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POLE CLIMBING ROBOT FOR SURVEILLANCE APPLICATION WITH VOICE AND IMAGE RECORDING IN SD CARD / MEMORY CARD

Technical Specifications:
Title of the project

Pole Climbing Robot for Surveillance Application with Voice and Image Recording in SD Card / Memory Card
:

Domain Power Supply Communication Device Transmitter Receiver Applications

: : : : : :

Robotics, Wireless Communication +5V Regulated Power Supply, 9V battery RF Module STT 433MHz STR 433MHz Military reconnaissance mission, Wireless security and Surveillance, Maneuvering in hazardous environment, Search and rescue operation

Developed By Phone

: :

M/S Wine Yard Technologies 040-6464 6363, www.WineYard.in

INDEX

ABSTRACT BLOCK DIAGRAM INTRODUCTION TO EMBEDDED SYSTEMS BLOCK DIAGRAM DISCRIPTION SWITCHES RF COMMUNICATION RECHARGEBLE BATTERY H-BRIDGE DC MOTORS ADVANTAGES APPLICATIONS CONCLUSION REFERENCES

Abstract

Abstract:

Climbing robots are useful when a task requires the use of far-reaching tools or is risky if carried out by humans. These robots can be equipped with video cameras, microphones, other sensors, and robotic manipulators to perform certain tasks. Here in this project a new type of pole-climbing Robot mechanism is proposed, the configuration and characteristics of the mechanism are introduced. The Robot mechanism action of hold pole, put pole, main move, and process of climbing pole, fixed to the pole, and across barriers are analyzed. The principal theory which is used in the pole-climbing Robot is elaborated the control system of pole-climbing robot is designed. Analysis shows that: The mechanism has the characteristics of compact body, easy control, good move characteristics, and is a promising application of pole-climbing Robot structure. Our prototype of Pole Climbing Robot has the capability to climb over the poles and perform the desired task smoothly. We need to design a wireless circuit which helps robot climb on the pole, can be controlled using wireless technology like RF technology. In this project we are using a new gripping mechanism for climbing the pole for that we are using two power supplies one from lead acid battery and another from directly ac power .The H Bridge is used to control the direction of the motors used for climbing purpose. Two switching arrays are used for controlling the robot

The RF modules used here are STT-433 MHz Transmitter, STR-433 MHz Receiver, HT12E RF Encoder and HT12D RF Decoder. The two switches are interfaced to the RF transmitter through RF Encoder. The encoder continuously reads the status of the switches, passes the data to the RF transmitter and the transmitter transmits the data. This project uses regulated 5V, 9V 500mA power supply. 7805 three terminal voltage regulator is used for voltage regulation. Bridge type full wave rectifier is used to rectify the ac out put of secondary of 230/18V step down transformer

Block Diagram

Block Diagram:
Transmitter:

SW1

RF Encoder HT12E RF Transmitt er STT - 433

SW2

To All Sections 9V Battery

Wireless camera

Receiver:
Contrast

LCD DISPLAY

RF Receiver

RF Deco der

AT89S5 2

Geare Geare d d Motor Motor

HBridg e

-I
Geare Geare d d Motor Motor

- II

Lead Acid Batt ery

Bridge Rectifier

Filter Circuit

Regulat or

Conventional Energy Section

Introduction to embedded systems

INTRODUCTION OF EMBEDDED SYSTEM:

An Embedded System is a combination of computer hardware and software, and perhaps additional mechanical or other parts, designed to perform a specific function. A good example is the microwave oven. Almost every household has one, and tens of millions of them are used everyday, but very few people realize that a processor and software are involved in the preparation of their lunch or dinner. This is in direct contrast to the personal computer in the family room. It too is comprised of computer hardware and software and mechanical components (disk drives, for example). However, a personal computer is not designed to perform a specific function rather; it is able to do many different things. Many people use the term general-purpose computer to make this distinction clear. As shipped, a general-purpose computer is a blank slate; the manufacturer does not know what the customer will do wish it. One customer may use it for a network file server another may use it exclusively for playing games, and a third may use it to write the next great American novel. Frequently, an embedded system is a component within some larger system. For example, modern cars and trucks contain many embedded systems. One embedded system controls the anti-lock brakes, other monitors and controls the vehicle's emissions, and a third displays information on the dashboard. In some cases, these embedded systems are connected by some sort of a communication network, but that is certainly not a requirement. At the possible risk of confusing you, it is important to point out that a general-purpose computer is itself made up of numerous embedded systems. For example, my computer consists of a keyboard, mouse, video card, modem, hard drive, floppy drive, and sound card-each of This is an embedded system. Each of these devices contains a processor and software and is designed to perform a specific function. For example, the modem is designed to send and receive digital data over analog telephone line. That's it and all of the other devices can be summarized in a single sentence as well.

If an embedded system is designed well, the existence of the processor and software could be completely unnoticed by the user of the device. Such is the case for a microwave oven,

VCR, or alarm clock. In some cases, it would even be possible to build an equivalent device that does not contain the processor and software. This could be done by replacing the combination with a custom integrated circuit that performs the same functions in hardware. However, a lot of flexibility is lost when a design is hard-cooled in this way. It is mush easier, and cheaper, to change a few lines of software than to redesign a piece of custom hardware. History and Future: Given the definition of embedded systems earlier is this chapter; the first such systems could not possibly have appeared before 1971. That was the year Intel introduced the world's first microprocessor. This chip, the 4004, was designed for use in a line of business calculators produced by the Japanese Company Busicom. In 1969, Busicom asked Intel to design a set of custom integrated circuits-one for each of their new calculator models. The 4004 was Intel's response rather than design custom hardware for each calculator, Intel proposed a generalpurpose circuit that could be used throughout the entire line of calculators. Intel's idea was that the software would give each calculator its unique set of features. The microcontroller was an overnight success, and its use increased steadily over the next decade. Early embedded applications included unmanned space probes, computerized traffic lights, and aircraft flight control systems. In the 1980s, embedded systems quietly rode the waves of the microcomputer age and brought microprocessors into every part of our kitchens (bread machines, food processors, and microwave ovens), living rooms (televisions, stereos, and remote controls), and workplaces (fax machines, pagers, laser printers, cash registers, and credit card readers).

It seems inevitable hat the number of embedded systems will continue to increase rapidly. Already there are promising new embedded devices that have enormous market potential; light switches and thermostats that can be central computer, intelligent air-bag systems that don't inflate when children or small adults are present, pal-sized electronic organizers and personal digital assistants (PDAs), digital cameras, and dashboard navigation systems. Clearly,

individuals who possess the skills and desire to design the next generation of embedded systems will be in demand for quite some time. Real Time Systems: One subclass of embedded is worthy of an introduction at this point. As commonly defined, a real-time system is a computer system that has timing constraints. In other words, a real-time system is partly specified in terms of its ability to make certain calculations or decisions in a timely manner. These important calculations are said to have deadlines for completion. And, for all practical purposes, a missed deadline is just as bad as a wrong answer. The issue of what if a deadline is missed is a crucial one. For example, if the real-time system is part of an airplane's flight control system, it is possible for the lives of the passengers and crew to be endangered by a single missed deadline. However, if instead the system is involved in satellite communication, the damage could be limited to a single corrupt data packet. The more severe the consequences, the more likely it will be said that the deadline is "hard" and thus, the system is a hard real-time system. Real-time systems at the other end of this discussion are said to have "soft" deadlines. All of the topics and examples presented in this book are applicable to the designers of real-time system who is more delight in his work. He must guarantee reliable operation of the software and hardware under all the possible conditions and to the degree that human lives depend upon three system's proper execution, engineering calculations and descriptive paperwork.

Application Areas: Nearly 99 per cent of the processors manufactured end up in embedded systems. The embedded system market is one of the highest growth areas as these systems are used in very market segment- consumer electronics, office automation, industrial automation, biomedical engineering, wireless communication, data communication, telecommunications, transportation, military and so on. Consumer appliances: At home we use a number of embedded systems which include digital camera, digital diary, DVD player, electronic toys, microwave oven, remote controls for TV and air-conditioner, VCO player, video game consoles, video recorders etc. Todays high-tech car has about 20 embedded systems for transmission control, engine spark control, air-conditioning, navigation etc. Even wristwatches are now games and word processing. Office automation: The office automation products using embedded systems are copying machine, fax machine, key telephone, modem, printer, scanner etc. Industrial automation: Today a lot of industries use embedded systems for process control. These include pharmaceutical, cement, sugar, oil exploration, nuclear energy, electricity generation and transmission. The embedded systems for industrial use are designed to carry out specific tasks such as monitoring the temperature, pressure, humidity, voltage, current etc., and then take appropriate action based on the monitored levels to control other devices or to send information to a centralized monitoring station. In hazardous industrial environment, where human presence has to be avoided, robots are used, which are programmed to do specific jobs. The robots are now becoming very powerful and carry out many interesting and complicated tasks such as hardware assembly. becoming embedded systems. The palmtops are powerful embedded systems using which we can carry out many general-purpose tasks such as playing

Medical electronics: Almost every medical equipment in the hospital is an embedded system. These equipments include diagnostic aids such as ECG, EEG, blood pressure measuring devices, X-ray scanners; equipment used in blood analysis, radiation, colonoscopy, endoscopy etc. Developments in medical electronics have paved way for more accurate diagnosis of diseases.

Computer networking: Computer networking products such as bridges, routers, Integrated Services Digital Networks (ISDN), Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM), X.25 and frame relay switches are embedded systems which implement the necessary data communication protocols. For example, a router interconnects two networks. The two networks may be running different protocol stacks. The routers function is to obtain the data packets from incoming pores, analyze the packets and send them towards the destination after doing necessary protocol conversion. Most networking equipments, other than the end systems (desktop computers) we use to access the networks, are embedded systems Telecommunications: In the field of telecommunications, the embedded systems can be categorized as subscriber terminals and network equipment. The subscriber terminals such as key telephones, ISDN phones, terminal adapters, web cameras are embedded systems. The network equipment includes multiplexers, multiple access systems, Packet Assemblers Dissemblers (PADs), sate11ite modems etc. IP phone, IP gateway, IP gatekeeper etc. are the latest embedded systems that provide very low-cost voice communication over the Internet. Wireless technologies: Advances in mobile communications are paving way for many interesting applications using embedded systems. The mobile phone is one of the marvels of the last decade of the 20h

century. It is a very powerful embedded system that provides voice communication while we are on the move. The Personal Digital Assistants and the palmtops can now be used to access multimedia services over the Internet. Mobile communication infrastructure such as base station controllers, mobile switching centers are also powerful embedded systems. Insemination: Testing and measurement are the fundamental requirements in all scientific and engineering activities. The measuring equipment we use in laboratories to measure parameters such as weight, temperature, pressure, humidity, voltage, current etc. are all embedded systems. Test equipment such as oscilloscope, spectrum analyzer, logic analyzer, protocol analyzer, radio communication test set etc. are embedded systems built around powerful processors. Thank to miniaturization, the test and measuring equipment are now becoming portable facilitating easy testing and measurement in the field by field-personnel. Security: Security of persons and information has always been a major issue. We need to protect our homes and offices; and also the information we transmit and store. Developing embedded systems for security applications is one of the most lucrative businesses nowadays. Security devices at homes, offices, airports etc. for authentication and verification are embedded systems. Encryption devices are nearly 99 per cent of the processors that are manufactured end up in~ embedded systems. Embedded systems find applications in every industrial segment-consumer electronics, transportation, avionics, biomedical engineering, manufacturing, process control and industrial automation, data communication, telecommunication, defense, security etc., used to encrypt the data/voice being transmitted on communication links such as telephone lines. Biometric systems using fingerprint and face recognition are now being extensively used for user authentication in banking applications as well as for access control in high security buildings. Finance: Financial dealing through cash and cheques are now slowly paving way for transactions using smart cards and ATM (Automatic Teller Machine, also expanded as Any Time Money) machines. Smart card, of the size of a credit card, has a small micro-controller and memory; and

it interacts with the smart card reader! ATM machine and acts as an electronic wallet. Smart card technology has the capability of ushering in a cashless society. Well, the list goes on. It is no exaggeration to say that eyes wherever you go, you can see, or at least feel, the work of an embedded system! Overview of Embedded System Architecture: Every embedded system consists of custom-built hardware built around a Central Processing Unit (CPU). This hardware also contains memory chips onto which the software is loaded. The software residing on the memory chip is also

called the firmware. The embedded system architecture can be represented as a layered architecture as shown in Fig. FIG 2 embedded system architecture The operating system runs above the hardware, and the application software runs above the operating system. The same architecture is applicable to any computer including a desktop

computer. However, there are significant differences. It is not compulsory to have an operating system in every embedded system. For small appliances such as remote control units, air conditioners, toys etc., there is no need for an operating system and you can write only the software specific to that application. For applications involving complex processing, it is advisable to have an operating system. In such a case, you need to integrate the application software with the operating system and then transfer the entire software on to the memory chip. Once the software is transferred to the memory chip, the software will continue to run for a long time you dont need to reload new software. Now, let us see the details of the various building blocks of the hardware of an embedded system. As shown in Fig. the building blocks are: Central Processing Unit (CPU) Memory (Read-only Memory and Random Access Memory) Input Devices Output devices Communication interfaces Application-specific circuitry FIG 3 General diagram of embedded system

Central Processing Unit (CPU): The Central Processing Unit (processor, in short) can be any of the following: microcontroller, microprocessor or Digital Signal Processor (DSP). A micro-controller is a lowcost processor. Its main attraction is that on the chip itself, there will be many other components such as memory, serial communication interface, analog-to digital converter etc. So, for small applications, a micro-controller is the best choice as the number of external components required will be very less. On the other hand, microprocessors are more powerful, but you need to use many external components with them. D5P is used mainly for applications in which signal processing is involved such as audio and video processing. Memory: The memory is categorized as Random Access 11emory (RAM) and Read Only Memory (ROM). The contents of the RAM will be erased if power is switched off to the chip, whereas ROM retains the contents even if the power is switched off. So, the firmware is stored in the ROM. When power is switched on, the processor reads the ROM; the program is program is executed.

Input devices: Unlike the desktops, the input devices to an embedded system have very limited capability. There will be no keyboard or a mouse, and hence interacting with the embedded system is no easy task. Many embedded systems will have a small keypad-you press one key to give a specific command. A keypad may be used to input only the digits. Many embedded systems used in process control do not have any input device for user interaction; they take inputs from sensors or transducers 1fnd produce electrical signals that are in turn fed to other systems. Output devices: The output devices of the embedded systems also have very limited capability. Some embedded systems will have a few Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs) to indicate the health status of the system modules, or for visual indication of alarms. A small Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) may also be used to display some important parameters. Communication interfaces: The embedded systems may need to, interact with other embedded systems at they may have to transmit data to a desktop. To facilitate this, the embedded systems are provided with one or a few communication interfaces such as RS232, RS422, RS485, Universal Serial Bus (USB), IEEE 1394, Ethernet etc.

Application-specific circuitry: Sensors, transducers, special processing and control circuitry may be required fat an embedded system, depending on its application. This circuitry interacts with the processor to carry out the necessary work. The entire hardware has to be given power supply either through the 230 volts main supply or through a battery. The hardware has to design in such a way that the power consumption is minimized.

Conclusions: Embedded Systems plays a vital role in our day today life. They are used for household appliances like microwave oven to the satellite applications. They provide good man to machine interface. Automation is the further step in the world of Embedded Systems, which includes the elimination of the human being in the mundane applications. They are cost effective, accurate and can work in any conditions and round the clock.

BLOCK DIAGRAM DISCRIPTION

POWER SUPPLY DESIGN

POWER SUPPLY: The input to the circuit is applied from the regulated power supply. The a.c. input i.e., 230V from the mains supply is step down by the transformer to 12V and is fed to a rectifier. The output obtained from the rectifier is a pulsating d.c voltage. So in order to get a pure d.c voltage, the output voltage from the rectifier is fed to a filter to remove any a.c components present even after rectification. Now, this voltage is given to a voltage regulator to obtain a pure constant dc voltage.

230V AC 50Hz

D.C Output

Step down transformer

Bridge Rectifier
FILTER

Regulator

Fig 4: Power supply


Transformer:

Usually, DC voltages are required to operate various electronic equipment and these voltages are 5V, 9V or 12V. But these voltages cannot be obtained directly. Thus the a.c input available at the mains supply i.e., 230V is to be brought down to the required voltage level. This

is done by a transformer. Thus, a step down transformer is employed to decrease the voltage to a required level.

Fig 5: Transformer

Rectifier: The output from the transformer is fed to the rectifier. It converts A.C. into pulsating D.C. The rectifier may be a half wave or a full wave rectifier. In this project, a bridge rectifier is used because of its merits like good stability and full wave rectification.

Fig 6: Rectifier The Bridge rectifier is a circuit, which converts an ac voltage to dc voltage using both half cycles of the input ac voltage. The Bridge rectifier circuit is shown in the figure. The circuit has four diodes connected to form a bridge. The ac input voltage is applied to the diagonally opposite ends of the bridge. The load resistance is connected between the other two ends of the bridge. For the positive half cycle of the input ac voltage, diodes D1 and D3 conduct, whereas diodes D2 and D4 remain in the OFF state. The conducting diodes will be in series with the load resistance RL and hence the load current flows through RL. For the negative half cycle of the input ac voltage, diodes D2 and D4 conduct whereas, D1 and D3 remain OFF. The conducting diodes D2 and D4 will be in series with the load resistance RL and hence the current flows through RL in the same direction as in the previous half cycle. Thus a bi-directional wave is converted into a unidirectional wave.

Fig: Bridge rectifier

Filter: Capacitive filter is used in this project. It removes the ripples from the output of rectifier and smoothens the D.C. Output received from this filter is constant until the mains voltage and load

is maintained constant. However, if either of the two is varied, D.C. voltage received at this point changes. Therefore a regulator is applied at the output stage. Voltage regulator: As the name itself implies, it regulates the input applied to it. A voltage regulator is an electrical regulator designed to automatically maintain a constant voltage level. In this project, power supply of 5V and 12V are required. In order to obtain these voltage levels, 7805 and 7812 voltage regulators are to be used. The first number 78 represents positive supply and the numbers 05, 12 represent the required output voltage levels. The L78xx series of three-terminal positive regulators is available in TO-220, TO-220FP, TO-3, D2PAK and DPAK packages and several fixed output voltages, making it useful in a wide range of applications. These regulators can provide local on-card regulation, eliminating the distribution problems associated with single point regulation. Each type employs internal current limiting, thermal shut-down and safe area protection, making it essentially indestructible. If adequate heat sinking is provided, they can deliver over 1 A output current. Although designed primarily as fixed voltage regulators, these devices can be used with external components to obtain adjustable voltage and currents.

Switches and Pushbuttons: A push button switch is used to either close or open an electrical circuit depending on the application. Push button switches are used in various applications such as industrial equipment control handles, outdoor controls, mobile communication terminals, and medical equipment, and etc. Push button switches generally include a push button disposed within a housing. The push button may be depressed to cause movement of the push button relative to the housing for directly or indirectly changing the state of an electrical contact to open or close the contact. Also included in a pushbutton switch may be an actuator, driver, or plunger of some type that is situated within a switch housing having at least two contacts in communication with an electrical circuit within which the switch is incorporated.

Typical actuators used for contact switches include spring loaded force cap actuators that reciprocate within a sleeve disposed within the canister. The actuator is typically coupled to the movement of the cap assembly, such that the actuator translates in a direction that is parallel with the cap. A push button switch for a data input unit for a mobile communication device such as a cellular phone, a key board for a personal computer or the like is generally constructed by mounting a cover member directly on a circuit board. Printed circuit board (PCB) mounted pushbutton switches are an inexpensive means of providing an operator interface on industrial control products. In such push button switches, a substrate which includes a plurality of movable sections is formed of a rubber elastomeric. The key top is formed on a top surface thereof with a figure, a character or the like by printing, to thereby provide a cover member. Push button

switches incorporating lighted displays have been used in a variety of applications. Such switches are typically comprised of a pushbutton, an opaque legend plate, and a back light to illuminate the legend plate.

RF COMMUNICATION

WHAT IS RF?

Radio frequency (RF) is a frequency or rate of oscillation within the range of about 3 Hz to 300 GHz. This range corresponds to frequency of alternating current electrical signals used to produce and detect radio waves. Since most of this range is beyond the vibration rate that most mechanical systems can respond to, RF usually refers to oscillations in electrical circuits or electromagnetic radiation . PROPERTIES OF RF: Electrical currents that oscillate at RF have special properties not shared by direct current signals. One such property is the ease with which it can ionize air to create a conductive path through air. This property is exploited by 'high frequency' units used in electric arc welding. Another special property is an electromagnetic force that drives the RF current to the surface of conductors, known as the skin effect. Another property is the ability to appear to flow through paths that contain insulating material, like the dielectric insulator of a capacitor. The degree of effect of these properties depends on the frequency of the signals.

DIFFERENT RANGES PRESENT IN RF AND APPLICATIONS IN THEIR RANGES?

Extremely low frequency ELF 3 to 30 Hz 10,000 km to 100,000 km directly audible when converted to sound, communication with submarines

Super low frequency

SLF 30 to 300 Hz 1,000 km to 10,000 km directly audible when converted to sound, AC power grids (50 hertz and 60 hertz)

Ultra low frequency ULF 300 to 3000 Hz 100 km to 1,000 km directly audible when converted to sound, communication with mines

Very low frequency VLF 3 to 30 kHz 10 km to 100 km directly audible when converted to sound (below ca. 18-20 kHz; or "ultrasound" 20-30+ kHz)

Low frequency LF 30 to 300 kHz 1 km to 10 km AM broadcasting, navigational beacons, lowFER

Medium frequency MF 300 to 3000 kHz 100 m to 1 km navigational beacons, AM broadcasting, maritime and aviation communication

High frequency HF 3 to 30 MHz 10 m to 100 m Shortwave, amateur radio, citizens' band radio

Very high frequency VHF 30 to 300 MHz 1 m to 10 m FM broadcasting broadcast television, aviation, GPR

Ultra high frequency UHF 300 to 3000 MHz 10 cm to 100 cm Broadcast television, mobile telephones, cordless telephones, wireless networking, remote keyless entry for automobiles, microwave ovens, GPR

Super high frequency SHF 3 to 30 GHz 1 cm to 10 cm Wireless networking, satellite links, microwave links, Satellite television, door openers.

Extremely high frequency EHF 30 to 300 GHz

1 mm to 10 mm Microwave data links, radio astronomy, remote sensing, advanced weapons systems, advanced security scanning

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF RF:

Radio frequency (abbreviated RF) is a term that refers to alternating current (AC) having characteristics such that, if the current is input to an antenna, an electromagnetic (EM) field is generated suitable for wireless broadcasting and/or communications. These frequencies cover a significant portion of the electromagnetic radiation spectrum, extending from nine kilohertz (9 kHz),the lowest allocated wireless communications frequency (it's within the range of human hearing), to thousands of gigahertz(GHz). When an RF current is supplied to an antenna, it gives rise to an electromagnetic field that propagates through space. This field is sometimes called an RF field; in less technical jargon it is a "radio wave." Any RF field has a wavelength that is inversely proportional to the frequency. In the atmosphere or in outer space, if f is the frequency in megahertz and sis the wavelength in meters, then s = 300/f The frequency of an RF signal is inversely proportional to the wavelength of the EM field to which it corresponds. At 9 kHz, the free-space wavelength is approximately 33 kilometers (km) or 21 miles (mi). At the highest radio frequencies, the EM wavelengths measure approximately one millimeter (1 mm). As the frequency is increased beyond that of the RF spectrum, EM energy takes the form of infrared (IR), visible, ultraviolet (UV), X rays, and gamma rays. Many types of wireless devices make use of RF fields. Cordless and cellular telephone, radio and television broadcast stations, satellite communications systems, and two-way radio services all

operate in the RF spectrum. Some wireless devices operate at IR or visible-light frequencies, whose electromagnetic wavelengths are shorter than those of RF fields. Examples include most television-set remote-control boxes Some cordless computer keyboards and mice, and a few wireless hi-fi stereo headsets. The RF spectrum is divided into several ranges, or bands. With the exception of the lowestfrequency segment, each band represents an increase of frequency corresponding to an order of magnitude (power of 10). The table depicts the eight bands in the RF spectrum, showing frequency and bandwidth ranges. The SHF and EHF bands are often referred to as the microwave spectrum. WHY DO WE GO FOR RF COMMUNICATION? RF Advantages: 1. No line of sight is needed. 2. Not blocked by common materials: It can penetrate most solids and pass through walls. 3. Longer range. 4. It is not sensitive to the light;. 5. It is not much sensitive to the environmental changes and weather conditions. WHAT CARE SHOULD BE TAKEN IN RF COMMUNICATION? RF Disadvantages: 1. Interference: communication devices using similar frequencies - wireless phones, scanners, wrist radios and personal locators can interfere with transmission 2. Lack of security: easier to "eavesdrop" on transmissions since signals are spread out in space rather than confined to a wire 3. Higher cost than infrared 4. Federal Communications Commission(FCC) licenses required for some products

5. Lower speed: data rate transmission is lower than wired and infrared transmission

WHAT ARE THE MAIN REQUIREMENTS FOR THE COMMUNICATION USING RF?

RF Transmitter RF Receiver Encoder and Decoder

RF TRANSMITTER STT-433MHz:

STT-433 MHz TRANSMITTER

FACTORS INFLUENCED TO CHOOSE STT-433MHz ABOUT THE TRANSMITTER: The STT-433 is ideal for remote control applications where low cost and longer range is required. The transmitter operates from a1.5-12V supply, making it ideal for battery-powered applications. The transmitter employs a SAW-stabilized oscillator, ensuring accurate frequency control for best range performance. The manufacturing-friendly SIP style package and low-cost make the STT-433 suitable for high volume applications.

Features

433.92 MHz Frequency Low Cost 1.5-12V operation Small size

PIN DESCRIPTION:

GND Transmitter ground. Connect to ground plane DATA Digital data input. This input is CMOS compatible and should be driven with CMOS level inputs.

VCC Operating voltage for the transmitter. VCC should be bypassed with a .01uF ceramic capacitor and filtered with a 4.7uF tantalum capacitor. Noise on the power supply will degrade transmitter noise performance. ANT 50 ohm antenna output. The antenna port impedance affects output power and harmonic emissions. Antenna can be single core wire of approximately 17cm length or PCB trace antenna.

APPLICATION:

The typical connection shown in the above figure cannot work exactly at all times because there will be no proper synchronization between the transmitter and the microcontroller unit. i.e., whatever the microcontroller sends the data to the transmitter, the transmitter is not able to accept this data as this will be not in the radio frequency range. Thus, we need an intermediate device which can accept the input from the microcontroller, process it in the range of radio frequency range and then send it to the transmitter. Thus, an encoder is used.

The encoder used here is HT12E from HOLTEK SEMICONDUCTORS INC. The HT 12E Encoder ICs are series of CMOS LSIs for Remote Control system applications. They are capable of Encoding 12 bit of information which consists of N address bits and 12-N data bits. Each address/data input is externally trinary programmable if bonded out.

ENCODER HT12E:

PIN DESCRIPTION:

PIN DESCRIPTION:

Information word IfL/MB=1 the device is in the latch mode(for use with the latch type of d a t a d e c o d e r s ) . W h e n t h e t r a n s - mission enable is removed during a transmission, the DOUT pin outputs a complete word and then s t o p s . O n t h e o t h e r h a n d , i f L / M B = 0 t h e d e v i c e i s i n t h e m o m e n t a r y m o d e ( f o r u s e w i t h t h e m o m e n t a r y type of data decoders). When the transmission enable is removed during a transmission, the DOUT outputs a complete word and then adds 7 words all with the 1 data code. An information word consists of 4 periods as illustrated below.

Address/data waveform Each programmable address/ data can be externally set to one of the following two logic states as shown below

Transmission enable

For the TE trigger type of encoders, transmission is enabled by applying a high signal to the TE pin. But for the Data trigger type of encoders, it is enabled by applying a high signal to one of the data pins D12~D17.

FLOWCHART:

Why is this graph required

Graph showing Frequency versus Voltage

The graph shown above decides the resistance value to be connected to the oscillator pins of the encoder. The oscillator resistance will have an effect on startup time and steady state amplitude. For the data communication at a particular frequency in the RF range, both the transmitter and

receiver should be set to a particular frequency. The exact setting of the frequency can be obtained in the encoder and decoder circuits. The frequency value can be set using the graph. The operating voltage of encoder and decoder is 5V. Thus looking at the graph at 5V VDD, if we select the frequency in the range of 1.25 and 1.50 we are selecting 220k resistance.

BASIC APPLICATION CIRCUIT OF HT12 ENCODER:

DEMO CIRCUIT: Transmission Circuit

The data sent from the microcontroller is encoded and sent to RF transmitter. The data is transmitted on the antenna pin. Thus, this data should be received on the destination i.e, on RF receiver.

FACTOR INFLUENCED TO CHOOSE STR-433MHz

RF RECEIVER STR-433 MHz:

The data is received by the RF receiver from the antenna pin and this data is available on the data pins. Two Data pins are provided in the receiver module. Thus, this data can be used for further applications . PINOUT:

ANT Antenna input.

GND Receiver Ground. Connect to ground plane.

VCC (5V) VCC pins are electrically connected and provide operating voltage for the receiver. VCC can be applied to either or both. VCC should be bypassed with a .1F ceramic capacitor. Noise on the power supply will degrade receiver sensitivity.

DATA Digital data output. This output is capable of driving one TTL or CMOS load. It is a CMOS compatible output.

Similarly, as the transmitter requires an encoder, the receiver module requires a decoder.

The decoder used is HT12D from HOLTEK SEMICONDUCTOR INC.

Features Operating voltage: 2.4V~12V. Low power and high noise immunity CMOS technology. Low standby current. Capable of decoding 18 bits of information. Pairs with HOLTEKs 318 series of encoders. 8~18 address pins. 0~8 data pins.

HOW DOES THE DECODER WORK?

The 3^18 decoders are a series of CMOS LSIs for remote control system applications. They are paired with the 3^18 series of encoders. For proper operation, a pair of encoder/decoder pair with the same number of address and data format should be selected. The 3^18 series of decoders receives serial address and data from that series of encoders that are transmitted by a carrier using an RF medium. A signal on the DIN pin then activates the oscillator which in turns decodes the incoming address and data. It then compares the serial input data twice continuously with its local address. If no errors or unmatched codes are encountered, the input data codes are decoded and then transferred to the output pins. The VT pin also goes high to indicate a valid transmission. That will last until the address code is incorrect or no signal has been received. The 3^18 decoders are capable of decoding 18 bits of information that consists of N bits of address and 18N bits of data.

Oscillator frequency versus supply voltage

fosc

FLOW CHART:

BASIC APPLICATION CIRCUIT OF HT12D DECODER:

DEMO CIRCUIT: Reception circuit

The data transmitted into the air is received by the receiver. The received data is taken from the data line of the receiver and is fed to the decoder .The output of decoder is given to microcontroller and then data is processed according to the applications. BC 557 TRANSISTOR: Fig: Simplified outline and symbol

Fig: Pin diagram

FEATURES Low current (max. 100 mA) Low voltage (max. 65 V).

APPLICATIONS General purpose switching and amplification

LIMITING VALUES:

BC 557 PNP Transistor acts as a switch is used in this project. TRANSMITTER CIRCUIT:

AT89S52 MICROCONTROLLER

MICROCONTROLLERS: Microprocessors and microcontrollers are widely used in embedded systems products. Microcontroller is a programmable device. A microcontroller has a CPU in addition to a fixed amount of RAM, ROM, I/O ports and a timer embedded all on a single chip. The fixed

amount of on-chip ROM, RAM and number of I/O ports in microcontrollers makes them ideal for many applications in which cost and space are critical. The Intel 8052 is Harvard architecture, single chip microcontroller (C) which was developed by Intel in 1980 for use in embedded systems. It was popular in the 1980s and early 1990s, but today it has largely been superseded by a vast range of enhanced devices with 8052compatible processor cores that are manufactured by more than 20 independent manufacturers including Atmel, Infineon Technologies and Maxim Integrated Products. 8052 is an 8-bit processor, meaning that the CPU can work on only 8 bits of data at a time. Data larger than 8 bits has to be broken into 8-bit pieces to be processed by the CPU. 8052 is available in different memory types such as UV-EPROM, Flash and NV-RAM. The present project is implemented on Keil uVision. In order to program the device, proload tool has been used to burn the program onto the microcontroller. The features, pin description of the microcontroller and the software tools used are discussed in the following sections.

FEATURES: Compatible with MCS-51 Products 8K Bytes of In-System Programmable (ISP) Flash Memory Endurance: 1000 Write/Erase Cycles 4.0V to 5.5V Operating Range Fully Static Operation: 0 Hz to 33 MHz Three-level Program Memory Lock 256 x 8-bit Internal RAM 32 Programmable I/O Lines Three 16-bit Timer/Counters Eight Interrupt Sources Full Duplex UART Serial Channel Low-power Idle and Power-down Modes Interrupt Recovery from Power-down Mode Watchdog Timer Dual Data Pointer

Power-off Flag DESCRIPTION

The AT89S52 is a low-power, high-performance CMOS 8-bit microcontroller with 8K bytes of in-system programmable Flash memory. The device is manufactured using Atmels high-density nonvolatile memory technology and is compatible with the industry- standard 80C51 instruction set and pin out. The on-chip Flash allows the program memory to be reprogrammed in-system or by a conventional nonvolatile memory programmer. By combining a versatile 8-bit CPU with in-system programmable Flash on a monolithic chip, the Atmel AT89S52 is a powerful microcontroller which provides a highly-flexible and cost-effective solution to many embedded control applications. The AT89S52 provides the following standard features: 8K bytes of Flash, 256 bytes of RAM, 32 I/O lines, Watchdog timer, two data pointers, three 16-bit timer/counters, a six-vector two-level interrupt architecture, a full duplex serial port, on-chip oscillator, and clock circuitry. In addition, the AT89S52 is designed with static logic for operation down to zero frequency and supports two software selectable power saving modes. The Idle Mode stops the CPU while allowing the RAM, timer/counters, serial port, and interrupt system to continue functioning. The Power-down mode saves the RAM contents but freezes the oscillator, disabling all other chip functions until the next interrupt or hardware reset.

PIN DIAGRAM

PIN DESCRIPTION VCC Supply voltage. GND Ground. Port 0 Port 0 is an 8-bit open drain bidirectional I/O port. As an output port, each pin can sink eight TTL inputs. When 1s are written to port 0 pins, the pins can be used as high impedance inputs. Port 0 can also be configured to be the multiplexed low order address/data bus during accesses to external program and data memory. In this mode, P0 has internal pullups. Port 0 also receives the code bytes during Flash programming and outputs the code bytes during program verification. External pullups are required during program verification. Port 1 Port 1 is an 8-bit bidirectional I/O port with internal pullups. The Port 1 output buffers can sink/source four TTL inputs. When 1s are written to Port 1 pins, they are pulled high by the internal pullups and can be used as inputs. As inputs, Port 1 pins that are externally being pulled low will source current (IIL) because of the internal pullups. In addition, P1.0 and P1.1 can be configured to be the timer/counter 2 external count input (P1.0/T2) and the timer/counter 2 trigger input (P1.1/T2EX), respectively, as shown in the following table. Port 1 also receives the low-order address bytes during Flash programming and verification.

Port 2 Port 2 is an 8-bit bidirectional I/O port with internal pullups. The Port 2 output buffers can sink/source four TTL inputs. When 1s are written to Port 2 pins, they are pulled high by the internal pullups and can be used as inputs. As inputs, Port 2 pins that are externally being pulled low will source current (IIL) because of the internal pullups. Port 2 emits the high-order address byte during fetches from external program memory and during accesses to external data memory that use 16-bit addresses (MOVX @ DPTR). In this application, Port 2 uses strong internal pullups when emitting 1s. During accesses to external data memory that use 8-bit addresses (MOVX @ RI), Port 2 emits the contents of the P2 Special Function Register. Port 2 also receives the high-order address bits and some control signals during Flash programming and verification. Port 3 Port 3 is an 8-bit bidirectional I/O port with internal pullups. The Port 3 output buffers can sink/source four TTL inputs. When 1s are written to Port 3 pins, they are pulled high by the internal pullups and can be used as inputs. As inputs, Port 3 pins that are externally being pulled low will source current (IIL) because of the pullups. Port 3 also serves the functions of various special features of the AT89S52, as shown in the following table. Port 3 also receives some control signals for Flash programming and verification.

RST Reset input. A high on this pin for two machine cycles while the oscillator is running resets the device. This pin drives High for 96 oscillator periods after the Watchdog times out. The DISRTO bit in SFR AUXR (address 8EH) can be used to disable this feature. In the default state of bit DISRTO, the RESET HIGH out feature is enabled. ALE/PROG Address Latch Enable (ALE) is an output pulse for latching the low byte of the address during accesses to external memory. This pin is also the program pulse input (PROG) during Flash programming. In normal operation, ALE is emitted at a constant rate of 1/6 the oscillator frequency and may be used for external timing or clocking purposes. Note, however, that one ALE pulse is skipped during each access to external data memory. If desired, ALE operation can be disabled by setting bit 0 of SFR location 8EH. With the bit set, ALE is active only during a

MOVX or MOVC instruction. Otherwise, the pin is weakly pulled high. Setting the ALE-disable bit has no effect if the microcontroller is in external execution mode.

PSEN Program Store Enable (PSEN) is the read strobe to external program memory. When the AT89S52 is executing code from external program memory, PSEN is activated twice each machine cycle, except that two PSEN activations are skipped during each access to external data memory. EA/VPP External Access Enable. EA must be strapped to GND in order to enable the device to fetch code from external program memory locations starting at 0000H up to FFFFH. Note, however, that if lock bit 1 is programmed, EA will be internally latched on reset. EA should be strapped to VCC for internal program executions. This pin also receives the 12-volt programming enable voltage (VPP) during Flash programming. XTAL1 Input to the inverting oscillator amplifier and input to the internal clock operating circuit. XTAL2 Output from the inverting oscillator amplifier. XTAL1 and XTAL2 are the input and output, respectively, of an inverting amplifier that can be configured for use as an on-chip oscillator, as shown in Figure. Either a quartz crystal or ceramic resonator may be used. To drive the device from an external clock source, XTAL2 should be left unconnected while XTAL1 is driven, as shown in the below figure. There are no requirements on the duty cycle of the external clock signal, since the input to the internal

clocking circuitry is through a divide-by-two flip-flop, but minimum and maximum voltage high and low time specifications must be observed.

Fig: Oscillator Connections C1, C2 = 30 pF 10 pF for Crystals = 40 pF 10 pF for Ceramic Resonators

Fig: External Clock Drive Configuration Description: The AT89S52 is a low-voltage, high-performance CMOS 8-bit microcomputer with 4K bytes of Flash programmable memory. The device is manufactured using Atmels high-density nonvolatile memory technology and is compatible with the industry-standard MCS-51 instruction set. By combining a versatile 8-bit CPU with Flash on a monolithic chip, the Atmel AT89S52 is a powerful microcomputer, which provides a highly flexible and cost-effective solution to many embedded control applications. In addition, the AT89S52 is designed with static logic for operation down to zero frequency and supports two software selectable power saving modes. The Idle Mode stops the CPU while allowing the RAM, timer/counters, serial port and interrupt system to continue functioning. The power-down mode saves the RAM contents but freezes the oscillator disabling all other chip functions until the next hardware reset.

Machine cycle for the 8052 The CPU takes a certain number of clock cycles to execute an instruction. In the 8052 family, these clock cycles are referred to as machine cycles. The length of the machine cycle depends on the frequency of the crystal oscillator. The crystal oscillator, along with on-chip circuitry, provides the clock source for the 8052 CPU. The frequency can vary from 4 MHz to 30 MHz, depending upon the chip rating and manufacturer. But the exact frequency of 11.0592 MHz crystal oscillator is used to make the 8052 based system compatible with the serial port of the IBM PC. In the original version of 8052, one machine cycle lasts 12 oscillator periods. Therefore, to calculate the machine cycle for the 8052, the calculation is made as 1/12 of the crystal frequency and its inverse is taken.

LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY: LCD stands for Liquid Crystal Display. LCD is finding wide spread use replacing LEDs (seven segment LEDs or other multi segment LEDs) because of the following reasons: 1. The declining prices of LCDs. 2. The ability to display numbers, characters and graphics. This is in contrast to LEDs, which are limited to numbers and a few characters. 3. Incorporation of a refreshing controller into the LCD, thereby relieving the CPU of the task of refreshing the LCD. In contrast, the LED must be refreshed by the CPU to keep displaying the data. 4. Ease of programming for characters and graphics. These components are specialized for being used with the microcontrollers, which means that they cannot be activated by standard IC circuits. They are used for writing different messages on a miniature LCD.

A model described here is for its low price and great possibilities most frequently used in practice. It is based on the HD44780 microcontroller (Hitachi) and can display messages in two lines with 16 characters each. It displays all the alphabets, Greek letters, punctuation marks, mathematical symbols etc. In addition, it is possible to display symbols that user makes up on its

own. Automatic shifting message on display (shift left and right), appearance of the pointer, backlight etc. are considered as useful characteristics.

Pins Functions There are pins along one side of the small printed board used for connection to the microcontroller. There are total of 14 pins marked with numbers (16 in case the background light is built in). Their function is described in the table below: Pin Number 1 2 3 Logic State 0 1

Function Ground Power supply Contrast

Name Vss Vdd Vee

Description 0V +5V 0 - Vdd D0 D7 are interpreted as commands D0 D7 are interpreted as data Write data (from controller to

RS

Control operating

of 5

R/W

0 1

LCD) Read data (from LCD to controller)

0 6 E 1 0 Data commands /7 8 9 10 11 D0 D1 D2 D3 D4 0/1 0/1 0/1 0/1 0/1

Access Normal to LCD Bit 0 LSB Bit 1 Bit 2 Bit 3 Bit 4

to

LCD

disabled operating

From 1 to Data/commands are transferred

12 13 14

D5 D6 D7

0/1 0/1 0/1

Bit 5 Bit 6 Bit 7 MSB

LCD screen: LCD screen consists of two lines with 16 characters each. Each character consists of 5x7 dot matrix. Contrast on display depends on the power supply voltage and whether messages are displayed in one or two lines. For that reason, variable voltage 0-Vdd is applied on pin marked as Vee. Trimmer potentiometer is usually used for that purpose. Some versions of displays have built in backlight (blue or green diodes). When used during operating, a resistor for current limitation should be used (like with any LE diode).

LCD Basic Commands

All data transferred to LCD through outputs D0-D7 will be interpreted as commands or as data, which depends on logic state on pin RS: RS = 1 - Bits D0 - D7 are addresses of characters that should be displayed. Built in processor addresses built in map of characters and displays corresponding symbols. Displaying position is determined by DDRAM address. This address is either previously defined or the address of previously transferred character is automatically incremented. RS = 0 - Bits D0 - D7 are commands which determine display mode. List of commands which LCD recognizes are given in the table below:

Command Clear display Cursor home Entry mode set Display on/off control Cursor/Display Shift Function set Set CGRAM address Set DDRAM address Read BUSY flag (BF) Write to CGRAM or DDRAM Read from CGRAM or

RS RW D7 D6 D5 D4 D3 D2 D1 D0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 D 0 1 1 x

Execution Time 1.64mS 1.64mS 40uS

I/D S U

B 40uS x x 40uS 40uS 40uS 40uS -

D/C R/L x F x

DL N

CGRAM address

DDRAM address

BF DDRAM address

D7 D6 D5 D4 D3 D2 D1 D0 40uS D7 D6 D5 D4 D3 D2 D1 D0 40uS

DDRAM

I/D 1 = Increment (by 1)

R/L 1 = Shift right

0 = Decrement (by 1) S 1 = Display shift on 0 = Display shift off D 1 = Display on 0 = Display off U 1 = Cursor on 0 = Cursor off B 1 = Cursor blink on 0 = Cursor blink off

0 = Shift left DL 1 = 8-bit interface 0 = 4-bit interface N 1 = Display in two lines 0 = Display in one line F 1 = Character format 5x10 dots 0 = Character format 5x7 dots D/C 1 = Display shift 0 = Cursor shift

LCD Initialization: Once the power supply is turned on, LCD is automatically cleared. This process lasts for approximately 15mS. After that, display is ready to operate. The mode of operating is set by default. This means that: 1. Display is cleared 2. Mode DL = 1 Communication through 8-bit interface N = 0 Messages are displayed in one line F = 0 Character font 5 x 8 dots 3. Display/Cursor on/off D = 0 Display off U = 0 Cursor off B = 0 Cursor blink off 4. Character entry ID = 1 Addresses on display are automatically incremented by 1 S = 0 Display shift off Automatic reset is mainly performed without any problems. Mainly but not always! If for any reason power supply voltage does not reach full value in the course of 10mS, display will start perform completely unpredictably. If voltage supply unit can not meet this condition or if it is needed to provide completely safe operating, the process of initialization by which a new reset enabling display to operate normally must be applied. Algorithm according to the initialization is being performed depends on whether connection to the microcontroller is through 4- or 8-bit

interface. All left over to be done after that is to give basic commands and of course- to display messages.

Fig: Procedure on 8-bit initialization.

CONTRAST CONTROL:

To have a clear view of the characters on the LCD, contrast should be adjusted. To adjust the contrast, the voltage should be varied. For this, a preset is used which can behave like a variable voltage device. As the voltage of this preset is varied, the contrast of the LCD can be adjusted.

Fig: Variable resistor

Potentiometer Variable resistors used as potentiometers have all three terminals connected. This arrangement is normally used to vary voltage, for example to set the switching point of a circuit with a sensor, or control the volume (loudness) in an amplifier circuit. If the terminals at the ends of the track are connected across the power supply, then the wiper terminal will provide a voltage which can be varied from zero up to the maximum of the supply.

Potentiometer

Symbol

Presets These are miniature versions of the standard variable resistor. They are designed to be mounted directly onto the circuit board and adjusted only when the circuit is built. For example to set the frequency of an alarm tone or the sensitivity of a light-sensitive circuit. A small screwdriver or similar tool is required to adjust presets. Presets are much cheaper than standard variable resistors so they are sometimes used in projects where a standard variable resistor would normally be used. Multiturn presets are used where very precise adjustments must be made. The screw must be turned many times (10+) to move the slider from one end of the track to the other, giving very fine control.

Preset

Symbol

LCD INTERFACING WITH THE MICROCONTROLLER:

Vcc P2 .0 P2 .1 P2 .2 4 1 5 2 6(EN) 3 (RS) Gn d PRESET


(CONTRAS T CONTROL)

(R/W)

LCD

Vcc Gnd

FOR BACKLIGHT PURPOSE

WIRELESS CAMERA WITH VOICE TRANSMISSION:

A portable small-sized camera has a case having a ball-point pen appearance in a portion thereof and a through hole in one side, and a camera circuit part built in the case and for photographing an object through the through hole. The portable small-sized camera has the ball-point pen appearance, photographing a particular location in secret is possible without exposure to others. The camera circuit part is connected to a wireless transmission device for outputting a signal by a cable. A wireless receiving device at a remote location from the wireless transmission device receives a signal of the wireless transmission device for outputting or recording. The portable camera further includes a microphone and the transmission device transmits a voice signal.

RECHARGABLE BATTERY

RECHARGEBLE BATTARIES

A rechargeable battery or storage battery is a group of one or more electrochemical cells. They are known as secondary cells because their electrochemicalreactions are electrically reversible. Rechargeable batteries come in many different shapes and sizes, ranging anything from a button cell to megawatt systems connected to stabilize an electrical distribution network. Several different combinations of chemicals are commonly used, including: lead-acid, nickel cadmium(NiCd), nickel polymer (Li-ion polymer). Rechargeable batteries have lower total cost of use and environmental impact than disposable batteries. Some rechargeable battery types are available in the same sizes as disposable types. Rechargeable batteries have higher initial cost, but can be recharged very cheaply and used many times. Rechargeable batteries are used for automobile starters, portable consumer devices, light vehicles (such as motorized wheelchairs, golf carts, electric bicycles, and electric forklifts), tools, and uninterruptible power supplies. Emerging applications in hybrid electric vehicles and electric vehicles are driving the technology to reduce cost and weight and increase lifetime. Normally, new rechargeable batteries have to be charged before use; newer low selfdischarge batteries hold their charge for many months, and are supplied charged to about 70% of their rated capacity. Grid energy storage applications use rechargeable batteries for load leveling, where they store electric energy for use during peak load periods, and forrenewable energy uses, such as storing power generated from photovoltaic arrays during the day to be used at night. By charging batteries during periods of low demand and returning energy to the grid during periods of high electrical demand, load-leveling helps eliminate the need for expensive peaking power plants and helps amortize the cost of generators over more hours of operation. The US National Electrical Manufacturers Association has estimated that U.S. demand for rechargeable batteries is growing twice as fast as demand for nonrechargeables. metal hydride (NiMH), lithium ion (Li-ion), and lithium ion

CHARGING AND DISCHARGING

During charging, the positive active material is oxidized, producing electrons, and the negative material is reduced, consuming electrons. These electrons constitute the current flow in the external circuit. The electrolyte may serve as a simple buffer for ion flow between the electrodes, as in lithium-ion and nickel-cadmium cells, or it may be an active participant in the electrochemical reaction, as in lead-acid cells.

Fig21: charging of a secondary cell battery.

Fig22: Battery charger The energy used to charge rechargeable batteries usually comes from a battery charger using AC mains electricity. Chargers take from a few minutes (rapid chargers) to several hours to charge a battery. Most batteries are capable of being charged far faster than simple battery chargers are capable of; there are chargers that can charge consumer sizes of NiMH

batteries in 15 minutes. Fast charges must have multiple ways of detecting full charge (voltage, temperature, etc.) to stop charging before onset of harmful overcharging. Rechargeable multi-cell batteries are susceptible to cell damage due to reverse charging if they are fully discharged. Fully integrated battery chargers that optimize the charging current are available. Attempting to recharge non-rechargeable batteries with unsuitable equipment may cause battery explosion Flow batteries, used for specialised applications, are recharged by replacing the electrolyte liquid. Battery manufacturers' technical notes often refer to VPC; this is volts per cell, and refers to the individual secondary cells that make up the battery. For example, to charge a 12 V battery (containing 6 cells of 2 V each) at 2.3 VPC requires a voltage of 13.8 V across the battery's terminals. Non-rechargeable alkaline and zinc-carbon cells output 1.5V when new, but this voltage gradually drops with use. Most NiMH AA and AAA batteries rate their cells at 1.2 V, and can usually be used in equipment designed to use alkaline batteries up to an end-point of 0.9 to 1.2V

Reverse charging
Subjecting a discharged cell to a current in the direction which tends to discharge it further, rather than charge it, is called reverse charging; this damages cells. Reverse charging can occur under a number of circumstances, the two most common being:

When a battery or cell is connected to a charging circuit the wrong way round. When a battery made of several cells connected in series is deeply discharged.

When one cell completely discharges ahead of the rest, the live cells will apply a reverse current to the discharged cell ("cell reversal"). This can happen even to a "weak" cell that is not fully discharged. If the battery drain current is high enough, the weak cell's internal resistance can experience a reverse voltage that is greater than the cell's remaining internal forward voltage. This results in the reversal of the weak cell's polarity while the current is flowing through the cells. This can significantly shorten the life of the affected cell and therefore of the battery. The

higher the discharge rate of the battery needs to be, the better matched the cells should be, both in kind of cell and state of charge. In some extreme cases, the reversed cell can begin to emit smoke or catch fire. In critical applications using Ni-Cad batteries, such as in aircraft, each cell is individually discharged by connecting a load clip across the terminals of each cell, thereby avoiding cell reversal, then charging the cells in series.

H bridge

H bridge:
An H bridge is an electronic circuit that enables a voltage to be applied across a load in either direction. These circuits are often used inrobotics and other applications to allow DC motors to run forwards and backwards. H bridges are available as integrated circuits, or can be built from discrete components

The H-bridge arrangement is generally used to reverse the polarity of the motor, but can also be used to 'brake' the motor, where the motor comes to a sudden stop, as the motor's terminals are shorted, or to let the motor 'free run' to a stop, as the motor is effectively disconnected from the circuit. The following table summarises operation, with S1-S4 corresponding to the diagram above.

S1 S2 S3 S4

Result

1 0

Motor moves right

0 1

Motor moves left

0 0

Motor free runs

0 1

Motor brakes

1 0

Motor brakes

DC MOTOR

DC MOTOR
In any electric motor, operation is based on simple electromagnetism. A currentcarrying conductor generates a magnetic field; when this is then placed in an external magnetic field, it will experience a force proportional to the current in the conductor, and to the strength of the external magnetic field. As you are well aware of from playing with magnets as a kid, opposite (North and South) polarities attract, while like polarities (North and North, South and South) repel. The internal configuration of a DC motor is designed to harness the magnetic interaction between a current-carrying conductor and an external magnetic field to generate rotational motion. Let's start by looking at a simple 2-pole DC electric motor (here red represents a magnet or winding with a "North" polarization, while green represents a magnet or winding with a "South" polarization).

Fig14: Simple 2-pole dc electric motor Every DC motor has six basic parts -- axle, rotor (a.k.a., armature), stator, commutator, field magnet(s), and brushes. In most common DC motors (and all that BEAMers will see), the external magnetic field is produced by high-strength permanent magnets 1. The stator is the stationary part of the motor -- this includes the motor casing, as well as two or more permanent magnet pole pieces. The rotor (together with the axle and attached commutator) rotate with respect to the stator. The rotor consists of windings (generally on a core), the windings being electrically connected to the commutator. The above diagram shows a common motor layout -- with the rotor inside the stator (field) magnets.

The geometry of the brushes, commutator contacts, and rotorwindings are such that when power is applied, the polarities of the energized winding and the stator magnet(s) are misaligned, and the rotor will rotate until it is almost aligned with the stator's field magnets. As the rotor reaches alignment, the brushes move to the next commutator contacts, and energize the next winding. Given our example two-pole motor, the rotation reverses the direction of current through the rotor winding, leading to a "flip" of the rotor's magnetic field, driving it to continue rotating.

Fig15: rotation of rotor in dc motor In real life, though, DC motors will always have more than two poles (three is a very common number). In particular, this avoids "dead spots" in the commutator. You can imagine how with our example two-pole motor, if the rotor is exactly at the middle of its rotation (perfectly aligned with the field magnets), it will get "stuck" there. Meanwhile, with a two-pole motor, there is a moment where the commutator shorts out the power supply (i.e., both brushes touch both commutator contacts simultaneously). This would be bad for the power supply, waste energy, and damage motor components as well. Yet another disadvantage of such a simple motor is that it would exhibit a high amount of torque "ripple" (the amount of torque it could produce is cyclic with the position of the rotor). So since most small DC motors are of a three-pole design, let's tinker with the workings of one via an interactive animation (JavaScript required): You'll notice a few things from this -- namely, one pole is fully energized at a time (but two others are "partially" energized). As each brush transitions from one commutator contact to the next, one coil's field will rapidly collapse, as the next coil's field will rapidly

charge up (this occurs within a few microsecond). We'll see more about the effects of this later, but in the meantime you can see that this is a direct result of the coil windings' series wiring:

Fig16: placing of commutator in dc motor

The use of an iron core armature (as in the Mabuchi, above) is quite common, and has a number of advantages2. First off, the iron core provides a strong, rigid support for the windings -- a particularly important consideration for high-torque motors. The core also conducts heat away from the rotor windings, allowing the motor to be driven harder than might otherwise be the case. Iron core construction is also relatively inexpensive compared with other construction types. But iron core construction also has several disadvantages. The iron armature has a relatively high inertia which limits motor acceleration. This construction also results in high winding inductances which limit brush and commutator life.

In small motors, an alternative design is often used which features a 'coreless' armature winding. This design depends upon the coil wire itself for structural integrity. As a result, the armature is hollow, and the permanent magnet can be mounted inside the rotor coil. Coreless DC motors have much lower armature inductance than iron-core motors of comparable size, extending brush and commutator life.

Fig17: courtesy of MicroMo The coreless design also allows manufacturers to build smaller motors; meanwhile, due to the lack of iron in their rotors, coreless motors are somewhat prone to overheating. As a result, this design is generally used just in small, low-power motors. BEAMers will most often see coreless DC motors in the form of pager motors.

ADVANTAGES

1. Not line of sight 2. Not blocked by common materials: can penetrate most solids and pass through walls 3. Longer range 4. Not light sensitive 5. Not as sensitive to weather/environmental conditions

APPLICATIONS

Applications
Military reconnaissance mission. Wireless security and surveillance

Maneuvering in hazardous environment. Search and rescue operation

CONCLUSION

Conclusion
This project presents a implementation of Electric pole climbing robot with RF remote control for electrical Line Man assists applications. The project is been designed and implemented with embedded system domain using RF Communication. Experimental work has been carried out carefully. The result shows that higher efficiency is indeed achieved using the embedded system. The proposed method is verified to be highly beneficial for pole climbing robot for people.

REFERENCE:

www.howstuffworks.com Magazines: Electronics for you Electrikindia Alexander Graham Bell: The Life and Times of the Man Who Invented the Telephone