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Drug Administration Routes consist of variety type of taking medicine and dosage form. For my assignment, I picked GARGLE to explain further more. First of all, what is gargle? Gargle is type of medicine which needs us to wash the throat with liquid kept moving about by a stream of breath. It is called mouthwash by people on earth. The scientific name of medicine that needs us to gargle is Gargarisma. The trade name for Gargle medicine is Difflam, Strepsils Spray, Betadline, Hexidine, Listerine, 32 Care, Divinate, A-Fresh and so on. The prominence one is Listerine. When doing my research, I found out, over 87 companies make the product of Gargle. Active ingredients for this type of medicine is Aluminium Chloride and Potassium Chlorate. Usually, Germany companies export Gargle type of Medicine. Most of the Mouthwash and Gargle contains Chlorhexidane. Chlorohexidane is a chemical antiseptic. Chlorohexidane is one of the substances that useful to will fight against fungi and develop viruses. But the concentrations of Chlorohexidane is low concentration in the solution because it will become harmful and peril to the person if the Chlorohexidane in Mouthwash is in high concentration. Some people called it oral rinses. Chlorhexidine is often used as an active ingredient in mouthwash designed to reduce dental

plaque and oral bacteria. It has been shown to have an immediate bactericidal action and a prolonged bacteriostatic action. The usage of Gargle will make your oral become more hygiene day by day. Scientific research had proven that the less stains or colour that does not remain in your mouth, the increased the efficacy of the products. Heres are some images of the products.

Mouthwash or gargle are easy to swallow because they are liquids. Liquids are easier to swallow than solids and are therefore particularly acceptable for PEDIATRIC (acknowledgement that give treatment to children) and GERIATRIC (brach of medicine dealing with the diseases and care of old people) use. Depends on the ability of the user can whether can handle the concentration of one full cap or half. The taste of drug is often unpleasant, solutions can, however, easily be sweetened and flavoured to make them more PALATABLE. There are several advantages of taking liquid preparations for oral administration, the latter process several advantages. FLAVOURS AND PERFUMES The simple use of sweetening agents may not be sufficient to render palatable (pleasant and acceptable to human beings mind) a product containing a drug with a particularly unpleasant taste. In many cases, therefore, a flavouring agent can be included. Once a suitable flavour had been chosen, it is often

useful to include a colour associated with that flavour in order to improve the attractiveness of the product. Another reason for the inclusion of colours is to enable easy product identification, particularly of poisonous materials, including weed killers and mineralized mentholated spirit, and for example, to differentiate between the many types of antiseptic solution. The general term that we use is oral liquid. Mouthwash or mouth rinse is a chemotherapeutic agent used as an effective home care system by the patient to enhance oral hygiene. Some manufacturers of mouthwash claim that antiseptic and anti-plaque mouth rinse kill the bacterial plaque causing cavities,gingivitis, and bad breath. Anti-cavity mouth rinse uses fluoride to protect against tooth decay. It is, however, generally agreed that the use of mouthwash does not eliminate the need for both brushing and flossing.[1][2][3] As per the American Dental Association, regular brushing and proper flossing are enough in most cases although the ADA has placed its Seal of Approval on many mouthwashes that do not contain alcohol (in addition to regular dental check-ups) HISTORY-History[edit] The first known references to mouth rinsing is in Ayurveda and Chinese medicine, about 2700 BC, for treatment ofgingivitis.[citation needed] Later, in the Greek and Roman periods, mouth rinsing following mechanical cleansing became common among the upper classes, and Hippocrates recommended a mixture of salt, alum, and vinegar.[5] The Jewish Talmud, dating back about 1800 years, suggests a cure for gum ailments containing "dough water" and olive oil.[6] Anton van Leeuwenhoek, the famous 17th century microscopist, discovered living organisms (living, because they were motile) in deposits on the teeth (what we now call dental plaque).

He also found organisms in water from the canal next to his home in Delft. He experimented with samples by adding vinegar or brandy and found that this resulted in the immediate immobilization or killing of the organisms suspended in water. Next he tried rinsing the mouth of himself and somebody else with a mouthwash containing vinegar or brandy and found that living organisms remained in the dental plaque. He concludedcorrectlythat the mouthwash either did not reach, or was not present long enough, to kill the plaque organisms.[citation needed] That remained the state of affairs until the late 1960s when Harald Loe (at the time a professor at the Royal Dental College in Aarhus,Denmark) demonstrated that a chlorhexidine compound could prevent the build-up of dental plaque. The reason for chlorhexidine effectiveness is that it strongly adheres to surfaces in the mouth and thus remains present in effective concentrations for many hours.[7] Since then commercial interest in mouthwashes has been intense and several newer products claim effectiveness in reducing the build-up in dental plaque and the associated severity of gingivitis (inflammation of the gums), in addition to fighting bad breath. Many of these solutions aim to control the Volatile Sulfur Compound (VSC)-creating anaerobic bacteria that live in the mouth and excrete substances that lead to bad breath and unpleasant mouth taste Usage[edit] Common use involves rinsing the mouth with about 20ml (2/3 fl oz) of mouthwash two times a day after brushing. The wash is typically swished or gargled for about half a minute and then spat out. In some brands, the expectorate is stained, so that one can see the bacteria and debris.[10][11] Some may suggest that it is probably advisable to use mouthwash at least an hour after brushing with toothpaste when the toothpaste contains sodium lauryl sulfate, since the anionic compounds in the SLS toothpaste can deactivate cationic agents present in the

mouthrinse.[12] However, many would disagree with this hypothesis; in fact, many of the popular mouthwashes contain sodium lauryl sulfate as an ingredient (e.g., Listerine Total Care).[citation needed] Active ingredients[edit] Each commercial brand of mouthwash has different ingredients. The active ingredients are usually alcohol,[13] chlorhexidine gluconate,[11][13][14] cetylpyridinium chloride[13]hexetidine,[13] benzoic acid (acts as a buffer),[13] methyl salicylate,[citation

triclosan[15], benzalkonium chloride,[citation needed] methylparaben,[citation needed] hydrogen

peroxide,[citation needed] domiphen bromide[citation needed] and sometimes fluoride,[16][citation


enzymes,[citation needed] and calcium[citation needed]. They can also includeessential oils that

have some antibacterial properties,[13][17] like phenol,[13] thymol,[13] eugenol,[13] eucalyptol[citation needed] or menthol[citation

. Ingredients also include water, sweeteners such as sorbitol, sucralose, sodium

saccharin, and xylitol (which doubles as a bacterial inhibitor).[18] A study suggested that cetylpyridinium chloride could be as effective as chlorhexidine in mouthwashes.[19] Another study suggested that mouthwashes based on essential oilscould be more effective than traditional mouthwashes.[17] Sometimes a significant amount of alcohol (up to 27% vol) is added,[20] as a carrier for the flavor, to provide "bite".[21] Because of the alcohol content, it is possible to fail abreathalyzer test after rinsing although breath alcohol levels return to normal after 10 minutes[citation needed]. In addition, alcohol is a drying agent and may worsen chronic bad breath.[citation needed] Recently, the possibility that the alcohol used in mouthrinses acts as a carcinogen was raised, but there is to date no scientific consensus on the issue.[22][23][24] Commercial mouthwashes usually contain a preservative such as sodium

benzoate to preserve freshness once the container has been opened. Many newer brands are alcohol-free and contain odor-elimination agents such as oxidizers, as well as odorpreventing agents such as zinc ion to keep future bad breath from developing.[citation needed] Alternative mouthwash ingredients[edit] A salt mouthwash is a home treatment for mouth infections and/or injuries, or post extraction, and is made by dissolving a teaspoon of salt in a cup of warm water. Recently, the use of herbal mouthwashes such as persica is increasing, due to the perceived discoloration effects and unpleasant taste of chlorhexidine.[25] Research has also indicated that sesame and sunflower oils might be alternatives to chlorhexidine.[26][27] Other products like hydrogen peroxide have been tried out as stand-alone[28] and in combination with chlorhexidine, due to some inconsistent results regarding its[clarification

usefulness.[29] Another study has demonstrated that daily use of an alum-containing

mouthrinse was safe and produced a significant effect on plaque that supplemented the benefits of daily toothbrushing.[30] Compounding[edit] Custom mouthwashes, called "magic mouthwash" may be prescribed by dentists for post oral surgeries. Variations are common, and some are done with over-the-counterproducts.[citation

Health risks[edit] A literature review by Michael McCullough and Camile Farah, published in the Australian Dental Journal in 2008, focused on a possible connection between mouthwashes that contain alcohol, and an increased risk of oral cancer.

There is now sufficient evidence to accept the proposition that developing oral cancer is increased or contributed to by the use of alcohol-containing mouthwashes. Whilst many of these products may have been shown to be effective in penetrating oral microbial biofilms in vitro and reducing oral bacterial load, it would be wise to restrict their use to short-term therapeutic situations if needed. Perhaps the use of mouthwashes that do not contain alcohol may be equally effective. Further, mouthrinses should be prescribed by dentists, like any other medication. There may well be a reason for the use of alcohol-containing mouthrinses, but only for a particular situation and for a limited and controlled period of time. As such, patients should be provided with written instructions for mouthwash use, and mouthwash use should be restricted to adults for short durations and specific, clearly defined reasons. It is the opinion of the authors that, in light of the evidence currently available of the association of alcohol-containing mouthwashes with the development of oral cancer, it would be inadvisable for oral healthcare professionals to recommend the long-term use of alcoholcontaining mouthwashes. McCullough and Farah, Australian Dental Journal[31] McCullough and Farah also state that the risk of acquiring cancer rises almost five times for users of alcohol-containing mouthwash who neither smoke nor drink (with a higher rate of increase for those who do).[32] In addition, the authors highlight side effects from several mainstream mouthwashes that included dental erosion and accidental poisoning of children. The review garnered media attention[33] and conflicting opinions from other researchers. Yinka Ebo of Cancer Research UK disputed the findings, concluding that "there is still not enough evidence to suggest that using mouthwash that contains alcohol will increase the risk of mouth cancer".[34] Studies conducted in 1985,[35] 1995,[36] and 2003[37] did not support an association between alcohol-containing mouth rinses and oral cancer. Andrew Penman, chief

executive of The Cancer Council New South Wales, called for further research on the matter.[38] In a March 2009 brief, the American Dental Association said "the available evidence does not support a connection between oral cancer and alcohol-containing mouthrinse".[39] Microbiome research and future products[edit] Research in the field of microbiomes shows that only a limited set of microbes cause tooth decay, with most of the bacteria in the human mouth being harmless. Focused attention on cavity-causing bacteria such as Streptococcus mutans has led research into new mouthwash treatments that prevent these bacteria from initially growing. While current mouthwash treatments must be used with a degree of frequency to prevent this bacteria from regrowing, future treatments could provide a viable long term solution.[40] Brands[edit]

Cpacol Colgate Corsodyl Dentyl pH Listerine Oral-B Sarakan Scope (mouthwash) Tantum verde

Mouthwash is marketed as a way to battle bad breath head on, but how well does it really work? The answer lies in its battle strategy. Most people who use mouthwash report a cleaner, fresher mouth -- at least until the next match. Mouthwash can tag team with brushing and flossing -- but mouthwash alone will not win the fight against bad breath. Check Out the Competition Bad breath comes from the mouth bacteria that cause dental plaque and release volatile sulfur compounds, which create a foul-smelling odor. Most mouthwashes are developed to either reduce the amount of bacteria or neutralize the compounds themselves, temporarily covering the odor until they build back up again. Since we all have bacteria in our mouths, we're all susceptible to a little musty breath at times -- and mouthwash offers a quick fix for the problem. But for those who suffer from chronic bad breath, or halitosis, mouthwash probably won't help. Halitosis is often the result of another problem like tooth decay, gum disease, dry mouth, sinus or stomach conditions, as well as medical or dental problems that affect the mouth. If you think you might have halitosis, you're not alone: An estimated 25 percent of Americans have chronic bad breath. What many people don't realize is that they have a cure right under their noses -- a dentist can diagnose and treat bad breath and help you keep it from returning in the future. In This Corner When bad breath makes an occasional appearance, you have a few options to treat it. There are two types of mouthwash for you to consider as part of your oral hygiene routine: Cosmetic -- Cosmetic mouthwash is used to freshen breath. Although over-the-counter mouthwash masks bad breath, it doesn't cure halitosis and its effect only lasts up to three hours. But anti-bacterial mouthwashes do reduce bacteria and remove debris before or after brushing, which can give an extra boost to your oral hygiene routine.

Therapeutic -- These mouth rinses help control the oral problems that cause bad breath. Therapeutic mouthwashes may be recommended to reduce dental plaque, control gingivitis (keep in mind that mouthwash is not a gum disease treatment and periodontal disease can only be treated by a dentist) and provide relief from oral pain; fluoride rinses help strengthen teeth and prevent tooth decay. Some therapeutic mouthwashes can only be prescribed by a dentist and may be used to help keep the mouth clean after oral surgery. Step Into the Ring Your mouthwash should contain directions for usage. Follow the directions and use only the proper amount indicated on the label to reduce the possibility of side effects. Most mouthwashes should be swished around the oral cavity for 30 seconds and spit out. Avoid swallowing mouthwash, as the ingredients can upset your stomach. After rinsing, you should not eat or drink anything for at least 30 minutes, as to not diminish its effectiveness. For lasting results, don't smoke -- smoking not only causes bad breath but also ruins the effectiveness of mouthwash. Be On the Look Out Some mouthwashes contain a high level of alcohol, which has no therapeutic value. Surprisingly, alcohol doesn't kill germs but is used as a preservative to sustain the mouthwash's active ingredients. Unfortunately, alcohol-containing mouth rinses can cause a burning sensation for some patients. Mouthwash is also not recommended for children under the age of 12 as it poses a risk of alcohol poisoning if swallowed. Recently, there's been much debate as to whether these mouth rinses cause more harm than good. Some say that alcohol-containing mouthwashes may end up causing the same problem they're designed to fix. Alcohol is a drying agent -- and if your mouth is dry, you can't produce saliva. A dry mouth is a perfect environment for the bacteria that cause bad breath

and tooth decay to grow. Saliva works like a natural mouthwash, helping wash away the elements that contribute to mouth odor. If you suffer from dry mouth, a mouthwash that contains alcohol may not be for you. That isn't to say you should avoid mouthwashes with alcohol. Different substances affect people in different ways, so a mouthwash with high alcohol content may not bother you. There is also no evidence that using an alcohol-containing mouthwash increases your risk of oral cancer -- but you should read the label for other side effects, as some mouthwashes can cause tooth stains, ulcers and tooth sensitivity. Your dentist can help you decide which mouthwash is best for you. Earn Your Title Mouthwash can be beneficial for those who are prone to oral problems. Anti-bacterial mouth rinses can help those who are extremely susceptible to tooth decay or gingivitis, an early stage of gum disease. Mouthwashes may also be recommended for geriatric or disabled patients who might have dexterity problems or trouble managingdental products. But for most of us, mouthwash is not meant to be a substitute for proper oral hygiene techniques. The best way to get rid of bacteria is through brushing and flossing, which you should be doing on a daily basis. Although mouthwash will reduce bacteria, it will not cure the oral problems that cause bad breath. If you want to "smack down" halitosis, visit your dentist regularly for dental treatment.

My brother always use mouthwash. And based on his feedbacks, mouthwash is really working for those who are having unpleasant smell of breath. How to Use Mouthwash Properly Pour about 20ml of your favorite mouthwash into a small cup. 2

After brushing your teeth, pour the mouthwash into your mouth. Do not swallow. Gargle it for about 45 seconds. Spit it out into the sink REFERENCE

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