXi host with the vSphere Client


In this task, you will use the VMware vSphere Client to log in to an ESXi host. Students should do the steps in this task individually.
1. Log in to a system from which you can start the vSphere Client. The instructor provides you

with login procedures for your specific lab environment.


2. Double-click the vSphere Client icon on the systems desktop.

3. Enter the host name of your ESXi host, which you recorded in Preparing for the lab. 4. Type the user name root and enter the ESXi host root password that you recorded in

Preparing for the lab. Click Login.


5. If you see a certificate warning, click Ignore. 6. When the VMware Evaluation Notice window is displayed, stating when your evaluation

license expires, click OK.


7. In the vSphere Client Home page, you should see your host in the inventory panel. If you do not

see your host, click Home and click Inventory in the menu bar.

Task 2: View the host hardware configuration


In this task, you will view the health of the host hardware, as well as processor and memory information. Students should do the steps in this task individually.
1. Select your ESXi host in the inventory and click the Configuration tab. The hardware health

status view is displayed. View the status by expanding objects in the Sensor list.
TIP

When you are connected to a host through VMware vCenter Server, you use the Hardware Status tab to monitor the health of the host.
2. In the Hardware list, click Processors. View the processor model, processor speed, and other

information about your ESXi host processors.


3. In the Hardware list, select Memory. View the total physical memory and how much memory

is used by the system and how much memory is available for use by the virtual machines.
6 Lab 2 Configuring VMware ESXi

Task 3: Configure the DNS and routing information for an ESXi host
In this task, you will verify the DNS and routing information for your ESXi host. Students should do the steps in this task individually.
1. Select your ESXi host in the inventory and click the Configuration tab.

2. In the Software panel, click the DNS and Routing link. 3. Click the Properties link. 4. In the DNS Configuration panel, perform the following actions. When you are finished,

click OK. Field/Setting Domain Action Verify that the AD domain name matches the value that you recorded in Preparing for the lab. If the domain name does not match, enter the domain name that you recorded in Preparing for the lab. Use the following DNS server address If this field is populated, verify the setting matches the preferred DNS server that you recorded in Preparing for the lab. If this field is empty or incorrect, enter the value for preferred DNS server that you recorded in Preparing for the lab. Look for hosts in the following domains Default Gateway Leave the default. Click the Routing tab. Verify the IP address for the VMkernel default gateway that you recorded in Preparing for the lab. If the default gateway is not defined or is incorrect, enter the IP address that you recorded in Preparing for the lab.

5. Click OK to close the DNS and Routing Configuration dialog box.

Lab 2 Configuring VMware ESXi

Task 4: Configure an ESXi host as an NTP client


In this task, you will configure the Network Time Protocol client on the ESXi host to synchronize its time with an NTP server. Students should do the steps in this task individually.
1. Select your ESXi host in the inventory and click the Configuration tab. 2. In the Software panel, click Time Configuration. View the current settings, which show that

the NTP client is stopped and that no NTP server is defined.


3. Click Properties. The Time Configuration dialog box is displayed. 4. In the Time Configuration dialog box, perform the following actions.

Field/Setting Date and Time NTP Configuration

Action Record the date and time here: Click the box for NTP Client Enabled. Click Options.

General NTP Settings

Select Start and stop with host and click NTP Settings. In the NTP Daemon Options dialog box, click Add. Enter the NTP server name or IP address that you recorded in Preparing for the lab. Click OK to close the Add NTP Server window. Select the check box Restart NTP service to apply changes and click OK.

5. Click OK to exit the Time Configuration dialog box. 6. Verify that the Time Configuration pane lists the NTP server that you added and that the NTP

Client is listed as Running.


NOTE

If the status of the NTP Client has not changed to Running, go back to Properties dialog box and click Options. In the General panel, click Start to start the NTP service.

Lab 2 Configuring VMware ESXi

Task 5: Configure an ESXi host to use the directory services


In this task, you will configure your ESXi host to communicate with AD services. Students should do the steps in this task individually.
1. Select your ESXi host in the inventory and click the Configuration tab.

2. Under Software, click the Authentication Services link. 3. Click the Properties link. 4. In the Directory Services Configuration dialog box, perform the following actions.

Field/Setting User Directory Service Domain Settings Join Domain

Action Select Active Directory. Enter the AD domain name that you recorded in Preparing for the lab and click Join Domain. Enter your domain administrator user name (without the domain name) and the domain administrator password that you recorded in Preparing for the lab. Click Join Domain.

5. Click OK to close the Directory Services Configuration dialog box. 6. Verify the entries in Authentication Services Settings. 7. Leave the vSphere Client open for the next lab.
In the labs, students are now only joining the host to the AD domain. They will verify that they have configured the host/AD integration properly in lab 14. This verification is deferred because the lecture has not yet discussed AD integration (or access control in general). For now, it is sufficient for the students to have configured host/AD integration.

Lab 2 Configuring VMware ESXi

10

Lab 2 Configuring VMware ESXi

Lab 3

Working with Virtual Machines


Objective: Create and prepare virtual machines for use
In this lab, you will perform the following tasks:
1. Create a virtual machine. 2. Install a guest operating system in a virtual machine. 3. Identify a virtual machines disk format and usage statistics. 4. Install VMware Tools on a virtual machine installed with a Windows operating system. 5. Prepare your virtual machine for upcoming labs.

Preparing for the lab


Record the following information: Your VMware vSphere ESXi host name ESXi host root password Virtual machine datastore name Guest operating system ISO images location Virtual machine Administrator password

Lab 3 Working with Virtual Machines

11

Task 1: Create a virtual machine


In this task, you will use the Create New Virtual Machine wizard to create a virtual machine on the your ESXi host. Students should do the steps in this task individually.
1. If the VMware vSphere Client is not already active, use it to log in to your ESXi host. Use

the root user name and the password that you recorded in Preparing for the lab.
2. In the navigation bar of vSphere Client, click Home and click the Inventory icon. 3. Right-click your ESXi host in the inventory and select New Virtual Machine. 4. When prompted by the Create New Virtual Machine wizard, perform the following actions.

Field/Setting Configuration Name (of virtual machine)

Action Click Custom and click Next. Name the new virtual machine with your first name, followed by the number of your ESXi host and a sequence number, starting with 1. For example, Greg has an ESXi host named goose06. The name of his virtual machine is Greg06-1. Click Next.

Datastore

Select the virtual machine datastore whose name you recorded in Preparing for the lab and click Next. Keep the default and click Next. Select the guest operating system that you recorded in Preparing for the lab and click Next. Keep the default and click Next. To ensure that you are configuring 384MB of memory (not GB), select MB from the dropdown menu and type 384 in the space provided. Click Next. Keep the default value of 1.

Virtual Machine Version Guest Operating System

Number of virtual processors Memory

How many NICs do you want to connect

12

Lab 3 Working with Virtual Machines

Field/Setting NIC 1 Network NIC 1 Adapter Connect at Power On SCSI Controller Disk Disk Size Disk Provisioning Location Virtual Device Node Mode Independent Ready to Complete

Action Keep the default. Keep the default. Leave selected and click Next. Keep the default and click Next. Keep the default and click Next. Type 2GB. Click Thin Provision. Keep the default (store with the virtual machine) and click Next. Keep the default. Leave unselected and click Next. Click the Edit the virtual machine settings before completion check box and click Continue. The Virtual Machine Properties dialog box is displayed.

5. In the Hardware list, click New CD/DVD (adding). 6. Click Datastore ISO file. 7. Click Browse and go to the ISO images location that you recorded in Preparing for the lab. 8. Click Open. 9. Select the ISO image that corresponds to the guest operating system that you selected during

virtual machine creation and click OK.


10. In the Virtual Machine Properties dialog box, select the Connect at power on check box. 11. Click Finish to save the changes. 12. Expand the inventory and verify that the new virtual machine is displayed in the inventory

panel.

Lab 3 Working with Virtual Machines

13

13. In the inventory panel, select the virtual machine that you created and click the Summary tab.

Record the following information. Summary tab field Provisioned Storage Not Shared Storage Used Storage Virtual machine 1

Task 2: Install a guest operating system in a virtual machine


In this task, you will monitor an unattended installation of a Windows guest operating system in the virtual machine from the virtual machine console. Students should do the steps in this task individually.
1. On the Summary tab, click Power On in the Commands panel. 2. Click the Open Console link and monitor installation progress.

The Windows guest operating system should perform an unattended installation. After your virtual machine powers on, it begins to install the guest operating system. The installation might take up to 25 minutes.
3. After the installation has completed, click Connect/disconnect the CD/DVD devices of the

virtual machine (the right-most active icon) in the icon bar of the virtual machine console window.
4. Select CD/DVD Drive 1 > Disconnect from datastore image. Click Yes to confirm that you

want to disconnect the device. Leave the virtual machine console open.

Task 3: Identify a virtual machines disk format and usage statistics


In this task, you will identify the virtual machine disk (VMDK) type. Students should do the steps in this task individually.
1. Right-click the <your_name>##-1 virtual machine in the inventory and select Edit Settings. 2. In the Hardware list, select Hard disk 1. 3. Under Disk Provisioning, identify the VMDK type. What type of VMDK has been

provisioned?______________
ANSWER: The disk type should read Thin Provision.

14

Lab 3 Working with Virtual Machines

4. Click Cancel to close the Virtual Machines Properties dialog box. 5. Click the <your_name>##-1 virtual machine and click the Summary tab. 6. In the Resources panel, click the Refresh Storage Usage link to update the Provisioned

Storage and Used Storage metrics. Record the new values in the following table. Summary tab field Provisioned Storage Not Shared Storage Used Storage Virtual machine 1

Compare these values to the values listed in task 1, step 13. The values should be different. Although a 2GB virtual VMDK has been configured for this virtual machine, the storage space consumed by the VMDK is lower than the total allocated disk space. The used storage space increases dynamically as the virtual machine is used.

Task 4: Install VMware Tools on a virtual machine installed with a Windows operating system
In this task, you will install VMware Tools on the guest operating system. Students should do the steps in this task individually.
1. From the virtual machine console, log in to the guest operating system: a. In the menu bar of the virtual machine console, select VM > Guest > Send Ctrl+Alt+Del. b. In the Windows login screen, log in as user Administrator with the virtual machine

Administrator password that you recorded in Preparing for the lab.


2. Install VMware Tools into the Windows guest operating system: a. In the menu bar of the virtual machine console, select VM > Guest > Install/Upgrade

VMware Tools.
TIP

If you are unable to move the pointer to the menu bar, press Ctrl+Alt to release the pointer from the virtual machine console.
b. Read the warning message that is displayed and click OK. c. Click anywhere in the virtual machine console window to give mouse focus to your virtual

machine.
Lab 3 Working with Virtual Machines 15

d. The VMware Tools installation wizard starts. On the welcome page, click Next. e. On the Setup Type page, leave Typical selected and click Next. f. Click Install to start the installation. Over the span of several seconds, several windows are

displayed.
3. If you see a pop-up window informing you that hardware acceleration is not enabled, click Yes

and do steps 4a4c. If you do not see the pop-up window, hardware acceleration is already enabled. Go to step 5.
a. In the Display Properties dialog box, click the Settings tab and click the Advanced button.

You might have to move the VMware Tools Installation wizard to the side so that you can see the Display Properties dialog box.
b. Click the Troubleshoot tab. Drag the Hardware Acceleration bar from None to Full.

Click OK.
c. Click OK to exit the Display Properties dialog box. 4. Click Finish to exit the VMware Tools Installation wizard. 5. When prompted to restart the virtual machine, click Yes. 6. After the virtual machine finishes rebooting, log in as user Administrator.

Leave the virtual machine console open.

Task 5: Prepare your virtual machine for upcoming labs


In this task, you will connect to the ClassFiles-vSphere.iso image file and copy programs to your virtual machines desktop. This ISO image contains files needed for future labs. You will also turn off automatic updates to prevent your virtual disk from filling up with unnecessary files. Students should do the steps in this task individually.
1. Connect ClassFiles-vSphere.iso to your virtual machines CD-ROM drive: a. In the icon bar of the virtual machine console window, click the Connect/disconnect the

CD/DVD devices of the virtual machine icon (the right-most active icon).
b. Select CD/DVD Drive 1 > Connect to ISO image on a datastore. c. Select Classfiles-vSphere.iso and click OK. 2. Open your virtual machine console. If autorun does not open the CD-ROM, use Windows

Explorer and go to the CD-ROM drive (D:).


3. Copy the following files from the CD-ROM drive (D:) to the virtual machines desktop:

cpubusy.vbs iometer.exe
16 Lab 3 Working with Virtual Machines

NOTE

To copy files from the CD-ROM to the desktop, right-click the file on the CD-ROM and select Copy. Right-click the desktop and select Paste. You will use these files in a later lab.
4. Extract the files from the executable extpart.exe (to be used in a later lab): a. On the CD-ROM, double-click the file extpart.exe. b. In the WinZip Self-Extractor dialog box, click Unzip. Two files are unzipped to the path

C:\dell\ExtPart. Click OK.


c. Click Close to close the WinZip Self-Extractor dialog box. 5. Disconnect from the Classfiles-vSphere.iso on the CD-ROM drive: a. Right-click the virtual machine in the inventory and select Edit Settings. b. In the Hardware list, select CD/DVD Drive 1. c. Deselect the check boxes Connected and Connect at power on. Click OK. 6. Turn off automatic updates in your Windows guest operating system:
NOTE

The following steps apply to the Windows 2003 operating system. These steps help prevent the virtual machines disk from filling up with unnecessary files. A virtual machine with insufficient disk space will affect future lab exercises.
a. From the virtual machines desktop, click Start > Settings > Control Panel. b. Right-click System and select Open. c. Click the Automatic Updates tab. d. Select Turn Off Automatic Updates and click OK. e. Close the virtual machine console. 7.

Log out of your vSphere Client session (File > Exit.)

Task 2, step 2: Tell students to take a break while their guest operating system is installing. Task 3, step 6: The values Not Shared Storage and Used Storage should be the same for the virtual machine. But when, for example, linked clones are used, the values should be different. By the end of the lab, assuming the student has followed directions correctly, the virtual machine called <your_name>##-1 has a 2GB thin-provisioned virtual disk.

Lab 3 Working with Virtual Machines

17

18

Lab 3 Working with Virtual Machines

Lab 4

Using VMware vCenter Server


Objective: Perform basic vCenter Server inventory operations
In this lab, you will perform the following tasks:
1. Configure the VCVA for first use. 2. Install vSphere license keys. 3. Create a vCenter Server inventory datacenter object. 4. Create vCenter Server inventory folder objects. 5. Add your ESXi host to the vCenter Server inventory. 6. Use the web console to configure the vCenter Server Appliance to use Directory Services. 7. Use the vSphere Web Client to log in to the vCenter Server Appliance.

:
4

Preparing for the lab


Record the following information: VMware vCenter Server Appliance name vCenter Server Appliance user name vCenter Server Appliance password Your VMware vSphere ESXi host name
Lab 4 Using VMware vCenter Server 19

ESXi host root password Enterprise Plus license key vCenter Server license key Windows Domain Administrator user name Windows Domain Administrator password

Task 1: Configure the VCVA for first use


In this task, you will connect to the vCenter Server Appliance management page and configure the appliance. Students should do the steps in this task as a team from a single student desktop.
1. Open a web browser and connect to the VCVA appliance management page at https://

<VCVA_appliance_name>:5480/
2. If you get a warning that the site security certificate is not trusted, proceed anyway to the

administration page.
3. On the VCVA Login page, log in as root with the password you recorded in Preparing for the

lab and click Login.


a. Select Install this certificate and do not display security warnings for <host_name>

to prevent this warning from being displayed in the future.


b. Click Ignore to proceed with the connection. c. Click OK when the VMware Evaluation Notice dialog box is displayed. 4. On the vCenter Server Setup page, click Accept license Agreement and click Next. 5. On the Configure Options page, click Configure with default settings and click Next. 6. On the Review configuration page, click Start. 7. Once the setup is complete, click Close. 8. Close the web browser and return to the client desktop.

Task 2: Install vSphere license keys


In this task, you will install license keys to unlock advanced features of VMware vSphere 5.X. Students should do the steps in this task as a team from a single student desktop
1. Start the VMware vSphere Client. Use it to log in to your vCenter Server Appliance with

the user name and password that you recorded in Preparing for the lab.

20

Lab 4 Using VMware vCenter Server

2. Select Home > Administration > Licensing. The Licensing pane is displayed.

3. In the Product list, expand Evaluation Mode and expand No License Key. Your vCenter

Server Appliance is in the list.


NOTE

The Reporting tab enables you to monitor vRAM use.


4. Click the Manage vSphere Licenses link at the top of the tab. 5. When prompted by the Manage vSphere Licenses wizard, perform the following actions.

Field/Setting Add License Keys

Action In Enter new vSphere license keys (one per line), enter the vCenter Server license key and the vSphere Enterprise license key. (You recorded these keys in Preparing for the lab.)
TIP

Include the hyphens: XXXXX-XXXXX-XXXXX-XXXXXXXXXX. (The text box forces you to enter a hyphen every five characters.) In Enter optional label for new license keys, type VMware Training Licenses. Click Add License Keys. Click Next.

Lab 4 Using VMware vCenter Server

21

Field/Setting Assign Licenses

Action Click the vCenter Server tab. In the vCenter Server tab, your vCenter Server Appliance is an unlicensed asset. The Product column on the right shows that your vCenter Server Appliance has no license key. Assign the license to your vCenter Server appliance by clicking the 25-character vCenter Server 5 Standard license key. Click Next.

Remove License Keys Confirm Changes

Click Next. Click Finish.

6. View the Product report in the Licensing pane.

Task 3: Create a vCenter Server inventory datacenter object


In this task, you will add a datacenter object to the vCenter Server inventory. Students should do the steps in this task as a team from a single student desktop.
1. Select Home > Inventory > Hosts and Clusters. 2. Click the New Datacenter icon above your vCenter Server Appliance name.

3. When the datacenter object is displayed in the inventory, type Training for the datacenter

name.

22

Lab 4 Using VMware vCenter Server

Task 4: Create vCenter Server inventory folder objects


In this task, you will add folder objects to the vCenter Server inventory. Students should do the steps in this task as a team from a single student desktop.
1. Select Home > Inventory > Hosts and Clusters. 2. Ensure that the Training datacenter is highlighted and click the New Folder icon above your

vCenter Server Appliance name.

3. Type Lab Servers for the folder name. 4. Select Home > Inventory > VMs and Templates. 5. Expand the inventory. 6. Click the Training datacenter and click the New Folder icon.

7. Type LabVMs for the folder name. 8. Click the Training datacenter and click the New Folder icon. Type Templates for the name of

this second folder. How does the list of inventory objects differ between the Hosts and Clusters view and the VMs and Templates view?
ANSWER: A folder object is displayed only in the view in which it was created. In other words, the Lab Servers folder is displayed only in the Hosts and Clusters view. The folders named LabVMs and VMTemplates are displayed only in the VMs and Templates view. Also, the folder icons look different in the two views.

Lab 4 Using VMware vCenter Server

23

Task 5: Add your ESXi host to the vCenter Server inventory


In this task, you will add your ESXi host to the Lab Servers folder in the vCenter Server inventory and view general information about your ESXi host. Students should do the steps in this task individually.
1. Select Home > Inventory > Hosts and Clusters. Click your Lab Servers folder and click the

Add Host icon above your vCenter Server Appliance name.

2. When prompted by the Add Host wizard, perform the following actions.

Field/Setting Host Username Password

Action Enter the fully qualified domain name of your ESXi host, which you recorded in Preparing for the lab. Type root. Enter the ESXi host root password that you recorded in Preparing for the lab. When you click Next, a security alert is displayed, stating that vCenter Server is unable to verify the authenticity of the specified host. Click Yes to proceed.

Host Summary Assign License

Verify the information and click Next. Select the VMware vSphere 5 Enterprise Plus license and click Next. Ignore any license warnings that might be displayed. Click Next. Do not enable lockdown mode. Click Next. Expand the Training datacenter and click the LabVMs folder. Click Next. Review the configuration summary and click Finish.

Lockdown Mode Virtual Machine Location Ready to Complete

24

Lab 4 Using VMware vCenter Server

3. In the Recent Tasks pane at the bottom of the vSphere Client, monitor the progress of the task.

After the task is finished, expand the Lab Servers folder and verify that your ESXi host is displayed in the inventory.
4. Click your ESXi host. 5. Click the Summary tab. View information about the ESXi host, such as its datastores,

networks, number of network interface cards (NICs) and CPUs, and memory usage.
6. Select Home > Inventory > VMs and Templates. 7. Click the LabVMs folder. You should see your virtual machine.

Remain logged in and minimize the vSphere Client open for the next lab.

Task 6: Use the web console to configure the vCenter Server Appliance to use Directory Services

In this task, you will configure the vCenter Server Appliance to use Directory Services. Students should do the steps in this task as a team from a single student desktop.
1. On the desktop of your Desktop system, double-click Google Chrome. 2. In the Google Chrome browser, navigate to the URL https://

<VCVA_appliance_name>:5480.
3. Log in to your vCenter Server Appliance with the user name and password that you recorded in

Preparing for the lab.


4. On the vCenter Server tab, click Authentication. 5. On the Authentication page, mark the Active Directory Enabled check box. 6. In the Domain text field, type vclass.local. 7. Enter the user and password text fields, type the Windows Domain user name and password that

you recorded in Preparing for the lab.


8. Click Save Settings.
NOTE

At the top of the page, under AD Authentication Settings the operation is confirmed by green text.
9. At the top of the Google Chrome browser, click the System tab. 10. Click Reboot.

Lab 4 Using VMware vCenter Server

25

11. On the System Reboot confirmation, click Reboot.


NOTE

The appliance takes several minutes to reboot. The System Reboot dialog box disappears after the reboot is near completion.
12. Log in to your vCenter Server Appliance with the user name and password that you recorded in

Preparing for the lab.


13. On the Summary page, in the Services window, monitor the services listed until four of the

five services are listed as Running.


NOTE

The vSphere Auto Deploy service is not started in this lab.


14. Click Logout user root. 15. Leave the browser open for the next task.

Task 7: Use the vSphere Web Client to log in to the vCenter Server Appliance
In this task, you log in to the vSphere Web Client and view general information about your vCenter Server Appliance environment. Students should do the steps in this task individually.
1. In the Google Chrome browser, navigate to the URL https:// <VCVA_appliance_name>:9443/vsphere-client/. 2. Log in to your vCenter Server Appliance with the vCenter Server Appliance user name and

password that you recorded in Preparing for the lab.


3. In the navigation bar on the left, click vCenter and select Datacenters under Inventory on the

left navigation pane.


4. What is the name of the datacenter listed?
ANSWER: Training

5. In the navigation bar on the left, click Training to view the list of top level objects in the right

pane.
6. When finished reviewing the list of objects, close the Google Chrome browser.
Task 1, step 5: In the VMware vClass environment, have the students run the Get Eval Licenses PowerShell script located in the Lab Files folder. The Get Eval Licenses script populates a text file named vSphereLicense.txt, in the Lab Files\Evaluation Licenses folder.

26

Lab 4 Using VMware vCenter Server

Lab 5

Standard Virtual Switches


Objective: Create a standard virtual switch and port group
In this lab, you will perform the following tasks:
1. View the current standard virtual switch configuration. 2. Create a standard virtual switch with a virtual machine port group. 3. Attach your virtual machine to a virtual switch port group.

Preparing for the lab


Record the following information: VMware vCenter Server system name vCenter Server user name vCenter Server password vmnics to use for the Production virtual switch Virtual machine Administrator password

Lab 5 Standard Virtual Switches

27

Task 1: View the current standard virtual switch configuration


In this task, you will use the VMware vSphere Client to view the current network configuration. Students should do the steps in this task individually.
1. If the vSphere Client is not already active, use it to log in to your vCenter Server system with

the root user name and password that you recorded in Preparing for the lab.
2. Select Home > Inventory > Hosts and Clusters. 3. In the vCenter Server inventory, select your VMware vSphere ESXi host and click the

Configuration tab.
4. In the Hardware list, select Networking. You see that a standard virtual switch was created

when this host was installed. The virtual switch is named vSwitch0. It contains a VMkernel port named Management Network and a virtual machine port group named VM Network. You see a virtual machine connected to VM Network.

Task 2: Create a standard virtual switch with a virtual machine port group
In this task, you will create a standard virtual switch for virtual machine networking and create a port group named Production. Students should do the steps in this task individually.
1. Click the Add Networking link. 2. When prompted by the Add Networking wizard, perform the following actions.

Field/Setting Connection Type Network Access

Action Virtual Machine and click Next. Select Create a vSphere standard switch. Select the vmnic check boxes, which you recorded in Preparing for the lab. Click Next.

Connection Settings Ready to Complete

In Network Label, type Production. Keep the default for the VLAN ID and click Next. Click Finish.

3. Verify that the Production port group is displayed in the Networking pane.

28

Lab 5 Standard Virtual Switches

Task 3: Attach your virtual machine to a virtual switch port group


In this task, you will verify that your virtual machine can access the Web using the Production port group. Students should do the steps in this task individually.
1. Right-click your named virtual machine in the inventory and select Edit Settings. 2. Click Network Adapter 1. 3. In the Network Connection drop-down menu, select Production. 4. Verify that both the Connected and the Connect at power on check boxes are selected. 5. Click OK to dismiss the Edit Settings window. 6. Verify that your virtual machine can access the Web: a. Renew the virtual machine IP address:

Right-click the virtual machine in the vCenter Server inventory and select Open Console. Log in with Administrator and the virtual machine Administrator password that you specified in Preparing for lab and open a Command Prompt window (Start > Run).

Type cmd. At the command prompt, type ipconfig /release and press the Enter key. Type ipconfig /renew and press the Enter key.
b. In Internet Explorer, go to http://www.vmware.com. c. Exit Internet Explorer. d. Close the virtual machines console.

Leave the vSphere Client open for the next lab.

Lab 5 Standard Virtual Switches

29

30

Lab 5 Standard Virtual Switches

Lab 6

Accessing ISCSI Storage


Objective: Configure access to an iSCSI and NFS datastore
In this lab, you will perform the following tasks:
1. Add a VMkernel port group to a standard virtual switch. 2. Configure the iSCSI software adapter.

Preparing for the lab


Record the following information: VMware vCenter Server system name vCenter Server user name vCenter Server password VMkernel port IP address/subnet mask VMkernel default gateway Your VMware vSphere ESXi iSCSI qualified name (IQN) Name of iSCSI target

Lab 6 Accessing ISCSI Storage

31

Task 1: Add a VMkernel port group to a standard virtual switch


In this task, you will create a VMkernel port group named IP storage on vSwitch0. Students should do the steps in this task individually.
1. If the VMware vSphere Client is not already active, use it to log in to your vCenter Server

system with the root user name and password that you recorded in Preparing for the lab.
2. Select Home > Inventory > Hosts and Clusters. 3. In the vCenter Server inventory, select your ESXi host and click the Configuration tab. 4. In the Hardware list, click Networking. You see that a standard virtual switch was created

when this host was installed.


5. Click the Properties link for vSwitch0. 6. In the Ports tab (the default view in the vSwitch0 Properties window), click Add. 7. When the Add Network wizard starts, perform the following actions.

Field/Setting Connection Type Port Group Properties Use this port group for vMotion Use this port group for Fault Tolerance logging Use this port group for management traffic Use the following IP settings

Action Select VMkernel and click Next. Type IP Storage for the Network Label. Keep the default for the VLAN ID. Leave deselected. Leave deselected. Leave deselected. Click Next. Enter the VMkernel port IP address and subnet mask that you recorded in Preparing for the lab. Verify that the VMkernel default gateway IP address is correct. Click Next.

Summary

Click Finish.

8. Click Close in the vSwitch0 Properties window.

32

Lab 6

Accessing ISCSI Storage

Task 2: Configure the iSCSI software adapter


In this task, you will enable the iSCSI software initiator, configure dynamic discovery, and display the iSCSI software adapter properties. Students should do the steps in this task individually.
1. Select Home > Inventory > Hosts and Clusters. 2. In the Hardware list, select Storage Adapters. 3. Click the Add link. 4. Click Add Software iSCSI Adapter. 5. Click OK when the warning dialog box is displayed. 6. Select iSCSI Software Adapter in the Device column. 7. Click the Properties link in the Details pane. The iSCSI Initiator Properties dialog box is

displayed.
8. Verify that the General tab displays the iSCSI initiator name and a status of Enabled. Leave the

Properties dialog box open. If the IQN does not match what you recorded in Preparing for the lab, click the Configure button. Change the IQN to match the value in Preparing for the lab.
9. Click the Dynamic Discovery tab and click Add. 10. Enter the name or IP address of the iSCSI target that you recorded in Preparing for the lab. 11. Leave the port set to 3260 and click OK. 12. Monitor the Recent Tasks pane and wait for the task to complete. 13. Verify that the iSCSI targets name and port number are listed in the Send Targets panel and

click Close.
14. When you are prompted to rescan the host bus adapter, click Yes. Wait for the rescan task to

complete.
15. Select the iSCSI software adapter from the Storage Adapters list and view the Details pane.

Record the values for the following fields to verify that a logical unit number was found. Field/setting Connected targets Devices Paths Value

Lab 6 Accessing ISCSI Storage

33

34

Lab 6

Accessing ISCSI Storage

Lab 7

Accessing IP Storage
Objective: Configure access to an iSCSI and NFS datastore
In this lab, you will perform the following tasks:
1. Configure access to NFS datastores. 2. View iSCSI and NFS storage information.

Preparing for the lab


Record the following information:

VMware vCenter Server system name vCenter Server user name vCenter Server password NFS server host name Path to your NFS datastore

Lab 7 Accessing IP Storage

35

Task 1: Configure access to NFS datastores


In this task, you will mount an NFS datastore with read/write permissions. Students should do the steps in this task individually.
1. Click the Configuration tab of your ESXi host. 2. In the Hardware list, select Storage. 3. In the Datastores pane, select Add Storage. 4. When prompted by the Add Storage wizard, perform the following actions.

Field/Setting Storage Type Server Folder Mount NFS read only Datastore name

Action Select Network File System and click Next. Enter the NFS server host name or IP address that you recorded in Preparing for the lab. Enter the path to the NFS datastore that you recorded in Preparing for the lab. Leave the box unselected. You want to mount the NFS datastore as read/write. Type NFS-<your_name>. For example, NFS-Mike. Click Next.

Ready to Complete

Click Finish.

36

Lab 7 Accessing IP Storage

Task 2: View iSCSI and NFS storage information


In this task, you will view information about your iSCSI and NFS storage and you will view the contents of the NFS datastore. Students should do the steps in this task individually.
1. Click the Storage Views tab of your ESXi host. 2. In the list of reports, select Show all SCSI Paths. Verify that the iSCSI adapter that you added

earlier is in the list. You might have to click the Update link in the upper-right corner.

3. Select Show all SCSI Targets (Array Ports) from the list of reports. View information about

your iSCSI storage.


4. Select Show all NAS Mounts from the list of reports. View information about your NFS

storage. Leave the vSphere Client open for the next lab.

Lab 7 Accessing IP Storage

37

38

Lab 7 Accessing IP Storage

Lab 8

Managing VMware vSphere VMFS


Objective: Create and manage VMFS datastores
In this lab, you will perform the following tasks:
1. Review your shared storage configuration. 2. Change the name of a VMFS datastore. 3. Create a VMFS datastore. 4. Expand a VMFS datastore to consume unused space on a LUN. 5. Remove a VMFS datastore. 6. Extend a VMFS datastore.

Preparing for the lab


Record the following information:

VMware vCenter Server system name vCenter Server root password Shared storage type used in this lab environment Your local datastore First assigned target/LUN number Second assigned target/LUN number
Lab 8 Managing VMware vSphere VMFS 39

Task 1: Review your shared storage configuration


In this task, you will learn how to display information about the shared storage in your lab environment. Students should do the steps in this task individually.
1. If the VMware vSphere Client is not already active, use it to log in to your vCenter Server

system. To log in, use the user name root and the password that you recorded in Preparing for the lab.
2. Select your VMware vSphere ESXi host in the inventory and click the Storage Views tab. 3. In the View list, select Show all SCSI Paths from the Reports drop-down menu. In the named

SCSI adapter type column, verify that a SCSI adapter exists for the shared storage type that you recorded in Preparing for the lab.
4. In the View list, select Show all SCSI Volumes (LUNs). This view displays all SCSI LUNs

that are available to your host.

Task 2: Change the name of a VMFS datastore


In this task, you will change the name of a VMware Sphere VMFS datastore. Students should do the steps in this task individually.
1. In the View list in the Storage Views tab, select Show all Datastores. View the information for

each datastore, such as the capacity and free space.


2. Click your local datastore, whose name you recorded in Preparing for the lab to go to the

Datastores inventory view. The Show all Virtual Machines report is displayed. This report lists all virtual machines that reside on this datastore
3. In the inventory, right-click your local datastore and select Rename. 4. Type Local-ESXi##, where ## is the number of your ESXi host. For example, for an ESXi

host that ends in 02, the new name of the datastore is Local-ESXi02.
5. Verify that the new datastore name is displayed in the inventory.

Task 3: Create a VMFS datastore


In this task, you will create a private VMFS datastore on each logical unit number (LUN) that is assigned to you. Private means that this datastore is accessible only by your ESXi host. Students should do the steps in this task individually.
1. Select Home > Inventory > Datastores and Datastore Clusters, right-click the Training

datacenter, and select Add Datastore.

40

Lab 8 Managing VMware vSphere VMFS

2. When prompted by the Add Storage wizard, perform the following actions.

Field/Setting Select host Storage Type Select Disk/LUN

Action Expand the inventory hierarchy and click your ESXi host. Click Next. Select Disk/LUN and click Next. Expand the Path ID column so that it shows the LUN numbers. Click your first assigned target/ LUN number, which you recorded in Preparing for the lab. Click Next.

File System Version Current Disk Layout Enter a datastore name

Keep the default of VMFS-5 and click Next. Review the current disk layout and click Next. Type PrivateVMFS-##, where ## is the target number of your first assigned LUN that you recorded in Preparing for the lab. For example, if the target number of your assigned LUN ID is 1, the datastore name would be PrivateVMFS-01. Click Next.

Formatting Ready to Complete

Keep the default and click Next. Click Finish.

3. Return to the Datastores inventory view to create a second datastore. Right-click the Training

datacenter and select Add Datastore.

Lab 8 Managing VMware vSphere VMFS

41

4. When prompted by the Add Storage wizard, perform the following actions.

Field/Setting Select host Storage Type Select Disk/LUN

Action Expand the inventory hierarchy and click your ESXi host. Click Next. Select Disk/LUN and click Next. Expand the Path ID column so that it shows the target and LUN number. Click your second assigned target/ LUN number, which you recorded in Preparing for the lab. Click Next.

File System Version Current Disk Layout Enter a datastore name

Keep the default of VMFS-5 and click Next. Review the current disk layout and click Next. Type PrivateVMFS-##, where ## is the target number of your second assigned LUN, which you recorded in Preparing for the lab. For example, if the target number of your assigned LUN ID is 2, the datastore name would be PrivateVMFS-02. Click Next.

Formatting

Click Custom Space Setting and reduce the LUN size by 1GB. For example, if the current disk size is 10GB, change the size to 9GB. (You increase this VMFS datastore to its maximum size in task 4.) Click Next.

Ready to Complete

Click Finish.

5. Monitor the progress in the Recent Tasks pane and wait for the task to complete. 6. Verify that each new VMFS datastore is displayed in the datastore inventory. 7. In the datastore inventory, click the second PrivateVMFS-## datastore that you created. 8. Click the Summary tab and record the value for Capacity: __________.

42

Lab 8 Managing VMware vSphere VMFS

Task 4: Expand a VMFS datastore to consume unused space on a LUN


In this task, you will increase the size of a VMFS datastore to consume the remaining space on the LUN. Students should do the steps in this task individually.
1. Click the Configuration tab of the second PrivateVMFS-## datastore that you created in task 3. 2. Click the Properties link in the Datastore Details pane. 3. Examine the information reported in the Extent Device pane. Record the following values:

Size of the LUN used by the PrivateVMFS## datastore: __________ Size of the VMFS datastore in the datastore: __________ Are these two values the same? ________________________________________ Why are these two values the same (or different)? _________________________
ANSWER: In vClass, the LUNs are 10GB. If the student followed the lab correctly, the VMFS datastore in the datastore should be 9GB (10GB - 1GB = 9GB). These values differ because in task 3 you had the students opt to use less than the full capacity of the LUN.

4. In the Properties dialog box, click Increase. 5. When prompted by the Increase Datastore Capacity wizard, perform the following actions.

Field/Setting Extent Device

Action Select your second assigned LUN that you recorded in Preparing for the lab. This LUN should read Yes in the Expandable column. Click Next.

Current Disk Layout Extent Size Ready to Complete

Review the current disk layout. Notice the free space available on the LUN (under Primary Partitions) and click Next. Leave the Maximize available space check box selected and click Next. Review the information for accuracy and click Finish.

6. After the task is completed, review the datastore Properties dialog box and verify that the

datastore size was increased to the maximum capacity (less space for system overhead).
7. Click Close to close the datastore Properties dialog box.

Lab 8 Managing VMware vSphere VMFS

43

Task 5: Remove a VMFS datastore


In this task, you will remove a VMFS datastore. Students should do the steps in this task individually.
1. In the Datastores inventory, right-click your PrivateVMFS-## datastore, where ## is the second

LUN ID that is assigned to you.


2. Click Delete. 3. Click Yes to confirm datastore deletion. 4. Verify that the datastore was removed from the inventory.

Task 6: Extend a VMFS datastore


In this task, you will increase the size of a VMFS datastore by adding an extent. Students should do the steps in this task individually.
1. In the Datastore inventory, click the PrivateVMFS-## datastore, where ## is the number of your

first assigned LUN ID.


2. Click the Configuration tab. 3. In the Datastore Details pane, click the Properties link. The Properties dialog box is displayed.

Record the size of the total capacity of the VMFS datastore here:______________.
4. Click Increase. 5. When prompted by the Increase Datastore Capacity wizard, perform the following actions.

Field/Setting Extent Device

Action Expand the Path ID column so that it shows the LUN number. Click your second assigned LUN. You recorded this LUN number in Preparing for the lab. Click Next. Review the current disk layout. Click Next. Leave the Maximize capacity check box selected. Click Next. Click Finish.

Current Disk Layout Capacity Ready to Complete

44

Lab 8 Managing VMware vSphere VMFS

6. When the task completes, verify that two extents are displayed in the Extents pane. The

Extents pane should show both of your assigned LUN IDs.


NOTE

It might be necessary to click Refresh in the Properties dialog box.


7. Close the Properties dialog box. 8. In the Datastore Details pane, record the new value for Total Formatted Capacity:

___________. The value should differ from the value recorded in step 3.
9. Rename this datastore VMFS-<student_number> where student number is the number of

your assigned ESXi host. Leave the vSphere Client open for the next lab

Lab 8 Managing VMware vSphere VMFS

45

46

Lab 8 Managing VMware vSphere VMFS

Lab 9

Using Templates and Clones


Objective: Deploy a virtual machine from a template and clone a virtual machine
In this lab, you will perform the following tasks:
1. Copy Sysprep files to the vCenter Server instance. 2. Create a template. 3. Create customization specifications. 4. Deploy a virtual machine from a template. 5. Clone a virtual machine that is powered on.

Preparing for the lab


Record the following information: VMware vCenter Server system name vCenter Server Administrator password Location of Windows Sysprep files

Sysprep files target folder Windows product key Time zone


Lab 9 Using Templates and Clones 47

VMware vSphere VMFS datastore for virtual machines Virtual machine Administrator password

Task 1: Copy Sysprep files to the vCenter Server instance


In this task, you will configure guest operating system customization on your vCenter Server system. Students should do the steps in this task as a team from a single student desktop.
1. On the desktop of your student virtual machine, double-click WinSCP. 2. Double click Upload sysprep files to the vCVA. 3. If you receive a security warning, click Update to update the certificate. 4. In the User name field, type root and click OK. 5. Enter the password you recorded in Preparing for the lab and click OK. 6. Copy all of the files from the Sysprep folder on the desktop to the VCVA sysprep/svr2003

directory.
7. Once the file copy is complete, select Disconnect from the Session menu. 8. Close the WinSCP program.

Task 2: Create a template


In this task, you will create a template by converting a virtual machine to a template. Students should do the steps in this task individually.
1. If the VMware vSphere Client is not already active, use it to log in to your vCenter Server system. Log in as user root and enter the password that you recorded in Preparing for the

lab.
2. In the vSphere Client, select Home > Inventory > VMs and Templates. 3. Expand your LabVMs folder. In this folder, you have a virtual machine named

<your_name>##-1.
4. Right-click the virtual machine and select Power > Shut Down Guest. 5. After the virtual machine has shut down, right-click the virtual machine and select Template >

Convert to Template.
6. Drag <your_name>##-1 virtual machine template from your LabVMs folder to your Templates

folder.
7. Right-click the virtual machine template and click Rename. Type <your_name>Template to

change the template name.


48 Lab 9 Using Templates and Clones

Task 3: Create customization specifications


In this task, you will create a customization specification for template deployment. Students should do the steps in this task individually.
1. In the vSphere Client, click Home. 2. In the Management panel, click Customization Specifications Manager. 3. Click New.

Field/setting Target Virtual Machine OS Name Registration Information Computer Name Product Key

Action Select Windows. Type <your_name>-CustomSpec. Click Next. Type VMware Student for Name and VMware for Organization. Click Next. Click Use the virtual machine name and click Next. Enter the product key that you recorded in Preparing for the lab and leave all other fields at their default value. Click Next. Re-enter the vCenter Server Administrator password that you recorded in Preparing for the lab. Re-enter the password in the Confirm password field and click Next. Select the time zone that you recorded in Preparing for the lab and click Next. Leave the default and click Next. Leave the default and click Next. Leave the default and click Next. Leave the default and click Next. Click Finish.

Administrator Password

Time Zone Run Once Network Workgroup or Domain Operating System Options Ready to Complete

4. Verify that your customization specification was created successfully. Lab 9 Using Templates and Clones 49

Task 4: Deploy a virtual machine from a template


In this task, you will deploy a virtual machine from your template and allow vCenter Server to customize the guest operating system. Students should do the steps in this task individually.
1. In the vSphere Client, click Home. 2. In the Inventory panel, select VMs and Templates. Right-click your named template and

select Deploy Virtual Machine from this Template.


3. When prompted by the Deploy Template wizard, perform the following actions.

Field/Setting Name

Action Name the new virtual machine with your first name, followed by the number of your VMware vSphere ESXi host and the sequence number 2. For example, if Gregs ESXi host is named ESXi01, the name of this virtual machine is Greg01-2. Select your LabVMs folder and click Next. Expand the Lab Servers folder and click your ESXi host. Click Next. Keep the default. Select your VMFS datastore for virtual machines, which you recorded in Preparing for the lab, and click Next. Select Power on this virtual machine after creation. Select Customize using an existing customization specification. Select <your_name>CustomSpec. Do not select the check box Use the Customization Wizard to temporarily adjust the specification before deployment. Click Next.

Inventory Location Host/Cluster Select a virtual disk format Select a destination storage for the virtual machine files Guest Customization

Ready to Complete

Do not select the check box Edit virtual hardware (Experimental). Click Finish.

50

Lab 9

Using Templates and Clones

4. Repeat steps 2 and 3 and create another virtual machine. Name this virtual machine

<your_name>##-3.
5. In the Recent Tasks pane at the bottom of the vSphere Client, monitor the progress of the

template deployment task.


6. After you have created these virtual machines, open a virtual machine console to each of your

new virtual machines.


7. Verify that each virtual machine was created properly. Check the following:

The virtual machine booted up successfully. Wait at least two minutes for Sysprep to complete its tasks, which includes a reboot of the system. You can log in to the guest operating system as Administrator with the virtual machine Administrator password that you recorded in Preparing for the lab. VMware Tools is installed with time synchronization configured. The cpubusy.vbs file is on the desktop.
8. Close the virtual machine console. Do not shut down the virtual machine.

Task 5: Clone a virtual machine that is powered on


In this task, you will clone a running virtual machine. Students should do the steps in this task individually.
1. In the LabVMs folder, right-click the <your_name>##-2 virtual machine and select Clone. 2. When prompted by the Clone Virtual Machine wizard, perform the following actions.

Field/Setting Name

Action Name the new virtual machine Hot-Clone, followed by the number of your ESXi host. For example, Greg has an ESXi host named ESXi01. The name of this second virtual machine is HotClone01. Select your LabVMs folder and click Next. Expand the Lab Servers folder and click your ESXi host. Click Next. Keep the default.

Inventory Location Host/Cluster Select a virtual disk format

Lab 9 Using Templates and Clones

51

Field/Setting Select a destination storage for the template files

Action Select your VMFS datastore for virtual machines, which you recorded in Preparing for the lab, and click Next. Select Power on this virtual machine after creation. Select Customize using an existing customization specification. Select <your_name>CustomSpec and click Next.

Guest Customization Option

Ready to Complete

Click Finish.

3. Monitor the task in the Recent Tasks pane. Allow the task to run. Check the result during the

next lab. Leave the vSphere Client open for the next lab.

52

Lab 9

Using Templates and Clones

Lab 10

Modifying a Virtual Machine


Objective: Modify a virtual machines hardware and add a raw LUN to a virtual machine
In this lab, you will perform the following tasks:
1. Increase the size of a VMDK file. 2. Adjust memory allocation on a virtual machine. 3. Rename a virtual machine in the vCenter Server inventory. 4. Add a raw LUN to a virtual machine and verify that the guest operating system can see it. 5. Expand a thin-provisioned virtual disk.

Preparing for the lab


Record the following information: VMware vCenter Server system name vCenter Server Administrator password Virtual machine Administrator password Your raw logical unit number (LUN) ID

10

Lab 10 Modifying a Virtual Machine

53

Task 1: Increase the size of a VMDK file


In this task, you will increase the size of a virtual machines C: drive and configure the guest operating system to see the additional space. Students should do the steps in this task individually.
1. If the VMware vSphere Client is not already active, use it to log in to your vCenter Server

system as user root, with the password that you recorded in Preparing for the lab.
2. Select Home > Inventory > VMs and Templates. 3. Verify that your Hot-Clone## virtual machine is powered on. If it is not powered on, power it

on now.
4. Right-click your Hot-Clone## virtual machine in the inventory and select Edit Settings. The

Virtual Machine Properties dialog box is displayed.


5. In the Hardware list, select Hard Disk 1. 6. In Provisioned Size, type 3GB and click OK. 7. Increase the size of the disk from within the guest operating system: a. In the inventory, right-click the Hot-Clone virtual machine and select Open Console. b. Log in to the guest operating system as user Administrator, with the virtual machine

Administrator password that you recorded in Preparing for the lab.


c. On the virtual machine desktop, double-click My Computer. Record the value for the total

size of the C: drive.____________.


ANSWER: For example, if you are using a vClass kit, this value is approximately 2GB.

d. Use Windows Explorer to open the folder C:\dell\ExtPart folder. e. Double-click the extpart.exe file. f. In Volume to extend, type C:. g. In Size to expand the volume, type 1024 (to extend the volume by 1,024MB). h. On the virtual machine desktop, double-click My Computer to verify that the C: drive was

extended. Record the value for total size of the C: drive.____________________. Does the value differ from the size recorded in step 7c?_________
ANSWER: Yes. The value should differ by ~1GB.

i. Close the virtual machines console.

54

Lab 10 Modifying a Virtual Machine

Task 2: Adjust memory allocation on a virtual machine


In this task, you will increase the virtual machines memory. Students should do the steps in this task individually.
1. Right-click your Hot-Clone## virtual machine in the inventory and select Power > Shut Down

Guest.
2. Click Yes to confirm the shutdown. 3. After the virtual machine has shut down, right-click it and select Edit Settings. 4. Verify that Memory is selected in the Hardware list. 5. Select MB from the drop-down menu in the upper right of the Virtual Machines Properties

dialog box.
6. Immediately to the left of the drop-down menu, type 512. 7. Click OK. 8. Click the virtual machines Summary tab to verify that the memory has increased.

Task 3: Rename a virtual machine in the vCenter Server inventory


In this task, you will change the name of a virtual machine in the inventory. Students should do the steps in this task individually.
1. In the inventory, right-click your Hot-Clone## virtual machine and select Rename. 2. Rename the virtual machine to <your_name>##-4, where ## is the number of your VMware

ESXi host. For example, if Greg has an host named ESXi01. The name of his virtual machine is Greg01-4.
CAUTION

Renaming a virtual machine in the inventory does not rename the virtual machines folder or the files in the virtual machines folder.

10

Lab 10 Modifying a Virtual Machine

55

Task 4: Add a raw LUN to a virtual machine and verify that the guest operating system can see it
In this task, you will add a raw LUN to a virtual machine that is powered on. You will verify that the guest operating system can see the new virtual disk. Students should do the steps in this task individually.
1. Add a raw LUN to the <your_name>##-2 virtual machine: a. In the inventory, right-click the <your_name>##-2 virtual machine and select Edit

Settings. The Virtual Machine Properties dialog box is displayed.


b. In the Virtual Machine Properties dialog box, click Add. c. When prompted by the Add Hardware wizard, perform the following actions.

Field/setting Device Type Select a Disk Select Target LUN Select Datastore Compatibility Mode Advanced Options Ready to Complete

Action Select Hard Disk and click Next. Select Raw Device Mappings and click Next. Select your assigned LUN, which you recorded in Preparing for the lab. Keep the default. Select Virtual. Leave the defaults. Click Finish.

d. When a new entry for the hard disk is displayed in the Hardware list with the word

(adding) next to it, click OK to add the raw LUN.


2. In the inventory, right-click the <your_name>##-2 virtual machine that you created and select

Rename. Change the name to <your_name>##-2-RDM.


3. View the <your_name>##-2-RDM virtual machine files: a. In the inventory, select the <your_name>##-2-RDM virtual machine and click the Storage

Views tab.
b. In the drop-down menu, select Show all Virtual Machine Files. c. Click the Update link. d. Verify that a new file named <your_name>##-2_1-rdm.vmdk exists. 56 Lab 10 Modifying a Virtual Machine

4. Verify that the guest operating system can see the new disk: a. Open a console to the virtual machine and log in as user Administrator, with the password

that you recorded in Preparing for the lab.


b. Select Start > Programs > Administrative Tools > Computer Management. c. Click Disk Management.
CAUTION

If a disk wizard starts, click Cancel.


d. Verify that Disk 1 is listed. Disk 1 is the raw device mapping. You can now use the guest

operating system utilities to format the drive. In this lab, you do not have to format the drive.
e. Close the Computer Management window and close the virtual machine console.

Task 5: Expand a thin-provisioned virtual disk


In this task, you will expand a thin-provisioned virtual disk to consume all the disk space that was allocated to it when it was created. Students should do the steps in this task individually.
1. View storage information for the virtual machine named <your_name>##-3: a. In the inventory, select the virtual machine named <your_name>##-3. b. Click the Summary tab and record the storage information found in the Resources panel.

Provisioned Storage Not-shared Storage Used Storage Name of VMFS Datastore


2. Right-click <your_name>##-3 and select Power > Shut Down Guest. 3. Inflate the thin-provisioned virtual disk: a. Select Home > Inventory > Datastores and Datastore Clusters. b. Right-click the datastore that you recorded in step 1 and select Browse Datastore. c. Open the folder for the virtual machine named <your_name>##-3. d. Right-click the <your_name>##-3.vmdk file and select Inflate. Wait for the operation to

finish.
Lab 10 Modifying a Virtual Machine 57

10

e. Observe the Size and Provisioned Size columns. Each column displays a different number.

When the inflate operation finishes, the Provisioned Size column is no longer visible. The Size column displays a new value equal to the size of the virtual disk.
f. Close the Datastore Browser. 4. Select Home > Inventory > VMs and Templates. 5. In the vCenter Server inventory, select the virtual machine named <your_name>##-3. 6. Click the Summary tab. 7. Record the storage information from in the Resources panel and verify that the disk is now

fully allocated. Provisioned Storage Not-shared Storage Used Storage Leave the vSphere Client open for the next lab.

58

Lab 10 Modifying a Virtual Machine

11

Lab 11

Migrating Virtual Machines


Objective: Use vMotion and Storage vMotion to migrate virtual machines
In this lab, you will perform the following tasks:
1. Migrate virtual machine files with Storage vMotion. 2. Create a virtual switch and a VMkernel port group for vMotion migration. 3. Verify that your ESXi host meets vMotion requirements. 4. Verify that your virtual machines meet vMotion requirements. 5. Perform a vMotion migration of a virtual machine on a shared datastore. 6. Perform a vMotion migration to a private datastore 7. Prepare for the next lab.

Preparing for the lab


Record the following information: VMware vCenter Server system to decommission Team vCenter Server system name VMware vSphere ESXi host to be temporarily orphaned
Lab 11 Migrating Virtual Machines 59

vmnic for the VMware vSphere vMotion network vMotion IP address vMotion subnet mask Shared datastore for virtual machines ESXi host to migrate virtual machines to Your ESXi host

Task 1: Migrate virtual machine files with Storage vMotion


In this task, you will use VMware vSphere Storage vMotion to relocate each of your virtual machine files from your private datastore to your shared datastore. Students should do the steps in this task individually.
NOTE

In this lab and the following labs, both student A and student B will log in to the team vCenter Server system simultaneously. Because you are now both managing the same vCenter Server system, you should communicate with your teammate.
1. Open the VMware vSphere Web Client. Log in to the team vCenter Server system as user

root, with the password that you recorded in Preparing for the lab.
2. Select Home > VMs and Templates and expand the LabVMs folder. 3. Right-click <your_name>##-2-RDM and click Actions > Rename. Rename the virtual machine

to <your_name>##-2 (that is, remove -RDM from the name).


4. Migrate each of your virtual machines from your private datastore to the shared datastore: a. Select <your_name>##-2 and click the Summary tab. b. Under Storage in the Related Objects panel, record the datastore that the virtual machine

resides on here: ________________________.


c. In the vSphere Web Client inventory, right-click the <your_name>##-2 virtual machine,

and then click Migrate

60

Lab 11 Migrating Virtual Machines

d. When prompted by the Migrate Virtual Machine wizard, perform the following actions.

11

Field/Setting Select Migration Type Select a virtual disk format Select a destination storage for the virtual machine files Ready to Complete

Action Select Change Datastore. Keep the default. Select the shared datastore that you recorded in Preparing for the lab. Click Next. Click Finish.

e. Monitor the progress of the task in the Recent Tasks pane. f. After the task is finished, click the Summary tab of the virtual machine that you migrated

to verify that your virtual machine is on the new datastore.

Task 2: Create a virtual switch and a VMkernel port group for vMotion migration
In this task, you will create a virtual switch with a VMkernel port that will be used in vMotion migrations. Students should do the steps in this task individually.
1. Select Home > vCenter > Hosts and Clusters. 2. In the vCenter Web Client inventory, expand vcva > Training. 3. Select your ESXi host in the inventory, and in the right pane click Manage. 4. Click Networking. 5. Click the icon Add Host Networking. 6. When prompted by the Add Network wizard, perform the following actions.

Field/Setting Connection Type Select target device Create a Standard Switch

Action Select VMkernel Network Adapter. Click Next. Select New standard switch. Click Next. Click the + sign and add the adapter that you recorded in Preparing for the lab. Click OK then click Next.

Lab 11 Migrating Virtual Machines

61

Field/Setting Port Properties

Action Type vMotion for the Network Label. Select the vMotion traffic check box under Available Services. Click Next.

IP Address

Select Use static IPv4 settings. Enter the vMotion IP address that you recorded in Preparing for the lab.

Subnet Mask Summary

Enter the vMotion subnet mask that you recorded in Preparing for the lab. Click Next. Confirm the settings and click Finish.

7. Verify the configuration information for the new virtual switch in the Networking panel.

Task 3: Verify that your ESXi host meets vMotion requirements


In this task, you will verify that your ESXi host meets vMotion requirements. Students should do the steps in this task individually.
1. Select Home > Hosts and Clusters. 2. Select each ESXi host and click its Summary tab. 3. View the Processor Type information to verify that the CPUs are compatible. 4. Click your ESXi hosts Manage tab. 5. Verify that a vMotion port group exists and that it is configured with a speed and duplex of

1000Mb, Full Duplex:


a. Click the Networking button. b. Verify that a vMotion port group exists. It should be a VMkernel port. c. Verify that the speed and duplex are set to 1000 full. 6. Verify that both ESXi hosts have access to the same shared datastores: a. Select Home > vCenter > Storage. b. In the vCenter Web Client inventory, expand vcva > Training. c. Select the shared datastore you recorded in Preparing for the lab. d. In the right pane, click Manage. 62 Lab 11 Migrating Virtual Machines

e. On the Manage tab, click Settings. f. Click Connectivity and Multipathing. g. Verify that both hosts are displayed in the table.

11

Task 4: Verify that your virtual machines meet vMotion requirements


In this task, you will verify that a virtual machines settings meet vMotion requirements. Perform this task for all of your named virtual machines. Students should do the steps in this task individually.
1. Select Home > vCenter > VMs and Templates. 2. In the right pane, click Summary. 3. In your LabVMs folder, click the <your_name>##-2 virtual machine 4. In the VM Hardware pane, click Edit Settings. 5. Verify that the virtual machine's CD/DVD Drive 1 is not connected to a local device and does

not have an image in a local datastore defined:


a. In the Hardware list, verify that the Summary column for CD/DVD Drive 1 shows Client

Device.
b. If the Summary column does not show Client Device, select CD/DVD Drive 1 in the list

and click Client Device to remove existing connections.


6. In the Hardware list, find Network Adapter 1. Verify that the virtual machine is either

disconnected from the network or connected to a network accessible by the destination ESXi host (your partners ESXi host).
7. Check the Hardware list for a hard disk that is labeled Hard Disk 2. a. If you have such a disk, point to the disk. b. After a moment, click the x button that appears at the right side of the row for Hard Disk 2. c. Mark the Delete files from datastore check box.
NOTE

This RDM hard disk was added in a previous lab and must be removed so that the virtual machine will be compatible with vMotion.
8. Verify that CPU affinity is not set: a. Click the arrow next to CPU to expand the advanced CPU options. b. If the Scheduling Affinity field displays a number, delete the number. 9. Click OK to apply all virtual machine changes. Lab 11 Migrating Virtual Machines 63

Task 5: Perform a vMotion migration of a virtual machine on a shared datastore


In this task, you will migrate a virtual machine while it is powered on. Students should do the steps in this task individually.
1. Select Home > Hosts and Clusters. 2. Expand the vCenter Server inventory view by clicking on the arrow next to your ESXi host so

that you can see all of your virtual machines.


3. Migrate <your_name>##-2 to your partners ESXi host: a. Click the virtual machine named <your_name>##-2 and click Actions > Migrate.
NOTE

If <your_name>##-2 is powered off, power it on before beginning the vMotion migration.


b. When prompted by the Migrate Virtual Machine wizard, perform the following actions.

Field/Setting Select Migration Type Select Destination

Action Select Change host. Expand the inventory view and select the ESXi host to migrate virtual machines to, which you recorded in Preparing for the lab. The migration requirements are validated. If the validation does not succeed, you receive warning or error messages. You will not be able to continue with the migration until the errors are resolved.
TIP

One reason that the validation might not succeed is if a raw device mapping resides in a private LUN. See task 6, step 5. vMotion Priority Ready to Complete Leave the default value. Click Finish.

4. In the Recent Tasks pane, monitor the progress of the virtual machine migration. 5. Verify that your virtual machine is displayed under your partners ESXi host in the inventory. 6. Use vMotion and verify that your other virtual machines can be migrated successfully to your

partners ESXi host.


7. Migrate <your_name>##-2 to back to your ESXi host 64 Lab 11 Migrating Virtual Machines

Task 6: Perform a vMotion migration to a private datastore


In this task, you will migrate a virtual machine while it is powered on to a private datastore on your partners ESXi host. Students should do the steps in this task individually.
1. Select Home > Hosts and Clusters. 2. Expand the vCenter Server inventory view by clicking on the arrow next to your ESXi host so

11

that you can see all of your virtual machines.


3. Migrate <your_name>##-2 to your partners ESXi host: a. Click the virtual machine named <your_name>##-2 and click Actions > Migrate.
NOTE

If <your_name>##-2 is powered off, power it on before beginning the vMotion migration.


b. When prompted by the Migrate Virtual Machine wizard, perform the following actions.

Field/Setting Select Migration Type Select Destination

Action Select Change both host and datastore Expand the inventory view and select the ESXi host to migrate virtual machines to, which you recorded in Preparing for the lab. Select the private datastore that you recorded in Preparing for the lab. Leave the default value. Click Finish.

Select Datastore vMotion Priority Ready to Complete

4. In the Recent Tasks pane, monitor the progress of the virtual machine migration. 5. Verify that your virtual machine is displayed under your partners ESXi host in the inventory.

Lab 11 Migrating Virtual Machines

65

Task 7: Prepare for the next lab


In this task, you will migrate all of your virtual machines back to your host. Students should do the steps in this task individually.
1. Select Home > Hosts and Clusters. 2. Expand the vCenter Server inventory view so that you can see all of your virtual machines. 3. Migrate each of your virtual machines back to your ESXi host: a. If any of your virtual machines are powered off, power it on before performing the

vMotion migration.
b. Click your virtual machine and click Actions > Migrate. c. When prompted by the Migrate Virtual Machine wizard, perform the following actions.

Field/Setting Select Migration Type Select Destination Datastore vMotion Priority Ready to Complete

Action Select Change host. or Change host and datastore for the virtual machine you migrated to private storage Expand the inventory view and select your ESXi host. The Shared datastore you recorded in Preparing for the lab. Leave the default value. Click Finish.

4. In the Recent Tasks pane, monitor the progress of the virtual machine migration. 5. Verify that your virtual machines are displayed under your ESXi host in the inventory. 6. Close the vSphere Web Client.

66

Lab 11 Migrating Virtual Machines

12

Lab 12

Managing Virtual Machines


Objective: Perform several virtual machine management tasks
In this lab, you will perform the following tasks:
1. Unregister a virtual machine in the vCenter Server inventory. 2. Register a virtual machine in the vCenter Server inventory. 3. Unregister and delete virtual machines from disk. 4. Take snapshots of a virtual machine. 5. Revert to a snapshot. 6. Delete an individual snapshot. 7. Use the Delete All function in Snapshot Manager.

Preparing for the lab


Record the following information: VMware vCenter Server system name vCenter Server root password Virtual machine Administrator password Software ISO image location

Lab 12 Managing Virtual Machines

67

Task 1: Unregister a virtual machine in the vCenter Server inventory


In this task, you will unregister a virtual machine from the vCenter Server inventory. You will verify that the virtual machine files still exists on the VMware vSphere VMFS datastore. Students should do the steps in this task individually.
1. If the VMware vSphere Client is not already active, use it to log in to your team vCenter

Server system. To log in, use the user name root and the password that you recorded in Preparing for the lab.
2. Select Home > Inventory > VMs and Templates. 3. Click <your_name>##-4 (where ## is the number of your VMware vSphere ESXi host) and

click the Summary tab.


4. From the Storage column in the Resources panel, record the VMFS datastore name where the

virtual machine resides:____________________________________________


5. Right-click <your_name>##-4 and select Power > Shut Down Guest. 6. After the virtual machine has shut down, right-click <your_name>##-4 and select Remove

from Inventory.
CAUTION

Do not select Delete from Disk. That operation is not recoverable.


7. Click Yes to confirm the removal and verify that <your_name>##-4 is no longer displayed in

the inventory.
8. Select Home > Inventory > Datastores and Datastore Clusters. 9. Right-click the VMFS datastore on which <your_name>##-4 is located (the name that you

recorded in step 4) and select Browse Datastore.


10. In the Datastore Browser, on the Folders tab, does a folder named <your_name>##-4

exist?________.
ANSWER: No, renaming a virtual machine does not rename the virtual machines folder to be renamed.

11. Click the <your_name>##-4 folder to view the virtual machine files.

The files in this folder were used by the virtual machine named <your_name>##-4 because you renamed Hot-Clone## in lab 10, task 3. The rename operation did not rename the original set of files created when you created Hot-Clone##. Leave the Datastore Browser open for the next task.

68

Lab 12 Managing Virtual Machines

Task 2: Register a virtual machine in the vCenter Server inventory


In this task, you will register a virtual machine using a set of virtual machine files located on a datastore. You will verify that the virtual machine is displayed in the inventory. Students should do the steps in this task individually.

12

1. In the list of files to the right of Folders pane, right-click the Hot-Clone##.vmx file and select

Add to Inventory.
2. When prompted by the Add to Inventory wizard, perform the following actions.

Field/Setting Name & Location

Action Type <your_name>##-5, where ## is the number of your ESXi host. In the Inventory Location pane, select your LabVMs folder. Click Next

Host/Cluster Ready to Complete

Select your ESXi host. Click Next. Click Finish.

3. Close the Datastore Browser window. 4. Verify that the virtual machine is placed back in the inventory: a. Select Home > Inventory > VMs and Templates. b. Verify that <your_name>##-5 is in your LabVMs folder.

Task 3: Unregister and delete virtual machines from disk


In this task, you will delete the <your_name>##-5 virtual machine in your LabVMs folder. You will verify that it was permanently deleted from the VMFS datastore. Students should do the steps in this task individually.
1. Select the <your_name>##-5 virtual machine in the inventory and click the Summary tab.

Record the VMFS datastore name on which this virtual machine resides: ____________________________
2. Right-click <your_name>##-5 and select Delete from Disk. 3. Click Yes to confirm the deletion and verify that <your_name>##-5 is no longer displayed in

the inventory.
4. Select Home > Inventory > Datastores and Datastore Clusters. Lab 12 Managing Virtual Machines 69

5. Right-click the VMFS datastore on which <your_name>##-5 was located and select Browse

Datastore.
6. Verify that the virtual machine files no longer exist. The folder would have been named with the

original virtual machine name: Hot-Clone##.


7. Close the Datastore Browser.

Task 4: Take snapshots of a virtual machine


In this task, you will create a snapshot tree of a virtual machine. Students should do the steps in this task individually.
1. Select Home > Inventory > VMs and Templates. 2. Open your LabVMs folder, right-click the virtual machine <your_name>##-3, and select Open

Console.
3. Log in as user Administrator, with the virtual machine Administrator password that you

recorded in Preparing for the lab.


4. Drag the iometer.exe file to the Recycle Bin. To remove the iometer.exe file, empty the

Recycle Bin (right-click the Recycle Bin icon and select Empty Recycle Bin).
5. Click Yes to confirm the file deletion and leave the virtual machine console open. 6. In your LabVMs folder, right-click the virtual machine <your_name>##-3 and select Snapshot

> Take Snapshot.


7. When prompted by the Take Virtual Machine Snapshot wizard, perform the following actions.

Field/Setting Name Description Snapshot the virtual machines memory Quiesce guest file system (Needs VMware Tools installed)

Value Type Without iometer. Type Deleted iometer.exe. Click to deselect. Leave unselected.

8. Click OK and monitor the task in the Recent Tasks pane.

70

Lab 12 Managing Virtual Machines

9. Drag the cpubusy.vbs file to the Recycle Bin. To remove the cpubusy.vbs file, empty the

Recycle Bin (right-click the Recycle Bin icon and select Empty Recycle Bin).
10. Click Yes to confirm the file deletion and leave the virtual machine console open. 11. Return to the virtual machine console window and take another snapshot of this virtual machine

by clicking the Snapshot icon.

12

12. When prompted by the Take Virtual Machine Snapshot wizard, perform the following actions.

Field/Setting Name Description Snapshot the virtual machines memory Quiesce guest file system (Needs VMware Tools installed)

Action Type Without iometer and cpubusy. Type Deleted cpubusy.vbs. Click to deselect. Leave unselected.

13. Click OK and monitor the task in the Recent Tasks pane. 14. If ClassFiles-vSphere.iso is not already connected, connect ClassFiles-vSphere.iso

to your virtual machines CD-ROM drive:


a. In the icon bar of the virtual machine console window, click the Connect/disconnect the

CD/DVD devices of the virtual machine icon (the right-most active icon).
b. Select CD/DVD Drive 1 > Connect to ISO image on a datastore. c. Navigate to the software ISO location that you recorded in Preparing for the lab. d. Select the ISO image Classfiles-vSphere.iso and click OK. 15. View your virtual machine console. If autorun does not open the CD-ROM, use Windows

Explorer and go to the CD-ROM drive (D:).


16. Copy the cpubusy.vbs file from the CD-ROM drive (D:) to the virtual machines desktop.

Lab 12 Managing Virtual Machines

71

17. Disconnect from the Classfiles-vSphere.iso on the CD-ROM drive: a. Right-click the virtual machine in the inventory and select Edit Settings. b. In the Hardware list, select CD/DVD Drive 1. c. Select Client Device and click OK. 18. Return to the virtual machine console window and take another snapshot of this virtual machine

by clicking the Snapshot icon.

19. When prompted by the Take Virtual Machine Snapshot wizard, perform the following actions.

Field/Setting Name Description Snapshot the virtual machines memory Quiesce guest file system (Needs VMware Tools installed)

Action Type With cpubusy. Type Added cpubusy.vbs. Leave selected. Leave unselected.

20. Click OK and monitor the task in the Recent Tasks pane. 21. Click the Snapshot Manager icon in the virtual machine console.

You should see three snapshots. Leave the Snapshot Manager open.

72

Lab 12 Managing Virtual Machines

Task 5: Revert to a snapshot


In this task, you revert a virtual machine to an earlier snapshot. Students should do the steps in this task individually.
1. In the Snapshot Manager, select the snapshot named Without Iometer and Cpubusy and click

12

Go to.
2. Click Yes to confirm that you want to revert to Without Iometer and Cpubusy. 3. Click Close to close the Snapshot Manager. 4. Did the virtual machine power off?___________

Why?_____________________________________________________________________
ANSWER: Yes. Because the memory state was not preserved.

5. Start your virtual machine by clicking the green arrow in the virtual machine console window. 6. Log in to your virtual machine as user Administrator. Use the virtual machine Administrator

password that you recorded in Preparing for the lab.


7. Click the Snapshot Manager icon in the virtual machine console. You should see that the You

Are Here pointer has been placed below the snapshot named Without Iometer and Cpubusy.
8. Click Close to close the Snapshot Manager. 9. Do you see either iometer.exe or cpubusy.vbs on the desktop?___________________
ANSWER: No.

10. Click the Snapshot Manager icon in the virtual machine console. 11. In the Snapshot Manager, select the snapshot named With Cpubusy and click Go to. 12. Click Yes to confirm that you want to revert to With Cpubusy. 13. Click Close to close the Snapshot Manager. 14. Did the virtual machine power off?__________________________________________
ANSWER: No. Because the memory state was preserved.

15. Do you see cpubusy.vbs on the desktop?___________________


ANSWER: Yes.

16. Do you see iometer.exe on the desktop?___________________


ANSWER: No.

Lab 12 Managing Virtual Machines

73

Task 6: Delete an individual snapshot


In this task, you will delete an individual snapshot. Students should do the steps in this task individually.
1. Click the Snapshot Manager icon in the virtual machine console. You should see that the You

Are Here pointer has been placed below the snapshot named With Cpubusy.
2. In the Snapshot Manager, click the snapshot named Without Iometer and Cpubusy and click

Delete.
3. Click Yes to confirm that you want to delete Without Iometer and Cpubusy. 4. Click Close to close the Snapshot Manager. 5. Did the virtual machine power off?__________________________________________
ANSWER: No.

6. Do you see cpubusy.vbs on the desktop?___________________


ANSWER: Yes.

Task 7: Use the Delete All function in Snapshot Manager


In this task, you will delete all remaining snapshots and record the effect of this operation. Students should do the steps in this task individually.
1. Click the Snapshot Manager icon in the virtual machine console. You should see that the You

Are Here pointer has been placed below the snapshot named With Cpubusy.
2. In the Snapshot Manager, select the last snapshot in the list and click the Delete All button. 3. Click Yes to confirm that you want to delete all remaining snapshots. 4. Were all the remaining snapshots deleted from the Snapshot Manager?_______________.
ANSWER: Yes.

5. Click Close to closed the Snapshot Manager. 6. Do you see cpubusy.vbs on the desktop?_____.

Why?______________________________________________________________________.
ANSWER: Yes. Because all writes in the remaining snapshots were committed to the base disk.

7. Close the virtual machine console.

74

Lab 12 Managing Virtual Machines

Lab 13

Managing vApps
Objective: Perform vApp management tasks
In this lab, you will perform the following tasks:
1. Create a vApp. 2. Power on a vApp. 3. Remove a vApp.

13

Preparing for the lab


Record the following information: VMware vCenter Server system name vCenter Server Administrator password Virtual machine Administrator password Software ISO image location

Lab 13 Managing vApps

75

Task 1: Create a vApp


In this task, you will create a vSphere vApp that contains multiple virtual machines and define a boot order sequence. Students should do the steps in this task individually.
1. Select Home > Inventory > VMs and Templates. 2. Right-click <your_name>##-2 and select Power > Shut Down Guest. Click Yes to confirm the

shutdown.
3. Repeat step 2 to shut down <your_name>##-3. Wait until both virtual machines have been

powered off.
4. Right-click LabVMs and select New vApp. 5. When prompted by the New vApp wizard, perform the following actions.

Field/Setting vApp Name Destination for vApp Resource allocation Ready to Complete

Action Type <your_name>-vApp. Click Next. Select your ESXi host. Click Next. Leave the defaults. Click Next. Click Finish.

6. Verify that the vApp appears in the inventory. 7. Drag the virtual machine named <your_name>##-2 to your vApp. 8. Drag the virtual machine named <your_name>##-3 to your vApp. 9. Do you see <your_name>##-2 or <your_name>##-3 on the left side of the vSphere Client in the

VMs and Templates view? ________________


ANSWER: No. You see the vApp but not the virtual machines themselves.

76

Lab 13

Managing vApps

10. Select your vApp and click the Virtual Machines tab. Do you see <your_name>##-2 or

<your_name>##-3? ________________
ANSWER: Yes. In the VMs and Templates view, the virtual machines in a vApp are visible on the Virtual Machines tab.

11. Select Home > Inventory > Hosts and Clusters. 12. Expand your vApp. Do you see <your_name>##-2 or <your_name>##-3 on the left side of the

vSphere Client in the Hosts and Clusters view? ________________


ANSWER: Yes. You can see the vApp and the virtual machines that the vApp contains.

13

13. Select Home > Inventory > VMs and Templates. 14. Right-click your vApp and select Edit Settings. 15. Click the Start Order tab. 16. Select <your_name>##-2 and click the down arrow twice. <your_name>##-2 is placed in

group 2.
17. Verify that <your_name>##-3 is displayed first, in group 1. 18. Select <your_name>##-3 and change the value in the Startup sequence proceeds when field

from 120 to 20 (seconds).


19. Select <your_name>##-2 and change the value in the Startup sequence proceeds when field

from 120 to 20 (seconds).


20. Click OK.

Task 2: Power on a vApp


In this task, you will power on the vApp that you created.
1. Right-click your vApp and select Power On. 2. Monitor the tasks in the Recent Tasks pane. What did you observe? ________________
ANSWER: The startup pauses at 20 percent and moves to 40 percent when the second virtual machine begins to start up.

Lab 13 Managing vApps

77

Task 3: Remove a vApp


In this task, you will remove the vApp that you created.
1. Right-click your vApp and select Shut Down. Click Yes to confirm the shutdown. 2. Select Home > Inventory > Hosts and Clusters. 3. Expand your vApp. Drag <your_name>##-2 from your vApp to your host. 4. Repeat step 3 for <your_name>##-3. 5. Right-click your vApp and select Delete from Disk. 6. Click Yes to confirm the deletion. 7. Minimize, and leave the vSphere Client open for the next lab. 8. Using the VMware vSphere Web Client, reboot the vCenter Server Appliance. a. On the desktop of your Desktop system, double-click Google Chrome. b. In the Google Chrome browser, navigate to the URL https://

<VCVA_appliance_name>:5480.
c. Log in to your vCenter Server Appliance with the user name and password that you

recorded in Preparing for the lab.


d. At the top of the Google Chrome browser, click the System tab. e. Click Reboot. f. On the System Reboot confirmation, click Reboot.
NOTE

The appliance takes several minutes to reboot. The System Reboot dialog disappears after the reboot is near completion. This reboot is required to address the issue of time shift within a nested vSphere lab environment. This reboot is not required for any portion of vApp configuration within VMware vSphere.
Assuming that the student has followed directions correctly: The virtual machine named <your_name>##-1 has been deleted. The virtual machine named <your_name>##-2 has one virtual disk. Hard disk 1 is thin-provisioned and is a traditional-style (-flat.vmdk) virtual disk. The virtual machine named <your_name>##-3 has a thick eager-zeroed virtual disk. The virtual machine named <your_name>##-4 (formerly named Hot-Clone##) has been deleted. When students unregistered this virtual machine and then registered it, they were told to rename the virtual machine <your_name>##-5. The virtual machine named <your_name>##-5 (formerly named <your_name>##-4 and Hot-Clone##) has been deleted.

78

Lab 13

Managing vApps

Lab 14

Access Control
Objective: Manage user access permissions
In this lab, you will perform the following tasks:
1. Try to log in directly to the ESXi host. 2. Grant nonadministrator access to a user. 3. Explore the ESX Admins AD group.

:
14

Preparing for the lab


Record the following information: Your VMware vSphere ESXi host name Your domain user name (nonprivileged account) Your domain user password Your domain administrator name Your domain administrator password

Lab 14 Access Control

79

Task 1: Try to log in directly to the ESXi host


In this task, you will explore two scenarios that prevent a user from logging in directly to the ESXi host. Students should do the steps in this task individually.
1. Use the VMware vSphere Client to log in directly to your ESXi host. Use your

nonprivileged domain user name, which you recorded in Preparing for the lab. Type the incorrect password. Was the login successful?__________
ANSWER: No.

What error message did you receive, if any? ____________________________________


ANSWER: Cannot complete due to an incorrect user name or password

Why did the login fail?_____________________________________________________


ANSWER: The login failed because authentication failed (wrong password).

2. Use the vSphere Client to log in directly to your ESXi host with your nonprivileged domain

user name and password, which you recorded in Preparing for the lab. Type the correct password. Was the login successful?__________
ANSWER: No.

What error message did you receive, if any? ____________________________________


ANSWER: The vSphere Client could not connect to <host>. You do not have permission to log in to the server: <host>.

Why did the login fail?_____________________________________________________


ANSWER: The authentication succeeded (the user typed the correct user name and password) and the users identity was established. But the user is not a member of the ESX Admins AD group. And no rule has been created in vCenter Server to grant privileges to the user.

In this task, you were unable to log in with your nonprivileged domain user account whether or not you typed an incorrect or correct password. This behavior is expected. You will provide the correct access to this account so that the user can successfully log in.

80

Lab 14 Access Control

Task 2: Grant nonadministrator access to a user


In this task, you will grant a user read-only access.
1. Use the vSphere Client to log directly in to your ESXi host. Use your domain administrator

name and password, which you recorded in Preparing for the lab. When prompted that your ESXi host is being managed by a VMware vCenter Server instance, click OK.
2. Right-click your ESXi host. 3. Select Add Permission. 4. In the Assign Permissions wizard, click Add. 5. Set the domain to the AD domain that you recorded in Preparing for the lab. 6. Search for your nonprivileged domain user name, which you recorded in Preparing for the

lab. Select that user and click Add. Click OK.


7. In the Assigned Role pane, select Read-only.
TIP

14

If you wanted to grant a user administrator access, you could assign the Administrator role. In task 3 you will learn another way to grant administrator access.
8. Verify that the Propagate to Child Objects check box is selected. 9. Click OK. 10. Exit the vSphere Client (File > Exit). 11. Use the vSphere Client to log in directly to your ESXi host. Use your nonprivileged domain

user name and password, which you recorded in Preparing for the lab. Type the correct password. Was the login successful?__________
ANSWER: Yes.

Can this user change the power state of a virtual machine?__________


ANSWER: No.

Why or why not?__________


ANSWER: The user cannot change the power state of virtual machines because the user was granted only read-only access.

12. Exit the vSphere Client (File > Exit).

Lab 14 Access Control

81

Task 3: Explore the ESX Admins AD group


1. Use the vSphere Client to log in to your ESXi host. Use your domain administrator user name

and password, which you recorded in Preparing for the lab. Was the login successful?__________ Why or why not?__________________________________________________________
ANSWER: Yes, the login was successful because your domain administrator account is a member of the ESX Admins AD group.

2. Select Home > Administration > Roles. 3. In the Roles column, click Administrator.

What users and groups are assigned the Administrator role?


ANSWER: Users root, dcui, and vpxuser are assigned the Administrator role. The group ESX Admins (shown as <domain name>\esx^admins) is also assigned the Administrator role. Users who are members of the ESX Admins group can log in to the ESXi host with vSphere Client. TIP

Instead of assigning administrator role to individual accounts in the vSphere Client, you can add all of those users to the ESX Admins AD group.
4. Log out of the vSphere Client (File > Exit).

82

Lab 14 Access Control

Lab 15

User Permissions
Objective: Use a custom user role
In this lab, you will perform the following tasks:

15

1. Create a custom role in vCenter Server. 2. Assign permissions on vCenter Server inventory objects. 3. Verify permission usability.

Preparing for the lab


Record the following information: Team VMware vCenter Server system name Team vCenter Server root password Active Directory domain Your domain user name (nonprivileged account) Datastore for domain users

Lab 15 User Permissions

83

Task 1: Create a custom role in vCenter Server


In this task, you will create a custom user role. Students should do the steps in this task individually.
1. Use the VMware vSphere Client to log in to your team vCenter Server system as user root,

with the password that you recorded in Preparing for the lab.
2. Select Home > Administration > Roles. 3. Click Add Role. The Add New Role dialog box is displayed. 4. In Name, type VM Creator - <your_name>. 5. In the Privileges pane, select the following privileges.

Privilege category Datastore Network Resource Virtual machine > Configuration

Privilege name Allocate space Assign network Assign virtual machine to resource pool Add new disk Add or remove device Memory

Virtual machine > Interaction Virtual machine > Inventory

All privileges. Select Interaction to include all privileges in this subcategory. Create new

6. Click OK to add the role.

Task 2: Assign permissions on vCenter Server inventory objects


In this task, you will assign the VM Creator role (which you created in task 1) to a nonprivileged user account. This role grants a user the ability to create virtual machines. Students should do the steps in this task individually.
1. Select Home > Inventory > VMs and Templates. 2. Select your LabVMs folder. 3. Click the Permissions tab.

84

Lab 15

User Permissions

4. In the Permissions tab, right-click in the white space under the list of permissions. Select Add

Permission. The Assign Permissions dialog box is displayed.


5. Click Add. 6. From the drop-down menu in the Domain panel, select the AD domain that you recorded in

Preparing for the lab.


7. In the search field of the Users and Group panel, enter the user name of the nonprivileged

domain account that you recorded in Preparing for the lab. Do not include the AD domain in the entry. Click Search.
8. When the search completes, select the nonprivileged domain user name in the Users and

Groups panel and click Add.


9. Click OK to continue. 10. In the Assigned Role panel, click the VM Creator - <your_name> role. 11. Leave the Propagate to Child Objects check box selected and click OK. Verify that the

permission appears in the Permissions tab.


TIP

15

Notice that you assigned your custom role to a specific folder. In the steps that follow, you will assign the custom role to a specific host, datastore, and network. As a result, the user can create virtual machines, but only in the specified folder, host, datastore, and network. On the other hand, you can assign the role on an object higher in the vCenter Server inventory, such as the vCenter Server object itself. In this case, the user would be able to create virtual machines in any folder, host, datastore, and network.
12. Select Home > Inventory > Hosts and Clusters. 13. Select your VMware vSphere ESXi host in the inventory and click the Permissions tab. 14. Add the permission (as in steps 411). 15. Select Home > Inventory > Datastores and Datastore Clusters. 16. Select the datastore for domain users that you recorded in Preparing for the lab and click the

Permissions tab.
17. Add the permission (as in steps 411). 18. Select Home > Inventory > Networking. 19. Select the Production network and click the Permissions tab. 20. Add the permission (as in steps 411).

Lab 15 User Permissions

85

Task 3: Verify permission usability


In this task, you will verify that the nonprivileged domain user account can create a virtual machine on the objects on which you defined the permission. Students should do the steps in this task individually.
1. In the lower right corner of the vSphere Client, notice that you are logged in as root. 2. Minimize this instance of the vSphere Client. 3. Start another instance of the vSphere Client. In this instance, log in to your vCenter Server

system with the nonprivileged domain user name and password that you recorded in Preparing for the lab.
4. In the lower right corner of the vSphere Client, notice that you are logged in as the

nonprivileged domain user.


5. Select Home > Inventory > VMs and Templates. LabVMs is the only folder that you see. 6. Right-click your LabVMs folder and select New Virtual Machine. 7. When prompted by the Create New Virtual Machine wizard, perform the following actions.

Field/Setting Virtual Machine Configuration Name Inventory Location Host/Cluster Datastore

Action Select Custom. Type <your_name>-Temp, where <your_name> is your first name (for example, Brian-Temp). Your LabVMs folder is selected for you. Click Next. Select your ESXi host. Only your ESXi host is listed. Click Next. Select the datastore for domain users that you recorded in Preparing for the lab. The other datastores are not displayed in the list. Click Next. Leave the default. Click Next. Leave the defaults. Click Next. Leave the defaults. Click Next. Select MB from the drop-down menu and type 4. Click Next.
Lab 15 User Permissions

Virtual Machine Version Guest Operating System CPUs Memory

86

Field/Setting Network

Action Verify that Production is the only option on the dropdown menu for NIC 1. Leave all other options at their default settings. Click Next. Leave the default. Click Next. Notice the options that are not available to you. Leave the default. Click Next. In Capacity, type 2 and leave the default at GB. Select Thin Provision. Leave the default setting for Location and click Next.

SCSI Controller Select a Disk Disk Size

Advanced Options Ready to Complete

Leave the defaults and Click Next. Click Finish.

15

8. Monitor the progress of the task in the Recent Tasks pane.

As you proceeded through the wizard, did you notice that only those inventory objects on which you assigned permissions were available for the user to select?__________
ANSWER: Yes. Students should see that only the LabVMs folder, their ESXi host, their datastore, and the ProdVMs network were available.

9. After the task is completed, verify that the virtual machine was created successfully. 10. Right-click your virtual machine in the inventory. Familiarize yourself with the options that the

role does not permit. For example, the Delete from Disk option is unavailable.
11. Exit the instance of the vSphere Client where you are logged in as the domain user. 12. Display the vSphere Client instance where you are logged in as Administrator. 13. Select Home > Inventory > Hosts and Clusters. 14. Right-click the virtual machine <your_name>-Temp and select Delete from Disk. Click Yes to

confirm deletion.
15. Exit the vSphere Client.
Task 5, step 6: If you are teaching the class in the VDC, you might encounter latency as user and group information is retrieved from AD. Be prepared to tell your students to be patient. AD response time improves with subsequent queries.

Lab 15 User Permissions

87

88

Lab 15

User Permissions

Lab 16

Resource Pools
Objective: Create and use resource pools on an ESXi host
In this lab, you will perform the following tasks:
1. Create CPU contention. 2. Create a resource pool named Fin-Test.

16

3. Create a resource pool named Fin-Prod. 4. Verify resource pool functionality.

Preparing for the lab


Record the following information: Team VMware vCenter Server system name Team vCenter Server root password

Lab 16 Resource Pools

89

Task 1: Create CPU contention


In this task, you will run the cpubusy.vbs script in each virtual machine to create a heavy CPU load, resulting in contention for CPU cycles. Students should do the steps in this task individually.
1. If the VMware vSphere Client is not already active, use it to log in to your team

vCenter Server system. Log in as user root, with the password that you recorded in Preparing for the lab.
2. Select Home > Inventory > VMs and Templates. 3. Open a console to virtual machines <your_name>##-2 and <your_name>##-3 and log in as

Administrator.
4. In each virtual machine, start an instance of the cpubusy.vbs script (on the virtual machines

desktop) by right-clicking the script and selecting Open with Command Prompt. This script runs continuously. Wait one to two minutes for it to stabilize. This script repeatedly does floating-point computations. The script also displays the duration (wall-clock time) of a computation. Example:
I did three million sines in 2 seconds!

Use the number of seconds reported as a performance estimate. You should find that the program runs at approximately the same rate in each virtual machine.
5. In the inventory view, right-click the <your_name>##-2 virtual machine and select Edit

Settings.
6. In the virtual machine Properties dialog box, click the Resources tab. 7. Click Advanced CPU. 8. In the Scheduling Affinity pane, type 1 in the space provided. The virtual machine will run

only on processor 1. Click OK.


CAUTION

CPU affinity is used mainly to create CPU contention for training purposes. Use of this feature in a production environment is strongly discouraged.
9. Repeat steps 58 to set the scheduling affinity for the other virtual machine, <your_name>##-3.

Force the virtual machine to use the same processor as the first virtual machine (processor 1). Allow cpubusy.vbs to run for a minute or two. Use the number of seconds reported as a performance estimate. You should find that the program runs at approximately the same rate in each virtual machine.

90

Lab 16 Resource Pools

Task 2: Create a resource pool named Fin-Test


In this task, you will create a resource pool named Fin-Test. Students should do the steps in this task individually.
1. Select Home > Inventory > Hosts and Clusters. 2. Right-click your VMware vSphere ESXi host and select New Resource Pool. 3. Perform the following actions to assign properties to the resource pool.

Resource pool property Name CPU Resource Shares All other settings

Action Type Fin-Test. Select Low from the drop-down menu. Leave the defaults.

4. Click OK.

Task 3: Create a resource pool named Fin-Prod


In this task, you will create a resource pool named Fin-Prod. Students should do the steps in this task individually.
1. Select Home > Inventory > Hosts and Clusters. 2. Right-click your ESXi host in the inventory and select New Resource Pool. 3. Perform the following actions to assign properties to the resource pool.

16

Resource pool property Name CPU Resource Shares All other settings

Action Type Fin-Prod. Select High from the drop-down menu. Leave the default.

4. Click OK.

Lab 16 Resource Pools

91

Task 4: Verify resource pool functionality


In this task, you will verify that each resource pool provides the correct amount of CPU to each virtual machine when CPU contention occurs. Students should do the steps in this task individually.
1. Select Fin-Test in the inventory and click the Summary tab. View the CPU Resource Settings

panel. Record the number of shares for this resource pool: __________________
ANSWER: 2,000

2. Select Fin-Prod and click the Summary tab. View the Resource Settings panel. Record the

number of shares for this resource pool: __________________


ANSWER: 8,000

3. Drag <your_name>##-2 to the Fin-Prod resource pool. 4. Drag <your_name>##-3 to the Fin-Test resource pool. 5. View the results of cpubusy.vbs in each virtual machine console.

Is there a difference in performance between virtual machines? Why or why not?


ANSWER: Yes. The Fin-Test resource pool (and thus the virtual machine in it) has only one-fourth of the CPU shares that the Fin-Prod resource pool has. So the virtual machine in the Fin-Test resource pool will receive only one-fourth of the CPU cycles of the logical CPU to which the virtual machines are pinned. Note: In the past, bugs have required that the virtual machines be powered off before being dragged to the resource pool.

6. Change CPU shares of the Fin-Test resource pool from Low to Normal. Right-click the Fin-

Test resource pool in the inventory and click Edit Settings.


7. Click Normal from the drop-down menu for CPU shares. Leave CPU shares at High for the

Fin-Prod resource pool.


8. Run the scripts for a few seconds and compare the performance of the script in each virtual

machine. If CPU contention occurs, you should notice a difference in performance between the virtual machines.
9. Using the process from steps 6 and 7, change CPU shares of the Fin-Prod resource pool from

High to Normal.
10. Stop the cpubusy.vbs scripts in each virtual machine. Press Ctrl+C in each cpubusy window. 11. Minimize the virtual machine consoles. You will use them in the next lab.

Leave the vSphere Client open for the next lab.

92

Lab 16 Resource Pools

Lab 17

Monitoring Virtual Machine Performance :


Objective: See how CPU workload is reflected by system monitoring tools
In this lab, you will perform the following tasks:
1. Create CPU activity. 2. Use vSphere Web Client to monitor CPU utilization. 3. Undo changes made to your virtual machines.

Preparing for the lab


Record the following information: Team VMware vCenter Server system name Team vCenter Server root password VMware vSphere Web Client URL

17

Lab 17 Monitoring Virtual Machine Performance

93

Task 1: Create CPU activity


NOTE

For this lab, you use the vSphere Web Client. All operations performed are the same whether using the VMware vSphere Client or the vSphere Web Client unless otherwise noted. In this task, you will run the cpubusy.vbs script in each virtual machine to create a heavy CPU load. Students should do the steps in this task individually.
1. Use a web browser to connect to the vSphere Web Client URL that you recorded in Preparing

for the lab. If you receive a certificate error, select to continue to the web site. Log in as user root with the team vCenter Server root password that you recorded in Preparing for the lab.
NOTE

Upon connecting to vCenter Server using the vSphere Web Client, you might receive an error indicating that there are vCenter Server instances with expiring licenses in your inventory. Close this message.
2. In the left navigation pane, select vCenter > VMs and Templates. Expand the view under your

vCenter Server to show your virtual machines.


NOTE

If you are using the vSphere Client, select Home > Inventory > VMs and Templates.
3. Maximize the consoles to the virtual machines <your_name>##-2 and <your_name>##-3 and

log in as Administrator. If you receive a certificate error, select to continue to the web site.
4. In each virtual machine, start an instance of the cpubusy.vbs script (on the virtual machines

desktop) by right-clicking the script and selecting Open with Command Prompt.

Task 2: Use vSphere Web Client to monitor CPU utilization


In this task, you will modify and monitor the CPU performance graphs. Students should do the steps in this task individually.
1. Click <your_name>##-2 in the inventory. Select the Monitor tab and click the Performance

tab. The Overview view displays by default.


NOTE

If you are using the vSphere Client, the Overview view will display as an unreachable web site because the web client is not installed.
2. Click the Advanced button. By default, the Advanced panel shows CPU usage in real time. 3. Click the Chart Options link. If necessary, unpin the right-hand column to make the link

visible. The Customize Performance Chart dialog box is displayed.

94

Lab 17

Monitoring Virtual Machine Performance

4. In the Chart Options pane, select CPU > Real-time. 5. In the Objects pane on the right, deselect the check box with the virtual machines name. 6. In the Counters pane, click None to deselect all selected counters. 7. Select the Used and Ready counters.

8. Click OK. The chart is displayed. 9. Open a new tab in your web browser to open a second instance of the vSphere Web Client. You

are not required to re-enter your connection credentials.

17

10. Select <your_name>##-3 in the inventory. Select the Monitor tab and click the Performance

tab.
NOTE

If you are using the vSphere Client, the Overview view will display as an unreachable web site because the web client is not installed.
11. Configure the CPU Performance graph for <your_name>##-3 and select the same chart options

as you did in steps 28.


12. Each web browser window now shows the configured chart for one of your virtual machines. 13. In the web browser window for each virtual machine, point to the end of the line graph to view

the current CPU ready value.

Lab 17 Monitoring Virtual Machine Performance

95

14. Record the current CPU ready value for each virtual machine.

Virtual machine name <your_name>##-2 <your_name>##-3

Latest CPU ready value

Leave the Performance Chart windows open.


15. Stop the cpubusy.vbs scripts in each virtual machine. Press Ctrl+C in each cpubusy window.
CAUTION

Make sure that this script is stopped in each virtual machine. If this script is still running, it will affect the next lab.
16. In the web browser window for each virtual machine, point to the end of the line graph to view

the current CPU ready value.


TIP

Wait for the chart to update. Performance charts update every 20 seconds. Did the Ready value change?_________ Why or why not?_______________________________________________________________
ANSWER: Yes, the Ready value should decrease significantly because the CPU contention that was created by running the cpubusy.vbs script was terminated.

Task 3: Undo changes made to your virtual machines


In this task, you will undo the changes made to each virtual machine. Students should do the steps in this task individually.
1. Close the web browser window for <your_name>##-3. 2. Close the virtual machine consoles. 3. Remove the scheduling affinity value from <your_name>##-2: a. Right-click the <your_name>##-2 virtual machine in the inventory and select Edit Settings. b. Click the Virtual Hardware tab if its not selected. c. Open the pulldown menu next to CPU and delete the value 1 from the field in the

Scheduling Affinity pane.


d. Click OK. 4. Repeat step 3 on <your_name)##-3. Close the vSphere Web Client when finished. 96 Lab 17 Monitoring Virtual Machine Performance

Lab 18

Using Alarms
Objective: Demonstrate the vCenter Server alarm feature
In this lab, you will perform the following tasks:
1. Create a virtual machine alarm that monitors for a condition. 2. Create a virtual machine alarm that monitors for an event. 3. Trigger virtual machine alarms and acknowledge them. 4. Disable virtual machine alarms.

Preparing for the lab


Record the following information: Team VMware vCenter Server system name Team vCenter Server root password

18

Lab 18 Using Alarms

97

Task 1: Create a virtual machine alarm that monitors for a condition


In this task, will you create a virtual machine alarm that monitors for a specific condition. Students should do the steps in this task individually.
1. If the VMware vSphere Client is not already active, use it to log in to your team vCenter

Server system. Log in as user root, with the password that you recorded in Preparing for the lab.
2. Select Home > Inventory > Hosts and Clusters. 3. Select the <your_name>##-2 virtual machine in the inventory and click the Alarms tab. 4. Click Definitions. Notice that the virtual machine inherited alarms defined at the vCenter

Server level.
5. Right-click anywhere to the right of the list of alarms and select New Alarm. The Alarm

Settings dialog box is displayed.


TIP

Because you are creating an alarm for the <your_name>##-2 virtual machine, this alarm will monitor only that virtual machine. If you set the alarm on an object higher in the vCenter Server inventory, the alarm will apply to multiple virtual machines. For example, if you created the alarm on the vCenter Server object itself, the alarm would apply to all virtual machines.
6. In the General tab, perform the following actions.

Field/Setting Alarm name Description Alarm Type Monitor Enable this alarm

Action Type VM CPU Usage - <your_name>. Leave blank. Select Virtual Machine and select Monitor for specific conditions or state, for example, CPU usage, power state. Leave selected.

7. Click the Triggers tab and click Add.

98

Lab 18

Using Alarms

8. Perform the following actions to add a trigger.

Trigger setting Trigger Type Condition Warning Condition Length Alert Condition Length

Action Select VM CPU Usage (%). Select Is above. Double-click the current value and type 25. Select for 30 sec from the drop-down menu. Type 50. Leave the default (5 minutes).

9. Leave Trigger if any of the conditions are satisfied selected. 10. Do not change anything in the Reporting tab. 11. Click the Actions tab. 12. Click Add. 13. Configure the following action settings.

Action setting Action

Action Click Send a notification email below the Action header to activate the drop-down menu and select Suspend VM from the list. Leave as is. (This column does not apply to this action.) Select Once from the list. Change the setting from Once to no value. Leave blank. Leave blank.

Configuration Green to Yellow Yellow to Red Red to Yellow Yellow to Green

18

14. Click OK. 15. Verify that your alarm is in the list of alarms. Your alarm should be at the end of the list. Lab 18 Using Alarms 99

Task 2: Create a virtual machine alarm that monitors for an event


In this task, you will create an alarm that responds to a specific event. Students should do the steps in this task individually.
1. Select the Training datacenter in the inventory and click the Alarms tab. 2. Click Definitions. Right-click anywhere to the right of the list of alarms and select New Alarm.

The Alarm Settings dialog box is displayed.


3. In the General tab, perform the following actions.

Field/Setting Alarm name Description Alarm Type Monitor

Action Type VM Suspended - <your_name>. Leave blank. Select Virtual Machines and select Monitor for specific events occurring on this object, for example, VM powered On. Leave selected.

Enable this alarm

4. Click the Triggers tab. 5. Click Add. 6. Double-click the trigger in the Event column to display a drop-down menu with a list of

triggers. Perform the following actions. Trigger setting Event Status Action Select VM suspended. Keep the default.

7. In the Conditions column, click the Advanced link. The Trigger Conditions dialog box is

displayed.
8. Click Add. 9. In the Argument column, select Change tag and select VM name from the list. 10. In the Operator column, leave equal to selected.

100

Lab 18

Using Alarms

11. Click the area under the Value column. Type <your_name>##-2 as the virtual machine name.

<your_name> is your first name, and ## is the number of your VMware vSphere ESXi host. The virtual machine name is case-sensitive.
12. Click OK. 13. Without making changes in either the Reporting tab or the Actions tab, click OK. Verify that

your alarm is in the list of alarms. Your alarm should be at the end of the list.

Task 3: Trigger virtual machine alarms and acknowledge them


In this task, you will trigger both alarms, view the triggered alarms, and acknowledge each alarm. Students should do the steps in this task individually.
1. Click the <your_name>##-2 virtual machine in the inventory and click the Alarms tab. Click

the Triggered Alarms button. Triggered alarms are displayed in this pane.
2. In the inventory, right-click the <your_name>##-2 virtual machine and select Open Console.

Position the virtual machine console so that you can see both the console and the Triggered Alarms pane at the same time.
3. On the virtual machines desktop, right-click cpubusy.vbs and select Open with Command Prompt. This action starts one instance of cpubusy.vbs. Wait at least 30 seconds before the

alarm is triggered. When the virtual machine is suspended, the alarm has been triggered.
NOTE

Your VM CPU Usage alarm appears only briefly in the Triggered Alarms pane. So you might not see this alarm if you are not viewing the pane at the time the alarm was triggered. But you should see your VM Suspended alarm after the virtual machine is suspended.
4. Monitor the Recent Tasks pane for the Suspend Virtual Machine task. 5. Verify that your VM Suspended alarm is triggered. You should see an entry for this alarm in the

Triggered Alarms pane. The Acknowledged and Acknowledged By fields are blank.
6. Right-click your VM Suspended alarm and select Acknowledge Alarm. The Acknowledged

and Acknowledged By fields are now populated.


7. Power on the suspended virtual machine by right-clicking the virtual machine in the inventory

18

and selecting Power > Power On.


8. In the virtual machine console, press Ctrl+C in the command window to stop cpubusy.vbs. 9. Close the virtual machine console. 10. In the Alarms tab, right-click your VM Suspended alarm and select Clear. In the inventory,

verify that the red alert icon is removed from the virtual machine.

Lab 18 Using Alarms

101

Task 4: Disable virtual machine alarms


In this task, you will disable your VM Suspended alarm and your VM CPU Usage alarm. Students should do the steps in this task individually.
1. Disable your VM CPU Usage alarm: a. Select the <your_name>##-2 virtual machine in the inventory and click the Alarms tab. b. Click Definitions. c. Right-click your VM CPU Usage alarm and select Edit Settings. d. In the General tab, deselect the Enable this alarm check box and click OK. 2. Disable your VM Suspended alarm: a. Select the Training datacenter in the inventory and click the Alarms tab. b. Click Definitions. c. Find your VM Suspended alarm in the list and right-click it. Select Edit Settings. d. In the General tab, deselect the Enable this alarm check box and click OK.

Leave the vSphere Client open for the next lab.

102

Lab 18

Using Alarms

Lab 19

Using vSphere High Availability


Objective: Demonstrate vSphere HA functionality
In this lab, you will perform the following tasks:
1. Create a cluster enabled for vSphere HA. 2. Add your ESXi host to a cluster. 3. Test vSphere HA functionality. 4. Determine vSphere HA cluster resource usage. 5. Manage vSphere HA slot size. 6. Configure a vSphere HA cluster with strict admission control. 7. Prepare for upcoming labs.

Preparing for the lab


Record the following information: Team VMware vCenter Server system name Team vCenter Server root password VMware vSphere ESXi host to partner with Memory reservation (MB)

19

Lab 19 Using vSphere High Availability

103

Task 1: Create a cluster enabled for vSphere HA


In this task, you will create a cluster enabled for VMware vSphere High Availability. Perform this task as a team. Student A should do the steps in this task.
1. If the VMware vSphere Client is not already active, use it to log in to your team vCenter

Server system. Log in as user root, with the password that you recorded in Preparing for the lab.
2. Select Home > Inventory > Hosts and Clusters. 3. In the inventory, right-click the Training datacenter and click New Cluster. 4. When prompted by the New Cluster wizard, perform the following actions.

Field/Setting Name Cluster Features Host Monitoring Status Admission Control Admission Control Policy Cluster Default Settings VM Monitoring Status Default Cluster Settings VMware EVC Virtual Machine Swapfile Location Ready to Complete

Action Type Lab Cluster. Click Turn on vSphere HA and click Next. Leave default selection. Leave default selection. Click Percentage of cluster resources reserved as failover spare capacity and click Next. Leave default selections and click Next. Leave default selection. Leave default selection and click Next. Leave default selection and click Next. Leave default selection and click Next. Click Finish.

5. Monitor the Recent Tasks pane. A cluster is being created.

104

Lab 19 Using vSphere High Availability

Task 2: Add your ESXi host to a cluster


In this task, you will add your ESXi host to the lab cluster that you created in task 1. Students should do the steps in this task individually.
1. Expand your Lab Servers folder inventory object and select your ESXi host. 2. Drag your ESXi host to the Lab Cluster inventory object. 3. Click Yes when the warning is displayed. The warning alerts you that VMware vSphere

Distributed Resource Scheduler (DRS) is not yet enabled and that your existing resource pools will be collapsed into the cluster root resource pool.
4. Monitor the Recent Tasks pane and wait for the Configuring vSphere HA task to complete. 5. After vSphere HA is enabled, select the Lab Cluster inventory object and click the Summary

tab. The vSphere HA pane is displayed.


6. Click the Cluster Status link. 7. Review the content on each tab and answer the following questions: a. Which host is the master?_______________________________.
ANSWER: The answer depends on which host wins the election.

b. Does the number of protected virtual machines match the number of virtual machines in the

cluster?___________.
ANSWER: The number of virtual machines protected by vSphere HA varies from one team to another. The number depends on how many virtual machines the teams have created and how many of those virtual machines are powered on.

c. How many datastores will be used for heartbeating? ________________.


ANSWER: Both shared datastores are shown in the heartbest because both have live virtual machines.

8. Click OK to close the vSphere HA Cluster Status window. 9. Click the Configuration Issues link and review the errors that are listed.
TIP

The errors indicate that the ESXi hosts in the cluster have no management network redundancy. That is, each ESXi host has a single management network port configured for the cluster. vSphere HA still works if an ESXi host is configured with one management network port, but a second management network port is necessary for redundancy. For this lab, no action is necessary.
10. Click Close.

19

Lab 19 Using vSphere High Availability

105

Task 3: Test vSphere HA functionality


In this task, will you verify that vSphere HA works properly. Do this task as a team. Student B should do the steps in this task.
1. In the inventory, select the master ESXi host and click the Virtual Machines tab. Write the

name of one or more powered on virtual machines on the master host: ________________________
2. Simulate a host failure by rebooting one of the hosts in the cluster:
CAUTION

Make sure that you reboot the system and that you do not shut down the system.
a. Right-click the master ESXi host that you recorded in task 2, step 7a, and click Reboot. b. When a message warns you that your host is not in maintenance mode, click Yes to reboot. c. Type Testing vSphere HA as the reason for rebooting and click OK. 3. Select Lab Cluster in the inventory and click the Tasks & Events tab. 4. Click Events to display the Events view. 5. From the drop-down menu, select Show Cluster Entries to monitor the events for your

vSphere HA cluster. The cluster entries are sorted by time. Notice the entries that vSphere HA made when the host failure was detected.

NOTE

The initial messages from the hosts might indicate failures. These messages are indicative that the virtual machines on the downed host have failed. It will take 1 to 2 minutes for the virtual machines to successfully migrate to the new host.

106

Lab 19 Using vSphere High Availability

6. Select the running ESXi host in the cluster and click the Virtual Machines tab. The virtual

machines that were running on the original master ESXi host should now be running on the remaining host in the cluster.
7. Monitor the vCenter Server inventory until you see that the original master ESXi host is

available.
8. Click the Lab Cluster inventory object. 9. Click the Summary tab. 10. Click the Cluster Status link. 11. Compare the answer in task 2, step 7a. Is there a different master host?____________.
ANSWER: Yes. The slave host should have been elected the master host.

12. Click OK to close the cluster status dialog box.

Task 4: Determine vSphere HA cluster resource usage


In this task, you will record the information found on the Resource Allocation tab for Lab Cluster and answer questions based on that information. Do this task as a cluster team. Student B should do the steps in this task.
1. Select Home > Inventory > Hosts and Clusters. 2. Select Lab Cluster in the inventory and click the Resource Allocation tab. Your view should

look like the screenshot.

19

Lab 19 Using vSphere High Availability

107

3. Record the following information:

CPU total capacity (MHz) for the cluster: ____________________ CPU reserved capacity (MHz) for the cluster: _____________________ CPU available capacity (MHz) for the cluster: ___________________ Determine which virtual machine in the inventory has the highest CPU requirement. Note the number of virtual CPUs (vCPUs) and CPU speed of the virtual machine: ___________________
TIP

One way to determine these values is to view each virtual machines Summary tab. View how many vCPUs the virtual machine has. Then view the Summary tab of the ESXi host on which your virtual machines are located. View the speed of the hosts CPU. The speed of the physical CPU determines the speed of the vCPU. Memory total capacity (MB) for the cluster: ____________________ Memory reserved capacity (MB) for the cluster: _____________________ Memory available capacity (MB) for the cluster: ___________________ Determine which virtual machine has the highest memory requirement. Write the memory size of the virtual machine: ___________________
TIP

One way to determine these values is to view each virtual machines Summary tab to view the memory size of the virtual machine.
4. Based on the CPU numbers, how many virtual machines can this cluster support based on the

available CPU capacity (assuming no overhead)? _________________________


5. Based on the memory numbers, how many virtual machines can this cluster support based on

the available memory capacity (assuming no overhead)? _________________________


6. If these two numbers are different, what must you do to your cluster resources to get to the

higher number?
ANSWER: Increase the amount of the restricting resource and decrease the value of CPU or memory reservation for each virtual machine, if it is set.

108

Lab 19 Using vSphere High Availability

Task 5: Manage vSphere HA slot size


In this task, you will experiment with ways to control slot allocation in a vSphere High Availability cluster. The number of virtual machines that can be started in a cluster depends on how many slots are available. Do this task as a cluster team. Student A should do the steps in this task.
1. Right-click Lab Cluster in the inventory and select Edit Settings. 2. Select vSphere HA. 3. In the Admission Control Policy pane, ensure that the Host failures the cluster tolerates

policy is selected.
4. Click OK. 5. Select Lab Cluster in the inventory and click the Summary tab. 6. View slot information for this cluster: a. In the vSphere HA panel, click the Advanced Runtime Info link to view the slot

information for this cluster. How much CPU, virtual CPU space, and RAM does your default slot require? ______________________________________________________________
b. Click OK to close the window. 7. Set the CPU reservation on the virtual machine <your_name>##-3: a. Right-click <your_name>##-3 in the inventory and select Edit Settings. b. Click the Resources tab. The CPU setting is selected. c. Set the Reservation field to 512MHz. d. Click OK to commit the change. 8. View slot information for this cluster: a. In the Summary tab of the cluster, click the Advanced Runtime Info link.

Did changing the reservation change the slot size in comparison with the value that you recorded in step 6? __________ How much CPU, virtual CPU space, and RAM does your slot require now? ______________________________________________________________
b. Click OK to close the window.

19

Lab 19 Using vSphere High Availability

109

9. Use the advanced vSphere HA settings to enforce a slot size: a. Right-click Lab Cluster in the inventory and select Edit Settings. b. Select vSphere HA from the list and click Advanced Options. c. In the Advanced Options (vSphere HA) window, enter the following option-value pair.

Option das.slotCpuInMHz

Value 300

d. Click OK to close the Advanced Options (vSphere HA) window. e. Click OK to commit the changes. 10. View slot information for this cluster: a. In the Summary tab of the cluster, click the Advanced Runtime Info link. Compare the

current value with what you recorded in step 10. How much CPU, virtual CPU space, and RAM does your slot require now? ______________________________________________________________
ANSWER: The Slot size CPU value should now show 300MHz.

b. Click OK to dismiss the window. 11. Remove the advanced vSphere HA setting: a. Right-click Lab Cluster in the inventory and select Edit Settings. b. Select vSphere HA from the list and click Advanced Options. c. Select das.slotCpuInMHz and delete the entry. d. Click OK to close the Advanced Options (vSphere HA) window. e. Click OK to commit your changes. 12. Remove the CPU reservation on <your_name>##-3: a. Right-click <your_name>##-3 in the inventory and select Edit Settings. b. Click the Resources tab. The CPU setting is selected. c. Change the CPU reservation to 0 (MHz). d. Click OK to commit the change.

110

Lab 19 Using vSphere High Availability

Task 6: Configure a vSphere HA cluster with strict admission control


In this task, you will assign memory reservations to restrict Lab Cluster to have only four slots cluster wide. Lab Cluster will have two slots per ESXi host. Do this task as a cluster team. Student B should do the steps in this task. In task 5, when you configured your cluster with Host failures the cluster tolerates, you instructed vSphere HA to calculate slots. vSphere HA calculated space for a virtual machine to run, based on the largest CPU and memory allocation across all virtual machines. In this task, you will learn how strict admission control works.
1. Select Lab Cluster in the inventory and click the Virtual Machines tab. Shut down all virtual

machines.
2. After all virtual machines are powered off, click the Resource Allocation tab. 3. Identify the total memory capacity and divide it by the number of ESXi hosts in the cluster. The

result is the usable memory per ESXi host. For example, if you have two ESXi hosts in your cluster and the total capacity for memory is 3,410MB, then 3,410 / 2 = 1,705.

NOTE

The value for Total Capacity that you see in this step might differ from what you see in the screenshot. How much available memory is there per ESXi host? ____________________ The virtual machines have no memory reservations, so why is less memory available in the cluster than in the total memory installed in the ESXi hosts? ________________________________________________________________________
ANSWER: Because the cluster is configured to tolerate the loss of one of the two hosts, and there is overhead to run ESXi itself.

4. Assign to each virtual machine <your_name>-##-2, the memory reservation 256MB. a. Right-click each <your_name>##-2 virtual machine listed in the Resource Allocation tab

19

and select Edit Resource Settings.


b. Set the memory reservation to 256MB. c. Click OK to commit the changes. Lab 19 Using vSphere High Availability 111

5. Before powering on virtual machines, click the Lab Cluster Summary tab and click Advanced

Runtime Info. What is the total number of slots in the cluster? ____________________ Why is the vSphere Client reporting that many slots? ____________________
ANSWER: The vSphere Client reports N/A for the total number of slots because no virtual machines have been powered on yet. The slot size calculation considers only virtual machines that are powered on.

6. Click OK to close the Advanced Runtime Info window. 7. Right-click the <student_A_name>##-2 virtual machine and select Power > Power On. 8. To see the effect that powering on this virtual machine has on your cluster, click the Lab Cluster

Summary tab and click Advanced Runtime Info. Record the values that you observe: Total slots: ____________________ Used slots: ____________________ Available slots: ____________________ Failover slots: ____________________
ANSWER: There should be four total slots (two per host in the cluster): one used slot, one available slot, and two failover slots.

Why is the value for Failover slots only half the number of Total slots? __________________
ANSWER: Because you must reserve half of the slots to be able to tolerate the failure of one host in the cluster.

Record the values that you observe: CPU slot size (MHz): ____________________ Memory slot size (MB): ____________________ Why does the memory slot size not match the value you recorded in Preparing for the lab? __________________________________________________________________________
ANSWER: Because unlike the CPU slot size calculation, which is based solely on the largest CPU reservation, the calculation for memory slot size is based on the largest memory reservation, plus memory overhead.

112

Lab 19 Using vSphere High Availability

9. Click OK to close the window. 10. In the inventory, right-click the <student_A_name>##-3 virtual machine and select Power >

Power On.
11. Click Advanced Runtime Info to see the number of available slots change.

How many slots are available now and why? ____________________


ANSWER: Zero slots are available because the cluster only has four slots. Of those slots, only two slots were originally available because you had to reserve two failover slots. You have used both of the two available slots.

12. Right-click the <student_B_name>##-2 virtual machine and select Power > Power On.

Was your virtual machine allowed to power on? Why or why not?
ANSWER: The virtual machine was not allowed to power on, because the cluster has no available slots.

If a cluster has N total slots, does that mean you can power on N virtual machines? ____________________
ANSWER: No. Of those N total slots, some will be failover slots. The number of virtual machines that you can run is necessarily less than the number of slots. For example, in a two-host cluster that tolerates the failure of one host, only N/2 slots are available.

Task 7: Prepare for upcoming labs


In this task, you remove the Lab Servers folder, which is no longer needed. Then you reconfigure your cluster for upcoming labs by removing the memory reservations that you set up previously and by disabling admission control. Do this task as a cluster team. Student A should do the steps in this task.
1. Right-click the Lab Servers folder inventory object and click Remove. 2. Click Yes to confirm the operation. 3. Select Lab Cluster in the inventory. 4. Click the Resource Allocation tab. 5. Click the Memory button to enter Memory view. 6. Remove the virtual machine memory reservation for each of the virtual machines: a. Select a virtual machine that has a memory reservation. b. Select the memory reservation value (for example, 256) and type 0. Press Enter. c. Select the next virtual machine. Remove the reservation as you did in step b.

19

Lab 19 Using vSphere High Availability

113

7. Edit the settings of the cluster to allow the number of running virtual machines to exceed the

failover capacity of the cluster:


a. In the inventory, right-click Lab Cluster and select Edit Settings. b. In the left pane, select vSphere HA. c. In the Admission Control panel, select Disable: Allow VM power on operations that

violate availability constraints.


d. Click OK to commit your changes. 8. Keep the vSphere Client open for the next lab.
Task 5, step 6: If the Advanced Runtime Info link is missing, verify that Host Failures the Cluster Supports is selected. It is possible for both students to perform this task simultaneously, but the faster student must wait for the slower student to catch up before performing step 7. Task 7, step 8a: CPU should now show 512MHz. vSphere HA will evaluate all virtual machines to determine the highest reservations for CPU and memory, and base the slot size on that. Task 6, step 3: The same calculation can be applied to the total amount of CPU capacity: Total CPU capacity/Number of ESXi hosts in the cluster = Usable CPU cycles per host. Task 6, step 4: All training environments are assumed to have 4GB of RAM per ESXi host. If this is not the case, you might have to instruct your students to use a different value for the memory reservation. For example, a cluster that has a total memory capacity of 18,456MB has 9,228MB of memory capacity per ESXi host. To force creation of four slots in a cluster that tolerates only one host failure, you would have to assign a memory reservation of 2,048MB RAM to four virtual machines. Task 6, step 8: Note regarding the question Why does the memory slot size not match the value you recorded in Preparing for the lab?: In the Advanced Runtime Info window, be aware that the memory value in the Slot size field can fluctuate while the virtual machine is running. You might see this fluctuation because the virtual machines memory overhead can change based on the virtual machines workload. This discrepancy might affect the students answer to this question.

114

Lab 19 Using vSphere High Availability

Lab 20

(Optional) Designing a Network Configuration


Objective: Design a network configuration for an ESXi host, based on a set of requirements
In this lab, you will perform the following tasks:
1. Analyze the requirements. 2. Design virtual switches and physical connections.

Preparing for the lab


Based on a scenario, you design the network configuration for a VMware ESXi host, specifying the following: Virtual switches Ports and port groups Port group policies Physical connections A set of network requirements is provided. The requirements are not complete and they leave a good deal of detail to the imagination. Use your assumptions to complete those details (stating your assumptions when appropriate).
NOTE

20

This lab can be done separately by each member in the ESXi team.
Lab 20 (Optional) Designing a Network Configuration 115

Task 1: Analyze the requirements


In this task, you are the administrator in charge of configuring an ESXi host in your companys production environment. This ESXi host is one of several hosts that need to be configured identically in your production environment. This ESXi host needs to be configured so that it can be one node in a DRS/HA cluster. The cluster is not configured at this time, but all necessary networking details must be in place so that the cluster can be configured later. Details of the networking requirements include the following. Component Virtual machines and applications Networking requirements Web-based applications that are implemented by using four virtual machines arranged as follows: VM1 and VM2: Web servers, and network address translation (NAT) clients of VM3 VM3: front end for the Web servers. Acts as a NAT router for the back-end virtual machines VM4: a test box, used to test intrusion detection systems and virus-protection software, among other applications IP-based storage A NAS, used to hold running virtual machines for the test virtual machines only (storage for the production virtual machines is provided by a SAN) Four physical network adapters: one 100Mbps and three Gigabit Ethernet (GigE) cards Two physical switches and four external LANs, each named to indicate its purpose. A single physical switch is configured to handle traffic for three networks, which are implemented as VLANs. One physical switch is dedicated to the management LAN, which, by company policy, must be physically separate from all other networks. The management LAN is used by VMware vCenter Server, including being used to monitor VMware vSphere High Availability heartbeat.

Physical NICs External networks

116

Lab 20

(Optional) Designing a Network Configuration

Task 2: Design virtual switches and physical connections


In this task, you use the information in task 1 and the following diagram to draw a network configuration. Show all virtual switches and their ports and port groups and indicate the policies to be applied to each (NIC teaming, VLANs, security, traffic shaping). Also show the connections from the virtual machines to the virtual switches, as well as from the physical network interface cards (NICs) to the physical switches. There is no single correct answer. In fact, many reasonable solutions are possible. The point of this lab is not to come up with the one right answer. Rather, this lab encourages a discussion of the advantages and disadvantages of different solutions.

20

Lab 20 (Optional) Designing a Network Configuration

117

118

Lab 20

(Optional) Designing a Network Configuration

21

Lab 21

Configuring VMware vSphere Fault Tolerance


Objective: Configure Fault Tolerance for a virtual machine and verify that Fault Tolerance works
In this lab, you will perform the following tasks:
1. Prepare the virtual machine. 2. Enable Fault Tolerance logging. 3. Activate Fault Tolerance. 4. Test Fault Tolerance. 5. Disable Fault Tolerance.
NOTE

Not all classroom lab environments support VMware vSphere Fault Tolerance. If the hardware in your classroom does not support Fault Tolerance, do the exercise with the Fault Tolerance simulation provided by your instructor. Adobe Flash Player 8 or later is required to view the simulation.

Lab 21 Configuring VMware vSphere Fault Tolerance

119

Preparing for the lab


Record the following information: Team VMware vCenter Server system name Team vCenter Server root password VMware vSphere ESXi team to partner with

Task 1: Prepare the virtual machine


In this task, you will configure a virtual machine capable of using Fault Tolerance in a nested ESXi environment (that is, running ESXi hosts as virtual machines). Students should perform this lab as a team. Student A should do the steps in this task. Do this task only if your instructor tells you do it.
CAUTION

Nested ESXi is not an officially supported configuration, nor is running Fault Tolerance in nested ESXi. Neither configuration should be used in production environments. This task should be performed only by students using a nested lab environment. For example, the VMware vClass environment uses a nested environment, which requires additional steps to be performed to enable the lab to work. If you are unsure whether you should do this task, ask your instructor.
1. If the VMware vSphere Client is not already active, log in to the team vCenter Server

system as user root, with the password that you recorded in Preparing for the lab.
2. Select Home > Inventory > Virtual Machines and Templates. 3. Select one of the <your_name>##-# virtual machines, where ## corresponds to the number of

your ESXi host.


4. If the virtual machine is powered on, shut down the guest operating system. 5. Right-click the virtual machine and select Edit Settings. 6. Click CD/DVD drive 1 and ensure that the Client Device radio button is selected in the Device

Type field of the configuration.


7. Also ensure that the Mode Passthrough IDE (recommended) is selected. 8. Click the Options tab and select Advanced/General. 9. In the right pane, click Configuration Parameters. 10. In the Name column, find the replay.supported line. 11. In the Value column, change false to true. 120 Lab 21 Configuring VMware vSphere Fault Tolerance

12. Add the replay.allowFT and replay.allowBTOnly lines to the Configuration

21

Parameters.
a. On the Configuration Parameters page, click Add Row. b. In the Name column, type replay.allowFT. In the Value column, type true. c. In the Name column, type replay.allowBTOnly. In the Value column, type true. 13. To set an additional parameter, click the Options tab and select Advanced/General. Repeat this

step to enter another parameter. The Configuration Parameters page should look like the screenshot.

14. Click OK twice. Wait for the virtual machine to do a reconfiguration. After the configuration is

complete, leave the vSphere Client open and continue to the next task.
Lab 21 Configuring VMware vSphere Fault Tolerance 121

Task 2: Enable Fault Tolerance logging


In this task, you will configure a virtual switch for Fault Tolerance logging. Students should do the steps in this task individually.
1. Select Home > Inventory > Hosts and Clusters. 2. Select your ESXi host in the inventory and click the Summary tab. View the General pane.

The Host Configured for FT field should show No.


3. Click the Configuration tab. 4. Click the Networking link and click vSphere Standard Switch. 5. Scroll to the virtual switch that contains the VMkernel port named vMotion and click the

Properties link.
6. Select vMotion from the list and click Edit. 7. Select the Fault Tolerance Logging check box and click OK. 8. Click Yes to acknowledge the warning message.

Because of bandwidth requirements, in a production environment VMware does not recommend enabling both VMware vSphere vMotion and Fault Tolerance logging on a single physical or virtual adapter. Instead, dedicate one Gigabit Ethernet adapter each to vMotion and Fault Tolerance.
9. Click Close to close the vSwitch Properties dialog box. 10. Click the Summary tab and confirm that the Host Configured for FT field now shows Yes.
CAUTION

If this lab is performed in a nested ESXi environment, this field will continue to show No because ESXi is installed on virtual hardware, not physical hardware.
11. Wait for your ESXi host partner to complete this task.

Task 3: Activate Fault Tolerance


In this task, you will activate Fault Tolerance on a virtual machine. Student B should do the steps in this task.
1. If the vSphere Client is not already active, use the vSphere Client to log in to the team vCenter

Server system as user root. Use the password that you recorded in Preparing for the lab.
2. Select Home > Inventory > Hosts and Clusters. 3. Select a virtual machine in the inventory and verify that it meets the requirements for Fault

Tolerance, as outlined in the lecture book.


122 Lab 21 Configuring VMware vSphere Fault Tolerance

CAUTION

21

If this lab is performed in a nested ESXi environment, you must select the virtual machine that was configured in task 1.
4. Right-click the virtual machine and select Power > Shut Down Guest. Click Yes to confirm

shutdown.
5. Right-click the virtual machine and select Fault Tolerance > Turn On Fault Tolerance. 6. Read the warning window and click Yes to confirm that you want to activate Fault Tolerance. 7. Monitor the Recent Tasks pane while VMware vSphere High Availability is turning on Fault

Tolerance.
8. After the tasks complete, view the information in the Fault Tolerance panel on the Summary

tab of the virtual machine. On which host is the primary virtual machine? __________________________ On which host is the secondary virtual machine? ________________________
9. Power on the virtual machine and observe how the information in the Fault Tolerance panel

changes.
10. Select Lab Cluster in the inventory and click the Virtual Machines tab. Notice that both the

primary and the secondary virtual machines are displayed in the list.

Task 4: Test Fault Tolerance


In this task, you will test the Fault Tolerance configuration. Student A should do the steps in this task.
1. Open consoles to the primary and the secondary virtual machines. Arrange the consoles side by

side. Log in to the primary virtual machine as user Administrator.


2. In the primary virtual machine, open a Command Prompt window and type ipconfig.

What is the IP address of the primary virtual machine? __________________________


3. Start a continuous ping to your ESXi host: # ping -t <ESXi_host_name> 4. In the inventory, right-click your virtual machine and select Fault Tolerance > Test Failover to

simulate a virtual machine failure.


5. Quickly view the virtual machine consoles side by side and watch what happens over the next

couple of minutes. (Pay special attention to the console title bars.) What did you observe during the test? Did the ping operation see an increase in its TTL value during the failover?
Lab 21 Configuring VMware vSphere Fault Tolerance 123

6. Click the Lab Clusters Virtual Machines tab. View the host information displayed for the

primary and the secondary virtual machines.


7. In the Virtual Machines tab, double-click the primary virtual machine to open the virtual

machines Summary tab. View the Fault Tolerance information.


8. Access the console of the primary virtual machine. Press Ctrl+C to stop the continuous pings.

Close the consoles.

Task 5: Disable Fault Tolerance


In this task, you will disable Fault Tolerance for the virtual machine. Student B should do the steps in this task.
1. In the inventory, right-click the protected virtual machine and select Fault Tolerance. 2. Compare the warning messages that you would see if you were turning off Fault Tolerance

instead of disabling Fault Tolerance:


a. Click Turn Off Fault Tolerance. A warning message is displayed. Read the warning

message and notice which actions are taken. Click No.


b. Right-click the protected virtual machine and select Fault Tolerance. Select Disable Fault

Tolerance. Read the warning message and notice which actions are taken. Click No. What is the difference between Turn Off Fault Tolerance and Disable Fault Tolerance?
ANSWER: Turning off Fault Tolerance removes Fault Tolerance protection from this virtual machine and deletes all historical Fault Tolerance data. Disabling Fault Tolerance removes Fault Tolerance protection from this virtual machine but keeps historical information about Fault Tolerance performance.

3. Turn off Fault Tolerance. Right-click the protected virtual machine and select Fault Tolerance

> Turn Off Fault Tolerance. At the warning message, click Yes.
4. Verify that the Fault Tolerance pane on the Summary tab is no longer present.

Leave the vSphere Client open for the next lab.


This lab poses issues that you, the instructor, must be prepared to address smoothly with students. If you are delivering the labs on physical servers that are not supported by Fault Tolerance, you must explain to students that they will not perform the Fault Tolerance lab. Students will use the Fault Tolerance simulation, instead. If you are conducting this lab in the VMware vClass, be aware that the technique used to provide Fault Tolerance in the nested environment has not been thoroughly tested by VMware Engineering. It is an unsupported configuration. Although the nested environment has worked in the development of the lab exercise, VMware cannot guarantee that it will always perform in a predictable manner, or at all. No trouble tickets will be accepted for this lab. If a ticket is submitted to the VDC Support Team, the ticket will be closed with no comment. Set expectations with your students accordingly.

124

Lab 21 Configuring VMware vSphere Fault Tolerance

22

Lab 22

vSphere Distributed Resource Scheduler


Objective: Implement a DRS cluster
In this lab, you will perform the following tasks:
1. Create load imbalance. 2. Create a DRS cluster. 3. Verify proper DRS cluster functionality. 4. Create, test, and disable an affinity rule. 5. Create, test, and disable an anti-affinity rule. 6. Create, test, and disable a virtual machine to host an affinity rule.

Preparing for the lab


Record the following information: Team VMware vCenter Server system name Team vCenter Server root password Virtual machine Administrator password VMware vSphere ESXi host to partner with

Lab 22 vSphere Distributed Resource Scheduler

125

Task 1: Create load imbalance


In this task, you will create load imbalance across the hosts. Student A should do the steps in this task.
1. If the VMware vSphere Client is not already active, log in to the team vCenter Server

system as user root. Use the password that you recorded in Preparing for the lab.
2. Migrate all the virtual machines to one host. See Lab 12 for a review of how to perform

migrations.
3. Select Home > Inventory > Hosts and Clusters. 4. Select Lab Cluster in the inventory and click the Virtual Machines tab. 5. Power on all virtual machines on one host. Right-click each virtual machine and select Power >

Power On. Wait for all virtual machines to power on.


6. Start an instance of cpubusy.vbs in three or four of the powered on virtual machines: a. Right-click a virtual machine and select Open Console. b. Log in to your virtual machine as user Administrator, with the password that you recorded

in Preparing for the lab.


c. Start an instance of the cpubusy.vbs script (on the virtual machines desktop) by right-

clicking the script and selecting Open with Command Prompt.


d. Repeat task 6 until you have three or four virtual machines running CPU busy.
NOTE

The number of virtual machines running cpubusy.vbs necessary to cause VMware vSphere Distributed Resource Scheduler (DRS) to begin migrations depends on the resource capacity of the lab infrastructure. Your instructor can advise you on how many virtual machines running cpubusy.vbs you need.

Task 2: Create a DRS cluster


In this task, you enable DRS on an existing cluster. Student B should do the steps in this task.
1. If the vSphere Client is not already active, log in to the team vCenter Server system as user

root. Use the password that you recorded in Preparing for the lab.
2. Select Home > Inventory > Hosts and Clusters.

126

Lab 22 vSphere Distributed Resource Scheduler

3. Right-click the Lab Cluster inventory object and select Edit Settings: a. In the left column, ensure that Cluster Features is selected and select the Turn on

vSphere DRS check box.


b. In the left pane, click vSphere DRS and select Manual for the automation level.

22

c. Move the Migration Threshold slider to the right to Aggressive. d. Click OK to apply the changes.

Task 3: Verify proper DRS cluster functionality


In this task, you will verify that the DRS cluster is functioning properly. Student A should do the steps in this task.
1. Select Home > Inventory > Hosts and Clusters. 2. Click the Lab Cluster inventory object. 3. Click the DRS tab. 4. Click the Run DRS link. Clicking this link forces DRS to immediately evaluate the cluster and

provide recommendations instead of waiting the standard 5 minutes before generating recommendations.
5. Click the Summary tab. 6. Observe the vSphere DRS panel on the Summary tab.

Does the Current host load standard deviation field show that the load is imbalanced?_________.
ANSWER: Yes, because all the virtual machines are running on a single host.

7. Click the View Resource Distribution Chart link.

This chart displays the CPU or memory use per host. Point to each colored square. You see information on how much of the entitled resource (CPU or memory) each virtual machine is using.
8. Close the chart window. 9. Click the DRS tab. 10. Review the DRS recommendations. 11. Click Apply Recommendations and monitor the Recent Tasks pane for virtual machine

migrations. Wait for the virtual machine migrations to complete.


12. Click the Run DRS link in the upper right corner of the DRS tab. This action forces DRS to

evaluate the cluster status.


Lab 22 vSphere Distributed Resource Scheduler 127

13. Click the Summary tab.

Does the current host load standard deviation show that the load is balanced?_________.
ANSWER: No, because most of the powered-on virtual machines are running on a single host. See the instructor note at the end of this lab for more information.

14. Stop the cpubusy.vbs scripts in each virtual machine. Press Ctrl+C in each cpubusy window. 15. Close the virtual machine consoles.

Task 4: Create, test, and disable an affinity rule


In this task, you will create a rule that forces virtual machines to be placed on the same ESXi host. Students should do the steps in this task individually.
1. Select Lab Cluster in the inventory and click the Virtual Machines tab. Verify that each virtual

machine that you own is running on a different ESXi host. If the virtual machines that you own are running on the same ESXi host, select one to migrate to the other ESXi host in the cluster before you go to step 2. If you have one virtual machine on each ESXi host in the cluster, no action is necessary.
2. Right-click Lab Cluster in the inventory and select Edit Settings. The Lab Cluster Settings

dialog box is displayed.


3. In the left pane, select vSphere DRS > Rules. 4. Click Add. 5. Perform the following actions in the Rules dialog box.

Field Name Type Virtual Machines

Action Type Colocate <your_first_name> VMs. Select Keep Virtual Machines Together. Click Add. In the Virtual Machines dialog box, select the check box next to each of the virtual machines that you own, named <your_name>##-#. Click OK.

128

Lab 22 vSphere Distributed Resource Scheduler

6. In the Rules dialog box, click OK. 7. Click OK to close the Lab Cluster Settings dialog box. 8. Click the Lab Cluster DRS tab. 9. Evaluate the cluster configuration by clicking the Run DRS link. Do you see any

22

recommendations?_________ Why or why not?_______________________________________________________________


ANSWER: Yes, because the DRS affinity rule that you created wants to keep the virtual machines together on the same host. NOTE

If you did not get a recommendation, use VMware vSphere vMotion migration to move one of your named virtual machines to the other ESXi host in the cluster. Return to the DRS tab and click Run DRS to see what the results are.
10. If you are ahead of your lab partner, wait for your partner to reach this point in the lab. 11. Student A should click Apply Recommendations and monitor the Recent Tasks pane as the

recommendation is applied. The virtual machines associated with your affinity rule are migrated to one of the two hosts in the DRS cluster.
12. Click the Virtual Machines tab. 13. Click the Host column heading to sort the virtual machines by the ESXi host on which they

reside. The virtual machines that you own should be running on the same ESXi host.
14. Right-click the Lab Cluster inventory object and select Edit Settings. 15. In the left pane, select vSphere DRS > Rules. 16. To disable the affinity rule, deselect the check box next to your affinity rule and click OK.
TIP

To delete an affinity rule, you select the rule and click Remove. For this lab, keep the rule disabled.

Lab 22 vSphere Distributed Resource Scheduler

129

Task 5: Create, test, and disable an anti-affinity rule


In this task, you create a rule that forces the separation of virtual machines onto different ESXi hosts. Students should do the steps in this task individually.
1. Right-click Lab Cluster in the inventory and select Edit Settings. The Lab Cluster Settings

dialog box is displayed.


2. On the vSphere DRS > Rules page, click Add. 3. Perform the following actions in the Rules dialog box. Close the Lab Cluster Settings dialog

box when you are done. Rule field for anti-affinity rule 1 Name Type Virtual Machines Action Type Separate <your_first_name> VMs. Select Separate Virtual Machines. Click Add. In the Virtual Machines dialog box, select the check box next to each of the virtual machines that you own, named <your_name>##-#. Click OK.

4. In the Rules dialog box, click OK. 5. Click OK to close the Lab Cluster Settings dialog box. 6. Click the Lab Cluster DRS tab. 7. Click the Run DRS link to make DRS evaluate the state of the cluster and make

recommendations. A recommendation to separate your virtual machines should be displayed. If a recommendation is not displayed, check the rules that you created to verify the accuracy of your inputs.
8. If you are ahead of your lab partner, wait for your partner to reach this point in the lab. 9. Student B should click Apply Recommendations. 10. Monitor the Recent Tasks pane as the recommendations are applied. The virtual machines with

anti-affinity rules applied to them are migrated to another ESXi host in the cluster.
11. Click the Virtual Machines tab.

130

Lab 22 vSphere Distributed Resource Scheduler

12. Click the Host column heading to sort the virtual machines by the ESXi host on which they

reside. The virtual machines you own should be running on different ESXi hosts.
13. Right-click Lab Cluster inventory object and select Edit Settings. 14. In the left pane, select vSphere DRS > Rules.

22

15. To disable the anti-affinity rule, select the check box next to your ant-affinity rule and click OK.
TIP

To delete an anti-affinity rule, you select the rule and click Remove. For this lab, the rule is only disabled.

Task 6: Create, test, and disable a virtual machine to host an affinity rule
In this task, you create virtual machine and host DRS groups. You create a rule that dictates which ESXi hosts that your virtual machines can run on. Students should do the steps in this task individually.
1. Right-click Lab Cluster in the vCenter Server inventory and select Edit Settings. 2. In the left pane, select vSphere DRS > DRS Groups Manager. 3. In the Virtual Machines DRS Groups panel, click Add. 4. In the DRS Group window, perform the following steps: a. Type <your_name>-VMs in the Name field. b. Click one of your named virtual machines to select it. c. Click >> to move your virtual machine to the box on the right. d. Perform steps 4b and 4c to move your other virtual machine to the box on the right. e. Click OK. 5. In the Hosts DRS Groups panel, click Add. 6. In the DRS Group window, perform the following steps. a. Type <your_name>-ESXi host in the Name field. b. Click the ESXi host assigned to you to select it. c. Click >> to move your ESXi host to the box on the right. d. Click OK. 7. In the left pane, click Rules. 8. Click Add. Lab 22 vSphere Distributed Resource Scheduler 131

9. In the Rules dialog box, perform the following actions.

Field/Setting Name Type Cluster VM Group

Action Type Run only on <your_name>-ESXi host. Select Virtual Machines to Hosts from the drop-down menu. Select <your_name>-VMs from the drop-down menu. Select Must run on hosts in group from the drop-down menu.

Cluster Host Group

Select <your_name>-ESXi host from the drop-down menu.

10. Click OK to close the Rules dialog box. 11. Click OK to close the Lab Cluster Settings window. 12. Click the Lab Cluster DRS tab. 13. Click the Run DRS link to make DRS evaluate the state of the cluster and make

recommendations. A recommendation to separate your virtual machines should be displayed. Why has DRS made this recommendation?_____________________________________
14. If you are ahead of your lab partner, wait for your partner to reach this point in the lab. 15. Student A should click Apply Recommendations. 16. Monitor the Recent Tasks pane as the recommendations are applied. The virtual machines with

virtual machine to host affinity rules applied to them are migrated to another ESXi host in the cluster.
17. Click the Virtual Machines tab. 18. Click the Host column heading to sort the virtual machines by the ESXi host on which they

reside. The virtual machine that you own that was running on your partners ESXi host should have been migrated to your ESXi host.
19. Right-click one of your named virtual machines in the inventory and click Migrate. 20. In the Migrate Virtual Machine wizard, perform the following actions.

Select Migration Type Select Destination

Select Change host. Expand the inventory view and select your partners ESXi host.

132

Lab 22 vSphere Distributed Resource Scheduler

21. What do you see in the Compatibility field?________________________________________.


ANSWER: You receive the error message, Virtual machine '<your_name>##-#' on host '<host_name>' would violate a virtual machine-host affinity rule.

22. Click Cancel to close the Migrate Virtual Machine wizard.

22

23. Right-click the Lab Cluster inventory object and select Edit Settings. 24. In the left pane, select vSphere DRS > Rules. 25. To disable your virtual machine to host affinity rule, select the check box next to your rule to

remove the check and click OK. Leave your vSphere Client open for the next lab.
Task 3, step 13: Because the students have few virtual machines and hosts in the lab environment, DRS might not be able to balance the cluster. It is important that you are prepared to explain this behavior gracefully. Consider the following scenario: Suppose in the lab that a team has two hosts and three equally sized virtual machines. Running the three virtual machines on the two hosts is a scenario where the load cannot be balanced. The closest to balanced that DRS can achieve would be to run two virtual machines on one host and one virtual machine on the other. The resulting imbalance is not an indication of a failure in DRS. Correct any student misconceptions. Another DRS misconception to correct: At times, students see DRS report load imbalance in the cluster Summary tab (or in the resource distribution chart), but DRS does not make any recommendations. The students understandably (but incorrectly) conclude that DRS is not working. If this situation occurs in class, have the students examine the resource distribution chart. If all the virtual machines are green, the virtual machines are getting their resource entitlements met. If virtual machines are getting their entitlements met, then there is no benefit for DRS to migrate the virtual machines. Emphasize to students that two conditions have to be met before DRS can make recommendations: Load imbalance must be observed across the cluster. Virtual machines must not be getting their resource entitlements met. If students are still concerned that DRS is not working properly, explain that they will have to create a more real-world scenario. Instead of running only a few virtual machines, have them power on as many virtual machines as possible in the lab environment. To most quickly see DRS operating (lab time is limited), try to create extreme imbalance by running all those virtual machines on one host. Power off any remaining virtual machines on the other host. To create the other necessary condition for DRS to make recommendations, run an instance of cpubusy.vbs in as many virtual machines as possible. Verify that students have terminated the cpubusy.vbs instances.

Lab 22 vSphere Distributed Resource Scheduler

133

134

Lab 22 vSphere Distributed Resource Scheduler

Lab 23

VMware vSphere Update Manager


Objective: Install, configure, and use Update Manager
In this lab, you will perform the following tasks:
1. Install Update Manager. 2. Install the Update Manager plug-in into the vSphere Client. 3. Modify cluster settings. 4. Configure Update Manager. 5. Create a patch baseline. 6. Attach a baseline and scan for updates. 7. Stage the patches onto the ESXi hosts. 8. Remediate the ESXi hosts.

23

Lab 23 VMware vSphere Update Manager

135

Preparing for the lab


Record the following information: VMware vSphere Update Manager system name Location of installation software Setup language Shared datastore Team VMware vCenter Server system name Team vCenter Server root password VMware vSphere ESXi patch bundle

Task 1: Install Update Manager


In this task, you will install Update Manager into one of the two desktop machines in your environment. Do this task as a team. Student A should perform this task.
1. Open a connection to the desktop of the Update Manager system that you recorded in

Preparing for the lab. This action is typically done with Remote Desktop Connection. Your instructor will provide specific details if you are to use some other technology.
2. Go to the location of the installation software, which you recorded in Preparing for the lab. 3. Double-click autorun.exe. 4. If Security Warning dialog boxes are displayed, click Run. 5. In the VMware vCenter Installer window, click the VMware vSphere Update Manager link. 6. Click Install to start the installation wizard. 7. Click Run when the Security Warning dialog box is displayed.

136

Lab 23 VMware vSphere Update Manager

8. When prompted by the installation wizard, perform the following actions.

Field/Setting Setup Language Welcome page End-User Patent Agreement License Agreement Support Information IP Address/Name Port Username Password Database Options VMware vSphere Update Manager Port Settings

Action Select the setup language that you recorded in Preparing for the lab and click OK. Click Next. Click Next.

23

Select I accept the terms in the license agreement and click Next. Deselect Download updates from default sources immediately after installation and click Next. Enter the team vCenter Server system name or IP address that you recorded in Preparing for the lab. Accept the default. Type root. Enter the root password that you recorded in Preparing for the lab. Click Next. Accept the default and click Next. If name resolution is working, select the host name from the drop-down menu. If name resolution is not working, select the IP address from the drop-down menu. Accept the default selection for all other settings and click Next.

Destination Folder

Accept the default selection for all other settings and click Next. Click OK when the warning box is displayed.

Ready to Install the Program

Click Install.

9. Click Finish to close the installation wizard. 10. Click Exit to close the VMware vCenter Installer window. Lab 23 VMware vSphere Update Manager 137

Task 2: Install the Update Manager plug-in into the vSphere Client
In this task, you will install the Update Manager plug-in into the VMware vSphere Client on your desktop system. Students should do the steps in this task individually.
1. Open the vSphere Client and log in to your team vCenter Server system as user root. Use the

password that you recorded in Preparing for the lab.


2. In the menu bar, select Plug-ins > Manage Plug-ins. 3. Under Available Plug-ins in the Plug-in Manager window, click the Download and Install link

next to VMware vSphere Update Manager Extension.


4. When prompted by the VMware vCenter Update Manager Client 5.1 wizard, perform the

following actions. If Security Warning dialog boxes are displayed, click Run. Field/Setting Setup Language Welcome page License Agreement Ready to Install the Program Action Select the setup language that you recorded in Preparing for the lab. Click Next. Select I accept the terms in the license agreement and click Next. Click Install.

a. When the installation completes, click Finish. b. When the security warning is displayed, select Install this certificate and do not display

any security warnings for <host_name> to prevent this warning from being displayed in the future.
c. Click Ignore to proceed with the connection. d. Verify in the Plug-in Manager window that the Update Manager plug-in was enabled. e. Click Close to close the Plug-in Manager window.

Keep the vSphere Client open.

138

Lab 23 VMware vSphere Update Manager

Task 3: Modify cluster settings


In this task, you will enable VMware vSphere Distributed Resource Scheduler (DRS) in fully automated mode and disable VMware vSphere High Availability admission control. Students should work as a team to complete this task. Student B should perform this task.
1. Select Home > Inventory > Hosts and Clusters. 2. Right-click Lab Cluster in the inventory and select Edit Settings. The Lab Cluster Settings

dialog box is displayed.


3. In the left pane, select vSphere DRS. Select Fully Automated. This operation ensures that

23

DRS migrates virtual machines to other nodes in the cluster.


4. In the left pane, select vSphere HA. Click Disable: Allow VM power on operations that

violate availability constraints in the Admission Control field.


5. Click OK. 6. Select Lab Cluster in the inventory and click the Resource Allocation tab. 7. Observe the Reservations column to verify that no CPU and memory reservations are assigned

to virtual machines. Removing CPU and memory reservations is necessary for this training environment. In a production environment, you might not have to remove CPU or memory reservations.

Task 4: Configure Update Manager


In this task, you will import ESXi host patches from an archive on your desktop and configure settings for Update Manager. Do this task as a team. Student A should perform this task.
1. Select Home > Solutions and Applications > Update Manager. 2. Click the Configuration tab. 3. Click the Download Settings link. 4. Click the Import Patches link. 5. Click Browse and select the ESXi patch bundle that you recorded in Preparing for the lab.

Click Next.
6. When the security warning is displayed, select Install this certificate and do not display any

security warnings for <host_name> to prevent this warning from being displayed in the future.
7. Click Ignore to proceed with the connection. 8. Click Finish to complete the import operation.

Lab 23 VMware vSphere Update Manager

139

Task 5: Create a patch baseline


In this task, you will create a patch baseline for both ESXi hosts and scan the ESXi hosts for compliance. Do this task as a team. Student B should perform this task.
1. Click the Baselines and Groups tab. 2. In the Baselines panel, click the Create link.

You see two Create links: one under the Baseline panel and one under the Baseline Groups panel. Click the Create link under the Baseline panel.
3. When prompted by the New Baseline wizard, perform the following actions.

Field/Setting Baseline Name Baseline Description Baseline Type Patch Options Patches

Action Type ESXi Host Update. Type Patch for ESXi 5.1. Keep the default value and click Next. Select Fixed and click Next. Scroll to the right and select patch ESXi510-201303202-UG. Click the down arrow under the horizontal scroll bar to add the patch to the Fixed Patches to Add pane and click Next.

Ready to Complete

Review your patch baseline. Verify the accuracy of Baseline Name and Baseline Type and click Finish.

Task 6: Attach a baseline and scan for updates


In this task, you will scan the ESXi hosts in your cluster for baseline compliance. Do this task as a team. Student A should perform this task.
1. In the upper-right corner of the Baselines and Groups tab, click the Compliance View link. 2. Select Lab Cluster in the vCenter Server inventory and click the Update Manager tab.

If you do not see the Update Manager tab, click the right arrow to access it.
3. Click the Attach link. The Attach Baseline or Group dialog box is displayed.

140

Lab 23 VMware vSphere Update Manager

4. Select the check box next to ESXi Host Update and click Attach. 5. Click the Scan link. 6. In the Confirm Scan window, verify that the Patches and Extensions and Upgrades check

boxes are selected.


7. Click Scan. 8. Monitor the Recent Tasks pane and wait for the scan to finish. When the task is complete, the

scan should discover that the ESXi hosts are noncompliant.

23

Task 7: Stage the patches onto the ESXi hosts


In this task, you will copy the patches contained in the baseline to your ESXi host and apply the patches. Students should do the steps in this task individually.
1. You should see both ESXi hosts on the Lab Cluster Update Manager tab. Select your host

from the right pane, not from the vCenter Server inventory in the left pane.
2. Click Stage. 3. When prompted by the Stage wizard, perform the following actions.

Field/Setting Baseline Selection

Action Accept the default selections and click Next. In the Patches column, you see that zero patches are staged.

Patch and Extension Exclusion Ready to Complete

Accept the default selections and click Next. Click Finish.

4. Monitor the Recent Tasks pane for the staging tasks. Wait for the tasks to complete.
NOTE

Both team members must complete task 7 before proceeding to task 8.

Lab 23 VMware vSphere Update Manager

141

Task 8: Remediate the ESXi hosts


In this task, you will apply the patches that were staged in task 7. Do this task as a team. Student B should perform this task.
1. Select Lab Cluster in the vCenter Server inventory. 2. To begin the patching process, click Remediate. 3. When prompted by the Remediate wizard, perform the following actions.

Field/Setting Remediation Selection Patches and Extensions Schedule Host Remediation Options

Action Leave the default and click Next. Leave the default and click Next. Leave the default and click Next. Select Disable any removeable media devices connected to the virtual machines on the host. Leave all other fields at their default selection and click Next.

Cluster Remediation Options

Deselect Disable Distributed Power Management (DPM) if it is enabled for any of the selected clusters. Click Generate Report to identify which tasks the remediation process performs for you. Click Close and click Next.

Ready to Complete

Review and verify your selections for accuracy. Click Finish.

4. Monitor the Recent Tasks pane and answer the following questions: a. Which ESXi host was remediated first?___________________ b. Was it placed into maintenance mode by the remediation process?____________________ c. Were virtual machines migrated to the other node in cluster?________________________ d. Was the patch installed on the ESXi host in maintenance

mode?________________________
e. Was the patched ESXi host rebooted?___________________ 142 Lab 23 VMware vSphere Update Manager

f. Did the patched ESXi host exit maintenance mode?_______________ g. Was the other node placed into maintenance mode?________________ h. Were the virtual machines that the ESXi host migrated to the other node in

cluster?______________
i. Was the other ESXi host patched?___________________ j. Did the other node exit maintenance mode?_________________

The hosts in Lab Cluster show 100 percent compliance when remediation completes.

23

ANSWER: a. Answer can vary. b. Yes c. All powered-on virtual machines were migrated. Any powered-off virtual machine did not get migrated. d. Yes e. Yes f. Yes g. Yes h. Yes i. Yes j. Yes Other patches either force the restart of hostd, require maintenance mode, or might require a reboot or a combination of these three actions. One patch that forces maintenance mode and a reboot has been selected to show the automation involved with applying patches.

Lab 23 VMware vSphere Update Manager

143

144

Lab 23 VMware vSphere Update Manager

Lab 24

(Optional) Installing VMware vCenter Server


Objective: Install vCenter Server components
In this lab, you will perform the following tasks:
1. Install vCenter Server.

:
24

Preparing for the lab


Record the following information: Your VMware vCenter Server system name vCenter Server Administrator password Location of the vCenter Server installation software Setup language Local system name UNC user name UNC user password

Lab 24 (Optional) Installing VMware vCenter Server

145

Task 1: Install vCenter Server


In this task, you will install vCenter Server software. Students should do the steps in this task individually.
1. Go to the location of the vCenter Server installation software, which you recorded in Preparing

for the lab.


2. Start the VMware vCenter Installer:

If you have an ISO image or physical CD-ROM mounted on the vCenter Server systems CD-ROM drive and autorun is enabled, the installer main window is displayed. For files that are located in a local folder or that are on a network share, open the folder containing the files and double-click the autorun.exe file. If security warning messages are displayed, click Run to continue.
3. Click the vCenter Server Simple Install link and click Install. If a security warning message

is displayed, click Run to continue.


4. When prompted by the installation wizard, perform the following actions.

Field/Setting Welcome Page End-User Patent Agreement License Agreement Single Sign On Information Single Sign On Database Local System Information

Action Click Next. Click Next. Select I agree to the terms in the license agreement and click Next. You do not assign a license for this lab. In the Password and Confirm Password fields, type the password that you recorded in Preparing for the lab. Accept the default option and click Next. In the Fully Qualified Domain Name or IP address field, verify that the name you recorded in Preparing for the lab and click Next. Accept the default option and click Next. Accept the default folder and click Next.

Security Support Provider Interface Destination Folder

146

Lab 24 (Optional) Installing VMware vCenter Server

Field/Setting vCenter Single Sign On Port Settings Ready to Install Database Initialization Warning Ready to Install License Key Database Options vCenter Server Service

Action Accept the default port and click Next. Click Install. Accept the default value and click Next. Click Install. Dont enter a license key and install in evaluation mode and click Next. Select Install a Microsoft SQL Server 2008 Express instance and click Next. Select Use SYSTEM Account. Verify that the default fully qualified domain name matches your local system name, which you recorded in Preparing for the lab. If the values do not match, change the FQDN to the correct value. Click Next. Accept the default and click Next. Accept the default and click Next. Click Install.

24

Configure Ports vCenter Server JVM Memory Ready to Install the Program

5. When the installation is complete, click Finish to exit the wizard. 6. Close the VMware vCenter Installer window.

Lab 24 (Optional) Installing VMware vCenter Server

147

148

Lab 24 (Optional) Installing VMware vCenter Server