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ABSTRACTThe objective of this experiment is to find the main contributors to heat transfer in the system.

Water is
heated and the energy is transferred in two ways throughout the system. The system is run for a period of 30
minutes, in both free and forced convection. The heat produced by the boiler will remain constant throughout the
experiment and the actual energy gathered will be a result of the condensed water captured in the three different
vessels. The theoretical and experimental data was determined through measurements taken in the experiment
by thermocouple, scale and water drainage for the forced and free convection trials. The steam condensed on the
outer surface of the inner tube as well as the inner surface of the outer tube. When theoretical values for forced
convection were calculated (284KJ) was compared to the 220 KJ for the experimental values, roughly 25% error
was experienced.

Contents
ABSTRACT- ..................................................................................................................................................................... 1
INTRODUCTION- ............................................................................................................................................................ 3
Methodology & Experimental System-.......................................................................................................................... 4
Theory ............................................................................................................................................................................ 5
Results............................................................................................................................................................................ 9
Conculsion- .................................................................................................................................................................. 14
References- .................................................................................................................................................................. 15
APPENDIX- ................................................................................................................................................................... 16
Formulas- ................................................................................................................................................................. 16
Nomenclature-......................................................................................................................................................... 18
Sample Calculations-................................................................................................................................................ 28
Procedure- ............................................................................................................................................................... 33

INTRODUCTIONThe experimental system uses a boiler which supplies heat to the water to create steam. Heat is lost in the
system and calculations are shown later in the report to analyze this for the two trials in the experiment, forced
and free convection.
Convection refers to the transfer of thermal energy in the means of diffusion. As a fluid moves around the
boundaries of an object, with a given velocity, an amount of heat energy will be transferred. It is used in many
processes, such as cooling a circuit board or keeping a room cool during a hot summer. The fluid, which comes in
at a certain temperature, will experience the change in temperature. The object is being cooled while the fluid
keeps flowing. This process repeats over and over again, keeping the object at a desired temperature.
A reservoir in the system was adjusted between forced and free convection levels. This means that the
pressure head is being changed. The forced convection setup creates a pressure head capable of moving water
through the system with a velocity. The free convection setup does not circulate as much new water into the
system. The forced convection setup results in an increase in dissipated heat in the exiting of the fluid into the
drainage tank. This results in a larger total heat transfer for the forced convection than the free convection.
In the next section of the report the procedure used to complete the actual experiment is shown. After
that a general understanding of the equations and methodology used will be explained. Finally, a series of sample
calculations are shown that show how achieving the hc = convection heat transfer coefficient was possible and
what conclusions can be made through these results.

Methodology & Experimental System-

The equipment used for this experiment is basically one piece equipment which includes different
components. An electric boiler is the driving force of the experiment. The boiler is set to a constant output (1100
watts) and as a result it heats the water and turns it into steam. This steam is fed into a condensing tower. This
tower is comprised of a closed jacket and a central single aluminum tube. Cooling water passes upward though the
inside of this condenser tube, causing the steam to condense on the outside surface. Steam also condenses on the
inside surface of the jacket as heat escapes out into the room. A boiler supply tank is used to provide and maintain
a constant level in the boiler this insures that the mass within the system remains constant during the experiment
(glass tube). Cooling water is provided by reservoir that allows the experiment to be performed with either free or
forced convection. All the copper-constantan (type T) thermocouples are monitored using a high impedance
millivoltmeter. Tube wall and shell wall condensates are collected separately from drain tubes provided, and
cooling water flow through the condenser tube is collected in the weigh tank mounted on the scale.
When performing the experiment many water levels needed to remain constant in the system. The group
members were given different responsibilities such as, maintaining the glass tube water height, maintaining
reservoir height (forced/free setting), as well as keeping track of the start and finish water levels.
4

TheoryWhen analyzing convection heat transfer coefficients, three dimension-less values must be acquired. To
determine what numerous constants are the initial conditions must be known so tables can be utilized.
Nusselt Number:

Prandtl Number:

Grashoff Number:
(

Reynolds number, for internal flow, is obtained by the following equation:

These equations are crucial to calculate to determine what type of flow exists in the system. In order to use the
correct heat transfer equation the type of flow must be known to be laminar or turbulent.

Types of Convection observedForced convection occurs when the fluid flows across the boundary of an object, with the movement
caused by external forces. Heat transfer coefficient for the forced convection depends on the relationship between
Nusselt number, Prandtl number and the Grashoff number acquired for free convection. The relationship is
expressed in the following equation:
5

Free convection occurs when the fluid is allowed to flow by means of buoyancy forces. This convection
method occurs when the temperature differences exist between the two ends of the air. When the end part
touching the hot object contacts the object, the fluid becomes warmer and less dense. The air moves up and the
colder air moves in to replace the warmer air. The combination of the variables in order to obtain the heat transfer
coefficient for the free convection process is:
(

Heat transfer in condensation, because a phase change is involved, requires complex analysis.
Condensation takes place when vapor is cooled down. Once this occurs, heat is transferred in a
fundamentally different manner than when heat is added or taken away from a fluid without such phase
change. When vapor is condensed, it lets go of considerable amounts of energy. The condensed fluid
becomes a barrier, in the form of a liquid film which either completely or partially covers the cooler
surface. If the drainage of the fluid is done from vertical or inclined surface, the drainage will be naturally
faster than a horizontal surface. The film will be thinner. If the vertical height is great, the accumulation of
condensate fluid at the lower portion of the surface will thicken the film and make the lower portion less
effective than the upper transmitting heat.

In order to acquire an even more accurate result, the heat transfer that occurs when heat is released
during the condensation of the vapor must also be taken into account. This value can be easily calculated by
obtaining the latent heat of vaporization value. Nevertheless, as the condensate is cooled below Tsat, the equation
must be modified to:

h*fg hfg 0.68Cpl (Tsat Ts )


Setting up all equations together, the combination of the rate of heat transfer and the heat transfer coefficient
formulas, the following equation is obtained.
.

Q conden hAs (Tsat Ts ) mh*fg


Once every value has been obtained, the heat transfer coefficient for the free and forced convection heat
transfer processes can be obtained.
The theoretical value for the free convection is expressed as:

k 3 2 h fg
h C

Do T

.25

The theoretical value for the forced convection is expressed as:


.8

k VDi
Pr .4
hC

Di
In order to determine the heat transferred amount, two equations are needed. The equations will take
into account the gains and losses in the system. The first equation needed is the heat transferred from the steam,
which is expressed as follows:

QSteam VSteam h fg
The second equation needed is the heat transfer that occurs in the water. The equation is expressed in the
following manner:

QWater WWater Cp TWater


7

Therefore, in order to acquire the total amount of heat transferred, the two equations must be combined.
The total amount of heat transferred is expressed in the following manner:

QLosses QSteam QWater


In order to find the heat transfer coefficient, the transfer heat amount must be obtained. Further, the
resistance must be taken into account. The resistance value will give us the rate at which the heat is being
transferred, which will symbolize the overall heat transfer coefficient.
Heat Flow Through a pipe
Forced convection

) (

Natural Convection

)(

Condensing Steam

Free Convenction

T1
T2
T3
T4
T5
T6
T7
T8
T9
T10
T0
T11 W4
10-15 min 114.4 87.786 105.25 103.2 99.494 110.51 23.335 92.589 80.441 103.55 26.67285 20.29 25
25
110
135
6.25

Cooling Water Out - kg (W(final)-W(initial))

Boiler Feed Water ( w3 + w4) mL

Tube Wall Condensate Out - mL

10-15 minutes
114.184 46.9844 98.2058 94.901 89.421 110.14 23.01 59.1347 75.0141 92.3296 26.6312 20.812

Outside Wall Condensate Out -mL

Room

Cooling Water Supply Tank

Condenser Steam Inside

Cooling Tube Surface - Lower

Cooling Tube Surface - Upper

Cooling Water Bottom

Boiler Surface - Outside

Condenser Surface - Outside

Tube Wall Condensate Out

Cup Condensate Out

Cooling Water Out

Steam In

Time Intervals
Steam In

Cooling Water Out

Cup Condensate Out

Tube Wall Condensate Out

Condenser Surface - Outside

Boiler Surface - Outside

Cooling Water Bottom

Cooling Tube Surface - Upper

Cooling Tube Surface - Lower

Condenser Steam Inside

Cooling Water Supply Tank

Room

Outside Wall Condensate Out -mL

Tube Wall Condensate Out - mL

Boiler Feed Water ( w3 + w4) mL

Cooling Water Out - kg (W(final)-W(initial))

Time Intervals

Results

All calculations are based on data collected from the tenth to fifteenth minutes of the experiment. The
data was averaged over the five minute time difference and used to compute empirical and experimental values.
The excel copies below show the average temperatures and volume/weight of water/steam-condensate collected.

Forced Convection

T1
T2
T3
T4
T5
T6
T7
T8
T9
T10
T0
T11
W4
W3
W1
W2

W3 W1 W2
98 123 2.4375

Heat Transfer Coefficient, Forced Convection, Inner

0.8

K V Di Cp
h1 ( Forced ) C

Di

0.4

hi_forced = heat transfer Co efficient of FORCED convection


C is a constant = 0.0023
V = mean average velocity of fluid in m/s
Do = outer diameter of inner tube =(

( ))

Do = inner diameter of inner tube =( )


g = acceleration due to gravity in m/sec/sec = 9.8 m/s2
k = Thermal Conductivity, in W/m* K
Cp= specific heat in kJ/kg
k = Thermal Conductivity, in W/mK
= Viscosity in kg/m*s
= Density of Water in kg/m3

*Properties in red were found in water property tables at atmospheric pressure and Tavg = T2 + T7/2
Tavg = 34.99555769 C , = 994.0317414 kg/m3, = 0.000724071 kg/m*s, Cp= 4.178 kJ/kg
k = 0.622917743 W/m*K
10

W2 = 6.25 lbm; mass of water that passed through the inner pipe in a five minute interval

Ai

6.25lbs *0.454kg / lb
0.009449792kg / s ; mass flow rate
5min*60sec/ min
Di2
4

(0.01905)2
4

0.000285 m2 ; Cross sectional area of inner tube

) *(

= 341.08

Heat Transfer Coefficient; Condensing Steam; Outer Surface; Inner Tube

* Properties used in this calculation were taken at Tfilm = Tsurface + Tsteam


EXCEPT hfg taken at Tsteam
Tsurface is the average inner pipe outer surface temperature; T8 + T9
Tsteam is the average temperature of condensing steam ; T10

T = Tsteam Tsurface = 8.521 C


k = 0.677012277

, = 961.4779015

, = 0.000290945

, hfg = 2,247,415.8
11

C = 1.666 for vertical pipe with height L= 0.635m

Heat Transferred; Forced Convection (empirical calculations)


0.02064m

ln 0.01905m

1
1
1
0.01905m
K
R

0.09308
W
W
0.000285
0.02064m
W
6303.14 W
238
458.06 2

mK
m K
m2 K

Total heat added to water in a five minute interval;


q=

Experimental : Heat Transferred; Losses due to condensing steam on inner Surface of


OUTER Tube; Forced Convection
(

Experimental: Heat Transferred; Forced Convection

)
(

When all the data was collected the heat transfer coefficient was able to be solved for. Based on our data
between the time period of 10 and 15 minutes the heat transferred for the free convection was 186.5 KJ while for
forced it was 220 KJ. Through the theory that was previously talked about it would be a logical hypothesis to
assume that the forced convection would have a greater heat transferred. This is because a fluid is being forced
12

through having a flow rate that is constantly implementing new cooler fluid to the system. Therefore, the new
fluid has a greater difference in temperature and creates a greater heat transfer.

13

ConculsionThe steam condensed on the outer surface of the inner tube as well as the inner surface of the outer tube.
This was the primary mode of heat transfer in the experiment. The empirically calculated results varied by roughly
25% when compared to the experimentally calculated results. This can be attributed to the experimental
methods. The experiment had its downfalls that could have poorly affected our results and therefore, our
calculations. The measurement system of filling up beakers seemed fairly unreliable. Since the trials were 30
minutes long often times the beakers would become full and require emptying, in which water was not being
caught and mass was lost. In addition, there was pressure accumulating inside of the cylinder itself that was not
accounted for. This pressure was assumed to be atmospheric when in reality it was probably higher.

14

References1. Mills, A.F., Heat Transfer, Prentice-Hall, New Jersey (1999).


2. Bird, R.B., Stewart, W.E., and Lightfoot, E.N., Transport Phenomena, Wiley, New York
2007).
3. Gebhart, B., Jaluria, Y., Mahajan, R.L., and Sammakia, B., Buoyancy-Induced Flows and
Transport, Hemisphere, Cambridge (1988).

15

APPENDIXFormulas-

Nusselt Number:

Prandtl Number:

Grashoff Number:
(

Reynolds number, for internal flow, is obtained by the following equation:

Experimental calculation for heat transfer


.

Q conden hAs (Tsat Ts ) mh*fg


The theoretical value for the free convection is expressed as:

k 3 2 h fg
h C

Do T

.25

The theoretical value for the forced convection is expressed as:


16

.8

k VDi
Pr .4
hC

Di
The first equation needed is the heat transferred from the steam

QSteam VSteam h fg
The second equation needed is the heat transfer that occurs in the water.

QWater WWater Cp TWater


The total amount of heat transferred is expressed in the following manner:

QLosses QSteam QWater

17

Nomenclature-

hc = convection heat transfer coefficient


D = characteristic linear dimension
K = thermal conductivity of material
Cp = Specific heat
Q = heat
C = constant (addressed in each individual equation)
= viscosity of fluid
= density
g = acceleration due to gravity
U = mean velocity of fluid
G = Mass flux
= latent heat of vaporization
= specific heat of fluid at average temperature
= Saturation temperature
= surrounding temperature

18

Forced Convection Experimental Observations/Data

Cooling Water Bottom

Cooling Tube Surface - Upper

Cooling Tube Surface - Lower

Condenser Steam Inside

Cooling Water Supply Tank

Room

T5
87.12
88.26
89.03
89.8
89.36
89
88.49
87.79
87.69
88.34
88.67
88.76
88.1
87.11
87.16
87.39
87.97
89.4
89.74
90.03
90.25
90.45
90.98
91.01
90.05
89.12
89.12
88.89
89.01
90.12
90.4
90.86
91.38
90.93
91.48
91.26
89.96
88.62
87.73
87.63
88.3
88.86
89.12
89.14
89.78
90.93
91.23
91.45
90.91
90.94
90.38
88.41
86.41
85.31
89.64

T6
110.67
110.46
110.48
110.34
110.37
110.05
109.83
109.91
109.83
110.11
109.98
109.72
109.87
109.9
110.04
110.2
110.41
110.69
110.35
110.22
110.04
110.53
110.41
110.13
109.95
110.15
110.37
110.19
110.49
110.29
110.2
110.4
110.48
110.41
109.78
109.83
109.7
109.97
110.37
110.06
110.02
110.47
110.29
110.1
110.19
109.89
110.14
110.25
110.25
110.23
109.65
109.15
109.61
109.63
110.07

T7
23.2
22.97
22.79
22.86
22.75
22.84
22.75
22.55
22.47
22.54
22.61
22.65
22.69
22.66
22.59
22.58
22.57
22.54
22.62
22.67
22.72
22.7
23.12
23.08
23.07
22.91
22.88
22.76
22.96
23.05
22.85
22.79
22.79
22.87
23.1
23.11
23.13
23.01
22.96
22.68
22.76
22.78
22.8
23.12
23.15
23.14
23.09
23.07
23.1
23.1
23.09
23.1
23.04
23
22.98

T8
55.21
55.817
57.263
58.174
58.968
56.326
56.474
54.916
54.55
56.357
59.12
59.571
55.261
53.641
55.389
55.765
58.068
58.641
59.531
58.735
60.59
59.017
60.99
61.164
58.496
58.411
57.796
57.564
57.711
59.187
59.779
59.148
58.914
60.605
61.131
61.398
59.073
54.911
55.009
57.008
58.757
59.425
59.242
60.705
60.726
62.13
60.883
60.189
59.994
61.638
59.522
56.64
53.211
52.452
58.823

T9
74.99
75.24
75.26
72.6
74.1
70.05
72.87
74.51
75.1
75.21
71.59
69.37
72.53
73.31
74.37
75.9
75.72
75.54
76.63
75.81
75.34
76.9
77.27
72.48
76.05
77.38
77.78
74.59
78.36
78.2
77.97
77.6
77.41
78.26
77.78
73.23
73.41
76.55
78.2
78.37
78.38
78.08
78.15
78.25
77.82
77.82
77.42
77.75
77.6
73.34
67.94
68.18
72.86
75.94
76.34

T 10
89.96
90.55
91.73
90.54
91.86
90.85
90.19
90.03
90.77
91.51
91.34
90.12
89.58
89.42
90.31
91.25
92.28
93.08
93.8
94.13
94.24
94.66
93.96
92.45
91.74
91.63
92.16
91.63
92.43
92.12
93.36
93.84
93.64
93.71
93.88
92.75
90.93
90.25
90.27
91.05
91.82
92.19
93.41
93.06
92.94
93.19
94.02
93.76
94.09
92.6
90.93
89.18
88.67
87.58
92.14

T0
26.76
26.57
26.51
26.55
26.56
26.57
26.57
26.56
26.55
26.56
26.6
26.57
26.58
26.56
26.57
26.56
26.56
26.57
26.54
26.52
26.54
26.53
26.57
26.58
26.53
26.55
26.54
26.56
26.54
26.59
26.56
26.55
26.59
26.55
26.53
26.61
26.61
26.6
26.55
26.57
26.58
26.58
26.64
26.62
26.6
26.62
26.63
26.58
26.57
26.6
26.61
26.64
26.62
26.56
26.59

T 11
21.13
20.85
20.83
20.84
20.87
20.82
20.83
20.81
20.82
20.85
20.83
20.86
20.82
20.76
20.78
20.82
20.88
20.79
20.84
20.85
20.86
20.84
20.87
20.87
20.83
20.83
20.85
20.84
20.9
20.86
20.88
20.87
20.89
20.85
20.88
20.89
20.87
20.87
20.83
20.85
20.85
20.87
20.9
20.86
20.84
20.85
20.86
20.83
20.82
20.83
20.84
20.86
20.84
20.8
20.86

Cooling Water Out - lbs

Boiler Surface - Outside

T4
94.4
96.06
97.68
96.76
94.93
94.78
92.26
92.63
94.25
96.34
96.45
92.63
90
90.07
92.58
94.82
97.16
98.64
99.16
99.03
98.84
98.61
98.56
95.32
91.77
91.75
92.98
95.13
94.81
96.19
96.98
96.77
97.13
96.85
96.56
94.2
89.95
88.22
89.31
91.56
93.4
94.51
96.12
96.56
96.9
96.58
95.91
95.09
94.71
94.06
89.75
86.58
84.8
85.08
93.41

Boiler Feed Water ( w3 + w4)

Condenser Surface - Outside

T3
97.05
98.31
99.35
99.73
98.66
97.99
96.35
96
96.74
98.07
98.45
97.05
95.33
94.31
95.36
96.59
97.95
99.32
100.2
100.5
100.5
100.8
100.9
99.84
97.89
97.26
97.41
98.07
98.27
99.09
99.46
99.47
100
100
100.2
99.42
97.33
95.43
94.99
96.04
96.92
97.69
98.93
99.52
100.1
99.86
99.6
99.31
99.19
99.09
96.88
94.67
92.34
91.52
97.9

Tube Wall Condensate Out - mL

Tube Wall Condensate Out

T2
44.11
45.1
46.15
46.41
46.38
43.98
44.46
41.04
42.99
45.74
46.87
46.5
41.67
39.82
41.95
43.77
45.61
47.09
47.8
47.93
47.94
48.2
48.17
48.17
45.81
41.71
44.51
45.18
45.78
47.15
47.69
47.68
47.91
47.8
47.84
47.48
45.84
41.11
40.39
43.69
45.92
46.29
47.09
47.89
48.18
47.86
47.96
47.51
46.62
47.31
47.05
41.52
38.27
38.01
45.69

Outside Wall Condensate Out -mL

Cup Condensate Out

Time
T1
15:16:15 114.4
15:16:26 114.3
15:16:38 114.3
15:16:49 114.3
15:17:01 114.3
15:17:12 114.2
15:17:23 114.3
15:17:35 114.3
15:17:46 114.3
15:17:58 114.3
15:18:09 114.3
15:18:21 114.2
15:18:32 114.3
15:18:44 114.3
15:18:55 114.3
15:19:07 114.3
15:19:18 114.3
15:19:30 114.3
15:19:41 114.3
15:19:53 114.3
15:20:04 114.3
15:20:16 114.2
15:20:27 114.3
15:20:39 114.2
15:20:50 114.2
15:21:02 114.3
15:21:13 114.3
0- 5 Minutes
114.3
15:21:25 114.2
15:21:36 114.2
15:21:48 114.2
15:21:59 114.2
15:22:11 114.3
15:22:22 114.2
15:22:33 114.2
15:22:45 114.2
15:22:56 114.2
15:23:08 114.2
15:23:19 114.2
15:23:31 114.2
15:23:42 114.2
15:23:54 114.2
15:24:05 114.3
15:24:17 114.2
15:24:28 114.2
15:24:40 114.2
15:24:51 114.2
15:25:03 114.2
15:25:14 114.2
15:25:26 114.2
15:25:37 114.2
15:25:49 114.2
15:26:00 114.2
15:26:12 114.2
5-10min 114.2

H20 Quantity Measurements

Cooling Water Out

Steam In

Experimental Data - Forced


Convection

T emperatures (Raw Data) - C

W4
0

W3
0

W1
0

W2
22.563

50

120

170

29.5

75

215

290

36.75

19

Forced Convection Experimental Observations/Data


5-10min 114.2
15:26:23 114.2
15:26:35 114.2
15:26:46 114.2
15:26:58 114.2
15:27:09 114.2
15:27:21 114.2
15:27:32 114.2
15:27:43 114.2
15:27:55 114.2
15:28:06 114.2
15:28:18 114.2
15:28:29 114.2
15:28:41 114.2
15:28:52 114.2
15:29:04 114.2
15:29:15 114.1
15:29:27 114.1
15:29:38 114.1
15:29:50 114.2
15:30:01 114.2
15:30:13 114.2
15:30:24 114.2
15:30:36 114.2
15:30:47 114.2
15:30:59 114.1
15:31:10 114.2
10-15 minutes
114.2
15:31:22 114.2
15:31:33 114.1
15:31:45 114.1
15:31:56 114.1
15:32:08 114.1
15:32:19 114.2
15:32:31 114.1
15:32:42 114.2
15:32:54 114.2
15:33:05 114.1
15:33:16 114.1
15:33:28 114.1
15:33:39 114.2
15:33:51 114.2
15:34:02 114.2
15:34:14 114.2
15:34:25 114.1
15:34:37 114.1
15:34:48 114.1
15:35:00 114.1
15:35:11 114.2
15:35:23 114.1
15:35:34 114.1
15:35:46 114.1
15:35:57 114.1
15:36:09 114.1
15-20 minutes
114.1
15:36:20 114.2
15:36:32 114.1
15:36:43 114.1
15:36:55 114.1
15:37:06 114.1
15:37:18 114.1
15:37:29 114.1
15:37:41 114.1
15:37:52 114.1
15:38:04 114.1
15:38:15 114.1

45.69
40.66
43.53
45.45
46.65
47.59
47.7
44.48
45.2
46.66
47
47.71
47.73
47.85
48.72
49.76
50.29
50.24
45.59
41.35
42.13
47.05
47.71
49.15
49.65
51.02
50.74
46.98
51.41
51.66
51.51
50.78
51.18
50.77
50.27
50.02
50.17
50.05
50.18
47.18
40.61
36.81
36.41
37.42
41.12
42.61
44.44
45.79
46.92
47.05
47.74
47.37
45.72
45.7
46.57
45.52
46.76
47.25
47.61
47.38
47.01
46.57
46.88
46.81
46.69
45.95

97.9
92.54
94.56
96.64
98.03
99.04
98.56
98.04
98.28
98.58
98.99
99.39
99.76
100.2
100.6
100.6
100.5
98.42
95.9
94.5
95.21
96.31
97.37
99.08
100.3
100.9
101.1
98.21
101.5
101.2
101.2
101
100.7
100.4
100
99.95
100.1
99.87
98.71
96.95
94.57
92.09
90.18
90.31
92.26
94.78
97.06
99.18
100.5
101.2
101.6
100.7
100.1
100.1
98.31
100.2
100.5
100.8
101
100.9
100.8
100.4
100.1
99.89
99.78
99.58

93.41
87.52
90.86
93.75
95.65
96.94
94.32
93.78
94.79
96.12
97.15
97.52
97.53
97.72
97.75
97.92
96.94
91.69
88.23
87.97
90.19
92.62
95.1
97.26
98.53
99.72
99.85
94.9
99.85
98.94
98.8
98.27
97.58
97.07
96.27
96.23
96.13
95.68
92.96
88.04
84.25
82.17
81.55
83.1
87.11
91.4
94.61
97.08
98.38
98.97
99.1
96.49
96.03
96.66
93.95
97
97.43
97.85
97.86
97.9
97.17
96.6
95.9
95.68
95.67
95.15

89.64
85.45
86.04
87.21
88.31
89.79
90.39
90.18
89.81
90.31
90.6
90.52
90.52
91.42
91.92
92.08
91.34
90.63
88.91
87.26
86.55
87.4
88.37
88.9
89.73
90.13
91.2
89.42
91.76
91.74
92.1
92.04
92.28
91.69
91.17
90.68
91.28
91.14
91.07
90.09
88
86.33
85.09
84.49
85.1
86.43
87.56
88.94
89.79
89.9
90.47
90.9
90.8
90.57
89.67
90.69
90.63
90.88
91.33
91.45
91.13
90.45
90.2
90.23
90.2
90.07

110.07
109.94
110.04
110.02
110.4
110.5
110.22
110.09
110.23
110.33
109.96
110.16
110.49
110.21
110.49
110.32
110.21
109.5
109.53
110.14
110.12
110.07
110.2
110.2
110.2
110.05
110.04
110.14
110.15
110.38
110.37
110.31
110.08
110.11
110.36
110.26
110.13
110.08
109.12
108.36
108.19
108.83
109.32
109.89
109.83
109.93
110.27
110.43
110.45
110.5
110.57
110.19
110.35
110.5
109.96
110.36
110.11
110.21
110.3
110.3
110.03
110.1
110.29
110.2
110.29
110.19

22.98
23.01
23.05
23.04
23.08
23.13
23.13
23.09
22.84
23.03
23.02
22.96
22.97
22.99
23.05
23.08
23.05
23.15
23.14
23.13
23.2
22.89
22.94
22.87
22.73
22.81
22.81
23.01
22.91
22.79
22.81
22.92
23
23.07
23.12
23.28
23.28
23.33
23.29
23.23
23.16
23.13
23.03
23.12
23.05
23.03
23.09
23.16
23.19
23.23
23.22
23.18
23.21
23.24
23.12
23.16
23.18
23.04
23.16
23.14
23.19
23.15
22.83
22.84
22.8
22.89

58.823
53.636
56.631
58.519
58.479
58.755
59.615
58.848
58.385
58.517
58.814
60.82
60.424
61.271
60.939
60.931
62.346
61.913
57.932
54.901
55.299
57.292
59.611
59.32
60.524
61.684
62.095
59.135
62.586
62.141
63.111
62.448
62.192
62.378
62.449
62.248
61.961
61.386
62.007
59.474
56.404
53.986
51.841
52.951
52.75
55.596
56.54
56.275
58.815
59.365
59.108
59.77
60.486
59.451
59.143
59.437
60.624
59.822
62.182
59.991
59.096
59.232
59.997
59.965
59.63
59.555

76.34
76.25
77.4
77.49
77.07
75.52
75.23
76.14
76.83
77.14
76.6
76.78
76.37
76.58
76.74
77.37
72.36
69.65
72.22
75.34
72.16
72.72
72.57
73.8
73.13
73.09
73.84
75.01
73.82
73.82
73.88
73.57
73.71
73.97
74.38
74.01
73.95
73.16
65.67
63.29
64.99
69.35
72.11
68.85
69.78
69.96
70.27
70.49
70.92
71.96
70.4
71.85
72.21
72.18
71.25
69.94
70.75
71.23
71.48
69.82
70.46
70.7
71.72
71.21
70.66
72.69

92.14
88.61
89.92
91.25
91.61
91.35
91.52
91.5
91.76
93.22
93.53
93.72
93.4
94.04
94
94.44
93.31
92.46
90.42
89.96
90.83
91.32
92.17
93.33
94.15
94.2
94.55
92.33
94.96
94.93
95.67
95.1
94.99
95.26
94.97
94.24
94.16
93.97
92.26
90.45
89.1
87.45
87.39
87.64
89.53
90.85
91.94
91.95
92.61
93.31
93.76
92.61
93.13
92.8
92.5
94.37
93.51
94.11
94.1
94.24
94.28
94.14
93.79
93.35
93.71
93.4

26.59
26.64
26.65
26.62
26.65
26.66
26.62
26.65
26.65
26.66
26.64
26.65
26.65
26.61
26.65
26.63
26.64
26.64
26.6
26.62
26.64
26.61
26.63
26.64
26.6
26.59
26.59
26.63
26.61
26.61
26.62
26.61
26.64
26.64
26.64
26.63
26.63
26.62
26.62
26.65
26.61
26.62
26.63
26.66
26.62
26.58
26.69
26.72
26.72
26.67
26.68
26.69
26.67
26.71
26.65
26.72
26.73
26.72
26.7
26.73
26.69
26.71
26.71
26.69
26.73
26.71

20.86 75
20.86
20.85
20.85
20.81
20.82
20.84
20.8
20.79
20.78
20.74
20.71
20.78
20.8
20.82
20.83
20.82
20.84
20.81
20.79
20.86
20.84
20.83
20.83
20.77
20.8
20.82
20.81 100
20.85
20.79
20.78
20.81
20.83
20.85
20.81
20.82
20.87
20.82
20.83
20.84
20.81
20.81
20.76
20.78
20.7
20.66
20.74
20.72
20.72
20.72
20.73
20.7
20.74
20.72
20.78 125
20.76
20.76
20.75
20.73
20.73
20.75
20.69
20.67
20.69
20.66
20.7

215

290

36.75

325

425

43

425

550

49.25

20

Forced Convection Experimental Observations/Data

15:38:26 114.2
15:38:38 114.2
15:38:49 114.2
15:39:01 114.4
15:39:12 116.1
15:39:24 118.3
15:39:35 120.1
15:39:47 121
15:39:58 122
15:40:10 123.4
15:40:21 125.2
15:40:33 127.6
15:40:44 127.4
15:40:56 125.1
15:41:07 122.8
15:41:19 121
20-25 minutes
117.9
15:41:30 119.9
15:41:42 118.5
15:41:53 114.3
15:42:05 114.1
15:42:16 114.1
15:42:28 114.1
15:42:39 114.1
15:42:51 114.1
15:43:02 114
15:43:14 114
15:43:25 114.1
15:43:36 114.1
15:43:48 114
15:43:59 114.1
15:44:11 114
15:44:22 114.1
15:44:34 114
15:44:45 114.1
15:44:57 114
15:45:08 114
15:45:20 114
15:45:31 114
15:45:43 114
15:45:54 114
15:46:06 114
25-30 minutes
114.5

46.48
45.93
46.43
45.81
45.83
46.4
45.51
45.79
45.45
44.87
44.99
45.09
41.57
38.42
36.75
35.61
45.01
36.37
37.94
40.92
43.17
44.8
46.28
47.09
46.9
46.95
44.1
40.75
41.52
44.73
46.11
47.72
48.08
48.31
48.58
48.54
48.86
47.56
43.27
40.87
43.15
45.61
44.73

99.43
99.02
98.91
98.83
98.55
98.66
98.64
98.74
98.63
98.25
98.01
97.18
95.05
92.67
90.32
88.23
98.26
87.64
90.42
93.43
95.82
97.62
99.54
100.1
100.2
98.77
96.56
95.41
96.14
97.53
99.33
100.1
100.7
100.9
101.4
101.5
101.2
99.63
97.4
96.16
96.88
98.09
97.7

95.05
94.58
94.14
94.29
94.4
94.25
94.04
94.16
94.21
93.74
93.15
89.95
86.5
83.54
81.25
79.91
93.38
80.57
84.12
87.76
91.96
94.94
97.4
97.77
97.35
94.38
90.38
89.56
91.58
94.31
96.79
98.12
99.03
98.92
99.22
99.28
97.75
92.84
89.7
89.69
91.95
94.42
93.59

89.98
89.24
89.36
89
89.31
89.74
89.68
89.56
89.6
90.47
89.94
89.11
88.08
86.24
84.53
83.35
89.42
83.02
83.64
84.12
85.16
86.79
87.98
88.95
89.54
90.17
89.24
88.06
87.14
87.22
88.28
88.2
89.37
90.1
90.93
91.11
90.98
90.78
89.23
88.29
87.95
88.04
88.17

110.18
110.45
110.14
110.18
110.61
110.38
110.35
110.38
110.28
110.3
110.32
109.28
108.2
108.23
108.69
108.77
109.97
109.56
110.06
110.28
110.2
110.45
110.27
110.27
110.14
110.09
109.5
109.8
110.14
110.27
110.16
110.3
110.53
110.45
110.29
110.47
110.34
109.91
109.91
110.24
110.42
110.21
110.17

22.89
22.89
22.9
22.8
23.25
23.18
23.17
23.13
23.1
23.11
23.09
23.08
23.09
23.04
23.06
22.97
23.04
23.02
22.94
22.96
23.1
22.66
22.61
22.56
22.6
22.69
22.74
22.71
22.7
22.67
22.7
22.68
22.57
22.63
22.66
22.7
22.75
22.83
22.74
22.74
22.68
22.63
22.73

58.651
59.048
58.651
58.414
58.245
59.196
58.519
58.795
58.661
59.894
59.362
58.163
54.962
52.69
51.286
50.466
58.316
50.445
50.834
52.677
54.535
55.241
56.877
58.634
58.86
59.382
57.362
55.11
54.058
57.052
57.72
58.319
60.086
58.845
60.026
61.206
61.872
59.503
58.142
56.406
56.546
57.441
57.087

72.29
72.48
72.64
72.13
70.56
71.17
71.38
71.22
70.72
71.42
67.86
67.26
63.62
64.34
63.78
66.88
70.01
71.07
72.54
73.77
74.86
74.6
74.37
74.32
73.03
69.39
70.74
74.16
74.73
74.67
75.08
75.27
74.47
75.3
74.46
75.81
71.51
69.81
72.59
74.73
75.25
75.72
73.69

93.4
93.29
92.94
93.19
93.24
93.22
93.34
93.38
93.16
92.28
91.81
91.39
89.62
88.07
86.46
85.7
92.5
85.59
86.63
88.49
89.9
91.44
91.72
92.88
92.03
91.66
89.74
90.14
90.72
91.07
92.52
93.2
93.65
93.84
93.98
94.6
93.39
91.93
91.23
90.49
90.78
92.74
91.37

26.72
26.71
26.74
26.72
26.74
26.74
26.77
26.79
26.78
26.78
26.75
26.78
26.84
26.75
26.78
26.75
26.74
26.72
26.76
26.79
26.75
26.78
26.77
26.78
26.78
26.76
26.76
26.74
26.78
26.72
26.75
26.79
26.74
26.77
26.82
26.76
26.74
26.75
26.76
26.78
26.8
26.79
26.76

20.69
20.67
20.74
20.73
20.76
20.71
20.72
20.72
20.73
20.7
20.72
20.69
20.75
20.72
20.75
20.69
20.72 150
20.69
20.71
20.67
20.63
20.62
20.67
20.7
20.63
20.67
20.7
20.7
20.71
20.68
20.67
20.69
20.65
20.69
20.72
20.66
20.65
20.62
20.65
20.63
20.65
20.66
20.67 170

550

700

56.25

650

820

63.25

21

Forced Convection Experimental Observations/Data

22

23

Natural Convection Experimental Observations/Data


H20 Qua nti ty Mea s urements

Cup Condensate Out

Tube Wall Condensate Out

Condenser Surface - Outside

Boiler Surface - Outside

Cooling Water Bottom

Cooling Tube Surface - Upper

Cooling Tube Surface - Lower

Condenser Steam Inside

Cooling Water Supply Tank

Room

Outside Wall Condensate Out -mL

Tube Wall Condensate Out - mL

Boiler Feed Water ( w3 + w4)

Cooling Water Out - lbs

Time
T1
16:47:28 114.39
16:47:40 114.39
16:47:51 114.42
16:48:03 114.42
16:48:14 114.53
16:48:26 114.52
16:48:37 114.5
16:48:49 114.49
16:49:00 114.48
16:49:12 114.49
16:49:23 114.37
16:49:35 114.48
16:49:46 114.45
16:49:58 114.48
16:50:09 114.46
16:50:21 114.45
16:50:32 114.49
16:50:44 114.43
16:50:55 114.47
16:51:07 114.48
16:51:18 114.41
16:51:30 114.46
16:51:41 114.5
16:51:53 114.41
16:52:04 114.49
16:52:16 114.37
16:52:27 114.5
0- 5 Mi nutes
114.46
16:52:39 114.5
16:52:50 114.47
16:53:01 114.5
16:53:13 114.46
16:53:24 114.46
16:53:36 114.45
16:53:47 114.44
16:53:59 114.45
16:54:10 114.43
16:54:22 114.45
16:54:33 114.36
16:54:45 114.41
16:54:56 114.38
16:55:08 114.42
16:55:19 114.44
16:55:31 114.44
16:55:42 114.43
16:55:54 114.45
16:56:05 114.47
16:56:17 114.45
16:56:28 114.36
16:56:40 114.44
16:56:51 114.41

Cooling Water Out

Steam In

Experimental Data - Natural


Convection

Tempera tures (Ra w Da ta ) - C

T2
35.42
38.74
41.19
42.81
43.66
42.95
48.5
62.61
79.2
88.31
88.22
84.46
82.65
81.06
79.99
82.5
84.83
86.24
87.66
86.17
82.97
83.08
85.28
86.4
86.97
87.66
88.47
72.89
89.43
89.92
89.24
89.53
90.81
90.75
90.81
89.22
87.45
87.69
86.31
84.85
85.48
85.47
84.42
84.6
85.55
87.12
87.66
88.86
88.53
89.18
89.2

T3
65.99
69.37
77.65
83.25
91.46
98.32
100.9
103.2
105
105.7
105.3
104
104.1
104.2
104.8
105.2
106.2
104.5
104.2
104.8
104.7
104.3
105
104.7
106.1
106
105
99.4
105.8
105.4
106
106
106.1
105.5
106.2
106.5
105.6
105
105.2
104.2
104.2
104
104.9
105
105.9
105.7
105.9
106.5
105.4
104.8
104.6

T4
56.64
61.54
70.23
76.03
86.22
95.7
98.06
101.6
104.3
105.4
102.8
99.91
102
102.9
104
104.6
105.9
101.9
102.3
103.9
103.4
102.1
103.6
102.9
105.1
104.3
102.3
96.65
104.3
103.9
105.5
105
103.7
103.7
105.2
106.1
102.4
102.5
101.9
100
100.1
100.3
103
103
105
104
104.8
106.1
101.5
101.1
101.8

T5
81.02
80.49
81.26
83.87
85.59
88.05
91.07
93.35
94.46
95.69
97.18
96.43
96.22
96.67
97.42
97.35
97.79
98.2
97.54
97.5
98.57
98.08
97.95
98.23
98.79
99.57
99.83
94.01
99.27
100
99.96
100.2
100.5
99.9
99.57
99.69
100.6
99.7
99.67
99.48
99.22
98.79
98.54
98.29
99.54
99.13
99.21
100.2
100.6
99.62
98.98

T6
109.55
110.11
110.3
110.35
110.32
110.27
110.18
110.28
110.82
110.82
110.12
110.18
110.89
110.89
110.68
110.7
110.48
110.31
110.2
110.44
110.37
110.34
110.68
110.7
110.73
110.41
110.13
110.42
110.29
110.32
110.55
110.53
110.55
110.37
110.94
110.75
110.61
110.83
110.84
110.66
110.72
110.37
110.44
110.89
110.71
110.57
110.52
110.39
110.17
110.44
110.31

T7
24.19
25.17
26.52
27.73
28.36
25.62
24.76
23.89
23.57
23.53
23.53
23.72
23.44
23.55
23.85
23.75
23.58
23.56
23.64
23.76
23.74
23.76
23.74
23.63
23.7
23.75
23.81
24.29
23.76
23.8
23.81
23.9
23.81
23.36
22.95
22.81
22.77
22.92
22.74
23.29
23.43
23.4
23.32
23.46
23.39
23.43
23.47
23.54
23.47
23.53
23.38

T8
44.27
47.75
51.74
54.12
55.06
57.12
63.91
71.26
81.41
86.15
88.58
86.94
85.95
85.08
84.51
86.59
88.44
90.71
91.01
89.5
88.61
89.17
90.71
90.73
90.79
91.91
92.13
78.67
93.03
93.69
93.89
93.23
94.07
93.73
93.5
93.77
93.09
93.56
91.91
91.73
91.88
91.04
90.88
91.34
92.13
92.12
93.39
93.3
93.99
93.09
92.67

T9
78.23
84.16
87.86
90.85
95.22
86.68
82.01
83.03
80.86
83.62
81.98
83.25
84.22
83.84
82.65
83.76
83.4
82.01
83.73
83.63
83.54
84.53
83.31
84.23
84.24
83.12
83.85
84.14
83.51
83.47
81.56
82.87
82.09
81.95
82.17
81.76
81.37
81.53
80.08
81.71
81.15
82.93
78.07
78.91
79.03
78.57
79.08
77.61
78.54
79.04
78.12

T10
83.2
83.72
85.39
87.1
90.26
93.26
95.87
98.6
100
100.2
99.57
99.93
100.7
101
101.4
102.1
102.1
101.3
101.8
102.3
100.9
102.1
102.2
102.9
103.5
102.4
103.5
98.05
103
103.5
104
104.3
104.2
104.2
105.2
105.5
103.9
104.1
103.4
103.1
102.9
102.8
103.4
103.7
103.9
104.5
104.3
104.6
102.3
103
103.7

T0
26.87
26.65
26.62
26.6
26.7
26.7
26.67
26.66
26.66
26.64
26.65
26.69
26.63
26.69
26.64
26.64
26.65
26.62
26.62
26.66
26.62
26.63
26.66
26.58
26.67
26.67
26.62
26.66
26.64
26.64
26.67
26.62
26.64
26.65
26.64
26.65
26.68
26.68
26.61
26.61
26.65
26.65
26.63
26.66
26.62
26.65
26.64
26.66
26.64
26.66
26.63

T11
W4
20.78 0
20.63
20.73
20.77
20.86
21.02
21.1
21.01
20.82
20.7
20.63
20.56
20.52
20.53
20.48
20.48
20.44
20.4
20.42
20.43
20.4
20.37
20.4
20.29
20.39
20.37
20.39
20.59 50
20.39
20.34
20.36
20.31
20.35
20.29
20.21
20.18
20.21
20.19
20.15
20.15
20.19
20.2
20.21
20.18
20.14
20.25
20.21
20.26
20.21
20.26
20.24

W3
0

W1
0

W2
14.875

120

170

16.875

24

Natural Convection Experimental Observations/Data


16:58:34 114.43
16:58:46 114.35
16:58:57 114.43
16:59:09 114.41
16:59:20 114.4
16:59:32 114.41
16:59:43 114.32
16:59:55 114.39
17:00:06 114.38
17:00:18 114.42
17:00:29 114.4
17:00:41 114.42
17:00:52 114.34
17:01:04 114.4
17:01:15 114.38
17:01:27 114.36
17:01:38 114.37
17:01:50 114.41
17:02:01 114.35
17:02:13 114.38
17:02:24 114.38
10-15 mi n 114.39
17:02:36 114.38
17:02:47 114.34
17:02:59 114.36
17:03:10 114.39
17:03:21 114.4
17:03:33 114.34
17:03:44 114.37
17:03:56 114.38
17:04:07 114.37
17:04:19 114.33
17:04:30 114.31
17:04:42 114.35
17:04:53 114.35
17:05:05 114.37
17:05:16 114.37
17:05:28 114.37
17:05:39 114.29
17:05:51 114.37
17:06:02 114.36
17:06:14 114.36
17:06:25 114.34
17:06:37 114.37
17:06:48 114.31
17:07:00 114.34
15-20 mi n 114.35

87.09
86.04
87.56
88.78
87.38
86.2
87.6
88.89
88.99
87.5
85.12
85.86
87.35
88
88.58
88.26
88.26
88.67
88
87.59
88.9
87.79
89.17
86.67
85.91
87.59
88.56
88.17
88.66
89.3
88.18
86.75
88.58
89.95
90.04
88.25
86.54
87.28
87.05
87.62
87.96
87.2
86.79
88.29
89.81
90.6
88.12

105.6
105.3
104.3
105.2
105.8
106.4
104.7
104
104.3
104.5
105.1
105.8
105.5
105.6
106.1
105.5
105.1
106
106.7
105.2
104.9
105.3
105.4
106.2
105.5
106.2
106.6
105.5
104.3
105.1
106.1
106.9
106.5
105.5
105.9
104.9
105.4
106.4
106
105.4
106.3
107.1
107.1
107.4
107.4
105.3
106

105.1
102.6
101.6
104.1
105.8
106.7
101.3
100.2
101.2
102.7
103
105
103.4
103.9
105.4
102.8
102.9
104.7
106.2
101.1
101.8
103.2
104.1
105
103.2
104.9
106.1
103.5
101.6
103.5
105.3
106.7
103.3
101.3
103.6
101
102.9
105.1
102
102.3
104.6
106.5
106.2
106.7
106.3
100.7
104

99.25
99.71
99.35
99.16
99.74
100.2
100
99.23
98.94
98.69
98.87
99.31
99.46
99.65
99.68
99.71
99.45
99.56
99.79
99.69
99.25
99.49
99.16
99.54
99.86
99.54
99.98
100.7
99.73
99.52
99.84
100.2
100.4
99.9
99.48
99.67
99.31
99.12
99.47
99.21
99.13
99.44
100.2
100.2
100.4
100.1
99.76

110.58
110.39
110.61
110.66
110.77
110.68
110.27
110.57
110.56
110.53
110.71
110.99
110.35
110.63
110.59
110.42
110.29
110.63
110.27
110.07
110.29
110.51
110.58
110.52
110.5
110.51
110.81
110.52
110.52
110.74
110.93
111
110.7
110.62
110.84
110.66
110.47
110.7
110.53
110.76
110.81
110.91
110.71
110.85
110.67
110.32
110.67

23.41
23.39
23.41
23.35
23.28
22.9
23.3
23.38
23.31
23.35
23.31
23.36
22.87
23.45
23.3
23.33
23.32
23.38
23.41
23.44
23.45
23.34
23.45
23.46
23.42
23.41
23.36
23.36
23.38
23.34
23.49
23.39
23.48
23.48
23.47
23.52
23.49
23.54
23.57
23.56
23.62
23.57
23.6
23.63
23.65
23.75
23.5

92.19
91.58
91.8
92.26
92.33
92.7
92.18
93.18
93.39
92.08
91.77
91.47
91.52
92.36
93.56
92.75
92.57
92.8
93.36
92.67
93.13
92.59
93.37
92
92.63
93.05
93.63
92.91
93.61
93.3
92.87
93
93.23
94.04
93.63
91.99
92.45
92.53
92.85
92.11
92.79
91.85
91.85
93.28
94.95
94.71
93.03

80.05
79.03
80
79.99
80.89
77.8
76.74
78.12
78.52
78.46
78.69
79.92
80.75
81.36
81.23
81.19
84.97
85.95
83.78
84.21
85.18
80.44
85.78
85.05
86.21
87.05
87.64
85.38
86.48
84.36
83.99
84.18
83.84
85.17
85.18
85.6
86.79
86.37
85.43
86.53
86.5
86.73
86.62
86.82
85.17
85.7
85.77

104.2
102.9
102.9
103.7
104.5
104.7
102.8
103.3
103
102.3
103.5
103.9
104
103.9
104
103.3
103.3
104.3
104.3
102.5
102.8
103.5
103.3
103.5
103.6
104.3
105
104.2
103.7
104.3
104.9
105
103
103.2
103.3
102.6
103.1
103.3
102.3
103.3
103.7
103.9
104.4
105
103.9
103.5
103.8

26.66
26.65
26.68
26.65
26.66
26.67
26.65
26.67
26.66
26.67
26.69
26.7
26.66
26.74
26.67
26.7
26.65
26.69
26.68
26.74
26.71
26.67
26.7
26.72
26.68
26.69
26.75
26.73
26.69
26.73
26.71
26.69
26.75
26.73
26.76
26.73
26.71
26.72
26.73
26.72
26.72
26.73
26.74
26.73
26.75
26.74
26.72

20.27
20.26
20.27
20.23
20.25
20.27
20.22
20.27
20.24
20.28
20.27
20.28
20.31
20.34
20.33
20.35
20.33
20.38
20.42
20.45
20.43
20.29 100
20.42
20.45
20.4
20.45
20.48
20.52
20.45
20.49
20.52
20.48
20.51
20.48
20.54
20.54
20.58
20.59
20.62
20.61
20.58
20.56
20.6
20.63
20.65
20.72
20.54 125

310

410

21.75

425

550

24.25

25

Natural Convection Experimental Observations/Data

26

Natural Convection Experimental Observations/Data

27

Sample CalculationsHeat Transfer Coefficient, Forced Convection, Inner

0.8

K V Di Cp
h1 ( Forced ) C

Di

0.4

hi_forced = heat transfer Co efficient of FORCED convection


C is a constant = 0.0023
V = mean average velocity of fluid in m/s
Do = outer diameter of inner tube =(

( ))

Do = inner diameter of inner tube =( )


g = acceleration due to gravity in m/sec/sec = 9.8 m/s2
k = Thermal Conductivity, in W/m* K
Cp= specific heat in kJ/kg
k = Thermal Conductivity, in W/mK
= Viscosity in kg/m*s
= Density of Water in kg/m3

*Properties in red were found in water property tables at atmospheric pressure and Tavg = T2 + T7/2
Tavg = 34.99555769 C , = 994.0317414 kg/m3, = 0.000724071 kg/m*s, Cp= 4.178 kJ/kg
k = 0.622917743 W/m*K
28

W2 = 6.25 lbm; mass of water that passed through the inner pipe in a five minute interval

Ai

6.25lbs *0.454kg / lb
0.009449792kg / s ; mass flow rate
5min*60sec/ min
Di2
4

(0.01905)2
4

0.000285 m2 ; Cross sectional area of inner tube

) *(

= 341.08

Heat Transfer Coefficient, Free Convection, Inner


K
h1 ( Free) C
L

L3 2 TWater g Cp

0.29

K
C
L

L3 2 TWater g

Pr
2

0.29

*Properties for hi_free were taken at Tavg = T2 + T7/ 2 =55.58782692 C,


= 985.1354918

, = 0.000483318

, Cp= 4183.411618

, k = 0.651040899

= 0.000492467 C-1
Tavg = 87.7854615384615 - 23.335 = 64.45057692 C
L = 25 inches

; Length of pipe

) *(

)(

)+

29

Heat Transfer Coefficient; Condensing Steam; Outer Surface; Inner Tube

* Properties used in this calculation were taken at Tfilm = Tsurface + Tsteam


EXCEPT hfg taken at Tsteam
Tsurface is the average inner pipe outer surface temperature; T8 + T9
Tsteam is the average temperature of condensing steam ; T10

T = Tsteam Tsurface = 8.521 C


k = 0.677012277

, = 961.4779015

, = 0.000290945

, hfg = 2,247,415.8

C = 1.666 for vertical pipe with height L= 0.635m

Overall Heat Transferred; Free Convection (empirical calculations)


= UAT ; rate of heat transfer measured in Watts
Where

30

k = thermal resistance of aluminum

0.02064m

ln 0.01905m

1
1
1
0.01905m
K
R

0.07015
W
W
0.000285
0.02064m
W
5433.156 W
238
341.08 2

mK
m K
m2 K

Total heat added to water in a five minute interval;


q=

Heat Transferred; Forced Convection (empirical calculations)


0.02064m

ln

1
1
1
0.01905m
K
R

0.01905m
0.09308
W
W
W
0.000285
0.02064
m
W
6303.14

238
458.06 2

mK
m K
m2 K

Total heat added to water in a five minute interval;


q=

31

Experimental : Heat Transferred; Losses due to condensing steam on inner


Surface of OUTER Tube; Forced Convection
(

Experimental : Heat Transferred; Losses due to condensing steam on inner


Surface of OUTER Tube; Free Convection
(

Experimental: Heat Transferred; Forced Convection

Experimental: Heat Transferred; Free Convection


(

32

Procedure-

33