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SCIENTIFIC NOTATION

Scientific Notation is a method for expressing a given quantity as a number having significant necessary for specified degree of accuracy, multiplied by 10 to the appropriate power. Scientists usually write numbers in a form of exponential notation called Scientific notation which means that the number is written with one non-zero digit to the left of the decimal point and an integer exponent or power of ten. Example: 1385.62 written as 1.38562 x 103

Addition, Subtraction, Multiplication and Division Of Scientific Notation


To add or subtract two numbers in scientific notation:
Step 1: Adjust the powers of 10 in the 2 numbers so that they have the same index (Tip: It is easier to adjust the smaller index to equal the larger index) Step 2: Add or Subtract numbers Step 3: Give the answer in scientific notation.

Example 1 addition: 2.456 x 105 + 6.0034 x 108=? 1. 2. 3. 4. 8-5= 3. The smaller exponent must be increased by 3. 2.456 x 105= 0.002456 x 108 0.002456 x 108 + 6.0034 x 108= 6.005856 x 108 6.005856 x 108 is in scientific notation Thus 2.456 x 105 + 6.0034 x 108= 6.005856 x 108

Example 2 subtraction: 5.10802 x 103 6 .1 x 10-2 =? 1. 2. 3. 4. 3 (2) = 5. The smaller exponent must be increased by 5. 6 .1 x 10-2 = 0.000061 x 103 5.10802 x 103 6 .1 x 10-2 = 5.107959 x 103 5.107959 x 103 is in scientific notation. Thus, 5.10802 x 103 6 .1 x 10-2= 5.107959 x 103

To multiply two numbers in scientific notation:


Step 1: Group the numbers together. Step 2: Multiply the numbers. Step 3: Use the law of indices to simplify the powers of 10 Step 4: Give the answer in scientific notation

Example 1 multiplication: (5.60 x 1012) x (7.102 x 104) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.6 x 7.102= 39.8 1012+ 104= 1012+4= 1016 (5.60 x 1012) x (7.102 x 104)= 39.8 x 1016 39.8 x 1016= 3.98 x 1017 Thus, (5.60 x 1012) x (7.102 x 104) = 3.98 x 1017

To divide two numbers in scientific notation:


Step 1: Divide the coefficients, round to the number of significant figures in the coefficient with the smallest number of significant figures. Step 2: Subtract the exponent Step 3: Convert the result to scientific notation

Example 2: (3.04 x 105) / (9.89 x 102) =? 1. 3.04/ 9.89 = 0.307 2. 105/102= 103 (3.04 x 105) / (9.89 x 102) = 0.307 x 103 Thus, (3.04 x 105) / (9.89 x 102) = 3.07 x 102