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SISTEM PERSAMAAN LINEAR

Nama
: Firdawati Aryani
NIM
: 2010121207
Mata Kuliah
: Aljabar Linear
Dosen Pengasuh : Drs. Yulianto, MM

1. Diketahui persamaan-persamaan berikut:


3x1 - 2x2 + x3 + 2x4 5x5 = 8
2x1 + 4x2 - 3x3 - x4 + 2x5 = 10
4x1 - 2x2 + 2x3 + x4 3x5 = 6
x1 + x2 + 3x3 + 4x4 + 2x5 = 12
3x1 - x2 + 2x3 + 2 x4 2x5 = 14
Tentukan x1, x2, x3, x4, dan x5!
Penyelesaian:
3

10

12

14

x
23 R1
1
3

R1
R1
4
3
1
3

R1

1 23
0
0
0

16
3
2
3
5
3

+ R2
1
8

x 163
18 R 2
165 R 2
163 R 2

1
3
11
3
2
3
8
3

2
3

53

73
53
10
3

16
3
11
3
11
3

8
3
14
3
14
3
28
3

3
1 0 18
8
0 1 116 167
0 0 98
118
61
65
0 0 16
16
27
7
0 0 16
16
+ 19 R 3
11
+ 18
R3
x 89
61
18
R3
27
18
R3

1
0
0
0
0

+
+

1 134
7
1
8
3 21
4
63
2
8
41
2
8

1 0
0 1
0 0
0 0
0 0
72
25 R 5
+ 257
25 R 5
+ 239
25 R 5
147
25 R 5
x 157
25

8
0 92
23
3
23
17
0 18
74
6
8
1 119
14
3
3
77
157
49
0 18 6
3
0 52
52 13

0
1
0
0
0

R4

R4
R4

X 1

4
157
23
157
22
157
18
157
45
157

356
25
1486
25
1322
25
756
25
886
25

X 3
X 4

R4

X1 =

316
157
224
157
168
157
462
157
886
157

X 2

72
0 157
257
0 157
239
0 157
1 147
157
25
0 157

0
0
1
0
0

X 5

356

25

; X2 =

1486
25

; X3 =

1322
25

; X4 =

756
25

; X5 =

886
25

Pembuktian :

3x1 - 2x2 + x3 + 2x4 5x5 = 8


3

356
25

-2

1486
25

1322
25

1068
2972
25
25

+2

756
25

886
25

1322 1512
4430
+
25
25
25
200
25

=8

=8

=8

8 = 8 ( terbukti )

2x1 + 4x2 - 3x3 - x4 + 2x5 = 10


2

356
25

+4

1486
25

712
25

-3
+

1322
25

5944
25

756
25

+2

3966
756
+
25
25

886
25

= 10

1772
=
25

250
25

10

= 10

10 = 10 ( terbukti )

4x1 - 2x2 + 2x3 + x4 3x5 = 6


4

356
25

- 2

1486
25

+2

1322
25

1424
2972
25
25

2644
25

756
25

-3

756
25

886
25

2658
25

150
25

=6

=6

=6

6 = 6 ( terbukti )

x1 + x2 + 3x3 + 4x4 + 2x5 = 12

356
25

1486
25

+3

1322
25

356
1486
+
25
25

+4
+

756
25

+2

3966 3024
- 25
25

886
25

= 12

1772
=
25

300
=
25

12

12

12 = 12 ( terbukti )

3x1 - x2 + 2x3 + 2 x4 2x5 = 14


3

356
25

1486
25

+2

1322
25

1068 1486
- 25
25

+2
+

2644
25

756
25

-2

886
25

1512 1772
+ 25 =
25

= 14
14

350
=
25

14

14 = 14 ( terbukti )

MATRIKS
Nama
: Firdawati Aryani
NIM
: 2010121207
Semester
: III
Jurusan
: FKIP MIPA
Prodi
: Pend. Matematika
Mata Kuliah
: Aljabar Linear
Dosen Pengasuh : Drs. Yulianto, MM
1. Dengan menggunakan eliminasi Gauss-Yordan, tentukan invers dari matriks di
bawah ini jika ada!
1

1
5
2

0
1
3

0
0
1

b. 1

1
1
1

0
3
1

2
0
1

a. 3
4

Penyelesaian:

1
5

0
1

0
0

1
2

0
1

0
0

0 1
0 0

0
1

0
0

0
0

1
2 R1

0 0

+3R1

1 0

4 R1

0
0

1
0

0
1

0 2
0 13

1
5

0
1

0
0

0
1

1 3R 3

a. A = 3

Jadi, A 1 =

2
13
39

1
5
13

0
1
3

0
0
1

0
1

1
0

0
1

0
0

0 1
0 2

0
1

0
0

0
0

0 5 R 2

1 4

1 2 R 2

0
0

1
0

0
1

0 2
0 13

1
5

0
1

0
0

1 39

13

Pembuktian:
A 1 . A = I

b.

0
2
1
0

1
1
1
1

2
13

1
5

0
1

0
0

2
3

1
5

0
1

0
0

0
0

1
0

0
1

0
0

39

13

1
0
3
1

0
2
0
1

= I (Terbukti)

Tidak ada invers, karena pada diagonalnya ada yang bernilai nol

(0)

2. Selesaikanlah sistem persamaan linear berikut jika diketahui a, b, dan c adalah


x+ y z =a

bilangan rasional:

z =b
2x + y + 2z = c

a. Dengan menggunakan eliminasi Gauss-Yordan!


b. Dengan menggunakan invers matriks!
Penyelesaian:
x + y z = a x + y b = a x + y = a +b
2 x + y + 2 z = c 2 x + y + 2b = c 2 x + y = 2b + c

a.Metode eliminasi Gauss-Yordan

a + b 1

1 2b + c 2 R1
1

+R 2

1 2a 4b + c 1
a +b

0 a 3b + c x

1 2a + 4b c y

x = a 3b + c

Jadi, y = 2a + 4b c
z =b

b. Metode invers matriks


1

0 1

1 2 R1

11
10

1 2

0 +R 2

1 1

0 1
1 2

1
1
1
P =
1
2

1
1

x 1 1 a + b a b + c 2b a 3b + c
y = 2 1 2b + c = 2a + 2b c + 2b = 2a + 4b c

x = a 3b + c

Jadi, y = 2a + 4b c
z =b

Pembuktian:

2x + y + 2z = c
x+ yz =a
2( a 3b + c ) + 2a + 4b c + 2b = c
a 3b + c + 2a + 4b c b = a
2a 6b + 2c + 2a + 4b c + 2b = c
a = a terbukti
c = c terbukti

3. Dengan menggunakan operasi baris elementer dan sifat-sifat determinan,


hitunglah determinan dari matriks berikut:
246
1.014

342

427
543
721

327
443

621

Penyelesaian:
A = 246( K 1.1 ) + 427( K 1.2 ) + 327( K 1.3 )
K 1.1 = ( 1) 2

543

443

721

621

K 1.2 = ( 1)

1.014

443

342

621

1.014

543

342

721

K 1.3 = ( 1)

= 337.203 319.403 =17.800


= ( 629.694 +151.506 ) = 781.200
= 731.094 +185.706 = 916.800

A = 246(17.800 ) +427( 781.200 ) +327(916.800 ) = 4.378.800 333.572.400 +299.793.600 `

`= 29.400.000

n2

2
4. Tunjukkan bahwa det A = ( n + 1)
( n + 2 ) 2

Penyelesaian:

A = n 2 ( K 1.1 ) + ( n + 1) ( K 1.2 ) + ( n + 2 ) ( K 1.3 )


2

( n + 1) 2 ( n + 2) 2
( n + 2) 2 ( n + 3) 2
( n + 3) 2 ( n + 4) 2

= -8

K 1.1 = ( 1)

( n + 2 ) 2 ( n + 3) 2
( n + 3) 2 ( n + 4 ) 2

= ( n + 2 ) ( n + 4 ) ( n + 3)
2

= n 4 + 12n 3 + 52n 2 + 96n + 64 n 4 12n 3 54n 2 108n 81 = 2n 2 12n 17


K 1.2 = ( 1)

( n + 1) 2 ( n + 3) 2
2
2
2
2
[( n + 1) ( n + 4 ) ( n + 3) ( n + 2 ) ]
( n + 2) 2 ( n + 4) 2 =

= ( n 4 + 10n 3 + 33n 2 + 40n + 16 n 4 10n 3 37 n 2 60n 36 )


= ( 4n 2 20n 20) = 4n 2 + 20n + 20
K 1.3 = ( 1)

( n + 1) 2 ( n + 2 2 ) = ( n + 1) 2 ( n + 3) 2 ( n + 2) 4
( n + 2 ) 2 ( n + 3) 2

= n 4 + 8n 3 + 22n 2 + 24n + 9 n 4 8n 3 24n 2 32n 16 = 2n 2 8n 7


A = n 2 ( 2n 2 12n 17 ) + ( n +1) ( 4n 2 + 20n + 20 ) + ( n + 2 ) ( 2n 2 8n 7 )
2

= 2n 4 12n 3 17n 2 + 4n 4 + 28n 3 + 64n 2 + 60n + 20 2n 2 16n 3 47 n 2 60n 28 = 8


n2
( n + 1) 2 ( n + 2) 2

2
2
2
Jadi, terbukti bahwa det A = ( n + 1) ( n + 2 ) ( n + 3) = -8
( n + 2 ) 2 ( n + 3) 2 ( n + 4 ) 2

5. Gunakan aturan crammer untuk menyelesaikan system persamaan linear di


x + y z =1

berikut ini: a. x + y + z = 2
x y =3

2 x + 3 y z =1

b.

x +2 y z = 4
2 x y + z = 3

Penyelesaian:
x + y z =1

a. x + y + z = 2
x y =3

x=

y=

1 1

1 2

0 3

1 1

1 1

0 1

1 1

1 1

0 1

4
1

z=

11

21

31

2 x + 3 y z =1

b.

x +2 y z = 4
2 x y + z = 3

0 + 3 + 2 + 3 +1 0
9
=
0 +1 +1 +1 +1 0
4

0 +1 3 + 2 3 0
3
=
4
4

3 + 2 1 1 + 2 3 1
=
4
2

x=

y=

z=

1
4

3
2

1 1
1 4

3
2
1
2

1
3
2
1

1 3
1 2
1 1
1 2

1 2

1 1

2
2
1
2 + 9 + 4 6 1 12
4
=
=
=2
3
4 + 6 +1 4 + 2 3
2
2
1

1 2

2
1 2
4

8 + 2 + 3 8 + 6 1 6
=
=3
2
2

12 24 1 + 4 8 + 9
8
=
=4
2
2

3 2

x 2

Jadi, y = 3
z 4

1
1
6. Nyatakan determinan dari matriks B! B=
2

1
2
4
2

2
3
7

(6 t)

1
4
( 2t + 6)

B = K 1.1 + K 1.2 + 2 K 1.3 + K 1.4


2
2
K 1.1 = ( 1) 4
2

3
7
6 t

4
2t +6
t

2
4
2

3
7 =14t +12t +36 +96 16t 56 + 4t +12t 72 12
6 t

4
2t + 6
t

1
2
2

3
7 = (7t +12t + 36 + 48 8t 56 + 2t 2 6t 36 )
6 t

= 4t 2 + 10t + 4
1
3
K 1.2 = ( 1) 2
2

3
7
6 t

1
4
K 1.3 = ( 1) 2

2
4

4
2t + 6

1
2

2
4 = 4t +8t + 24 +16 32 4t 12 4t

2
4
2

3
7
6 t

= ( 2t 2 + 5t 8) = 2t 2 5t + 8

= 4t 4
1
5
K 1.4 = ( 1) 2
2

1
2
2

2
4 = ( 24 4t + 28 +12 24 14 24 + 4t ) = 2
2

B = 4t 2 +10t + 4 + 2t 2 6t 36 + 8t 8 2 = 6t 2 +12t 42

Jadi,

B = 6t 2 +12t 42